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Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sportathletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sportathletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individualsports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sportathletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.
Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.
Uses the Bem Sex Role Inventory to compare the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes. Results indicate no significant differences for team sports players, but higher femininity scores for females in individualsports. (FMW)
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes were more similar in team sports than in individualsports. It was predicted that females in masculine-oriented team sports (basketball and volleyball) would exhibit sex role orientations more similar to those of their male counterparts than would females in individual
Craig A. Wrisberg; M. Vanessa Draper; John J. Everett
... 2013 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that ... groin area. It most o en occurs during sports that require sudden changes of direction or intense ...
Coach's expert knowledge and experience, as well as scientific acquisitions confirm the importance of the role of expert coaches in the development of careers of potential top-level athletes in individual and team sports. It is very important for the expert coach to know how to make and insist on demands that are prime in stimulating the development of athlete's potential.
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. PMID:21419964
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout.
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
... female athlete triad? Being a competitive athlete Playing sports that require you to check your weight often ... time to spend with your friends because your sport takes up all your free time Exercising more ...
The purpose of the present study was two-fold. Firstly, a new interpersonal construct, namely, Co-orientation was proposed to be included in the recently developed Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity (3 Cs) conceptual model of the coach–athlete relationship (Jowett & Cockerill, 2002). Secondly, the factorial construct validity of the Greek Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (GrCART-Q; Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2003), an instrument developed to
Explains that sport psychologists play a vital role in helping athletes overcome obstacles in order to achieve their goals and provide athletes with tools to reach peak performance and personal growth (i.e., psychological and behavioral interventions for enhancing athletic performance). Sport psychologists work within the complex pathways between…
The article covers individual coaching program specified by specialists in Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Center in Bournazian FMBC of the FMBA of Russia, to improve functional durability of highly qualified athletes. PMID:24340774
Kotenko, K V; U?ba, V V; Korchazhkina, N B; Petrova, M S; Kish, A A; Mikha?lova, A A
In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individualsports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation, joining sports, constant participation, changing participation, dropping out, and inconsistent participation), using data from
Parents display various positive and negative behaviors at youth sport competitions. This study examined early adolescent female athletes’ preferred parental behaviors at team sport competitions. Individual interviews were conducted with 36 female athletes (M age = 13.5 years) who frequently competed in team sports. Data analysis led to the identification of three categories of parental behavior across different phases of
Camilla J. Knight; Kacey C. Neely; Nicholas L. Holt
This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individualsport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…
Over the past year, members of Congress have poked around the well-fed belly of intercollegiate athletics, questioning whether college sports deserves its tax-exempt status. Myles Brand, the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has led the countercharge against the government, repeatedly defending the educational value…
Most conference presentations and professional articles on the application of sport psychology focus on an individual consultants’ work with athletes and teams. Rarely do we hear how a group of consultants under the same roof collaborates in working with athletes and teams. The U.S. Olympic Committee offers a unique opportunity for collaboration between five sport psychologists, three in Colorado Springs
Karen D. Cogan; Ross Flowers; Peter Haberl; Sean McCann; Wendy Borlabi
Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18-25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However, several athletes from different sports had suboptimal iron status indexes. Of 17 athletes with a serum ferritin concentration < or = 15 microg/L, 8 (4 freshmen, 2 sophomores, 2 unknown) also exhibited low serum iron concentrations (< 60 microg/dL) and low transferrin saturation (< 16%). Thirteen (6 freshmen, 3 sophomores, 2 juniors, 2 seniors) of 51 (25%) athletes failed to consume two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron and exhibited suboptimal serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and/or transferrin saturation. Of nine athletes taking iron supplements, one exhibited suboptimal iron status. In summary, nonanemic iron depletion was present among female collegiate athletes involved in many different sports and in all years of participation (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior athletes). Female athletes should continue to be individually and routinely evaluated for nutritional deficiencies throughout their collegiate athletic careers. PMID:16388098
Gropper, Sareen S; Blessing, Daniel; Dunham, Kim; Barksdale, Jeffrey M
In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individualsports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…
Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. PMID:21074088
Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport, remains to be determined and is an area for future study. Rodeo performance, as with all sports, is based on a multifactorial array of variables and, therefore, interdisciplinary efforts encompassing expertise across medicine, science and coaching are encouraged. Taking a comprehensive approach in the assessment of athletes, as well as the development and quantification of event-specific training protocols, may ultimately enhance athletic potential, minimize opportunity for injury and possibly provide information to coaches and allied health professionals for the appropriate development and optimal medical care of these athletes. PMID:20433213
This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential adverse effects of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine wordwide. It is therefore important for the scientific societies, clinicians, dieticians sports federations to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs in order to have an important role in information and prevention attitudes that can lead to health risks or addictions! PMID:23971326
Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa
Women are an underrepresented population, particularly in the world of televised sports. Women are undervalued as athletes, due to their perceived lack of athletic skill and competitive spirit. This paper demonstrates, via physiological measures, men's sports garner more cognitive effort while it is women's sports that are actually remembered better. Also discussed is how men's and women's sports do not
Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary. The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals. Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities. Level of Evidence: 5
McQueen-Borden, Emily; Bell, Roberta A.; Barr, Thomas; Juengling, Jenifer
Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these.
Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs. Images p219-a p219-b p219-c
Background: The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient’s satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and,
Dugan SA: Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: What gives? Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:122-130. Knee injuries occur commonly in sports, limiting field and practice time and performance level. Although injury etiology relates primarily to sports specific activity, female athletes are at higher risk of knee injury than their male coun- terparts in jumping and cutting sports. Particular pain
Sports medicine physicians were surveyed regarding the role of the sport psychologist in treating injured athletes. Physicians' perceptions of the frequency of psychological problems in conjunction with athletic injuries and the appropriateness of referring injured athletes with various behavioral concerns were assessed. Information on physicians' past psychological referral behavior and satisfaction with such referrals was obtained. Results indicated that the
Britton W. Brewer; Judy L. Van Raalte; Darwyn E. Linder
This study investigates the incidence of sports injuries in athletes who participate in wheelchair racing in the UK. Wheelchair racing has been identified as one of the top ‘injury risk’ sports but little information is available as to the incidence or type of injury sustained by British athletes. A questionnaire was used to collect information about injuries sustained in the
The purpose of the present study was to explore attitudes about sport psychology consulting of high school and college athletes living in the United States. The Sport Psychology Attitudes–Revised form (SPA-R; Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, & Page, 2002) was administered to 362 high school and 431 college athletes. A 2 (Gender) × 2 (Age Group: High School and College) × 2
Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998–1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high
Nancy L. Weaver; Stephen W. Marshall; Mark D. Miller
Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond requirements during long events. Across the sparse literature on competition hydration practices in other sports, there are examples of planned and/or ad hoc opportunities to consume fluid, where enhanced access to drinks may allow situations at least close to ad libitum drinking. However, this situation is not universal and, again, the complex array of factors that influence the opportunity to drink during an event is also often beyond the athletes' control. Additionally, some competition formats result in athletes commencing the event with a body fluid deficit because of their failure to rehydrate from a previous bout of training/competition or weight-making strategies. Finally, since fluids consumed during exercise may also be a source of other ingredients (e.g., carbohydrate, electrolytes, or caffeine) or characteristics (e.g., temperature) that can increase palatability or performance, there may be both desirable volumes and patterns of intake that are independent of hydration concerns or thirst, as well as benefits from undertaking a "paced" fluid plan. Further studies of real-life hydration practices in sports including information on motives for drinking or not, along with intervention studies that simulate the actual nature of real-life sport, are needed before conclusions can be made about ideal drinking strategies for sports. Different interpretations may be needed for elite competitors and recreational participants. PMID:23529286
This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in college sport. Institutional integrity involves an athletic program's actual commitment to the educational interests of college athletes as expressed through their structures, functions, and activities. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) there is a need for more African American role models in leadership positions within the athletic departments of these PWIHE; (b) there is a need for more financial support for athletes; and (c) African American athletes should be given a platform to voice concerns. These findings have implications for those educational stakeholders and researchers who are genuinely concerned with institutional integrity in college sport. PMID:19408472
Injuries are common among athletes, and are sometimes so severe that they affect an athlete's career in sport. As studies on sport career termination are few, we conducted a study to investigate the role of injuries as a reason for ending a sport career. The study group consisted of 574 male and female top-level cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and
Leena Ristolainen; Jyrki A. Kettunen; Urho M. Kujala; Ari Heinonen
Injuries are common among athletes, and are sometimes so severe that they affect an athlete's career in sport. As studies on sport career termination are few, we conducted a study to investigate the role of injuries as a reason for ending a sport career. The study group consisted of 574 male and female top-level cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and
Leena Ristolainen; Jyrki A. Kettunen; Urho M. Kujala; Ari Heinonen
Nearly 60% of all community colleges field athletic teams with over 72,000 students participating in these sports. That represents approximately 11% of all community college male students (5% of female students). Additionally, community colleges invest nearly $50 million dollars annually in financial aid to student athletes. With such a strong…
Dietary supplements are used by at least 40% of athletes, and depending on the sport, up to 100%. Often multiple supplements are taken in higher than normal doses. Both competitive and recreational athletes take supplements, though sometimes for different reasons. Some take them to support a poor quality diet; others take supplements because they simply feel that an ordinary diet,
Lecture 27Genes control biological systems such as muscle, cartilage and bone formation, muscle energy production and metabolism (mitochondriogenesis, lactic acid removal), blood and tissue oxygenation (erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation) all essential in Athletics and Sports. DNA sequence variations in these genes confer genetic advantages that can be exploited and genetic ‘barriers’ that could be overcome to achieve optimal athletic performance.The four
The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies on athletes' career transition out of sport from 1968 until the end of 2010. A total of 126 studies were evaluated and reported in three sections: sample characteristics, research designs and correlates of athletes' career transition adjustment. Samples ranged from 1 to 1617. Investigators examined a wide
Injuries treated at the University of Rochester Section of Sports Medicine over a 7 year period were surveyed. Patients were drawn from professional, intercollegiate (Division 111), high school, intramural, and unorganized athletics at the University and the surrounding com munity. Data on injury diagnosis was available for 4,551 cases, with data on age, gender, and sport of injury available for
Objectives: The purpose of this study was (a) to examine the pattern of involvement of parents in youth sport across career phases and career transitions, and (b) to identify this pattern from the perspective of athletes and both of their parents.Methods and design: The parental involvement in sport questionnaire (PISQ, Eur. J. Phys. Educ. 2 (1997) 167), which measures perceptions
This paper examines how participation in physically demanding sport, with its potential and actual injurious outcomes, both challenges and reinforces dominant notions of masculinity. Data from 16 in-depth interviews with former and current Canadian adult male athletes indicate that sport practices privileging forceful notions of masculinity are highly valued, and that serious injury is framed as a masculinizing experience. It
As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi?factorial process encompassing pre?participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions.
Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)
The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving SO. Athletes with ID are similar to athletes without disabilities in that sport is a significant life experience. They participate in sport for fun (54%) and social interaction (21%). Like athletes without disabilities, SO athletes leave sport because of changes in interest (38%) but also because of program availability (33%). These findings suggest that we continue to document the involvement of people with ID in sports and work to expand the sport opportunities available. PMID:19246774
Youth sport is a social institution designed to help improve the health and wellness of the athletes and provide an opportunity for positive youth development. Coaches have a strong influence upon the benefits experienced by youth athletes. Given the importance of the coaching role, the purpose of this article is to outline several positive steps that coaches can take to
Most of the internal and public scrutiny of college sports involves high profile athletes in sports such as football and men's basketball; yet, recent research on the impact of sport participation on student learning and development has largely focused on comparing all athletes to their non-athlete peers across institutional types. There is a need…
Returning to sport following a serious injury can be a difficult process for competitive athletes (Bianco, 2001; Bianco, Malo, & Orlick, 1999; Gould, Udry, Bridges, & Beck, 1997). Unfortunately, no qualitative longitudinal studies were found that examine athlete return-to-sport experiences following injury recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of competitive athletes' returning to sport following
Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period. PMID:24748461
Although sport access for females has greatly improved, certain behaviors continue to be considered more or less appropriate\\u000a for females depending upon how compatible they are with biologically or socially constructed female characteristics. However,\\u000a young women who have grown up playing sports and continue participation at the college level have constructed meanings about\\u000a being a young woman and an athlete.
Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other…
Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry
Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669
Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. PMID:24530682
Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A
The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individualsports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use. PMID:24016156
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
Athletes are influenced by coaches, other athletes, media, parents, the national sport governing body, members of the sports medicine team, and the athlete's own desire for success. It is impossible, therefore, for one member of the sports medicine team to unilaterally determine workable solutions that enhance performance and diminish health problems in an athlete. A focus on ensuring that the athlete can perform to the best of her ability is a key to encouraging discussion between the nutritionist, athlete, and coach. Using the assumption that health and top athletic performance are compatible, this focus on performance provides a discussion point that all parties can agree to and, if approached properly, also fulfills the nutritionist's goal of achieving optimal nutritional status. Membership on the sports medicine team mandates that the nutritionist know the paradigms and health risks associated with the sport and develop assessment and feedback procedures specific to the athlete's needs. PMID:8744784
The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving…
Interpersonal communication plays a key role in obtaining success in sports. Two important parties that communicate in sport are the coach and his athlete(s). The latter one(s) can be seen as the human resources a coach has to manage. These human resources are property of a sports club or team and. In order to improve his management, the coach has
Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of “faster, higher, and stronger.” In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given sport, and help athletes interact with the environment more effectively.
This study examined the relative frequency of behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders in collegiate athletes and nonathletes. Participants were 230 male and 250 female nonathletes. and 187 male and 113 female varsity athletes. The male and female athletes were classified separately as either in a lean sport (i.e., where weight or appearance was central to success) or a
This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…
This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item inventory utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively examine seven different domains which influence perceptions
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sportathletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Athlete identification is important for sport video content analysis since users often care about the video clips with their preferred athletes. In this paper, we propose a method for athlete identification by combing the segmentation, tracking and recognition procedures into a coarse-to-fine scheme for jersey number (digital characters on sport shirt) detection. Firstly, image segmentation is employed to separate the jersey number regions with its background. And size/pipe-like attributes of digital characters are used to filter out candidates. Then, a K-NN (K nearest neighbor) classifier is employed to classify a candidate into a digit in "0-9" or negative. In the recognition procedure, we use the Zernike moment features, which are invariant to rotation and scale for digital shape recognition. Synthetic training samples with different fonts are used to represent the pattern of digital characters with non-rigid deformation. Once a character candidate is detected, a SSD (smallest square distance)-based tracking procedure is started. The recognition procedure is performed every several frames in the tracking process. After tracking tens of frames, the overall recognition results are combined to determine if a candidate is a true jersey number or not by a voting procedure. Experiments on several types of sports video shows encouraging result.
Ye, Qixiang; Huang, Qingming; Jiang, Shuqiang; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wen
The purpose of this project was to describe the patterns of sports-related injury in a special population of children. The following research questions were addressed: how frequent are student athletes with special needs injured during organized sports; w...
Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192
Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R
This chapter--new to the "Yearbook"--discusses all court cases reported in 1986 that involved student athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, interscholastic sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. It does not, however, include case…
Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.
Context: The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. Objective: To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Design: Observational design. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Results: Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Conclusions: Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic anxiety before return to practice. Image content recommendations should encompass the cognitive and motivational functions of imagery, and the practitioner should assess if any image used by the athlete is debilitative.
The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMD) of collegiate female athletes who compete in impact loading sports; volleyball players (N = 8) and gymnasts (N = 13), to a group of athletes who participate in an active loading sport; swimmers (N = 7), and a group of controls (N = 17). All of the volleyball,
P. C. Fehling; L. Alekel; J. Clasey; A. Rector; R. J. Stillman
Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…
Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael
Leaders of national and international sport organizations are increasingly recognising the importance of involving stakeholders in the development of policies. In the governance of international high performance sport, an important group of stakeholders includes athletes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the increasing role high performance athletes are playing in the development of policies in international
Sexual harassment at institutions of higher learning is not a new phenomenon, but discussions of this problem in the sporting arena and in related research are still scarce. Most studies have focused on student-instructor relationships, while few analyses have analysed coach-athlete relationships. This study examines American female college athletes' experiences with, and emotional responses to, sexual harassment in sport by
Karin A. E. Volkwein; Frauke I. Schnell; Dennis Sherwood; Anne Livezey
Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…
Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston
Recent attention has been given to injuries in youth sports, specifically with regards to early specialization and athlete stress. However, little research has attempted to link injury to other psychological or participation variables. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and sports-specific differences in injury and athlete stress. Eight-hundred and ninety-five Division III collegiate athletes were sampled in
Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care.
Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.
The article covers a program determining order and method of gradual examination of highly qualified athletes engaged into winter sports in Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Center in Bournazian FMBC of the FMBA of Russia, to assess physical performance and individual tolerance in changed climate (hypoxic and hypothermal) conditions. PMID:24340773
Dvornikov, M V; Razinkin, S M; Petrova, V V; Fomkin, P A; Netrebina, A P; Kish, A A
Examined the construct of expressive individualism and its relationship to other goal perspectives established in sport literature. European and African American high school athletes completed surveys. Results indicate that personal expression relates to task orientation for African Americans, whereas for European Americans it relates to ego…
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) occurs when an osseous abnormality of the proximal femur (cam) or acetabulum (pincer) triggers damage to the acetabular labrum and articular cartilage in the hip. Although the precise etiology of FAI is not well understood, both types of FAI are common in athletes presenting with hip pain, loss of range-of-motion, and disability in athletics. An open surgical approach to decompressing FAI has shown good clinical outcomes; however, this highly invasive approach inherently may delay or preclude a high level athlete’s return to play. The purpose of this study was to define associated pathologies and determine if an arthroscopic approach to treating FAI can allow professional athletes to return to high-level sport. Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAI allows professional athletes to return to professional sport. Between October 2000 and September 2005, 45 professional athletes underwent hip arthroscopy for the decompression of FAI. Operative and return-to-play data were obtained from patient records. Average time to follow-up was 1.6 years (range: 6 months to 5.5 years). Forty two (93%) athletes returned to professional competition following arthroscopic decompression of FAI. Three athletes did not return to play; however, all had diffuse osteoarthritis at the time of arthroscopy. Thirty-five athletes (78%) remain active in professional sport at an average follow-up of 1.6 years. Arthroscopic treatment of FAI allows professional athletes to return to professional sport.
Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sportathletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sportathletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport. PMID:24501144
Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A
Sports in the Nigerian Universities are essentially for students and by students. This means that the student is not only the prime beneficiary but also a prime producer of sports as entertainment in the university. Therefore the success of the university athletic programme depends on the satisfaction that students derive from sports. This study was conducted to find out the
Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…
Performing artists are athletes. Like athletes, performing artists practice and/or perform most days with little off season, play through pain, "compete" in challenging environments, and risk career-threatening injury. Athletes and the Arts is a multiorganizational initiative linking the sportathlete and musician/performing artist communities. Performing artists of all ages and genre are an underserved population related to medical coverage, care, injury prevention, performance enhancement, and wellness. Sports medicine professionals are a valuable resource for filling this gap by applying existing knowledge of treating sportathletes (nutrition, injury prevention) while gaining a better understanding of performers' unique needs (hearing loss, focal dystonia) and environment. These applications can occur in the clinical setting and through developing organizational policies. By better understanding the needs of the performing arts population and applying existing concepts and knowledge, sports medicine professionals can expand their impact to a new patient base that desperately needs support. PMID:24225525
Dick, Randall W; Berning, Jacqueline R; Dawson, William; Ginsburg, Richard D; Miller, Clay; Shybut, George T
The Smithsonian National Postal Museum has profiled a wide swath of American life on stamps over the years, and this latest online exhibit from their busy minds looks at American sports and athletes on stamps. The collection was created by Alexander Haimann, and it features dozens of unique and compelling stamps, including the 3-cent stamp issued to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the creation of baseball by Abner Doubleday in Cooperstown, New York. Each page of the site has a different thematic focus, including "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" (featuring notable ballparks) and "American Boxing: From Dempsey to Marciano". There is complete information for each stamp, including material on when the stamp was issued. Also, visitors can zoom in and out on each stamp to look for creative details.
Background There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes.
This is a novel descriptive study to characterize off-season, preseason, and postseason bone and body composition measures in women collegiate athletes. From 2006 through 2008, 67 women collegiate athletes from 5 sports, softball (n = 17), basketball (n = 10), volleyball (n = 7), swimming (n = 16), and track jumpers and sprinters (n = 17) were scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 seasonal periods: (a) off-season = before preseason training, (b) preseason = after preseason training, and (c) postseason = after competitive season. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed for total body mass, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD), arm BMD, leg BMD, pelvis BMD, and spine BMD. Data were analyzed between sports using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc follow-ups, and within each sport using repeated-measures ANOVA and LSD; alpha < 0.05. Significant off-season to preseason or postseason changes in %BF, LM, and BMD within each sport were as follows, respectively: softball, -7, +4, +1%; basketball, -11, +4, +1%; volleyball, unchanged, unchanged, +2%; swimming, unchanged, +2.5%, unchanged; track jumpers and sprinters, -7, +3.5, +1%. Comparisons among athletes in each sport showed bone measurements of swimmers averaged 4-19% lower than that of athletes in any other sport, whereas for track jumpers and sprinters, %BF and FM averaged 36 and 43% lower compared with other sports at all seasonal periods. Values for athletes playing basketball and volleyball were most similar, whereas softball athletes' values fell between all other athletes. These data serve as sport-specific reference values for comparisons at in-season and off-season training periods among women collegiate athletes in various sports. PMID:20453684
Carbuhn, Aaron F; Fernandez, Tara E; Bragg, Amy F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F
The study's objective was to investigate the motivational significance of the coach- athlete relationship in team sports. 591 athletes completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000) to assess perceptions of the coach-created motivational climate and two Coach-Athlete Relationship Ques- tionnaires to assess direct perceptions (Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and meta-percep- tions (Jowett, in press)
This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.
Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.
This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.
Luiselli, James K; Woods, Kathryn E; Reed, Derek D
Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season negatively affects cognitive performance in collegiate contact sportathletes. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study at 3 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic programs. Participants were 214 Division I college varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 45 noncontact sportathletes. All athletes were assessed prior to and shortly after the season with a cognitive screening battery (ImPACT) and a subgroup of athletes also were assessed with 7 measures from a neuropsychological test battery. Results: Few cognitive differences were found between the athlete groups at the preseason or postseason assessments. However, a higher percentage of the contact sportathletes performed more poorly than predicted postseason on a measure of new learning (California Verbal Learning Test) compared to the noncontact athletes (24% vs 3.6%; p < 0.006). On 2 postseason cognitive measures (ImPACT Reaction Time and Trails 4/B), poorer performance was significantly associated with higher scores on several head impact exposure metrics. Conclusion: Repetitive head impacts over the course of a single season may negatively impact learning in some collegiate athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent.
The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females) and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females). In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender) ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta(2) = 0.275). The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001). Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66) had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001). Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements. Key PointsThe purpose of the present investigation was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes.The results seem to suggest that there was no difference between combat sports in fatness.Skinfold patterning was more in line with what was reported in the literature with the males recording lower extremity fat. PMID:24357974
The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females) and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females). In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender) ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275). The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001). Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66) had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001). Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements. Key Points The purpose of the present investigation was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. The results seem to suggest that there was no difference between combat sports in fatness. Skinfold patterning was more in line with what was reported in the literature with the males recording lower extremity fat.
Objective: To describe food habits and dietary intakes of athletic and non-athletic adolescents in Switzerland. Setting: College, high schools and professional centers in the Swiss canton of Vaud. Method: A total of 3540 subjects aged 9–19 y answered a self-reported anonymous questionnaire to assess lifestyles, physical plus sports activity and food habits. Within this sample, a subgroup of 246 subjects
C Cavadini; B Decarli; J Grin; F Narring; P-A Michaud
Background In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. Results The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p?0.0001; p?=?0.04), with no differences between the volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p?0.001; p?=?0.006). However in both sports groups there weren’t any gender differences in either part of the test (p?=?0.18; p?=?0.056). Conclusions These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence.
Background & objectives: Carbohydrate-electrolyte drink has a significant role on energy balance during exercise. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of oral carbohydrate- electrolyte supplementation on sports performance and cardiovascular status of the national level male athletes during exercise and recovery. Methods: A total of 10 male athletes (age range: 20-25 yr) were selected. The experiment was
Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard…
This annual report compares graduation rates for scholarship athletes at Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to those of the student body as a whole over 3- and 6-year periods. Colleges and universities identified scholarship athletes in 11 sport categories: football, basketball, baseball, softball, track and field,…
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.
Although female emaciators and anorexics in sport have received considerable academic attention as a deviant population of athletes (Atkinson 2008; Grieve 2007), researchers have only recently attended to the onset and development of self-starvation or weight minimization programs among male athletes (Hargreaves and Tiggemann 2006; Papathomas and Lavallee 2006). The bulk of academic literature on eating pathologies among male (or
ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced.MethodsMultivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations.ResultsA representative sample of 13% of the
The aims of this study were to assess methods for performing physiological measurements in motor sports, and to carry out a preliminary study in athletes participating in kart racing. The measurement of physiological variables in motor sports is practically challenging, largely due to the restricted space available for sensors and instrumentation and to movement artefacts from driver's operations and car
Takehiro Yamakoshi; Kenta Matsumura; Yasuhiro Yamakoshi; Hajime Hirose; Peter Rolfe
Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of both sport classification and gender to injury in the athlete with cerebral palsy (CP). Of 217 participants, 54 (25%) reported an injury episode. A relationship between both gender and sport classification to injury (p = 0.001) was discovered. For the nonambulatory, a female was more likely than a male
Objective: To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Design: Ambidirectional cohort study. Setting: Athletics department at an American university. Participants: Student athletes competing
Lester B. Mayers; Thomas S. Redick; Sheila H. Chiffriller; Ashley N. Simone; Keith R. Terraforte
Although some prospective studies have shown that many successful young athletes do not maintain the same level of success when they reach adulthood, there is still a lack of information regarding athletes who started their international involvement at early ages. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the international pathway of male and female athletes in different sports from the moment of their competitive debut, in order to determine how many international athletes at early ages competed or did not compete internationally as juniors and/or seniors. The sample included 395 athletes (soccer, volleyball, swimming and judo), born between 1974 and 1981, who could have competed in their national squads between 1988 and 2008. Results showed that only a third of international pre-junior athletes reappeared as senior athletes, confirming the difficulties of predicting late success based on early identification and selection. PMID:24444203
Barreiros, André; Côté, Jean; Fonseca, António Manuel
Purpose: To determine the extent to which sports medicine physicians encounter and discuss psychological issues among athletes they treat and to evaluate physicians' perceptions of the availability and efficacy of sport psychologists and other mental health resources.Study Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: A survey was sent via e-mail to all physician members of 4 prominent sports medicine professional associations: the American Orthopaedic
Barton J. Mann; William A. Grana; Peter A. Indelicato; Daniel F. ONeill; Steven Z. George
Olympic athletes are vulnerable to traumatic, environmental and infectious skin manifestations. Although dermatological complaints are frequent among Olympians, there is a scarcity of literature that reviews sports-related dermatoses among Olympic athletes. A comprehensive review of PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE searches of all available literature through to January 2011 was conducted, focusing on sports-related dermatological presentations as well as the key words 'Olympic athletes' and 'skin diseases'. Common skin conditions can be harmful and even prohibitive for competition. Common aetiologies of dermatological conditions related to sports include: skin infections with dermatophytes such as tinea pedis and tinea corporis, bacteria such as pitted keratolysis, and folliculitis and viruses such as herpes gladiatorum. Frictional dermatoses occur commonly and include athlete's nodules, jogger's itch, frictional blisters, callosities and talon noir. Trauma can cause haematomas such as auricular haematomas. Due to long training hours in the sun, many endurance athletes experience high levels of UV radiation and a higher risk for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Pre-existing dermatoses can also be aggravated with practice and competition; in particular, atopic eczema and physical urticarias. Infrequent dermatoses are susceptible to misdiagnosis, delay in treatment and needless biopsies. This review highlights the diagnosis and management of sports-related dermatoses by the following general categories of Olympic sport: endurance, resistance, team sport, and performing arts. PMID:22512412
De Luca, Jacqueline F; Adams, Brian B; Yosipovitch, Gil
BackgroundApproximately 2.7 million Danes are active in sports and leisure activities. In 2009 over 100.000 sports injuries were registered as medically attended sports injuries in Denmark. National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark and The Association of Danish Sports Physiotherapists have identified the need for increasing the level of awareness about sports injuries and rehabilitation among Danish citizens.ObjectiveThe objective
This study examined the coverage of women's and men's varsity sport teams in the English- and French-language student newspapers at the University of Ottawa, Canada, during three academic years from 2004 to 2007. The analysis revealed unique findings, considering that previous research on campus print media had shown an enduring disparity of coverage featuring female athletes. In contrast, our descriptive
Objective The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the development of the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians (ACBSP) Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics regarding the management of concussion in sport and to offer suggestions to qualifying doctors of chiropractic (DCs) to make return-to-play decisions and clarify common concepts pertaining to evaluating and managing concussion in sport. Methods A literature review of position statements from sports medicine organizations was performed. The authors reviewed each statement for content. Key issues in the management of concussion in sport were identified with special consideration to concussion management by DCs. A position statement on the management of concussion in sport was drafted by the authors and submitted to the Board of Directors of the ACBSP for review. The Board of Directors called for minor revision; and after all revisions were made, the document was resubmitted. The Board of Directors of the ACBSP accepted the document for publication and presentation. The document was presented and disseminated to certificants by the ACBSP at the 2011 Chiropractic Sports Sciences Symposium. Results The 2012 ACBSP Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics was accepted by the ACBSP Board of Directors. Conclusion The Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics has been accepted by the ACBSP. This document offers guidance on the management of concussion in sport and provides qualifying DCs information to make return-to-play decisions.
The sport nutrition and doping are known to be important issues in sports, but there is evident lack of studies which investigated those issues in swimming, especially with regard to parallel analysis of coaches and athletes. The first aim of this study was to compare knowledge of swimming coaches and their athletes about nutrition and doping. Also, we have identified interrelationships between studied sociodemographic-, sport-; nutrition- and doping-related-factors. The sample of subjects comprised 55 athletes (20.3 +/- 2.2 years of age; 24 females) and 22 coaches (mean age 36.5 +/- 7.8 years; 4 females) from Croatia (98% of respondents). In the first phase of the investigation we have validated specific questionnaires to determine the knowledge of sport nutrition (KSN), and knowledge on doping (KD). The test-retest correlation and percentage of equally responded queries revealed both questionnaires as reliable. The discriminative validity was proven also since coaches scored better than their athletes on both questionnaires. Athletes declared their coaches as the primary sources of knowledge about nutrition and doping. Among coaches, formal and self-education are equally important sources of information about doping and nutrition. The age is negatively, while the formal education is positively correlated to KD and KSN scores among coaches. Consequently, permanent educational programs about nutrition and doping are emphasized, especially among older coaches and younger athletes. PMID:23914506
Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…
Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period.
Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomas; Martinez-Lopez, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Perez M; Martinez-Amat, Antonio
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132
Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio
Several countries have introduced support mechanisms for top-level athletes who represent their nation in international competitions such as the Olympics. Many of these athletes receive funding as they do not generate sufficient income through their sport. Previous research has focused on self-sufficient athletes in professional sports demonstrating a research gap regarding the income of funded athletes. The purpose of the
Pamela Wicker; Christoph Breuer; Tassilo von Hanau
Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing.
Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk
Over a five year period, 137 athletes presented to a Sports Injury Clinic with patello-femoral arthralgia. This was 5.4% of the total injuries seen and a quarter of all knee problems treated. Running contributed to 32% of the athletes with patello-femoral pain. There was a 4:1 male:female ratio and nearly 70% were in the 16-25 year age range. A follow-up
The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008–2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by
Carlos González-Haro; Julio Calleja-González; Jesus F. Escanero
The essay is based on two premises: (1) sports culture (as we know it) is based upon rather specific (masculine) gender structures; (2) technological innovations play a significant role in modern sport. I combine these two premises and discuss whether technologies can be used as tools in order to make sport gender neutral and therefore more genuine or authentic. I
The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…
Background For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an end, which is gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, models of doping should include and anti-doping policies should consider attitudes or orientations toward the specific target end, in addition to the attitude toward the 'tool' itself. Objectives The aim of this study was to empirically test doping related dispositions and attitudes of competitive athletes with the view of informing anti-doping policy developments and deterrence methods. To this end, the paper focused on the individual element of the drug availability – athlete's personality – situation triangle. Methods Data were collected by questionnaires containing a battery of psychological tests among competitive US male college athletes (n = 199). Outcome measures included sport orientation (win and goal orientation and competitiveness), doping attitude, beliefs and self-reported past or current use of doping. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures. Results Whilst the doping model showed satisfactory fit, the results suggested that athletes' win and goal orientation and competitiveness do not play a statistically significant role in doping behaviour, but win orientation has an effect on doping attitude. The SEM analysis provided empirical evidence that sport orientation and doping behaviour is not directly related. Conclusion The considerable proportion of doping behaviour unexplained by the model suggests that other factors play an influential role in athletes' decisions regarding prohibited methods. Future research, followed by policy development, should incorporate these factors to capture the complexity of the doping phenomenon and to identify points for effective anti-doping interventions. Sport governing bodies and anti-doping organisations need to recognise that using performance enhancements may be more of a rational, outcome optimizing behaviour than deviance and consider offering acceptable alternative performance-enhancing methods to doping.
In the current study NCAA Division I student-athletes (n = 2,440) completed a Web-based survey assessing their willingness to seek mental skills training, perceptions of the potential benefits of mental training for their team, and support of possible roles for a sport psychology consultant at their institution. Multiple chi-square tests revealed significant (p<.001) dependence of respondents' ratings on gender, sport
Craig A Wrisberg; Duncan Simpson; Lauren A Loberg; Jenny L Withycombe; Ann Reed
This article, by the United Kingdom's last Olympic Marathon Medal winner, Charlie Spedding, and his brother, the pharmacologist, Michael Spedding, covers the difficulties posed by the availability of powerful drugs to ameliorate athletic performance, from an athlete's perspective, particularly in view of the fact that performances are becoming highly optimised with less margin for further physiological improvement. The authors have had long athletic careers and argue that doping not only devalues performance but sport, and exercise, as a whole. Furthermore, the neurotrophic and metabolic changes involved in exercise and training, which can be modified by drugs, are central to health and reflect a part of the epidemic in obesity.
Groin injuries are common in athletes who participate in sports that require twisting at the waist, sudden and sharp changes in direction, and side-to-side ambulation. Such injuries frequently lead to debilitating pain and lost playing time, and they may be difficult to diagnose. Diagnostic confusion often arises from the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the pubic symphysis region, the large number of potential sources of groin pain, and the similarity of symptoms in athletes with different types or sites of injury. Many athletes with a diagnosis of "sports hernia" or "athletic pubalgia" have a spectrum of related pathologic conditions resulting from musculotendinous injuries and subsequent instability of the pubic symphysis without any finding of inguinal hernia at physical examination. The actual causal mechanisms of athletic pubalgia are poorly understood, and imaging studies have been deemed inadequate or unhelpful for clarification. However, a large-field-of-view magnetic resonance (MR) imaging survey of the pelvis, combined with high-resolution MR imaging of the pubic symphysis, is an excellent means of assessing various causes of athletic pubalgia, providing information about the location of injury, and delineating the severity of disease. Familiarity with the pubic anatomy and with MR imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and in other confounding causes of groin pain allows accurate imaging-based diagnoses and helps in planning treatment that targets specific pathologic conditions. PMID:18794316
Omar, Imran M; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Koulouris, George; Bergin, Diane; Gopez, Angela G; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C
The ergogenic effects of caffeine on athletic performance have been shown in many studies, and its broad range of metabolic, hormonal, and physiologic effects has been recorded, as this review of the literature shows. However, few caffeine studies have been published to include cognitive and physiologic considerations for the athlete. The following practical recom- mendations consider the global effects of
BULENT SOKMEN; L AWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG; W ILLIAM J. KRAEMER; J. CASA; JOAO C. DIAS; D ANIEL A. JUDELSON; CARL M. MARESH
The purpose of this article is to review the current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism, and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young athletic population. This information provides valuable insight into the state of the current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as the potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071
Paterno, Mark V; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E
Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.
The decline in sports participation that begins in early adolescence has been well documented, and there has been considerable controversy regarding the reasons for this attrition. The present study addressed the attrition process by focusing on the subjective experience of sports as a function of grade, gender, and sport context. Following the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method, 401 5th–9th-grade
The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)
To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray
A. Heinonen; P. Oja; P. Kannus; H. Sievanen; H. Haapasalo; A. Mänttäri; I. Vuori
This report describes graduation rates for scholarship athletes in Oklahoma higher education institutions in eleven sports. It includes six-year graduation rates for fall 1991 first-time baccalaureate degree-seeking freshmen and three-year graduation rates for fall 1994 first-time freshmen seeking associate degrees. Institutions are grouped into…
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.
Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)
In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…
Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.
Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational
Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key PointsAlthough most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition.The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmersThe data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming.We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among younger coaches, while among athletes,younger swimmers should be targeted. PMID:24421736
Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and elite sport.
The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice. PMID:21200170
Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects. PMID:19437185
Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (<15, 15-17, 18-20, >20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. PMID:23643768
The present study investigated whether African American male college student-athletes unrealistically focus their career goals on professional athletics to the detriment of their academic pursuits. The study considered the professional athleticaspirations of 702 AfricanAmerican male student-athletesfrom42 NCAA Division I universities using the concept of goal discrepancy to identify individuals whose professional athletic aspirations were inconsistent with their current status asfirst
Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key PointsThe incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females.Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes' trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping.There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports. PMID:24149808
Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan
Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key Points The incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females. Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes’ trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping. There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports.
Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan
The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63/72; 87.5+/-12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female (31/36; 86.1+/-13.9%) and male (32/36; 88.9+/-11.1%) athletes. Kayakers (6.0+/-2.9) consumed a higher number of nutritional supplements than swimmers (4+/-2.2), field hockey (1.5+/-1.0), rowing (2.4+/-1.4), waterpolo (2.3+/-2.4), athletics (2.5+/-1.9) and netball (1.7+/-1.0) athletes. The athletes believed that nutritional supplements are related to performance enhancements (47/72; 65.3%), positive doping results (45/72; 62.5%), and that heavy training increases supplement requirements (47/72; 65.3%). The cohort was equivocal as to their health risks (40/72; 55.6%) or their need with a balanced diet (38/72; 52.8%). The most popular supplements were minerals (33/72; 45.8%), vitamins (31/72; 43.1%), other (23/72; 31.9%), iron (22/72; 30.6%), caffeine (16/72; 22.2%), protein (12/72; 16.7%), protein-carbohydrate mix (10/72; 13.9%), creatine (9/72; 12.5%) and glucosamine (3/72; 4.2%). The majority of supplementing athletes (n=63) did not know their supplements active ingredient (39/63; 61.9%), side effects (36/63; 57.1%) or mechanism of action (34/63; 54.0%) and admitted to wanting additional information (36/63; 57.0%). Only half of the athletes knew the recommended supplement dosages (33/63; 52.4%). The performance enhancing perception may explain the large proportion of athletes that reported using nutritional supplements, despite over half of the athletes believing that supplements are not required with a balanced diet and can cause positive doping violations. PMID:19775936
Dascombe, B J; Karunaratna, M; Cartoon, J; Fergie, B; Goodman, C
The body grows stronger and performs best when appropriate loads and activities are followed by appropriate physical and mental rest and recovery. With this understanding, one has to question the true value of developing a particular sport skill set during childhood and adolescence at the expense of early injury, burnout, and lack of coping-skill development. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(6):389-390. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.0109. PMID:24881902
Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success.
The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is principally founded on monitoring an athlete's biological variables over time, to identify abnormal biases on a longitudinal basis. Several factors are known to influence the results of these markers. However, the manner in which the altitude factor is taken into account still needs to be standardized. Causal relationships between haematological variables should be correctly integrated into ABP software. In particular, modifications of haematological parameters during and after exposure to different altitudes/hypoxic protocols need to be properly included within detection models. PMID:24115763
Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Lippi, Giuseppe
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard imaging modality for activity-related groin pain. Lesions, including rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury and osteitis pubis, can be accurately identified and delineated in patients with clinical conditions termed athletic pubalgia, core injury, and sports hernia. A dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia MRI protocol is easy to implement and should be available at musculoskeletal MR imaging centers. This article will review pubic anatomy, imaging considerations, specific lesions, and common MRI findings encountered in the setting of musculoskeletal groin pain. PMID:23168185
Copper status was assessed in 70 female collegiate athletes aged 18 to 25 years participating in cross country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics during the 2000-2001 season. A group of 8 college-aged females, 20 to 23 years of age, who were not collegiate athletes, served as controls. Mean copper intakes including supplements did not differ significantly among the controls and athletic teams. Mean copper intakes including supplements as micrograms/day and percent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) were as follows: controls 1071 +/- 772 microg (119 +/- 86%), cross country track 1468 +/- 851 microg (163 +/- 95%), tennis 1099 +/- 856 microg (122 +/- 95%), softball 654 +/- 420 microg (73 +/- 47%), swimming 1351 +/- 1060 g (150 +/- 118%), soccer 695 +/- 368 microg (77 +/- 41%), and gymnastics 940 +/- 863 microg (104 +/- 96%). Forty-one percent of athletes and 29% of controls failed to consume two thirds of the RDA for copper. Mean serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were within the normal range and did not differ significantly among the controls (117 +/- 22 microg/dl, 445 +/- 122 mg/L) and cross country track (98 +/- 17 microg/dl, 312 +/- 59 mg/L), tennis (140 +/- 84 microg/dl, 424 +/- 244 mg/L), softball (95 +/- 30 microg/dl, 310 +/- 77 mg/L), swimming (98 +/- 25 microg/dl, 312 +/- 40 mg/L), soccer (93 +/- 15 microg/dl, 324 +/- 54 mg/ L), basketball (85 +/- 10 microg/dl, 280 +/- 62 mg/L), and gymnastics (96 +/- 21 microg/dl, 315 +/- 68 mg/L) teams. Copper status of female collegiate athletes appears to be adequate in this cross-sectional assessment. PMID:14669934
Gropper, Sareen S; Sorrels, L Michelle; Blessing, Daniel
Context: Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport- injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. Objective: To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabil- itation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Design: The ATs and PTs were
J. Jordan Hamson-Utley; Scott Martin; Jason Walters
\\u000a The Marfan syndrome was first described in 1896 by Dr. Antoine Marfan, a French pediatrician [1, 2]. He described a young\\u000a girl who manifested the classic musculoskeletal findings. This syndrome along with its propensity for aortic dilatation has\\u000a been recognized across the world as one of the causes of sudden death in high-profile athletes receiving considerable media\\u000a attention . The
Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18–25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball,\\u000a swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total\\u000a iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter\\u000a for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However,
Sareen S. Gropper; Daniel Blessing; Kim Dunham; Jeffrey M. Barksdale
This document investigates the physical and psychological effects of sport-intensive training for children. The following questions are addressed as a preamble to tentative conclusions: (1) Is such training a hazard to the developing bones of the preadolescent? (2) Are there any special nutritional or thermoregulatory considerations for children…
In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent\\u000a athletes. The sample consisted of N=260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed\\u000a that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the variance in prosocial behavior could be
Esther A. Rutten; Geert Jan J. M. Stams; Gert J. J. Biesta; Carlo Schuengel; Evelien Dirks; Jan B. Hoeksma
... modestly help youngsters prepare for athletic activities. STOP Sports Injuries Many sports injuries in young athletes — particularly ... are illegal and are banned by sports organizations. Sports Supplements Many athletes of all ages take sports ...
This article outlines the significant influences on the evolution and status of physical education and sport for disabled individuals. Topics include legislative mandates, adapted physical education, professional preparation in adapted physical education, the changing role of the physical education specialist, disabled sport, and research…
In 1992, recognizing a ubiquitous pattern of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis among young women participating in competitive sports, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) initiated a dialogue about the Female Athlete Triad. Since then, members of ACSM and other professional societies have offered theoretical models for reducing problem behaviors, but few have conceptualized how the use of anabolic-androgenic
Bryan E. Denham; Katherine W. Hawkins; Karyn Ogata Jones; Andrew C. Billings
Analysis of 70 prime-time hours of host and reporter commentary in NBC's 2004 Athens Summer Olympic telecast was undertaken to determine if announcer commentary in the sports of gymnastics, track and field, swimming, and diving each contained gender biases. Results indicated that gymnastics was the most gender-marked of the four major Olympic sports, with men and women athletes being covered
The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. PMID:20840565
Over the last decade, participation in organized youth sports has risen to include over 35 million contestants.1 The rise in participation has brought about an associated increase in both traumatic and overuse injuries in the youth athlete, which refers to both children and adolescents within a general age range of seven to 17. Exposure rates alone do not account for the increase in injuries. Societal pressures to perform at high levels affect both coaches and athletes and lead to inappropriate levels of training intensity, frequency, and duration. In this environment high physiologic stresses are applied to the immature skeleton of the youth athlete causing injury. Typically, since bone is the weakest link in the incomplete ossified skeleton, the majority of traumatic injuries result in fractures that occur both at mid?shaft and at the growth centers of bone. The following clinical commentary describes the common traumatic sports injuries that occur in youth athletes, as well as those which require rapid identification and care in order to prevent long term sequelae.
The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided…
The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided equally into six groups: (a) segregated basketball, (b) integrated basketball, (c)
Designing the most suitable diet for an athlete requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant scientific literature, the training and competition demands of the sport, the individualathlete's preferences and social situation. The scientific literature contains an abundance of information on nutritional demands of athletes undertaking endurance or strength training programmes, but much less information is available on sprint\\/power sports,
Despite a plethora of guidelines for return to play following mild head injury, a discussion of when and if an athlete should be allowed to participate in contact or collision sports if he or she sustains a structural brain lesion or after a head injury requiring craniotomy is lacking. The structural lesions discussed include arachnoid cyst, Chiari malformation Type I, cavum septum pellucidum, and the presence of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Issues unique to this population with respect to the possibility of increased risk of head injury are addressed. The population of athletes with epilepsy and certain genetic risk factors is also discussed. Finally, the ability of athletes to participate in contact or collision sports after undergoing craniotomies for traumatic or congenital abnormalities is evaluated. Several known instances of athletes returning to contact sports following craniotomy are also reviewed. PMID:17112199
Miele, Vincent J; Bailes, Julian E; Martin, Neil A
Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513
In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List.
In light of the World Anti Doping Agency's 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research' by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536
Limited information exists on the training dose-response relationship in elite collision sportathletes. In addition, no study has developed an injury prediction model for collision sportathletes. The purpose of this study was to develop an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sportathletes. Ninety-one professional rugby league players participated in this 4-year prospective study. This study was conducted in 2 phases. Firstly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over 2 competitive seasons in elite collision sportathletes. Training load and injury data were modeled using a logistic regression model with a binomial distribution (injury vs. no injury) and logit link function. Secondly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over a further 2 competitive seasons in the same cohort of elite collision sportathletes. An injury prediction model based on planned and actual training loads was developed and implemented to determine if noncontact, soft-tissue injuries could be predicted and therefore prevented in elite collision sportathletes. Players were 50-80% likely to sustain a preseason injury within the training load range of 3,000-5,000 units. These training load 'thresholds' were considerably reduced (1,700-3,000 units) in the late-competition phase of the season. A total of 159 noncontact, soft-tissue injuries were sustained over the latter 2 seasons. The percentage of true positive predictions was 62.3% (n = 121), whereas the total number of false positive and false negative predictions was 20 and 18, respectively. Players that exceeded the training load threshold were 70 times more likely to test positive for noncontact, soft-tissue injury, whereas players that did not exceed the training load threshold were injured 1/10 as often. These findings provide information on the training dose-response relationship and a scientific method of monitoring and regulating training load in elite collision sportathletes. PMID:20847703
This study attempts to further research female student athletes' perceptions of the sport psychologist and other sport and mental health professionals. 90 British student athletes from 17 different sports completed a two-part questionnaire to examine the potential derogation effect as a result of consulting one of three identified professionals and to explore the perceived definition and role of the sport psychologist. A fictitious selection report of a female field hockey player was presented to subjects with coach, sport psychologist and psychotherapist as the three professionals. It was hypothesised that subjects' recommendations regarding selection would differ depending on the consultant used. No differences were found which suggests the absence of a negative halo effect and that derogation would not occur within this sample group. Definitions and perceived role of the sport psychologist varied with the subjective tone of the responses from participants being mainly positive (74%). These results indicate that this female student athlete sample has a moderated, even a positive, perception of the sport psychologist. A general acceptance of the sport psychologist falls in line with the suggestions of Murstein and Fontaine (1993) concerning a reported increase in acceptance of mental health professionals. PMID:11339492
This report describes two athletes with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) accidentally identified during preparticipation medical evaluation. The clinical implications of PLSVC for sports physicians are also discussed. A 16-year-old male ice hockey player and an 18-year-old male high-level field hockey player visited our institute for medical evaluation prior to participating in competition. Neither complained of palpitation, faintness or syncope, which would have suggested a possible cardiac rhythm disturbance, or had been informed of any abnormalities in previous physical examinations. Nonetheless, echocardiography revealed dilated coronary sinuses, and venography confirmed PLSVC and, in one case, showed the absence of the right superior vena cava. Electrocardiograms showed the field hockey player to have an ectopic atrial rhythm with left axis deviation of the frontal plane P-wave and the ice hockey player to have normal sinus rhythm. Symptom-limited treadmill testing revealed nothing abnormal, and after explaining the possible rhythm instability and the potential risk associated with cardiac surgery, the subjects were permitted full participation in competitive sports. Although information is scarce, available data on PLSVC suggest it is benign for competitive athletes. Nevertheless, complications arising from other cardiovascular anomalies, from potential cardiac rhythm disturbances, and from cardiac surgery necessitated by major injuries should be considered prior to participation in competitive sports. PMID:11447374
The interaction between step kinematics and stance kinetics determines sprint velocity. However, the influence that stance kinetics has on effective acceleration in field sportathletes requires clarification. About 25 men (age = 22.4 ± 3.2 years; mass = 82.8 ± 7.2 kg; height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m) completed twelve 10-m sprints, 6 sprints each for kinematic and kinetic assessment. Pearson's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m velocity; step kinematics (mean step length [SL], step frequency, contact time [CT], flight time over each interval); and stance kinetics (relative vertical, horizontal, and resultant force and impulse; resultant force angle; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF] for the first, second, and last contacts within the 10-m sprint). Relationships were found between 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m SL and 0-5 and 0-10 m velocity (r = 0.397-0.535). CT of 0-5 and 0-10 m correlated with 5-10 m velocity (r = -0.506 and -0.477, respectively). Last contact vertical force correlated with 5-10 m velocity (r = 0.405). Relationships were established between the second and last contact vertical and resultant force and CT over all intervals (r = -0.398 to 0.569). First and second contact vertical impulse correlated with 0-5 m SL (r = 0.434 and 0.442, respectively). Subjects produced resultant force angles and RatF suitable for horizontal force production. Faster acceleration in field sportathletes involved longer steps, with shorter CT. Greater vertical force production was linked with shorter CT, illustrating efficient force production. Greater SLs during acceleration were facilitated by higher vertical impulse and appropriate horizontal force. Speed training for field sportathletes should be tailored to encourage these technique adaptations. PMID:23222091
Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Callaghan, Samuel J
The complex authority, accountability, and supervisory structures of sports medicine groups in athletic departments can lead to conflicts that affect healthcare delivery for student—athletes. The authors review consultation models that counselors, sport psychologists, and other organizational consultants can use in dealing with these problems in collegiate sports medicine groups and offer examples of improved functioning through systemic, group, and individual
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique and findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, including injury at the rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis, are becoming widely recognized. A subset of these patients is treated with various pelvic floor repairs, mesh reinforcements, and tendon releases. Most of these patients do well after intervention, but some have persistent or refractory groin pain, and others eventually develop new injuries in the pubic region or elsewhere about the pelvic girdle. This review describes the expected and some unexpected MRI findings in patients with recurrent or persistent groin pain after a "sports hernia" repair. PMID:21928160
Assessment and management of cardiac rhythm disorders in athletes is particularly challenging. An accurate diagnosis and optimal risk-stratification are often limited because of substantial phenotypic overlap between pathological entities and adaptive cardiovascular responses that normally occur in athletes. An accurate diagnosis, however, is particularly important in this population, as 2 competing risks need to be cautiously balanced: the risk of under-diagnosis of an arrhythmogenic substrate that may trigger life-threatening events versus the risk of over-diagnosis that may result in an athlete's improper disqualification. Accordingly, the management of arrhythmias in athletes may pose therapeutic dilemmas, and often differs substantially compared with the general population. In this review, we present the most frequently observed arrhythmias in athletes and briefly discuss their pathophysiologic substrate. We further propose diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based upon current guidelines, official recommendations, and emerging evidence from relevant clinical investigations. We focus particularly on disparities in current guidelines regarding the management of certain rhythm disorders, as these areas of uncertainty may reflect the challenging nature of these disorders and may indicate the need for individualized approaches in every-day clinical practice. A better understanding of the normal electrophysiological responses to chronic exercise, and of the pathophysiological basis and the true clinical significance of arrhythmias in athletes, may enhance decision-making, and may allow for management strategies which more prudently weigh the risk-to-benefit ratio of each approach. PMID:23422016
The athlete is exposed to a number of environmental conditions that may affect performance and health. The sports physical therapist must be aware of the effects of these conditions on the performance and well-being of athletes under his/her care. Decisions about an individual's participation and decisions about the safety of holding an event are within the scope of practice of a sports physical therapist. Additionally, the athlete looks to the sports physical therapist for training guidelines for events in various environmental conditions. A literature search was performed to determine the relevant issues related to sports participation in hot and cold environments. The current body of knowledge in these areas is presented to guide sports physical therapists in training and advising athletes in their care. These areas include thermoregulation, heat, cold, fluid replacement, and clothing considerations. PMID:7742842
The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. PMID:24732956
Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L
The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria and were independently rated by two reviewers using the McMaster Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group scale. Consensus scores ranged from 3 to 8 out of 10. Seven out of nine studies demonstrated that training interventions have a preventive effect on ACLI. Collectively, the studies indicate there is moderate evidence to support the use of multifaceted training interventions, which consisted of stretching, proprioception, strength, plyometric and agility drills with additional verbal and/or visual feedback on proper landing technique to decrease the rate of ACLIs in team sport female athletes, while the paucity of data preclude any conclusions for male athletes. PMID:22742077
It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mental toughness among athletes of different: (a) achievement level, (b) gender, (c) age, (d) sporting experience, and (e) sport type (team vs. individual and contact vs. non-contact sports). Participants were 677 athletes and consisted of sports performers competing at international (n=60), national (n=99), county (n=198), club\\/university (n=289), and beginner (n=31)
Adam R. Nicholls; Remco C. J. Polman; Andrew R. Levy; Susan H. Backhouse
Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0±23.0 vs. 68.5±30.8 and 80.72±29.1 ?mol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8±35.6 ?mol/L), wrestlers (342.5±36.2 ?mol/L) and basketball players (347.95±31.3 ?mol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1±667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1±391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375
Although the potential link between running loads and soft-tissue injury is appealing, the evidence supporting or refuting this relationship in high-performance team sportathletes is nonexistent, with all published studies using subjective measures (e.g., ratings of perceived exertion) to quantify training loads. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of low-intensity (e.g., walking, jogging, total distances) and high-intensity (e.g., high acceleration and velocity efforts, repeated high-intensity exercise bouts) movement activities on lower body soft-tissue injury in elite team sportathletes. Thirty-four elite rugby league players participated in this study. Global positioning system data and the incidence of lower body soft-tissue injuries were monitored in 117 skill training sessions during the preseason and in-season periods. The frailty model (an extension of the Cox proportional regression model for recurrent events) was applied to calculate the relative risk of injury after controlling for all other training data. The risk of injury was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2-6.5) times higher when very high-velocity running (i.e., sprinting) exceeded 9 m per session. Greater distances covered in mild, moderate, and maximum accelerations and low- and very low-intensity movement velocities were associated with a reduced risk of injury. These results demonstrate that greater amounts of very high-velocity running (i.e., sprinting) are associated with an increased risk of lower body soft-tissue injury, whereas distances covered at low and moderate speeds offer a protective effect against soft-tissue injury. From an injury prevention perspective, these findings provide empirical support for restricting the amount of sprinting performed in preparation for elite team sport competition. However, coaches should also consider the consequences of reducing training loads on the development of physical qualities and playing performance. PMID:22323001
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
In "Pietrylo v. Hillstone Restaurant Group," the plaintiff filed a wrongful-discharge claim against his employer after he was fired for content he had posted about the employer on a social media web site. This article discusses the implications of the court's decision on athletes in the sport industry.
The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558
Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A
Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (< 30 ng mL(-1)) and it was lowest in handball players. Higher than normal ferritin levels were seen in 12.5% of the subjects. We saw a significant difference in ferritin levels of basketball and handball players (p = 0.047). We conclude that the intake of calorie and iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values. PMID:20415144
Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R
Athletes and their coach interpret the training situations differently and this can have important implications for the development of an elite athlete's performance. It is argued that, from a schema-theoretic perspective, the difference in these interpretations needs to be better understood. A post-performance, self-confrontation, interview was conducted with a number of athletes and their coaches. The interviews revealed differences between the athlete and their coach in the information they are aware of. In comparison with athletes, coaches more frequently compared the phenotype with genotype schemata rather than just describing the phenotype schemata. Results suggest SA information elements showed some common ground but also revealed some important differences between the athlete and coach. The awareness was directed externally towards the environment and internally, towards the individual, depending on his/her role. The investigation showed that the schemata used to 'frame' the information elements were different, but compatible, between athlete and coach. PMID:24112774
The aim of this study is to design a Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2). The questionnaire, originally developed by the Washington University research group in sport psychology to evaluate anxiety in young athletes, was translated and adapted following the APA protocol and its psychometric properties were assessed through internal consistency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and validity evidence. The Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale has revealed good internal consistency indexes in each subscale and its factor structure has faithfully replicated the one obtained in the original measure. Results indicate that the adapted version of the questionnaire is an adequate and valid measure for the assessment of anxiety in young athletes. PMID:21044545
Substantial research exists in relation to the effect of fatigue on the cognitive skills of athletes. Very few studies in the sport domain, however, have investigated decision-making time and accuracy in relation to the discrimination of the speed of a moving object following exercise at maximal intensity. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of elite ballgames athletes to determine if they prioritize accuracy or speed of decision-making when physically exhausted. The participants in the study were 163 males (M = 21.17, SD = 4.18) Estonian national level soccer (n = 79), basketball (n = 63) and volleyball (n = 21) players. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed during completion of an incremental exercise test on a treadmill. Speed discrimination stimuli were images of red square-shapes on a grey background presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen. Repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for the decision-making time factor. A second MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for the decision-making accuracy factor. The soccer group made a significantly lower number of errors than the basketball group (p = 0.015) in pre- and post-fatigue decision-making accuracy. The results showed that athletes’ decision-making time decreased and decision-making errors increased after a maximal aerobic capacity exercise task. A comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of experienced basketball, volleyball and soccer players indicated that the only significant difference was for decision-making accuracy between the soccer and basketball groups. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster at the expense of accuracy when fatigued. Key points The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of elite ballgames athletes to determine if they prioritize accuracy or speed of decision-making when physically exhausted. Speed discrimination stimuli were images of red square-shapes on a grey background presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen that represented the frontal plane. The participants exercised on a treadmill to level of 100% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Repeated measures MANOVA revealed significant main effects for both the decision-making time and accuracy factors. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster but with greater errors when fatigued. Post hoc analyses of the differences between the ball game sport groups indicated that soccer group participants reported a significantly lower number of errors than the basketball group (p = .015) in pre- and post-fatigue decision-making accuracy. Further investigations are required to clarify the equivocal set of previous findings regarding the relationship between the cognitive function of athletes at varying physical workload intensities.
Thomson, Kaivo; Watt, Anthony P.; Liukkonen, Jarmo
Global positioning system (GPS) technology has improved the speed, accuracy, and ease of time-motion analyses of field sportathletes. The large volume of numerical data generated by GPS technology is usually summarized by reporting the distance traveled and time spent in various locomotor categories (e.g., walking, jogging, and running). There are a variety of definitions used in the literature to represent these categories, which makes it nearly impossible to compare findings among studies. The purpose of this work was to propose standard definitions (velocity ranges) that were determined by an objective analysis of time-motion data. In addition, we discuss the limitations of the existing definition of a sprint and present a new definition of sprinting for field sportathletes. Twenty-five GPS data files collected from 5 different sports (men's and women's field hockey, men's and women's soccer, and Australian Rules Football) were analyzed to identify the average velocity distribution. A curve fitting process was then used to determine the optimal placement of 4 Gaussian curves representing the typical locomotor categories. Based on the findings of these analyses, we make recommendations about sport-specific velocity ranges to be used in future time-motion studies of field sportathletes. We also suggest that a sprint be defined as any movement that reaches or exceeds the sprint threshold velocity for at least 1 second and any movement with an acceleration that occurs within the highest 5% of accelerations found in the corresponding velocity range. From a practical perspective, these analyses provide conditioning coaches with information on the high-intensity sprinting demands of field sportathletes, while also providing a novel method of capturing maximal effort, short-duration sprints. PMID:22310509
1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996
Context: Sports nutrition experts recommend that team-sportathletes participating in intermittent high-intensity exercise for ?1 hr consume 1-4 g carbohydrate/kg 1-4 hr before, 30-60 g carbohydrate/hr during, and 1-1.2 g carbohydrate/kg/hr and 20-25 g protein as soon as possible after exercise. The study objective was to compare observed vs. recommended macronutrient intake of competitive athletes under free-living conditions. Methods: The dietary intake of 29 skill/team-sportathletes (14-19 y; 22 male, 7 female) was observed at a sports training facility by trained registered dietitians for one 24-hr period. Dietitians accompanied subjects to the cafeteria and field/court to record their food and fluid intake during meals and practices/competitions. Other dietary intake within the 24-hr period (e.g., snacks during class) was accounted for by having the subject take a picture of the food/fluid and completing a log. Results: For male and female athletes, respectively, the mean ± SD (and percent of athletes meeting recommended) macronutrient intake around exercise was 1.4 ± 0.6 (73%) and 1.4 ± 1.0 (57%) g carbohydrate/kg in the 4 hr before exercise, 21.1 ± 17.2 (18%) and 18.6 ± 13.2 (29%) g carbohydrate/hrr during exercise, 1.4 ± 1.1 (68%) and 0.9 ± 1.0 (43%) g carbohydrate/kg and 45.2 ± 36.9 (73%) and 18.0 ± 21.2 (43%) g protein in the 1 hr after exercise. Conclusion: The male athletes' carbohydrate and protein intake more closely approximated recommendations overall than that of the female athletes. The most common shortfall was carbohydrate intake during exercise, as only 18% of male and 29% of female athletes consumed 30-60 g carbohydrate/hr during practice/competition. PMID:24808251
Baker, Lindsay B; Heaton, Lisa E; Nuccio, Ryan P; Stein, Kimberly W
Sirotic, A.C., and A.J. Coutts. Physiological and per- formance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermit- tent running performance in moderately trained women team sportathletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):138-144. 2007.—A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly pro- duce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal inten- sity.
OBJECTIVES: Jumper's knee causes significant morbidity in athletes of all standards. However, there are few reference data on the clinical course of this condition in a large number of patients, and the aim of this study was to rectify this. METHODS: A retrospective study of the course of jumper's knee in 100 athletes who presented to a sports medicine clinic
J L Cook; K M Khan; P R Harcourt; M Grant; D A Young; S F Bonar
This study examined the relationships among three components of perceived risk of injury: (a) probability of injury, (b) worry\\/concern of being injured, and (c) confidence in avoiding injury. Participants were 434 athletes from 3 contact sports (hockey, soccer, and football). Correlations between the components showed a positive relationship between worry\\/concern and probability of injury, and negative relationships between worry\\/concern and
Sandra E. Short; Jennifer Reuter; Jerel Brandt; Martin W. Short; Anthony P. Kontos
This phenomenological study sought to address the overarching research questions: What are the costs and benefits of participation in Division I college sports? How does participation in Division I college sports prepare student-athletes for life after college? A qualitative methodology was selected to provide richer data than that which could be…
The aim of this study was to profile hematological, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters in male athletes who practiced combat sports and to determine whether the type of combat sport influenced the measured parameters. Eighteen karate professionals, 15 wrestlers, and 14 kickboxers participated in the study. Hematological, iron-related, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters were measured at the beginning of a precompetitive period. The general linear model showed significant differences between the karate professionals, wrestlers, and kickboxers with respect to their hematological and iron status parameters (Wilks' Lambda = 0.270, F = 2.186, p < 0.05) and oxidative stress status (Wilks' Lambda = 0.529, F = 1.940, p < 0.05). The immature reticulocyte fraction was significantly higher in wrestlers (0.30 ± 0.03) compared with kickboxers (0.24 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) and karate professionals (0.26 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Low hemoglobin density was significantly lower in wrestlers and kickboxers (p < 0.05) compared with karate professionals (karate: 3.51 ± 1.19, wrestlers: 1.95 ± 1.10, and kickboxers: 1.77 ± 0.76). Significant differences were observed between the karate professionals and wrestlers with respect to their pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (437 ± 103 vs. 323 ± 148, p < 0.05) and superoxide-dismutase activity (SOD) (73 ± 37 vs. 103 ± 30, p < 0.05). All the measured parameters (with the exception of SOD activity) fell within their physiological ranges, indicating that the study participants represented a young and healthy male population. Hematological parameters differed between kickboxers and karate professionals. The low pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance and high SOD activity in wrestlers could be associated with the long-term impact of wrestling as a type of strenuous exercise. PMID:24270459
Objective Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and\\u000a stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes\\u000a in contact sports.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n?=?10), ice hockey (n?=?10), bandy (n?=?10) and female floor-ball
Women's sports did not begin to grow and gain public recognition until the early 1970's. Since then, the number of women participating in intercollegiate sports has doubled and the number of girls participating in interscholastic sports programs has incre...
C. Bauman J. J. Knapik B. H. Jones J. M. Harris L. K. Vaughn
The maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and related cardiorespiratory parameters were determined on 67 Bengalee (Indian) girl athletes having nine different sports activities. VO2max was determined with a bicycle ergometer. The highest value for VO2maxl.min-1 was obtained by javelin throwers (1.95), being followed by pentathletes (1.92) and long-distance runners (1.90), whereas the lowest value was achieved by handballers (1.45). When VO2max was expressed in ml.kg-1.min-1, the long-distance runners registered the highest mean value (43.0), which was significantly higher than that of basketballers (34.9), handball players (36.2), badminton players (34.4), and swimmers (36.0). For this measurement, the sprinters (40.0), pentathletes (40.3), javelin throwers (40.0), and jumpers (39.4) did not differ significantly with each other, but each of the groups was significantly superior to basketballers, handballers, badminton players, and swimmers. No significant difference was also found amongst the latter groups. VO2maxl.min-1 was found to be significantly correlated with all the physical characteristics. It was predicted on the basis of age, height, weight, and body surface area using stepwise regression method. PMID:1960887
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of the seven clubs were randomized to receive the 3-month intervention program (IG) aimed at increasing awareness and positive climate change of body image pressures for athletes in their clubs. Three clubs were randomized to the control group (CG). A total of 62 female gymnasts (IG n = 31; CG n = 31) completed self-report questionnaires examining perceptions of pressure to be thin within their sports clubs, self-efficacy over dieting pressures, awareness and internalization of societal pressure to be thin, body esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviours before and following the intervention. A total of 32 mothers (IG n = 24; CG n = 8) completed measures examining their perceptions of their daughter's pressure to be thin, awareness and internalization of societal pressures to be thin, daughter's self-efficacy over dieting pressures, in addition to mothers' beliefs regarding thinness and success for women in society, before and following the intervention. The findings revealed that participation in the BodySense program resulted in athletes perceiving a reduction in pressure from their sports clubs to be thin, though no changes were found in body esteem, the EAT, or the SATAQ. No significant change was observed over time on mothers' measures. The role of climate change for prevention of eating disorders in athletes is discussed. PMID:18568921
Buchholz, Annick; Mack, Heidi; McVey, Gail; Feder, Stephen; Barrowman, Nicholas
This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…
Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.
As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…
The purpose of this study was to explore the possible differences in body image, emotional intelligence, anx- iety levels and disordered eating attitudes in a group of Taekwondo (TKD) and Judo athletes and non-athletes. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. A total of 60 subjects were recruited: 20 were national and international TKD and Judo athletes and
Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…
The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sportathletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sportathletes is recommended. PMID:23254547
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individualathlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ethical matters, common to other areas of medicine. However they also raised problems unique to sports medicine. Some of these ethical difficulties arise out of the place of the sports doctor within the hierarchy of sport. Yet others arise out of the special relationship between sports doctors and individual players/athletes. This study raises some important questions regarding the governance of healthcare in sport, and what support and guidance is available to sports doctors. As medical and scientific intervention in sport escalates, there is a risk that demands for enhanced performance may compromise the health of the athlete, and the role the sports doctor plays remains a critical question.
Athletics is a popular sport among young people. To maintain health and optimize growth and athletic performance, young athletes need to consume an appropriate diet. Unfortunately, the dietary intake of many young athletes follows population trends rather than public health or sports nutrition recommendations. To optimize performance in some disciplines, young athletes may strive to achieve a lower body weight
We studied prospectively 22 young athletes who had undergone surgical treatment for lumbar spondylolysis. There were 15 men and seven women with a mean age of 20.2 years (15 to 34). Of these, 13 were professional footballers, four professional cricketers, three hockey players, one a tennis player and one a golfer. Preoperative assessment included plain radiography, single positron-emission CT, planar bone scanning and reverse-gantry CT. In all patients the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and in 19 the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scores were determined preoperatively, and both were measured again after two years in all patients. Three patients had a Scott's fusion and 19 a Buck's fusion. The mean duration of back pain before surgery was 9.4 months (6 to 36). The mean size of the defect as determined by CT was 3.5 mm (1 to 8) and the mean preoperative and postoperative ODIs were 39.5 (SD 8.7) and 10.7 (SD 12.9), respectively. The mean scores for the physical component of the SF-36 improved from 27.1 (SD 5.1) to 47.8 (SD 7.7). The mean scores for the mental health component of the SF-36 improved from 39.0 (SD 3.9) to 55.4 (SD 6.3) with p < 0.001. After rehabilitation for a mean of seven months (4 to 10) 18 patients (82%) returned to their previous sporting activity. PMID:12678361
Debnath, U K; Freeman, B J C; Gregory, P; de la Harpe, D; Kerslake, R W; Webb, J K
The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training. PMID:22476167
Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P
A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sportathletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ? 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sportathletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power. PMID:21912294
Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K
OBJECTIVES: Jumper's knee causes significant morbidity in athletes of all standards. However, there are few reference data on the clinical course of this condition in a large number of patients, and the aim of this study was to rectify this. METHODS: A retrospective study of the course of jumper's knee in 100 athletes who presented to a sports medicine clinic over a nine year period was carried out. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to collect details of sport participation, symptoms, and time out of sport. Ultrasonographic results were recorded from the radiologists' reports. Histopathological results were obtained for patients who had surgery. RESULTS: Forty eight subjects recalled that symptoms of jumper's knee began before the age of 20 years. Symptoms prevented 33 from participating in sport for more than six months, and 18 of these were sidelined for more than 12 months. Forty nine of the subjects had two or more separate episodes of symptoms. Ultrasonography showed a characteristics hypoechoic region at the junction of the inferior pole of the patella and the deep surface of the patellar tendon. Histopathological examination showed separation and disruption of collagen fibres on polarisation light microscopy and an increase in mucoid ground substance consistent with damage of tendon collagen without inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Jumper's knee has the potential to be a debilitating condition for a sports person. About 33% of athletes presenting to a sports medicine clinic with jumper's knee were unable to return to sport for more than six months. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Cook, J L; Khan, K M; Harcourt, P R; Grant, M; Young, D A; Bonar, S F
The Hillary Commission is the public funding agency that encourages New Zealanders to participate and achieve in sport, fitness and leisure. We support around 100 national sport organisations and the 17 regional sports trusts, encourage more people to be more active more often, help athletes compete at top levels, and improve the way sport and physical activity services are delivered.
Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports…
An athletic trainer (ATC) who is certified by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) is an allied health professional with specific expertise in prevention, recognition, and care of injuries to athletes. Such individuals are college-degreed specialists in sports medicine who practice under the direction of a physician. ATCs perform six…
Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…
Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.
As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…
From April 1, 1985, through June 30, 1987, 25 skilled athletes with shoulder pain secondary to anterior gle nohumeral instability that had failed to improve with conservative therapy had an anterior capsulolabral re construction. All but one athlete completed a formal rehabilitation program with an average followup of 39 months. The results at followup were rated excellent in 68%, good
Frank W. Jobe; Charles E. Giangarra; Ronald S. Kvitne; Ronald E. Glousman
Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young
Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adap- tive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N
Marc-André K. Lafrenière; Sophia Jowett; Robert J. Vallerand; Eric G. Donahue; Ross Lorimer
Training at the load that maximizes peak mechanical power (Pmax) is considered superior for the development of power. We aimed to identify the Pmax load ('optimal load') in the jump squat and to quantify small, moderate, large, and very large substantial differences in power output across a spectrum of loads to identify loads that are substantially different to the optimal, and lastly, to investigate the nature of power production (load-force-velocity profiles). Professional Australian Rules Football (ARF; n = 16) and highly trained Rugby Union (RU; n = 20) players (subdivided into stronger [SP] vs. weaker [WP] players) performed jump squats across incremental loads (0-60 kg). Substantial differences in peak power (W·kg(-1)) were quantified as 0.2-2.0 of the log transformed between-athlete SD at each load, backtransformed and expressed as a percent with 90% confidence limits (CL). A 0-kg jump squat maximized peak power (ARF: 57.7 ± 10.8 W·kg(-1); RU: 61.4 ± 8.5 W·kg(-1); SP: 64.4 ± 7.5 W·kg(-1); WP: 54.8 ± 9.5 W·kg(-1)). The range for small to very large substantial differences in power output was 4.5-55.9% (CL: ×/÷1.36) and 2.8-32.4% (CL: ×/÷1.31) in ARF and RU players, whereas in SP and WP, it was 3.7-43.1% (CL: ×/÷1.32) and 4.3-51.7% (CL: ×/÷1.36). Power declined per 10-kg increment in load, 14.1% (CL: ±1.6) and 10.5% (CL: ±1.5) in ARF and RU players and 12.8% (CL: ±1.9) and 11.3% (CL: ±1.7) in SP and WP. The use of a 0-kg load is superior for the development of jump squat maximal power, with moderate to very large declines in power output observed at 10- to 60-kg loads. Yet, performance of heavier load jump squats that are substantially different to the optimal load are important in the development of sport-specific force-velocity qualities and should not be excluded. PMID:22505130
Nibali, Maria L; Chapman, Dale W; Robergs, Robert A; Drinkwater, Eric J
We determined whether the polygenic profile computed with seven candidate polymorphisms (i.e., ACE, ACTN3, AMPD1, CKMM, HFE, GDF-8 and PPARGC1A) for endurance performance is different in 39 world-class and 15 national-class Spanish (Caucasian) lightweight rowers. The second purpose was to examine the impact of possessing a "preferable" polygenic profile on the sport success in terms of the number of medals won in World and National Championships. Finally, we also compared the polygenic profile of world- and national-class Spanish rowers with that of the general Spanish population. The polygenic profile did not differ between groups of rowers. We did not observe an association between having a preferable polygenic profile and medals won in World and National Championships. Finally, we observed that rowers tend to have a more "favorable" polygenic profile than the general Spanish population. These findings argue against the idea that genetic endowment differentiates athletic champions from elite, yet less accomplished athletes. In contrast, we cannot discard the fact that, overall, elite athletes are endowed with a more "favorable" polygenic profile than the general population. PMID:19422651
Santiago, C; Ruiz, J R; Muniesa, C A; González-Freire, M; Gómez-Gallego, F; Lucia, A
Background The current standard of practice for an athlete to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is varied. Attempt to return to activity is typically advised 6 months after surgery, but functional performance deficits and gait abnormalities are often still evident and may have important implications on future function. Hypothesis When comparing the involved and uninvolved limbs, patients who failed return-to-sport (RTS) criteria would demonstrate (1) smaller peak knee angles, extensor moments, and peak power absorption at the knee of the involved limb and (2) larger peak hip angles, extensor moments, and peak power generation of the involved limb. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A total of 42 patients completed functional and biomechanical gait assessment 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Functional testing involved an isometric quadriceps strength test, 4 single-legged hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to measure sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of the hip and knee. A mixed-model analysis of variance and post hoc t tests were used to compare the limb symmetry of those who passed and those who did not pass RTS criteria. Minimal clinically important differences were calculated from healthy gait data and used to further define meaningful limb asymmetries. Results Twenty of the 42 (48%) patients passed RTS criteria 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Patients who did not pass the criteria demonstrated statistically significant differences between limbs on all kinematic and kinetic variables at the knee (P ? .027). Clinically meaningful asymmetries at the hip were also identified in this group. Only kinetic asymmetries at the knee were identified in the patients who passed RTS criteria. Conclusion Athletes who demonstrate superior functional performance 6 months after ACL reconstruction may have fewer abnormal and asymmetrical gait behaviors than their poorer performing counterparts. Patients who did not pass RTS criteria not only demonstrated larger kinematic and kinetic asymmetries between limbs but also appeared to use a gait strategy more closely aligned with athletes early after ACL rupture. Clinical Relevance Poor performance on a battery of functional performance measures may be related to the presence of movement asymmetries in athletes after ACL reconstruction. Objective RTS criteria have the potential to provide information to clinicians who determine when these athletes return to activity, and may aid in the prescription of targeted rehabilitation to address underlying movement asymmetry.
A structural framework is provided for a responsive athletic injury control program, the Health Supervision Loop in Sport. The use of certified athletic trainers is recommended to lessen the risk of sport-related injuries. (FG)
The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…
As a coach, this author likes to share some thoughts on children and sports. After 42 years in athletics in all capacities--coach, athletic director, official, parent, athlete, and observer--he can easily say he has seen, heard, or experienced it all. Each experience has helped him gain some insights on youth and interscholastic sports. Parent of…
The study aims to explore the nature of infl uences that parents exert on the quality of the dyadic coach-athlete relationship. A conceptual model was proposed as a guiding framework for the study. The proposed model incorporates Sprecher, Felmlee, Orbuch, and Willets? (2002) notion of social networks and Jowett and Cockerill?s (2002) conceptualization of coach-athlete relationships. Fifteen participants from fi
Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…
Describes a study investigating the effects of age and sports participation on functional loss. Data on 756 adults who underwent maximal exercise testing during the 1985 World Masters Games indicate even moderate sports participation may enhance functional capacity. Older people may maintain independence in later life by increasing physical…
How individuals define themselves has considerable implications within the realms of sport. Considering the large proportion of African Americans participating in high profile college sports, matters of identity likely become quite relevant. This article addresses issues related to athletic and racial identity contextualized in the sport domain.…
Communication is one of the most important functions of management. Coaches of team and individualsports should know how to communicate successfully with athletes and assistants in order to maximize individual and team performance. A lack of communication means problems in coordination, cohesion and cooperation among the group. The coach, acting like the transmitter, should find the most appropriate ways
In this study, we examined the role of confidence in relation to the cognitive, affective, and behavioural responses it elicits, and identified the factors responsible for debilitating confidence within the organizational subculture of world-class sport. Using Vealey's (2001) integrative model of sport confidence as a broad conceptual base, 14 athletes (7 males, 7 females) were interviewed in response to the research aims. Analysis indicated that high sport confidence facilitated performance through its positive effect on athletes' thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. However, the athletes participating in this study were susceptible to factors that served to debilitate their confidence. These factors appeared to be associated with the sources from which they derived their confidence and influenced to some extent by gender. Thus, the focus of interventions designed to enhance sport confidence must reflect the individual needs of the athlete, and might involve identifying an athlete's sources and types of confidence, and ensuring that these are intact during competition preparation phases. PMID:19724964
Hays, Kate; Thomas, Owen; Maynard, Ian; Bawden, Mark
The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality. PMID:21893391
Mullens, Frank E; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C
The purpose of the present study is to examine the ability of certain psychological attributes to predict performance in six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate sports. Eighty-four athletes from the varsity sports teams of cross country running, alpine and nordic skiing, tennis, basketball, and track and field at the University of Colorado completed a questionnaire adapted from Martens (1977; Martens et al., 1983) that measured their trait levels of self-confidence (Bandura, 1977), somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Martens et al., 1983). In addition, at three to six competitions during the season, the members of the cross country running and tennis teams filled out a state measure (Martens et al., 1983) of the three attributes from one to two hours prior to the competition. Following each competition, subjective and objective ratings of performance were obtained, and, for all sports, coaches' ratings of performance and an overall seasonal team ranking were determined as seasonal performance measures. The sports were dichotomized along motor and physiological dimensions. Results indicate that all three psychological attributes were significant predictors of performance in both fine motor, anaerobic sports and gross motor, aerobic sports. Further, clear differences in these relationships emerged as a function of the dichotomization. In addition, unexpected sex differences emerged. The findings are discussed relative to prior research and their implications for future research. PMID:3572704
Presents material on Air Force and Air University sport injuries. Describes common injuries associated with softball, soccer, volleyball, and flickerball. Reviews causes, symptoms and initial first aid treatment of injuries, and need for physician referra...
Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,…
The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.
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Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, ? 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, ? 2 = .013), relativism ( P < .001, ? 2 = .050), and ethical decision-making scores ( P < .001, ? 2 = .027). Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis indicated that educators possessed lower idealism scores (36.90 ± 5.70) and relativism scores (29.92 ± 4.86) and higher ethical decision-making scores (82.98 ± 7.62) than did students. Conclusions: Our findings do not support changes in athletic training ethics education practices to address sex-specific needs. However, when opportunities occur for students to reason using different ethical perspectives, educators should be aware of their students' and their own moral philosophies in order to optimally facilitate professional growth.
Genes control biological processes such as muscle, cartilage and bone formation, muscle energy production and metabolism (mitochondriogenesis, lactic acid removal), blood and tissue oxygenation (erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation), all essential in sport and athletic performance. DNA sequence variations in such genes confer genetic advantages that can be exploited, or genetic 'barriers' that could be overcome to achieve optimal athletic performance. Predictive Genomic DNA Profiling for athletic performance reveals genetic variations that may be associated with better suitability for endurance, strength and speed sports, vulnerability to sports-related injuries and individualized nutritional requirements. Knowledge of genetic 'suitability' in respect to endurance capacity or strength and speed would lead to appropriate sport and athletic activity selection. Knowledge of genetic advantages and barriers would 'direct' an individualized training program, nutritional plan and nutritional supplementation to achieving optimal performance, overcoming 'barriers' that results from intense exercise and pressure under competition with minimum waste of time and energy and avoidance of health risks (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and musculoskeletal injuries) related to exercise, training and competition. Predictive Genomics DNA profiling for Athletics and Sports performance is developing into a tool for athletic activity and sport selection and for the formulation of individualized and personalized training and nutritional programs to optimize health and performance for the athlete. Human DNA sequences are patentable in some countries, while in others DNA testing methodologies [unless proprietary], are non patentable. On the other hand, gene and variant selection, genotype interpretation and the risk and suitability assigning algorithms based on the specific Genomic variants used are amenable to patent protection. PMID:22827597
In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…
Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be
In response to an Oklahoma state mandate, for the second year, a comparative study was done of the graduation rates of scholarship athletes and the student body as a whole. The study used data from the student-cohort flow system to determine whether students graduated within 6 years of enrollment (for four-year institutions) or within 3 years of…
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.
This study compared the six-year college graduation rates of scholarship athletes with all students in the Oklahoma State System using data for fall 1990 first-time, full-time baccalaureate degree-seeking entering freshmen. The study also examined three-year graduation rates of fall 1993 freshmen seeking associate degrees. Graduation rates for…
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.
Iconic media moments include when Kerri Strug 1996 Olympic vault with two torn ligaments in her ankle, and Tiger Woods’ win in the 2008 US Open with a torn left anterior cruciate ligament and a double stress fracture on his left tibia. Both athletes were regarded as heroes for competing while injured and particularly because they were successful in doing
This book provides concrete information and step-by-step exercises to help student athletes succeed in college and make a successful transition to the world beyond college. The book is divided into 14 units containing some or all the following elements: goals; reading materials accompanying review questions; exercises; a unit recap; unit review…
Meeker, Darin J.; Stankovich, Christopher E.; Kays, Todd M.
Background Little is known about the interaction between individual and environmental determinants of physical activity, although this may be important information for the development of effective interventions. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether perceived neighborhood safety modifies associations between individual cognitions and sports participation. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75) of 87 neighborhoods in the city of Eindhoven, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 2474). We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze the interactions between perceived neighborhood safety and individual cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention) on sports participation (yes/no). Results In its association with sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety interacted significantly with self-efficacy and attitude (p < 0.05). Among persons who perceived their neighborhood as safe, a positive attitude was strongly associated with sports participation (OR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.48-2.71). In contrast, attitude was not associated with sports participation in persons who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.34-1.24). Further, self-efficacy was significantly stronger associated with sports participation in persons who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.31-2.60) than in those who perceived their neighborhood as safe (OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.05-1.36). Social influence and intention did not interact with perceived neighborhood safety. Conclusions Associations between individual cognitions and sports participation depend on neighborhood circumstances, such as perceived neighborhood safety. Interventions to promote sports participation in adults should take the interaction between environmental and individual characteristics into account. More research is needed to find out the causal pathways in individual-environment interactions.
... of the athlete. SOURCES American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine Concussion Workshop Chicago 1997 Collins, Gioia, Langlios 2007 ... to you by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. They provide general information only and are not ...
... Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American ...
Using the questionnaire, mathematical statistics and entropy measurement methods, the quantitative relationship between the individual characteristics urban residents and their sports consumption motivation are studied. The results show that the most main sports consumption motivation of urban residents is fitness motivation and social motivation. Urban residents of different gender, age, education and income levels are different in regulating psychological motivation, rational consumption motivation and seeking common motivation.
This study aimed to compare the simultaneous use of internal and external precooling methods with singular methods and their effect on repeated sprint cycling in hot/humid conditions. Twelve male team sport players completed four experimental conditions, initially involving a 30-min precooling period consisting of either a cooling jacket (J); ingestion of an ice slushy ice slushy; combination of cooling jacket and ice ingestion (J + ice slushy); or control (CONT). This was followed by 70 min of repeat sprint cycling (in~35°C, 60% relative humidity [RH]), consisting of 2 × 30-min halves, separated by a 10-min half-time period where the same cooling method was again used. Each half comprised 30 × 4 s maximal sprints on 60 s, interspersed with sub-maximal exercise at varying intensities. Total mean power and work performed were significantly higher (p = 0.02) in J + ice slushy (233.6 ± 31.4 W) compared to ice slushy (211.8 ± 34.5 kJ), while moderate effect sizes (ES: d = 0.67) suggested lower core temperatures (TC) in J + ice slushy (36.8 ± 0.3°C) compared to J (37.0 ± 0.3°C) and CONT (37.0 ± 0.3°C) following precooling. A moderate ES (d = 0.57) also indicated lower TC in J + ice slushy (38.2 ± 0.3) compared to ice slushy (38.4 ± 0.4°C) after half-time cooling. Change (?) in mean skin temperature over half-time cooling was significantly greater (p = 0.036) for J (1.0 ± 0.4°C) compared to ice slushy (0.5 ± 0.5°C), and ES (d = 0.5-1.10) also suggested a greater ? for J compared to the other conditions. Sweat loss was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in ice slushy and J + ice slushy compared to J and CONT. In conclusion, a combination of (external and internal) body cooling techniques may enhance repeated sprint performance in the heat compared to individual cooling methods. PMID:24444249
The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-graders playing high school varsity sports from the perspective of the high school coach. The qualitative inquiry was used to allow for personal insights into this coaching phenomenon, to share coaching experiences, and to provide a guide for future coaching action. Participants included 11 high…
This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport…
Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sportathlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.
Physical activity and sports-recreation experiences play an important part in the psychosomatic development of the multihandicapped. The importance of treating the multihandicapped individual as a whole and not keeping the motoric handicap in isolation is pointed out. Based on a theoretical framework for physical activity and sports programs, the complexity of issues in assessment, sports program design and sports competition is discussed. Some 200 multihandicapped individuals are assessed in their various ability levels and place into respective ability groups prior to the events. The competition events consist of track and field activities as well as a swimming event. The competition is open to manual as well as electric (12V; 24V) wheelchairs, respectively. Assessment procedures and results are described in detail for the track and field events. Assessment and participation in the swim event require the individual to swim a distance of 25 yards in two separate ability groups, 1) with adaptive floatation and, 2) without the aid. The sport events are organized for public school application as well as institutional settings without the need for a great amount of equipment. In designing programs and facilities to accommodate sports programs it is important to design for the functioning of the individual and not in such a way as to force the individual to function within the limits of the program design. If we are to make the multihandicapped comfortable in the mainstream of everyday life, it is the sports and recreation leader's responsibility to asses and present activities that aid in constantly excelling in physical and emotional development. PMID:6460710
The Deutscher Olympische Sportbund (DOSB) founded recently an advisory board for German elite athlete nutrition, the 'Arbeitsgruppe (AG) Ernahrungsberatung an den Olympiastutzpunkten'. The 'Performance codex and quality criteria for the food supply in facilities of German elite sports' have been established since 1997. The biochemical equivalent (ATP) for the energy demand is calculated using the DLW (Double Labeled Water)-method on the basis of RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) and BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) at sport type specific exercises and performances. Certain nutraceutical ingredients for dietary supplements can be recommended. However, quality criteria for nutrition, cooking and food supply are defined on the basis of Health Food and the individual physiological/social-psychological status of the athlete. Especially food supplements and instant food have to be avoided for young athletes. The German advisory board for elite athlete nutrition publishes 'colour lists' for highly recommended (green), acceptable (yellow), and less recommended (red) food stuff. PMID:24741951
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individualathlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
... school sports. An injury to a high school athlete can be a significant disappointment for the teen, ... proper treatment. To ensure the best possible recovery, athletes, coaches, and parents must follow safe guidelines for ...
? There were 120 sports-related deaths of young athletes in 2008-2009; 49 in 2010; and 39 ... highest in remote rural settings. 2 ? High school athletes suffer 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits ...
State supported universities have been investing considerable sums in intercollegiate athletics in the hope that such investments will pay off in terms of increased enrollments, improved student quality, and economic benefits such as revenues from ticket sales and bowl and tournament appearances. Does athletic success also yield returns in the form of greater state appropriations? This paper finds that there
Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should be interpreted considering the athlete's body-mass index (BMI) and phase of the competitive season; use of cystatin C could be a reliable alternative to creatinine. Exercise and training induce adaptations in glucose metabolism which improve glucose utilization in athletes and are beneficial for reducing insulin insensitivity in nonathletes. Glucose metabolism differs slightly for different sports disciplines, as revealed in laboratory levels. Sport activities induce a blood lipid profile superior to that of sedentary subjects. There are few reports for a definitive conclusion, however. The differences between athletes and sedentary subjects are mainly due to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) concentrations in physically active individuals, although some differences among sport disciplines exist. The effect of sports on serum and urinary markers for bone metabolism is not univocal; further studies are needed to establish the real and effective influence of sport on bone turnover and especially to establish its beneficial effect. PMID:22397027
Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna
Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)
The issue of retirement from athletic participation due to repetitive concussive injuries remains controversial. The complexity of providing recommendations to elite athletes is highlighted by the prospect that offering inappropriate advice may foreseeably lead to engagement in a medico-legal challenge. Currently no evidenced-based, scientifically validated guidelines for forming the basis of such a decision exist. The current paper discusses the complexities of this challenge in addition to presenting a case study of a professional athlete. A number of central issues to consider when discussing athlete retirement revolve around the player’s medical and concussion histories, the current clinical profile, the athlete’s long-term life goals, and understanding of the potential long-term risks. Ensuring that thorough investigations of all possible differential diagnosis, that may explain the presenting symptoms, are conducted is also essential. Discussion pertaining to recommendations for guiding the clinical approach to the retirement issue for athletes with a history of multiple concussions is presented.
... Text Size Print Bookmark Foot Health Facts for Athletes From the repeated pounding that runners’ feet receive ... seen in court sports, there’s no question that athletes’ feet and ankles are prime candidates for injuries. ...
To investigate the relationship between athletic participation and off-field hostile aggression, Buss and Perry's (1992) Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was completed by two groups of 86 university athletes in either contact or no contact sports and two control groups of 86 non-athletes who were matched to the athletes in physical size. In general, bigger participants scored higher on hostile aggression and
This study aimed to identify the cues upon which athletes rely when developing their expectations with regard to the competence of sports officials and to examine the sources of information, which are given priority in different kinds of sport (i.e. team, racquet and fighting sports). A questionnaire – the Athlete Perception of Sports Officials Questionnaire (APSO-Q) – was developed in
Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individualathlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide…
Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela
This study investigated the relationship between imagery func- tion and individual perceptions of collective efficacy as a func- tion of skill level. Elite (n = 70) and non elite (n = 71) athletes from a number of interactive team sports completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) and the Collective Efficacy Inven- tory (CEI). Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was then used
David A. Shearer; Rob Thomson; Stephen D. Mellalieu; Catherine R. Shearer
I. Introduction Sport is one of the most important institutions in American culture. This certainly is demonstrated by the vast resources spent on sport-related enter- prises. With respect to discretionary spending alone, billions of dollars are spent annually on the sale of licensed sport products (e.g., baseball caps). In 1992, retail sales of all licensed sport merchandise totaled $ 12.2
In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ?20-30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individualsportathletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, muscle soreness, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, mood disturbances, shortness of temper, decreased interest in training and competition, decreased self-confidence, inability to concentrate. The association between training load and overtraining is unclear, and underlines the importance of taking a holistic approach when trying to treat or prevent overtraining in the young athlete so that both training and non-training stressors are considered. Of particular relevance to the issue of overtraining in the elite young athlete are the development of a unidimensional identity, the lack of autonomy, disempowerment, perfectionist traits, conditional love, and unrealistic expectations. Overtraining syndrome is a complex phenomenon with unique and multiple antecedents for each individual; therefore, an open-minded and comprehensive perspective is needed to successfully treat/prevent this in the young athlete. PMID:21178369
Research has indicated that there is a relationship between stress and participation in leisure (Caltabiano, 1995; Chalip, Thomas, & Voyle, 1992; Reich & Zautra, 1981; Strauss-Blasche, Ekmekcioglu, & Marktl, 2002; Warner-Smith & Brown, 2002; Wheeler & Frank, 1988). It has been suggested that leisure buffers or mediates stress, thereby enhancing individual health and well-being, because of the self-determination and social
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
OBJECTIVE: To establish a time profile to determine how athletic training students use their time in clinical placements and to determine the effects of academic standing, sex, sport type, and risk of injury associated with a sport during athletic training students' clinical placements on instructional, clinical, unengaged, managerial, and active learning time. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects were enrolled in clinical placements within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics, intramural sports, and a local high school. Students were individually videotaped for approximately 4 hours. SUBJECTS: A total of 20 undergraduate athletic training students (17 women, 3 men) from a Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education program. MEASUREMENTS: We created a conceptual behavioral time framework to examine athletic training students' use of clinical-placement time with the performance domains associated with the 1999 National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Role Delineation Study. Students' use of time was analyzed with the Behavior Evaluation Strategies and Taxonomies software. RESULTS: Students spent 7% of their overall clinical-placement time in instructional activities, 23% in clinical activities, 10% in managerial activities, and 59% in unengaged activities. Using multiple 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance, we found that advanced students were engaged in significantly more active learning and clinical time compared with novice and intermediate students. Students assigned to sports in which injuries predominately occur in the upper extremities (upper extremity sports) spent significantly more clinical-placement time unengaged compared with students assigned to sports in which injuries predominantly occur in the lower extremities (lower extremity sports) or in both upper and lower extremities (mixed extremity sports). CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, we examined only the clinical-placement component of 1 athletic training program; therefore, it may not be accurate to generalize the results for all CAAHEP-accredited programs. However, these results can be used by athletic training educators to examine the amount of time students are actually engaged in specific domains of athletic training, to determine the domains in which skills are most commonly being performed, to identify the relationships between the students and clinical instructors or supervisors, and to develop clinical placements in which students learn and practice clinical and educational competencies. PMID:12937550
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed. PMID:12296532
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
In 1990, Grant Hill published an article in Strategies that raised the issue of the "one sport high school athlete" and the tough decisions that young athletes face in terms of specializing in sport. The contents of that article were based on his study of high school athletic directors' and coaches' perspectives on sport specialization. This…
This paper reports the findings of a study of the role of sports in the lives of U.S. Congressmen and focuses attention on six gifted athletes for whom sports provided preparation for government service. The word "hero" as used in this paper refers to former members of Congress who were admired for their athletic prowess and for their political…
"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…
Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…
Alcohol use among college students has become a considerable public health problem. Among this group, intercollegiate athletes are at a particularly high risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resulting negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of our review was to systematically examine three main issues related to alcohol consumption among intercollegiate athletes: (a) the prevalence rates and alcohol consumption patterns of
Matthew P. Martens; Kristen Dams-O'Connor; Niels C. Beck
Context: Exercise is recommended for individuals with diabetes mellitus, and several facets of the disease must be considered when managing the diabetic athlete. The purpose of this article is to review diabetes care in the context of sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database, as well as manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Diabetics should be evaluated for complications of long-standing disease before beginning an exercise program, and exercise should be modified appropriately if complications are present. Athletes who use insulin or oral insulin secretogogues are at risk for exercise-induced immediate or delayed hypoglycemia. Diabetics are advised to engage in a combination of regular aerobic and resistance exercise. Insulin-dependent diabetics should supplement carbohydrate before and after exercise, as well as during exercise for events lasting longer than 1 hour. Adjustment of insulin dosing based on planned exercise intensity is another strategy to prevent hypoglycemia. Insulin-dependent athletes should monitor blood sugar closely before, during, and after exercise. Significant hyperglycemia before exercise should preclude exercise because the stress of exercise can paradoxically exacerbate hyperglycemia and lead to ketoacidosis. Athletes should be aware of hypoglycemia symptoms and have rapidly absorbable glucose available in case of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Exercise is an important component of diabetes treatment, and most people with diabetes can safely participate in sports at recreational and elite levels with attention to appropriate precautions.
Shugart, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Fields, Karl B.
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports. PMID:24293269
Uljevic, O, Esco, MR, and Sekulic, D. Reliability, validity and applicability of isolated and combined sport-specific tests of conditioning capacities in top-level junior water polo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1595-1605, 2014-Standard testing procedures are of limited applicability in water sports, such as water polo. The aim of this investigation was to construct and validate methods for determining water polo-specific conditioning capacities. We constructed 4 combined-capacity tests that were designed to mimic real-game water polo performances: sprint swimming performance, shooting performance, jumping performance, and precision performance. In all cases, combined-capacity tests included a period of standardized exhaustion followed by the performance of the targeted quality (swimming, shooting, jumping, and precision). In the first part of the study, single-capacity tests (sprint swim, in-water jump, drive shoot, and precision performance) were tested and later included in the combined-capacity tests. Study subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15-18 years of age, 185.6 ± 6.7 cm, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg). Most of the tests evaluated were found to be reliable with Cronbach alpha values ranging from 0.83 to 0.96 and coefficients of variation from 21 to 2% (for the single-capacity tests) and 0.75 to 0.93 test-retest correlation (intraclass correlation coefficients) with Bland-Altman tight limits of agreement (for combined-capacity tests). The combined-capacity tests discriminated qualitative groups of junior water polo players (national squad vs. team athletes) more effectively than single-capacity tests. This is most likely because combined-capacity tests more closely represent the complex fitness capacities required in real game situations. Strength and conditioning practitioners and coaches working with water polo athletes should consider incorporating these validated tests into their assessment protocols. PMID:24169473
As an employee, a sports doctor has obligations to their employer, but also professional and widely accepted obligations of a doctor to the patient (in this case the individual team member). The conflict is evident when sports doctors are asked by an athlete to keep personal health information confidential from the coach and team management, and yet both doctor and
This essay discusses the intersections of sport (athletes, agonistic festivals) and Greek ethnicity, religion, politics and warfare in Herodotus' Histories. Herodotus makes occasional but significant use of sport to characterize peoples and individuals. Passages concerning Egypt (the Elean embassy), Lydia (Croesus) and Persia (Xerxes being told that Greeks compete at Olympia ‘for arete, not material gain’), help define ‘Greekness’ or
Although psychology has recognized the importance of considering gender and race\\/ethnicity in teaching and research, the world of sport has made slower progress. In this study, photographs from undergraduate sport psychology textbooks were analyzed for gender and visible minority status of the individuals depicted. Results indicated that female and minority athletes were somewhat underrepresented compared to actual participation rates in
Past research has linked physical activity and sports participation with improved mental and social well-being, including reduced risk of depression and suicidality. In this study we examined relationships among several dimensions of athletic involvement (team sport participation, individualsport participation, athlete identity, and jock identity), gender, and depression and suicidal behavior in a sample of 791 undergraduate students. Both participation in a team sport and athlete identity were associated with lower depression scores. Athlete identity was also associated with lower odds of a past-year suicide attempt, whereas jock identity was associated with elevated odds of a suicide attempt. The findings are discussed in light of the relationship between mental well-being and a larger constellation of health-risk behaviors linked to a “toxic jock” identity.
The incidence of AT rupture has increased in recent decades. AT ruptures frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. Ruptures also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athleticindividuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT ruptures, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180
Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…
... protection for your specific sport. When can an athlete with an eye injury return to play? Athletes with a serious eye injury should be examined ... should feel comfortable and have adequate vision. The athlete should wear eye protection. For a less serious ...
Based on interviews with Norwegian athletes living as lesbians, gays and bisexuals, this article investigates the possible subversive effect of queer visibility in sport. While female athletes living as lesbians sometimes create queer alternative spaces within mainstream sport contexts, male athletes acting openly as homosexuals challenge heteronormative discourses by attempting to disrupt hegemonic beliefs about homosexual behavior. The sexual practices of both groups confirm as well as challenge the laws of heteronormativity. PMID:18771115
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among organizational justice components, overall job satisfaction, and organizational commitment within the intercollegiate athletics setting. Perceptions of three organizational justice components (procedural, distributive, and interactional), overall job satisfaction, and…
Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)
... to experience depression; and use alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs less frequently than people who aren't athletes. But for some girls, not balancing the needs of their bodies and their sports can have major consequences. Some girls who play ...
... a water bottle or sports drink. Meal and Snack Suggestions A good breakfast for young athletes might ... lean ground beef, along with a salad. Good snacks include pretzels, raisins, crackers, string cheese, vegetables, or ...
The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)
This article provides a background and logical explanation for school psychologists to feel justified in the pursuit of providing sport psychology services. This perspective is useful for the school psychologist or other school administrative personnel who may question or be questioned about the value or need for the provision of sport psychology…
Sport psychology consultants and coaches in sport sometimes work with athletes who re-locate from other countries. Though immigrated athletes encounter many transition and adjustment issues linked to their relocation, little is known about what those challenges are and subsequently, how they might be overcome. This article identifies some of the challenges encountered by this group of athletes, post-relocation, and subsequently
Robert J. Schinke; David Yukelson; Gina Bartolacci; Randy C. Battochio; Katherine Johnstone
Purpose Tobacco use using a waterpipe is an emerging trend among college students. Although cigarette smoking is low among college athletes, waterpipe tobacco smoking may appeal to this population. The purpose of this study was to compare cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking in terms of their associations with organized sport participation. Methods In the spring of 2008, we conducted an online survey of 8,745 college students at eight institutions as part of the revised National College Health Assessment. We used multivariable regression models to assess the associations between tobacco use (cigarette and waterpipe) and organized sports participation. Results Participants reported participation in varsity (5.2%), club (11.9%), and intramural (24.9%) athletics. Varsity athletes and individuals who were not varsity athletes had similar rates of waterpipe tobacco smoking (27.6% vs. 29.5%, p = .41). However, other types of athletes were more likely than their counterparts to have smoked waterpipe tobacco (35.1% vs. 28.7%, p < .001 for club sports and 34.8% vs. 27.7%, p < .001 for intramural sports). In fully-adjusted multivariable models, sports participants of any type had lower odds of having smoked cigarettes, whereas participants who played intramural sports (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.29) or club sports (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.001, 1.33) had significantly higher odds of having smoked waterpipe tobacco. Conclusions College athletes are susceptible to waterpipe tobacco use. In fact, compared with their nonathletic counterparts, club sports participants and intramural sports participants generally had higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Allure for waterpipe tobacco smoking may exist even for individuals who are traditionally considered at low risk for tobacco use.
Primack, Brian A.; Fertman, Carl I.; Rice, Kristen R.; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Fine, Michael J.
A number of studies document that physical exercise influences cognitive performance in a variety of ways. Some of these studies present the relationship between the workload of exercise and the activation level of the central nervous system as an inverted-U relationship. Among the factors that could be responsible for diverging results are the participants' individual fitness level and the athletic status. While athletes and non-athletes do not differ in general cognitive skills, athletes are better able to maintain these during physical exercise especially under high exercise intensities. Hence, we hypothesized that the inverted-U function applies for non-athletes but disappears in team sports experts. We compared athletes' and non-athletes' cognitive performance on a measure of attentional behavior under three different physical exercise intensities. Results showed an increase of non-athletes' attentional breadth right up to a certain level of maximal aerobic power before decreasing, as expected according to an inverted-U curve. In contrast, athletes' attentional breadth continued to increase with higher physical exercise intensities. We concluded that physical exercise influences participants' attentional behavior and that individual fitness acts as a moderator of this relationship. PMID:24747278
Ethnicity has been found to influence urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratios among athletes. Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is the most active enzyme in testosterone glucuronidation. UGT2B17 polymorphism analysis is rarely performed in Japanese athletes, and the influence of testosterone administration on steroid profiles and carbon isotope ratios, according to gene polymorphisms, in Asians remains unknown. The prevalence of UGT2B17 genotypes and urinary androgenic steroid profiles, classified according to UGT2B17 genotypes, was investigated in Japanese athletes (255 male and 256 female). Testosterone enanthate (100 mg) was administered intramuscularly to Japanese female volunteers (del/del: n = 6, del/ins: n = 3, ins/ins: n = 1). The distribution rates of the UGT2B17 del/del genotype in Japanese male and female athletes were 74.5% and 60.2%, respectively. The ins/ins genotype was detected in only three male (1.2%) and seven female (2.7%) athletes. The prevalence of the UGT2B17 deletion genotype was extremely high in Japanese athletes. The T/E ratio in the del/del group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. After testosterone was administered to female volunteers, the T/E ratios for the del/del individuals failed to reach the positivity criterion of 4. By contrast, in all of the del/del subjects, the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis successfully fulfilled the positivity criterion. The overall result has demonstrated the limited effectiveness of population-based T/E ratios in screening tests for testosterone use. Subject-based steroid profiling with UGT2B17 genotyping will be an effective strategy for detecting testosterone misuse. PMID:22887913
Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…
Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.
Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sportathletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable
Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle
The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…
Physical educators can help Special Olympics athletes learn cross-lateral delivery techniques for bowling or throwing softballs by color coding the throwing arm and opposing foot. The article explains color coding, presenting teaching tips for both sports. A series of workshops on modifying exercise principles for individuals with physical…
What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a…
Each individual learns in a different manner, depending on his or her perceptual or learning preferences (visual, auditory, read/write, or kinesthetic). In sport, coaches and athletes must speak a common language of instructions, verbal cues, and appropriate motor responses. Thus, developing a clear understanding of how to use students' learning…
In this study, it has been aimed to examine athletes' body perception and gender role. 120 male athletes and 120 non-athletic male university students participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, as the data collecting means, The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-MBSRQ was used in order to determine males' body perception levels, BEM Sex Role Inventory-BSRI was used to determine gender roles and Personal Information Form developed by the researcher was used to ascertain personal features of the subjects. When the athletes' body perception levels are examined, the features of physical competence orientation, health orientation, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction have been found to be higher than non-athletes' (p < 0.05). On the other hand; no difference has been found between athletes and non-athletes in terms of appearance orientation (p > 0.05). When gender roles are examined, athletes have been found to have higher values than non-athletes' in terms of masculinity, femininity and social desirability (p < 0.05). To conclude; as well as considering sports as a factor increasing individuals' body perception level and gender role, it is also thought that athletes care about health, appearance and physical competence and are glad of body parts because of their muscled body structure developing due to the exercises and have flexible personality to show feminine and masculine features that the environment needs in terms of gender role. PMID:22397235
Are elite athletes exploited in terms of the health risks they are expected to accept? What are the health risks of elite sport? Are appropriate steps taken to safeguard athletes' health? This essay draws on a study of English professional football which found that players are expected to ‘play hurt’. Injured players may be subject to pressures to return to
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
Athletes, and an increasing number of middle aged and older people who want to participate in athletics, may question whether regular vigorous physical activ ity increases their risk of developing osteoarthritis. To answer this, the clinical syndrome of osteoarthritis must be distinguished from periarticular soft tissue pain associated with activity and from the development of osteophytes. Sports that subject joints
In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…
Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)
Computerized programs are widely used as part of the overall medical management of concussion in order to monitor recovery and facilitate safe return-to-play decisions. Typically, neurocognitive profiles of concussed athletes are compared with baseline and/or normative data in the absence of baseline scores. However, the cultural equivalence of performance on neuropsychological tests cannot be assumed and has not been sufficiently researched. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological test profiles of the ImPACT (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) on age-matched South African (SA) rugby and US football players. Participants included 11 257 English-speaking, predominantly white male athletes from multiple SA and US schools and sports organizations in 3 age groups: 11 to 13 years (SA, n = 301; US, n = 775); 14 to 16 years (SA, n = 997; US, n = 4081); and 17 to 21 years (SA, n = 319; US, n = 4784). ImPACT neurocognitive composite scores (verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control) and the ImPACT total symptom score, derived from the initial baseline testing, were used for comparison purposes between the targeted groups. Independent t-test comparisons revealed overall equivalence between the SA and US athletes on the neurocognitive measures, but they also revealed consistently higher symptom scores for SA athletes in association with clinically relevant effect sizes. It was concluded that US neurocognitive normative data on the ImPACT test are appropriate for use on South African athletes whose first language is English, whereas culture-specific sensitivity for symptom reporting on this same population should be taken into consideration for management purposes. It is argued that neurocognitive equivalence is less likely to apply in educationally disadvantaged populations. The use of registered psychologists is deemed necessary to provide contextualized interpretations of computerized test scores, thereby protecting against misdiagnosis that may occur within the concussion management arena via actuarial approaches that fail to take sociocultural complexities into account. PMID:20048540
Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Whitefield-Alexander, Victoria J; Radloff, Sarah E; Taylor, Alex M; Lovell, Mark R
Athletes who participate in contact sports (American football, soccer, rugby) or who are involved in high-impact sports (dancing, running, gymnastics) are susceptible to first ray forefoot injuries. Common first ray disorders in athletes include hallux rigidus, turf toe, sand toe, sesamoid disorders, and fractures. First ray disorders in athletes frequently are treated by nonoperative methods including relative rest, ice, elevation, activity modification, shoe modification, and insoles. PMID:19680112
Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individualsport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy.
Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda
Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ? .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ? .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ? .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than GEN, particularly in emotional functioning. These findings further support the notion that ATH constitutes a unique population that requires its own set of normative values for self-reported, patient-rated outcome instruments.
Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich
Objective The purpose of this literature review was to demonstrate, through examples in the current literature, the cumulative and long-term effects of multiple concussions, postinjury protocols, and the efficacy of current and past return-to-play guidelines. Methods A PubMed search was performed using the keywords and key phrases: concussions and long-term effects, concussions and return to play, and multiple concussions. We limited the search to articles that had been published from August 2007 to August 2012 and were specific to human participants. Of the 450 total articles that the search returned, we selected studies specifically demonstrating athletes who were symptom-free, passed neuropsychological testing, returned to play, and were tested in measures of postural control, transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroencephalographic studies, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Results Selected studies show evidence that, although a previously concussed athlete may be symptom-free and returned to a neuropsychological baseline, the athlete may continue to have prolonged neurological abnormalities that could disqualify them from being ready to return to play. Conclusion It appears that some neurological deficits persist beyond the current return-to-play standards and that discrepancy exists between common practices of returning athletes to competition and new standards of published research.
This study examined friendships between gay male athletes and their heterosexual teammates. Six gay college athletes from various athletic and geographical backgrounds, recruited through a gay sports website and a gay sports documentary, were interviewed. These athletes identified a straight teammate and friend for additional interviewing. Both athletes answered questions about their mutual friendship. The interviews were analyzed through grounded
Sports participation can result in strong associations with the athlete role for participants. While strong athletic identity can have positive implications, it can also create vulnerability to emotional difficulty following exit from sport (Brewer, 1993). Exit from sport is inevitable, resulting from a wide range of sources such as injury, aging,…
Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality.
Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.
The purpose of this book is to help athletic coaches improve the way they teach sport skills. Section I covers the athletic coach's instructional responsibilities for a single season, and ways of adjusting teaching styles to the learning needs of athletes. Section II offers guidance in presenting sport skills and how to introduce, explain, and…
Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…
Regardless of one's stance on the topic, drugs are an important issue in sports. Sports pages in newspapers around the globe routinely report on athletes at every level ofcompetition using performance enhancing substances to gain an unfair advantage over their competitors. The level of sophistication in beating drug testing, and developing "next-generation" agents continues to raise. The relative paucity of well designed research has been an additional factor impeding attempts to adequately address the problem. Very limited funds are currently available to conduct the necessary research. Without credible data, athletes are more vulnerable to the claims made by those benefiting from the sales of these compounds. Many younger fans and those dreaming of a similar future admire highly successful professional athletes. A strong, consistent statement admonishing drug use is needed. Actions speak louder than words. Every time a successful athlete is caught using PE drugs, every effort to diminish drug use is negatively impacted. The "win at all cost" and "second place is the first loser" mentality needs to be continually challenged by words and actions in youth sports at every level of competition. Finally, the war on drugs in sports needs to be a coordinated, well organized international undertaking as sports play an important role in virtually every culture. If we are to maintain the integrity of competition and protect the health of the athletes, we must dramatically increase our efforts to eliminate performance enhancing drugs as an acceptable option for any athlete. Sports science professionals and sports psychiatrists need to work with coaches, trainers, athletes, and national governing bodies to educating athletes on the effects of performance enhancing drug use. To achieve this important goal everyone involved in sports needs to be knowledgeable on the negative impact this has on all aspects of organized sports. It is a difficult challenge, but one that must be addressed. PMID:22218235
... in sports for youth and/or high school athletes (often called Return to Play laws). 6 Most ... include three action steps: Educate Coaches, Parents, and Athletes: Inform and educate coaches, athletes, and their parents ...
Concussion in youth athletes is a growing problem worldwide. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in standardization of the assessment of young athletes, and a growing appreciation of metabolic vulnerability, activity, and cognitive challenges has led to guidelines and suggestions for rest from the field as well as cognitive rest from school. Outcome data have begun to establish groups linked to symptom class, genetics, and sex who are at risk of worse outcomes from concussions. Decisions regarding return to activity are now based on at-rest symptoms, graded increases in activity, and neuropsychological testing. Using the case of Ms X, a 15-year-old otherwise healthy high school student who fell while skiing, evaluation, prognosis, and management of concussion are discussed. PMID:21632470
The dawning of the “Communication Age” (Lull, 2002), which is the efficient transmission of digitized bits and bytes and also the significance of the entire communication process for ‘real people,’ stimulates two questions: is modern society engrossed in communicating primarily with technology, and has face-to-face communication become obsolete?\\u000aContextualizing these digital age questions into intercollegiate athletics, the purpose of the
The purpose of this article is to advance Derrick Bell’s (1992b) interest?convergence principle as an analytical lens for understanding the complex role of race in the educational experiences of African?American football student athletes. Currently, there is a scarcity of educational research that employs a critical theoretical perspective on race to address the education of African?American students in general, and student
A role model is a person or challenge that inspires an individual to go beyond what is expected of him or her and to reach a specific goal. Role models can exemplify motivation, passion, and a genuine love of their life's work. All students need role models, and Paralympic sportathletes can be just that, especially for students with disabilities.…
A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…
Participation in sports activity and regular physical training is associated with physiological structural and electrical changes in the heart (athlete’s heart) that enable sustained increases in cardiac output for prolonged periods. Cardiovascular remodelling in the conditioned athlete is often associated with ECG changes. In rare cases, abnormalities of an athlete’s ECG may reflect an underlying heart disease which puts the
D Corrado; A Biffi; C Basso; A Pelliccia; G Thiene
This article addresses recent developments in the product liability of the manufacturers of sporting goods and their impact upon physical education and athletic programs, and offers suggestions for physical educators and schools in situations involving product liability. (MM)
The present study examines how individuals judge others who use performance-enhancing drugs in two different domains—the athletic domain and the academic domain. Approximately 1,200 males in their freshman year of college completed a questionnaire that included two scenarios. One scenario described an athlete who misused anabolic steroids to help him succeed at a sporting event. The other described a college
Tonya Dodge; Kevin J. Williams; Miesha Marzell; Rob Turrisi
Athletic department websites have become a centerpiece of institutional athletic marketing efforts. Every Division I NCAA athletic department currently has a website, and these websites have become a significant element in communication brand-building efforts (NCAA Members, 2006). A primary benefit of athletic department websites is the ability to promote their overall product through the provision of equitable coverage to each
Context: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been used for several decades and are effective antimicrobials. Despite their usefulness as antibiotics, a growing body of evidence has accumulated in the peer-reviewed literature that shows fluoroquinolones can cause pathologic lesions in tendon tissue (tendinopathy). These adverse effects can occur within hours of commencing treatment and months after discontinuing the use of these drugs. In some cases, fluoroquinolone usage can lead to complete rupture of the tendon and substantial subsequent disability. Objective: To discuss the cause, pharmacology, symptoms, and epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy and to discuss the clinical implications with respect to athletes and their subsequent physiotherapy. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and SPORTDiscus databases for available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture) published from 1966 to 2012. Search terms were fluoroquinolones or quinolones and tendinopathy, adverse effects, and tendon rupture. Included studies were written in or translated into English. Non-English-language and non-English translations of abstracts from reports were not included (n = 1). Study Selection: Eligible studies were any available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture). Both animal and human histologic studies were included. Any papers not focusing on the tendon-related side effects of fluoroquinolones were excluded (n = 71). Data Extraction: Data collected included any cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the particular tendon affected, type of fluoroquinolone, dosage, and concomitant risk factors. Any data outlining the adverse histologic effects of fluoroquinolones also were collected. Data Synthesis: A total of 175 papers, including 89 case reports and 8 literature reviews, were identified. Conclusions: Fluoroquinolone tendinopathy may not respond well to the current popular eccentric training regimes and may require an alternative, staged treatment approach. Clinicians, athletes, athletic trainers, and their medical support teams should be aware of the need to discuss and possibly discontinue these antibiotics if adverse effects arise. PMID:24762232
The pressures on young athletes today, many of them brought on or exacerbated by parents, drive young athletes to attain perfection and win by any means necessary. For the young athlete, the challenges of learning how to balance schoolwork, social life, family time, and sports, not to mention other interests they might have, are far more intense…
Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations.
Only trustees can ensure honesty in intercollegiate athletics. Problems in athletic departments occur for two reasons: powerful coaches go directly to board members to make things happen, or trustees become too enamored of a sport and slide by the president to ensure the program's success. (MLW)
Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…
Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…
The Sport Interference Checklist (SIC) was developed in 141 athletes to assist in the concurrent assessment of cognitive and behavioral problems experienced by athletes in both training (Problems in Sports Training Scale, PSTS) and competition (Problems in Sports Competition Scale, PSCS). An additional scale (Desire for Sport Psychology Scale,…
Donohue, Brad; Silver, N. Clayton; Dickens, Yani; Covassin, Tracey; Lancer, Kevin
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individualsports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups. PMID:21184344
This book, written for teachers by teachers, includes articles by 14 contributing authors and is divided into three sections. Section 1 is entitled "Practical Pointers for Team Sports" and contains the following chapters: "Mainstreaming the Physically Handicapped for Team Sports" (S. J. Grosse); "Program Guide to Team Soccer for the Mentally…
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA.
Discusses the need for developmentally responsive middle level competitive sports programs that include awareness of sports injuries, psychological considerations, attrition in sports, and family pressures for students to become college and professional athletes. (JPB)
Swaim, John H.; McEwin, C. Kenneth; Irvin, Judith L.
Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in
Laura Guidetti; Emanuele Franciosi; Maria Chiara Gallotta; Gian Pietro Emerenziani; Carlo Baldari
... Ankle Conditions » Athlete's Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Athlete's Foot Athlete's foot is a skin infection caused by fungus. ... the body; on the foot it is called athlete’s foot, or tinea pedis. Fungus commonly attacks the ...
Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the 'athlete's heart'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening. PMID:23097483
In order to pass through apertures safely and efficiently, individuals must perceive the width of the aperture relative to (1) the width of the person-plus-object system and to (2) their (anticipated) movement speed. The present study investigated whether athletes who have extensive experience playing sports that require running through narrow spaces while wearing shoulder pads control their shoulder rotations differently while performing this behavior than athletes who lack such experience. Groups of athletes with experience competing in different sports (American football, rugby, and control athletes) performed a behavioral task in which they ran or walked between two tucking dummies with or without wearing shoulder pads. They also performed a psychophysical task in which they reported perceived width of the body and shoulder pads. When running through the apertures, the athletes who played American football exhibited smaller magnitudes and later onset of shoulder rotations than control athletes. No such difference was found when walking through the apertures. There was no difference in perception of the width of the shoulder pads among three groups. These findings suggest that performance of this behavior is action-scaled and task-specific. PMID:21306781
The introduction of this investigation into superstitions of athletes reviews past research on the subject. It is stated, though, that general research on superstitions mentions little directly related to sports; so, by necessity, recourse is made to sports stories and newspaper and magazine articles. The main body of this paper presents results…
Non-traumatic sudden death related to sport is a rare but always dramatic event. Its causes are mainly cardiovascular. Prevention of sudden death depends on effective medical examination involving history, physical examination and resting ECG, as education of athletes who must follow the rules for safe sport practice and lastly training for emergency actions of the population. PMID:24890638
There is ongoing debate in Australia related to the Federal government sport policies relative to funding of elite sport. Initially, this funding was justified as a means to secure Olympic success. The Federal government embraced the notion that elite success, and in particular athletes at the 2000 Olympic Games, resulted in increased participation. There is no evidence however from subsequent
Background Racket sports are typically not associated with doping. Despite the common characteristics of being non-contact and mostly individual, racket sports differ in their physiological demands, which might be reflected in substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate SUM among Slovenian Olympic racket sport players in the context of educational, sociodemographic and sport-specific factors. Methods Elite athletes (N = 187; mean age = 22 ± 2.3; 64% male) representing one of the three racket sports, table tennis, badminton, and tennis, completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on substance use habits. Athletes in this sample had participated in at least one of the two most recent competitions at the highest national level and had no significant difference in competitive achievement or status within their sport. Results A significant proportion of athletes (46% for both sexes) reported using nutritional supplements. Between 10% and 24% of the studied males would use doping if the practice would help them achieve better results in competition and if it had no negative health consequences; a further 5% to 10% indicated potential doping behaviour regardless of potential health hazards. Females were generally less oriented toward SUM than their male counterparts with no significant differences between sports, except for badminton players. Substances that have no direct effect on sport performance (if timed carefully to avoid detrimental effects) are more commonly consumed (20% binge drink at least once a week and 18% report using opioids), whereas athletes avoid substances that can impair and threaten athletic achievement by decreasing physical capacities (e.g. cigarettes), violating anti-doping codes or potentially transgressing substance control laws (e.g. opiates and cannabinoids). Regarding doping issues, athletes' trust in their coaches and physicians is low. Conclusion SUM in sports spreads beyond doping-prone sports and drugs that enhance athletic performance. Current anti-doping education, focusing exclusively on rules and fair play, creates an increasingly widening gap between sports and the athletes' lives outside of sports. To avoid myopia, anti-doping programmes should adopt a holistic approach to prevent substance use in sports for the sake of the athletes' health as much as for the integrity of sports.
Analyzed the perceptions of college athletic coaches regarding the recruitment of international student athletes, focusing on coach gender, athletic association, division, institutional type, gender of sports team, and sport coached. Results indicated that these factors influences coaches' perceptions. Significant differences were revealed only…
The field of applied sport psychology continues to increase in popularity and offers new and exciting career opportunities. In addition to offering consulting services to athletes, coaches, and teams, applied sport psychology professionals also serve military, dance, and business clients (Lloyd & Foster, 2006). This article outlines a 10-step process that sport psychology professionals can use to successfully market their
Gaining the benefits of participation in athletics while minimizing the risk of injuries requires understanding of the relationship\\u000a between sports participation and injury, and the relationship between injury and joint degeneration. It is essential for radiologist\\u000a to differentiate radiological age-related changes from pathological injuries. Knowledge of the spectrum of injuries in the\\u000a aging athlete will allow correct diagnosis and early
Bellinger, PM. ?-alanine supplementation for athletic performance: An update. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1751-1770, 2014-?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sportathletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304
Gives information about opportunities, job tasks, and educational requirements of sports-related jobs in high school, college, and professional athletics: coaches, sports medicine specialists, managers, public relations specialists, and trainers. (SK)
This hearing examined the impact of illegal drugs on both professional and amateur sports and the national effort of sports figures to help fight drug abuse. Witnesses included individuals currently involved in programs designed to prevent drug abuse, members of groups formed to rehabilitate drug users, and former professional athletes who…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
For days and months, the author had experienced a crisis of faith. Because he had believed sports were beneficial for the university and the young athletes who participated in them, he had willingly invested seventeen years of his professional life in the administration of the athletics program. In 1988, he accepted a position as an an assistant…
Ankle sprains are among the most common athletic injuries and represent a significant source of persistent pain and disability. Despite the high incidence of ankle sprains in athletes, syndesmosis injuries have historically been underdiagnosed, and assessment in terms of severity and optimal treatment has not been determined. More recently, a heightened awareness in sports medicine has resulted in more frequent
Glenn N. Williams; Morgan H. Jones; Annunziato Amendola
Objective: To educate sports medicine practitioners as to length of time for an athlete to return to activity after sustaining a rupture of the plantar fascia.Methods: Athletic patients sustaining plantar fascia ruptures and subsequent treatment were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings, although radiographic studies were done. Patients were treated for 2 to 3 weeks with a below-knee or
Purpose: To determine the demographics and incidence of fractures in collegiate athletes.Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.Methods: Division I collegiate athletes who sustained a fracture while enrolled at the university from 1986 to 2000 were identified through training room records. Type and location of fracture, sport, gender, age, position, height, and weight were recorded and analyzed. Team information
Sharon L. Hame; Jennifer M. LaFemina; David R. McAllister; Geoffrey W. Schaadt; Frederick J. Dorey
Given the highly visible character of intercollegiate athletics, there is a dangerous confusion about who makes decisions, suggests this university president. It ought to be the president, with the board's backing, who deals with intercollegiate programs, including financing women's athletics and breaking down all sports into levels of emphasis,…
The young athlete presents problems for the doctor in sports medicine that are not present in the senior high school or older athlete. Growth spurts, sexual development and altered life standards all play their part. The parents, their goals for their children, the coaches and the milieu in which the young athlete lives must influence the physician in his decisions
An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…
Scholarship athletes may be eligible for workers' compensation benefits for injuries and disabilities incurred as a result of sports participation. The potential for eligibility exists regardless of the athletes' purportedly amateur, nonemployee status. This could have substantial financial impact on both intercollegiate athletic programs and…
This document describes a longitudinal study of the role of sports in the lives of minority youth during the 1980s. Data were analyzed from the High School and Beyond study and all findings were proven to be statistically significant after multiple regression analyses. The term "athletes" refers to those individuals who reported participating on…
Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individualsports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…
Use of protective equipment is an important sports injury prevention strategy, yet use of protective equipment by high school athletes has seldom been studied. The authors analyzed data from a 3-year (1996-1999), stratified, two- stage cluster sample of athletes from 12 organized sports in 100 North Carolina high schools (n ¼ 19,728 athlete- seasons). Information on each athlete's use of
Jingzhen Yang; Stephen W. Marshall; J. Michael Bowling; Carol W. Runyan; Frederick O. Mueller; Megan A. Lewis
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while
Groin injuries comprise 2 to 5 percent of all sports injuries. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are important to prevent these injuries from becoming chronic and potentially career-limiting. Adductor strains and osteitis pubis are the most common musculoskeletal causes of groin pain in athletes. These two conditions are often difficult to distinguish. Other etiologies of groin pain include sports hernia, groin disruption, iliopsoas bursitis, stress fractures, avulsion fractures, nerve compression and snapping hip syndrome. PMID:11681783
The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are still inconclusive from an epidemiological standpoint. An epidemiological approach in a large sample group over an appropriate period of years will be necessary to enhance the current knowledge of the ACL injury mechanism. The objective of the study was to investigate the ACL injury occurrence in a large sample over twenty years and demonstrate the relationships between the ACL injury occurrence and the dynamic knee alignment at the time of the injury. We investigated the activity, the injury mechanism, and the dynamic knee alignment at the time of the injury in 1,718 patients diagnosed as having the ACL injuries. Regarding the activity at the time of the injury, “competition ”was the most common, accounting for about half of all the injuries. The current result also showed that the noncontact injury was the most common, which was observed especially in many female athletes. Finally, the dynamic alignment of “Knee-in & Toe- out ”(i.e. dynamic knee valgus) was the most common, accounting for about half. These results enhance our understanding of the ACL injury mechanism and may be used to guide future injury prevention strategies. Key points We investigated the situation of ACL injury occurrence, especially dynamic alignments at the time of injury, in 1,718 patients who had visited our institution for surgery and physical therapy for twenty years. Our epidemiological study of the large patient group revealed that “knee-in & toe-out ”alignment was the most frequently seen at the time of the ACL injury. From an epidemiological standpoint, we need to pay much attention to avoiding “Knee-in & Toe-out ”alignment during sports activities.
The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are still inconclusive from an epidemiological standpoint. An epidemiological approach in a large sample group over an appropriate period of years will be necessary to enhance the current knowledge of the ACL injury mechanism. The objective of the study was to investigate the ACL injury occurrence in a large sample over twenty years and demonstrate the relationships between the ACL injury occurrence and the dynamic knee alignment at the time of the injury. We investigated the activity, the injury mechanism, and the dynamic knee alignment at the time of the injury in 1,718 patients diagnosed as having the ACL injuries. Regarding the activity at the time of the injury, "competition "was the most common, accounting for about half of all the injuries. The current result also showed that the noncontact injury was the most common, which was observed especially in many female athletes. Finally, the dynamic alignment of "Knee-in & Toe- out "(i.e. dynamic knee valgus) was the most common, accounting for about half. These results enhance our understanding of the ACL injury mechanism and may be used to guide future injury prevention strategies. Key pointsWe investigated the situation of ACL injury occurrence, especially dynamic alignments at the time of injury, in 1,718 patients who had visited our institution for surgery and physical therapy for twenty years.Our epidemiological study of the large patient group revealed that "knee-in & toe-out "alignment was the most frequently seen at the time of the ACL injury.From an epidemiological standpoint, we need to pay much attention to avoiding "Knee-in & Toe-out "alignment during sports activities. PMID:24149795
In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.
The new graduate, or the licensed physical therapist with general orthopedic experience, is not qualified to provide sideline coverage at athletic events. Additional or advanced training in emergency care is essential to provide aid in acute situations. Completion of the First Responder certification prepares an individual to react appropriately to any emergency on the sidelines, in the clinic, or in the community. The highest qualification that a physical therapist can attain to ensure adequate preparation for the practice of Sports Physical therapy is the ABPTS Sports Certified Specialist (SCS) designation. This professional designation indicates that this individual is highly qualified to care for athletes at any level, from on the sidelines, through rehabilitation and return to play, regardless of the injury, age of the athlete, or skill level. PMID:22319685
The present study investigated psychophysiological differences in identified sport fans within the context of the biphasic theory of emotion (P. J. Lang, 1985). Forty participants, grouped into three levels of identification with the local university athletic teams, viewed five pictures from each of two categories (team-relevant sport and team-irrelevant sport). Self-identified sport fans rated team-relevant pictures as more pleasant and
Charles H. Hillman; Bruce N. Cuthbert; James Cauraugh; Harald T. Schupp; Margaret M. Bradley; Peter J. Lang
A focus on low body weight and body fat content, combined with regulations in some weight-sensitive sports, are considered risk factors for extreme dieting, eating disorders (EDs) and related health consequences among athletes. At present there are, from a health perspective, no generally accepted optimum values for body weight or percentage of fat mass in different sports and there is no 'gold standard' method for body composition assessment in athletes. On the basis of health considerations as well as performance, medical support teams should know how to approach elite athletes who seek to achieve an unrealistic body composition and how to prevent restrictive eating practices from developing into an ED. In addition, these teams must know when to raise the alarm and how to advice athletes who are affected by extreme dieting or clinical EDs. However, there is no consensus on when athletes struggling with extreme dieting or EDs should be referred for specialist medical treatment or removed from competition. Based on the present review, we conclude that there is a need for (1) sport-specific and gender-specific preventive programmes, (2) criteria for raising alarm and 'does not start' (DNS) for athletes with EDs and (3) modifications to the regulations in some sports. Further, the key areas for research identified include the development of standard methods for body composition assessment in elite athletes; screening measures for EDs among athletes; development and testing of prevention programmes; investigating the short and long-term effects of extreme dieting; and EDs on health and performance. PMID:24115480
Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Meyer, Nanna L; Lohman, Timothy G; Ackland, Timothy R; Maughan, Ronald J; Stewart, Arthur D; Müller, Wolfram
... Foot? The medical name for athlete's foot is tinea pedis. Usually, athlete's foot affects the soles of the ... help to keep your feet dry. How Is Athlete's Foot Treated? A doctor can often diagnose athlete's foot ...
... A Fungus Is a Microorganism Athlete's foot, or tinea pedis (say: tin -ee-uh peh -dus), is a ... in a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...
This study explored relations between career decision-making self-efficacy, career locus of control, identity foreclosure, and athletic identity among 189 collegiate student-athletes. Student-athletes were also surveyed regarding the amount of time spent weekly participating in their sport and their expectations for professional sport careers. Results indicated that hours of sport participation, identity foreclosure, and career locus of control inversely related to
Chris Brown; Chandra Glastetter-Fender; Matthew Shelton
An increase in the rate of injuries has accompanied the boom in sports participation among children and adolescents. Accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and comprehensive rehabilitation are keys to the safe return of the young athlete to sports. Reacquisition of flexibility, strength, and endurance forms the basis of reconditioning. A graded reacclimatization to the demands of the sport allows the athlete to attain the preinjury level of skill. Psychological ramifications of injury such as fear, anger, and depression are to be expected and must be dealt with appropriately. PMID:2259679
Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…
Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.
Many athletes, especially female athletes and participants in endurance and aesthetic sports and sports with weight classes, are chronically energy deficient. This energy deficiency impairs performance, growth and health. Reproductive disorders in female athletes are caused by low energy availability (defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure), perhaps specifically by low carbohydrate availability, and not by the stress
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a
Myles Brand is a person of unquestioned integrity and high principle. As president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), he has been asked to fend off an unruly mob with a switch. In the present environment for collegiate sports, his chances for success are slight, at best. What Brand and the NCAA face today is a very real "arms…
Athletes, particularly those who are involved in sporting activ ities requiring repetitive overhead use of the arm (for example, tennis players, swimmers, baseball pitchers, and quarterbacks), may develop a painful shoulder. This is often due to impinge ment in the vulnerable avascular region of the supraspinatus and biceps tendons. With the passage of time, degeneration and tears of the rotator
Student athletes at U.S. universities are bound by rules affecting their participation in their sport and are highly visible to their fellow students and a larger public of fans. This difference makes them more likely than other students to be sensitive to issues of impression management and use of social network sites (SNSs). In this paper, we show how student
In a program designed to couple the awareness of the relationship between nutrition and physical activity, the principles of nutrition were tailored to individualathletes, and students were encouraged to develop a diet that adheres to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines as modified for body type, activity level, and sport. (JOW)
Roles are the pattern of behaviors expected of individuals in a given social situation. The general purpose of the present study was to gain an understanding of the negative informal role of the cancer (i.e., an athlete who expresses negative emotions that spread destructively throughout a team) within sport groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Canadian intercollegiate coaches to determine
Cassandra J. Cope; Mark A. Eys; Robert J. Schinke; Grégoire Bosselut
The first U.S.O.C. workshop on sports medicine for the handicaPped athlete led to several conclusions. First and foremost, the disabled athlete as an amateur athlete with a desire to participate must ever be uppermost in our minds, hearts, and planning. It appears that one of our chief objectives within the U.S.O.C. should be a central unifying force operating with joint support of the Sports Medicine Council and the Handicapped in Sports Committee, under the Sports Medicine Division. This arrangement will serve as an information and clearing center for the better understanding of each other and each organization of sports for the disabled athletes. We need to identify and classify for attention the common problems inherent among these groups and coordinate our various efforts. Fundamental to improvement in the application of sports medicine concepts is development of a definite plan for the education of voluntary coaches and trained or professionally prepared coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and physicians. A variety of concurrent approaches are feasible with initiative and sharing of resources. An additional venture must be to begin pooling and computerizing our present and future information in this regard (professional articles and medical records) within the U.S.O.C. information retrieval system. This must be systematized so the pertinent information can then the disseminated and furnished nationwide to anyone or any group dealing with the disabled athlete in sports. Ultimately, our objective is to make this information available to all handicapped people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6226374
Background: Depression, a disabling mental disorder, adversely affects work, sleeping and eating habits, and family. Research does not exist on depression among athletes who have recently graduated from college and retired from their sport after exhausting their collegiate eligibility. Hypothesis: Changes in lifestyle and loss of personal identity, which follow college athletics, would put former college athletes at an increased risk for depression. Methods: A survey was sent to former (n = 163) and current (n = 117) college athletes to correlate depression and retirement from athletics. Results: Depression levels were significantly higher (P = 0.03) in current college athletes (16.77%, n = 27) compared with former, graduated college athletes (8.03%, n = 9). Conclusion: Completion of college sports may not increase levels of depression. There is a need for increased awareness, education, screening, and intervention for depression in college athletes. Clinical Relevance: This study suggests that student athletes’ depression levels should be monitored during their participation in college sports.
Weigand, Sabrina; Cohen, Jared; Merenstein, Daniel
With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.
Background: Recognition of the Female Athlete Triad (disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis) has in- creased significantly since it was defined in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine. However, knowledge and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad is still lacking among physicians and medical personnel. Purpose: We surveyed physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and coaches to determine their knowl- edge
Research on the emotional responses of athletes to injury shows significant depression that may be profound and may last a month or more, paralleling the athlete's perceived recovery. Injured athletes cared for by athletic trainers are often between the ages of 15 to 24, the high-risk age group for suicide, which is currently a leading cause of death for young Americans. The purposes of this paper are to discuss postinjury depression, the incidence and risk factors of suicide, athletic injury as a psychosocial risk factor, the features common to suicide attempts in case studies of five injured athletes, and the motivation of athletes for sport participation. We also suggest ways in which athletic trainers can assess injured athletes for depression and risk of suicide. The five injured athletes who attempted suicide shared several common factors. All had experienced 1) considerable success before sustaining injury; 2) a serious injury requiring surgery; 3) a long, arduous rehabilitation with restriction from their preferred sport; 4) a lack of preinjury competence on return to sport; and 5) being replaced in their positions by teammates. Also, all were in the highrisk age group for suicide. As a primary care provider, the certified athletic trainer is in an ideal position to detect serious postinjury depression and to determine whether the injured athlete is at risk for suicide. ImagesFig 3.
The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some
Arguments for and against high school sport specialization, where student athletes limit their athletic participation to one sport which they practice, train for, and compete in for the entire school year, are presented. Discussed are: performance improvement, greater recognition, fewer injuries, burnout, less attention to other sports, increased…
An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance. PMID:24469737
Background The aim was to compare the return-to-sports-time (RTST) following stress fractures on the basis of site and severity of injury. This retrospective study was set up at a single institution. Diagnosis was confirmed by an interdisciplinary adjudication panel and images were rated in a blinded-read setting. Methods 52 athletes (female, n?=?30; male, n?=?22; mean age, 22.8?years) with stress fracture (SFX) who had undergone at least one examination, either MRI or bone scintigraphy, were included. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) and/or bone scintigraphy (BS) of SFX were classified as either low- or high-grade SFX, according to existing grading systems. For MRI, high-grade SFX was defined as visibility of a fracture line or bone marrow edema in T1-, T2-weighted and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, with low-grade SFX showing no fracture line and bone marrow edema only in STIR and/or T2-weighted sequences. In BS images, a mild and poorly defined focal tracer uptake represented a low-grade lesion, whereas an intense and sharply marginated uptake marked a high-grade SFX. In addition, all injuries were categorized by location as high- or low-risk stress fractures. RTST was obtained from the clinical records. All patients were treated according to a non-weight-bearing treatment plan and comprehensive follow-up data was complete until full recovery. Two-sided Wilcoxon’s rank sum test was used for group comparisons. Results High-risk SFX had a mean RTST of 132?days (d) [IQR 64d – 132d] compared to 119d [IQR 50d – 110d] for low-risk sites (p?=?0.19). RTST was significantly longer (p?=?0.01) in high-grade lesions [mean, 143d; IQR 66d – 134d] than in low-grade [mean, 95d; IQR 42d – 94d]. Analysis of high-risk SFX showed no difference in RTST (p?=?0.45) between high- and low-grade [mean, 131d; IQR 72d – 123d vs. mean, 135d; IQR 63d – 132d]. In contrast, the difference was significant for low-risk SFX (p?=?0.005) [low-grade; mean, 61d; IQR 35d – 78d vs. high-grade; mean, 153d; IQR 64d – 164d]. Conclusion For SFX at low-risk sites, the significant difference in RTST between low- and high-grade lesions allows more accurate estimation of RTST by this approach. Both location of the injury and severity determined by imaging should therefore be considered for prediction of RTST.
Seventy-seven Italian eliteathletes(42 M, 35 F, mean age +/- SE: 24.4-0.7 yr, age range: 17-47 yr) of different sport disciplines (sprinters, triathletes, middle-distance runners, road-walkers, cyclists, rowing athletes, skiers, roller hockey players, swimmers) were sampled on-the-field (before a training session) for the determination of basal GH, IGF-I, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) levels, two GH-dependent peripheral markers of bone and collagen turnover, respectively. Basal GH concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001) in female (5.8 +/- 1.0 ng/ml) vs male athletes (1.8 +/- 0.5 ng/ml), with a large spread of values in either gender. Mean GH levels of athletes were significantly higher than those recorded in age-matched sedentary controls (females: 2.5 +/- 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.001; males: 0.5 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, p<0.05). Among female athletes, 7/35 had basal GH values higher than the upper limit of control values (>9.5 ng/ml), while among males 7/42 had values higher than the upper limit of male sedentary controls (>3.6 ng/ml). No significant differences in basal GH concentrations were found between females taking oral contraceptives (OC) and those who did not receive this treatment (5.0 +/- 2.1 vs 6.0 +/- 1.2 ng/ml). IGF-I levels (236.4 +/- 7.8 ng/ml) were in the normal range for age in all athletes (except for 1 athlete with slightly increased levels), no significant correlation being found between GH and IGF-I levels (R2=0.0393). Mean ICTP (4.6 +/- 0.2 ng/ml) and PIIINP (4.4-0.1 ng/ml) concentrations of elite athletes were not significantly different from those recorded in age and matched healthy sedentary subjects; 4 athletes showed increased PIIINP levels and 2 had increased ICTP levels. ICTP and PIIINP levels were positively correlated with chronological age (p<0.001), a positive correlation being also found between the two markers (p<0.001). On the contrary, no significant correlation was found between basal GH/IGF-I levels and ICTP/PIIINP levels. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that: 1) elite athletes (particularly females), which have frequently increased basal GH on-the-field, have actually normal IGF-I levels; 2) ICTP and PIIINP levels of athletes are similar to those recorded in healthy sedentary, being significantly higher in younger subjects of both groups; 3) the presence of increased basal GH levels, being associated with normal IGF-I, ICTP and PIIINP levels, is probably the result of a transient GH peak in this study group. Further additional studies are requested to verify the possible use of these peripheral GH-dependent markers for detecting exogenous chronic administration of recombinant GH in athletes. PMID:15279071
Sartorio, A; Marazzi, N; Agosti, F; Faglia, G; Corradini, C; De Palo, E; Cella, S; Rigamonti, A; Muller, E E
According to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, “In the last 10 years, college sports have flourished, with athletes required to train and compete year-round rather than seasonally . . .At the same time, athletes are getting bigger, stronger and more physical – which leads to a greater risk of injury.” Sports injury can be traumatic for many athletes because it
While it is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health, emerging evidence is finding that adequate vitamin D intake reduces risk for conditions such as stress fracture, total body inflammation, infectious illness, and impaired muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status is variable and is dependent on outdoor training time (during peak sunlight), skin color, and geographic location. Although research has found that athletes generally do not meet the U.S. dietary reference intake for vitamin D, inadequate endogenous synthesis is the most probable reason for insufficient/deficient status. Given the recent findings, it is imperative that sports dietitians and physicians routinely assess vitamin D status and make recommendations to help athletes achieve a serum 25(OH)D concentration of >or=32 and preferably >or=40 ng.mL(-1). Further research is needed to determine the effect of vitamin D status on injury, training, and performance in athletes. PMID:20622540
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between, multidimensional competitive trait anxiety (cognitive and somatic anxiety), trait cognitive threat appraisal, and coping styles. Five-hundred and fifty male and female athletes of several individual and team sports, between the ages of 15 and 35 (M?=?19.8?±?4.5), completed the translated and adapted versions of the Sport Anxiety Scale and
Cláudia Dias; José F. Cruz; António Manuel Fonseca
Soon, the best athletes in the world will face each other at the Summer Olympics in Beijing. Many of them will sustain injuries, or seek to prevent them, and will be thankful that among their entourages are some of the best sports medicine professionals in the world. When an athlete collapses from fatigue, or something else, there will be a group…
Participation in sports and fitness activities offers potential health benefits for individuals of all ages, such as combating obesity and osteoporosis, as well as enhancing cardiovascular fitness. Negative consequences of musculoskeletal injuries sustained during sports participation in childhood and adolescence may compromise function in later life, limiting the ability to experience pain-free mobility and engage in fitness-enhancing activity. Increasingly successful management of sports-related injuries has allowed more athletes to return to participation. However, even effective early management of meniscal or anterior cruciate ligament injury does not minimize or preclude the increased likelihood of developing subsequent osteoarthritis. In addition, even in the absence of injury, vigorous participation in sports and fitness activities during childhood and adolescence increases the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis. It is ironic that return to vigorous sports participation has been adopted as an important measure of success of treatment, yet few efforts have been made to document long-term consequences of continued participation. Awareness of the long-term consequences of intensive sport and fitness activities allows the physician to help patients make informed decisions about the types and levels of activity they choose. PMID:14686829
Objective: To present recommendations to optimize the fluid-replacement practices of athletes. Background: Dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes do not voluntarily drink sufficient water to prevent dehydration during physical activity. Drinking behavior can be modified by education, increasing accessibility, and optimizing palatability. However, excessive overdrinking should be avoided because it can also compromise physical performance and health. We provide practical recommendations regarding fluid replacement for athletes. Recommendations: Educate athletes regarding the risks of dehydration and overhydration on health and physical performance. Work with individualathletes to develop fluid-replacement practices that optimize hydration status before, during, and after competition. Imagesp224-a
Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom in the populations of western countries, and adolescent athletes seem to be prone to LBP. The main objective of this study was to analyze the point (LBP within the last 48?h), 1-year (LBP within the last 12 months) and lifetime (LBP within the entire life) prevalence rates of LBP in adolescent athletes participating in various sports. We also assessed the characteristics of LBP and its association with potential risk factors. To this end, 272 competitive adolescent athletes involved in 31 different sports (158 males, 113 females, 15.4±2.0 years, body mass index [BMI] 20.3±2.4?kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-month prospective clinical trial that included a questionnaire and physical examination. We found a point prevalence of 14%, a 1-year prevalence of 57%, and a lifetime prevalence of 66% for LBP. The mean age of first appearance of LBP was 13.1±2.0 years. The lifetime prevalence was significantly higher in volleyball than in biathletes (74.3 vs. 45.7%, p=0.015). Our findings confirm that LBP is a common symptom in adolescent athletes; LBP prevalence correlates with sports participation and individual competitive level. Adolescent athletes with LBP should receive a thorough diagnostic work-up and adapt training and technique correspondingly when indicated. PMID:24424960
Schmidt, C P; Zwingenberger, S; Walther, A; Reuter, U; Kasten, P; Seifert, J; Günther, K-P; Stiehler, M
The effect of weight bearing activity on the bone density was investigated in athletes by comparing the measures of bone density of athletes engaged in weight-training programs with those of polo players and nonexercising subjects. All subjects had measurements of spinal trabecular and integral bone density by quantitative tomography, as well as determinations of hip bone density by dual photon absorptiometry. Results confirmed previous findings by Block et al. (1987) of significantly greater bone density among highly trained athletes compared with nonexercising subjects of similar age. Results also indicated that athletes engaged in non-weight-bearing forms of rigorous exercise had greater levels of bone density. However, as the participants in this study were exceptional athletes, engaged in a strenuous sport with both aerobic and heavy resistance components, a confirmation of these data is needed, using larger samples of individuals.
Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Brooks, George A.; Steiger, Peter; Stubbs, Harrison A.
Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present a model policy on lightning safety for athletic trainers. Background: Among college athletic programs in the United States there is a serious lack of written policy on lightning safety. Available evidence shows that most National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions, even though they are located in high lightning activity areas of the country, do not have formal, written lightning safety policies. Clinical Advantages/ Recommendations: The policy presented herein, which is at the forefront of such policies, is the lightning safety policy written as part of a policies and procedures manual for the division of sports medicine at a public NCAA Division I university. This is a policy based on practicality that utilizes the “flash-to- bang” method for determining the distance of lightning activity from the observer. The policy begins with the importance of prevention, including the daily monitoring of weather reports. The policy defines a “safe shelter” and specifies the chain of command for determining who removes a team or individuals from an athletic site in the event of dangerous lightning activity.
The influence cognitive components have on expertise in sport is receiving a great deal of attention. Recent research indicates that levels of expertise in sport can be differentiated with cognitive components. This suggests that skilled athletes do not necessarily have superior physiological and biomechanical systems, but have the same type of…
In this collection of papers the psychology of human behavior and performance is examined as it is revealed by the action and interaction of athletes, coaches, and physical education teachers actively engaged in competitive and noncompetitive sports. The following subjects are discussed: (1) competitive sport and personality development; (2)…
The scientific literature contains an abundance of information on the nutritional demands of athletes. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult.The principal aim of this article is to summarize knowledge about sports nutrition, especially the intake of macronutrients and dietary supplements. PMID:23390456
This study investigates the question of whether or not exposure to televised professional sports affects the social behavior of young people who themselves actively engage in those sports. Lacrosse, hockey, baseball were monitored on television, with students questioned about the impact the behavior of the players (pro-social and anti-social) has…
Percentage fat (%FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured in 37 children from a sports academy and in 71 children from standard schools with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using the manufacturer's equation (Tanita) and an ethnic-specific prediction equation (Haroun). In the standard school, BIA overestimated FFM and underestimated %FM by a mean of 2.5 kg and 5.2%, respectively, using the Tanita equation. In girls from the sports academy, the Tanita equation underestimated FFM and overestimated %FM compared with DXA (mean difference BIA-DXA; FFM: -1.3 kg; %FM: 1.8%). The Haroun equation improved mean agreement between BIA and DXA in children (11 to 15 years) from the sports academy and for boys from standard schools, but reduced accuracy on individual assessments. These results have important practice implications for dietetics practitioners specializing in sports nutrition and exercise trainers. PMID:24021735
As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…
Examines specularity (the pleasure derived from looking at television) in the context of sports. Argues that televised sports' popularity reflects: (1) fetishism (motivation by fascinated desire); (2) voyeurism (uninvited viewing); and (3) narcissism (identification with athletes). Describes a study of sports telecast viewing. Argues against…
Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)
While interscholastic sports help young athletes enhance sport skills, physical fitness, self-discipline, sportsmanship, teamwork, time-management skills, self-confidence, and mental toughness, their benefits actually surpass even these. Interscholastic sports also promote life skills and lessons and enhance academic performance. The National…
Abstract The attainment of optimal sport performance,has become increasingly scientific and requires sport scientists to collaborate on training programs in order totake a holistic view of performance (Cherebetiu, 1980; Patrick, 2001). Collaborative approaches range from multidisciplinary teams - where sport scientists work with athletes in a singular fashion (Reid, Stewart, & Thorne, 2004; Thomas, 2001), to interdisciplinary teams - where
As the pressure to win in select collegiate sports escalates, financial pressures mount, and the need to comply with Title IX regulations and gender equity policies continues, athletics administrators are faced with having to make difficult decisions regarding their sport programs. To assist in the decision-making process regarding sport programs,…
There is a need to provide practical applications of psychology to improve the quality of performance and the meaningfulness of participation in sports. The scientific and research-based foundations for sport psychology must be acknowledged and expanded. Sport psychologists should provide to coaches and athletes services that offer sound…
The first article describes SPORT, a database providing international coverage of athletics and physical education, and compares it to other online services in terms of coverage, thesauri, possible search strategies, and actual usage. The second article reviews available online information on sports medicine. (CLB)
... pitcher, a helmet and body padding for ice hockey) Know how to correctly use athletic equipment (for ... creating an atmosphere that promotes teamwork and sportsmanship. Youth sports should always be fun. The "win at ...
Edward Villella, principal dancer of the New York City Ballet, has attempted to make professionals in physical education as well as athletes more aware of the great potential possessed within the interrelationship of dance and sport. (MM)
Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)
Resolutions concerning sports and medicine, the role of women in sports organizations and in physical education, and the relationship between women's athletics and the media were adopted by the conference members. (LH)
The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles underlying sport participation among young Singaporean college athletes, as well as to examine the relationships between motivational profiles and a range of cognitive, affective, and behavioral indices. Junior college athletes (N = 303, mean age = 17.64, SD = .60) completed a questionnaire assessing achievement goal orientations, self-determination, sport
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that motivate women athletes to participate in sport in Palestine and the motivational climate created by coaches and parents. Additionally, participants' commitment to sport was investigated as well as the social constraints that Palestinian women athletes face. Participants (n = 107)…
College athletes are at risk of developing disordered eating and other distorted behavioral patterns, often because of aesthetic and performance demands of their sports. Gender, links between weight\\/body fat and performance, athletic body stereotypes, and type of sport all contribute to such demands. There have been studies of body image and behaviors among elite and college athletes, yet no comprehensive
The purpose was to examine the different aspects of perfectionism and athletes' burnout. College athletes (N = 320) with mean age of 19.7 yr. (SD = 1.4) completed the Chinese version of the Multiple Perfectionism Scale for Sport and the Eades' Athlete Burnout Inventory. Results indicated that perfectionism could be separated into adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. Adaptive perfectionism was linked to reduced athletes' burnout while maladaptive perfectionism was associated with athletes' burnout. In addition, significant interaction was found between adaptive perfec tionism and maladaptive perfectionism on athletes' burnout. Results suggest that high maladaptive perfectionism and low adaptive perfectionism corresponds to higher scores on athletes' burnout. Perfectionism should not be treated as an all-or-nothing disposition. The extent of athlete burnout can vary with the interaction effects of the two types of perfectionism. In terms of practical implications in intervention work, coaches and sport psychologists should try to reduce athletes' maladaptive perfectionism and increase adaptive perfectionism. PMID:18712202
Background: The consumption of nutritional supplements is high in various sports, whereas, there are not enough documents supporting the beneficial effects of supplements in athletes. In addition, there is no information about taking supplements by Iranian students who participate in sports. Therefore, the goals of this study were to assess the type and prevalence of supplement use, the frequency of use, and relationships between consumption and age, body mass index, training load and type of sport. Methods: One hundred ninety two male students from “Isfahan University of Medical Sciences” participated in this study, voluntarily. A questionnaire that included questions about type and effects of supplements, recommendation resources, place of obtaining, and type of sports were sent to students. Descriptive data were calculated as frequencies (%). Chi-square (?2) analysis was used to analyze the correlation between supplement use and the study variables. Results: Forty-five percent of respondents used some forms of supplements. Supplement users consumed 14 different supplements and each used as many as 1.8 ± 1.2 various supplements during the past six months. Multivitamins (64%) and vitamin C (42%) were the most popular supplements. Students, who participated in individualsports, were more likely to consume dietary supplements (P < 0.05) and ergogenic aids (P < 0.01), but team sportsathletes, took more recovery nutrients (P < 0.01). Fifty seven point five percent of student bought their products from pharmacies, 40% from “sport supplements stores” and 2.5% from their friends. Conclusions: It can be concluded that less than half of these students consumed supplements and their information resources were inappropriate.
Context: The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a region-specific, non–disease-specific outcome instrument that possesses many of the clinimetric qualities recommended for an outcome instrument. Evidence of validity to support the use of the FAAM is available in individuals with a wide array of ankle and foot disorders. However, additional evidence to support the use of the FAAM for those with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is needed. Objective: To provide evidence of construct validity for the FAAM based on hypothesis testing in athletes with CAI. Design: Between-groups comparison. Setting: Athletic training room. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes (16 men, 14 women) from one university. Main Outcome Measure(s): The FAAM including activities of daily living (ADL) and sports subscales and the global and categorical ratings of function. Results: For both the ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in healthy participants (100 ± 0.0 and 99 ± 3.5, respectively) than in subjects with CAI (88 ± 7.7 and 76 ± 12.7, respectively; P < .001). Similarly, for both ADL and sports subscales, FAAM scores were greater in athletes who indicated that their ankles were normal (98 ± 6.3 and 96 ± 6.9, respectively) than in those who classified their ankles as either nearly normal or abnormal (87 ± 6.6 and 71 ± 11.1, respectively; P < .001). We found relationships between FAAM scores and self-reported global ratings of function for both ADL and sports subscales. Relationships were stronger when all athletes, rather than just those with CAI, were included in the analyses. Conclusions: The FAAM may be used to detect self-reported functional deficits related to CAI.
Carcia, Christopher R; Martin, RobRoy L; Drouin, Joshua M
Groin pain in athletes is one of the most difficult to treat clinical entities in sports medicine. The reasons are the amount of differential diagnoses, complexity of pathophysiologic causes and the long time of limited participation in sport. In order to maximize efficient treatment, thorough diagnostics and a clear therapeutic regimen are crucial. To succeed with this issue, a close cooperation between physicians and radiologists is mandatory. MRI is gold standard in the diagnostic work-up of the principal differential diagnoses, such as muscle tears, avulsion injuries, stress fractures, tears of acetabular labrum, and osteitis pubis. The article gives a comprehensive overview of the special anatomy and biomechanics of the pubic region and of typical MRI findings in athletes with groin pain. The use of dedicated imaging protocols is also discussed. PMID:23893752
When Saul Lerner became director of physical education, athletics, and health for the Bellmore-Merrick (New York) School District 14 years ago, football, soccer, basketball, and floor hockey were staples of most physical education classes on Long Island and around the rest of the country. The mindset of physical educators was to emphasize sports…
Sports-related concussions can happen to any athlete in any sport. Each year in the United States, an estimated 1.6-3.8 million sports and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur, most of which can be classified as concussions. To help coaches prevent, recognize, and better manage sports-related concussions, the Centers for…
This document is a collection of papers whose theme is sports safety. Section one, "Government Interest in Sports Safety," includes an article on Washington, D.C.'s focus on sports safety. Section two, "Medical Aspects of Safety in Sports," includes articles regarding the medical basis of restriction from athletics, orthopaedic restrictions, and…
This publication contains documents from the official work of the Council on Europe and some of its committees on issues in sport, particularly spectator violence at sporting events, drug use among athletes, and sport and education policy. The first main section contains documents on the establishment of sporting event policies. The first of two…
A large-scale movement toward sports clubs is evolving in colleges and universities in response to widespread professionalism in varsity sports, limited sports opportunities available to highly skilled student athletes, and most importantly, substantial increases in the desire for sports participation by students in general, as a supplement to…
This textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of sport management. An introductory chapter gives the definition and direction of sport and fitness management. Part 1 describes sport and fitness management careers. The 12 chapters deal with the professional options: intercollegiate athletics, professional sport, facility…
This research is the most accurate description of college sports' participation patterns to date, shows that both men's and women's sports participation have increased over the past 25 years. It examines factors, including Title IX and athletic expenditure growth, impacting today's college sports participation trends, which vary widely by sport.…
Whereas physical sport activity is generally considered a health benefit, extreme exercise may be harmful. Of particular concern in this regard is the considerable variation between doctors in the primary care setting and those working within the sports setting around the diagnosis and treatment of athletes presenting with similar symptoms. Known risk factors for athletes are herein presented to raise awareness of the negative side of sport and to bring attention to the psychological outcomes and needs of athletes. The need for research into the incidence and aetiology of mental illness within elite level sport is also raised. PMID:22297587
Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…
As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…
Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas
Is playing big-time college sports an extracurricular activity or a job? Two law professors at Michigan State University, Robert and Amy McCormick, think it is definitely a job for football and basketball players on athletic scholarships at Division I schools. The married couple has added a new dimension to the long debate over paying athletes by…
It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…