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1

Imagery use of athletes in individual and team sports that require open and closed skill.  

PubMed

This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports. PMID:22913017

Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik

2012-06-01

2

Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

2013-01-01

3

Sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes from selected individual and team sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes were more similar in team sports than in individual sports. It was predicted that females in masculine-oriented team sports (basketball and volleyball) would exhibit sex role orientations more similar to those of their male counterparts than would females in individual

Craig A. Wrisberg; M. Vanessa Draper; John J. Everett

1988-01-01

4

Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)  

MedlinePLUS

... by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that occurs ... direction or intense twisting movements. Although a sports hernia may lead to a traditional, abdominal hernia, it ...

5

Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

2014-01-01

6

Chronotype and PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in individual sports athletes.  

PubMed

A link between diurnal preference and a variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the PERIOD3 gene (PER3) has been demonstrated: the longer PER3(5) and shorter PER3(4) alleles with preferences for mornings and evenings, respectively. As many competitive events in South Africa for individual athletes are scheduled for the early mornings, we hypothesized that this might favor those athletes with a preference for morning activities. Self-selected white, male cyclists (CYC, n = 125), runners (RUN, n = 120) and Ironman triathletes (IM, n = 287) of European descent were compared with a control population of active, non-competitive individuals (CON, n = 96). The chronotypes of all CYC, RUN and CON participants and a sub-sample of the IM group (n =? 49) were assessed using the Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and the PER3 VNTR genotype for each participant was determined. The athlete groups contained more morning-type individuals than the CON group (CYC: 72%, n = 90; RUN: 67%, n = 80; IM: 59%, n = 29; CON: 41%, n = 39; p athlete groups (CYC: 61%, n =? 152; RUN: 58%, n = 132; IM: 56%, n = 324; CON: 38%, n = 76; p athletes were genotyped as PER3(5/5) than CON individuals (CYC: 41%, n = 51; RUN: 23%, n = 26; IM: 28%, n = 81, CON: 9%, n = 8; p athletes preferred to train was related to their chronotype (p sporting population, and the results have not yet been replicated. These data suggest that white males of European descent participating in individual endurance sports in South Africa are more likely to be morning types. Furthermore, the PER3 VNTR may be one of the factors contributing to this observation. PMID:22971169

Kunorozva, Lovemore; Stephenson, Kim J; Rae, Dale E; Roden, Laura C

2012-10-01

7

Attributions of athletes on collegiate sports teams.  

PubMed

This study investigated the patterns of attributions for success made by intercollegiate athletes in three categories: more versus less successful teams, men versus women athletes, and individual versus group sport participants. 74 men and 83 women on 17 varsity teams across a number of sports took the Sports Attribution Style Scale, measuring internal, stable, controllable, intentional, and global attributions. It was hypothesized that (a) the athletes on more successful teams would have higher internal, stable, controllable, and intentional attributions, (b) that athletes in individual sports would have lower internal, stable, and controllable attributions, and (c) that women would score higher on all five attributions. Profile analyses of the attributions led to the confirmation of the first hypothesis. For the second hypothesis, the pattern of sport attributions did not differ for individual and team athletes. The third hypothesis was not confirmed. Women athletes scored higher on the attributional dimensions (except globality). PMID:15648473

Pedersen, Darhl M; Manning, Craig L

2004-12-01

8

Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

1984-01-01

9

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

10

Sport nutrition for young athletes  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is an important part of sport performance for young athletes, in addition to allowing for optimal growth and development. Macronutrients, micronutrients and fluids in the proper amounts are essential to provide energy for growth and activity. To optimize performance, young athletes need to learn what, when and how to eat and drink before, during and after activity. PMID:24421690

Purcell, Laura K

2013-01-01

11

Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes.MethodsAn argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in

Jenny Jacobsson; Toomas Timpka; Joakim Ekberg; Jan Kowalski; Sverker Nilsson; Per Renström

2010-01-01

12

Sports injuries in young athletes.  

PubMed

Injuries to a skeletally immature athlete are common, but most of the injuries do not have long-term implications. There is no risk-free sport, and children tend to select the sports they wish to participate in based on their own desire, peer pressure, and their own talent regardless of the injury rate. Both acute and overuse injuries may occur. Open physes and apophyses represent unique structures that may be injured in this population. Prompt and proper identification of many of these injuries may allow the young athlete a relatively timely return to sports competition or recreation. Pediatricians and other primary care providers can make an active commitment to youth sports by learning more about these common sports-related injuries and becoming team physicians or joining local sports medicine advisory councils. PMID:8540435

Bernhardt, D T; Landry, G L

1995-01-01

13

Interpersonal and Structural Features of Greek Coach–Athlete Dyads Performing in Individual Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was two-fold. Firstly, a new interpersonal construct, namely, Co-orientation was proposed to be included in the recently developed Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity (3 Cs) conceptual model of the coach–athlete relationship (Jowett & Cockerill, 2002). Secondly, the factorial construct validity of the Greek Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (GrCART-Q; Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2003), an instrument developed to

Sophia Jowett

2006-01-01

14

University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Athlete Pre-Participation Health History, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Athlete Pre-Participation Health History_________________ Name____________________________________________ Sex_______ Date of Birth______________ Sport(s or sports physical? YES NO ______________________________________________________________________ * Have you

Acton, Scott

15

Differences in Television Sports Reporting of Men's and Women's Athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. Results indicated: both programs devoted only about 5% of their air time to women's sports; story placement and on-camera comments indicated an emphasis on men's athletics; and stories about women involved individual competition, with almost no…

Tuggle, C. A.

1997-01-01

16

Athletes in Big-Time College Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to an article on black athletes in amateur college sport, highlighting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA institutions, particularly the top power schools and their revenue-producing football and basketball sports programs. Examines issues of education versus commerce, the athletic scholarship system, black athletes in…

Meggyesy, David

2000-01-01

17

Sport Scholarship programme Athletics at Birmingham  

E-print Network

) Athletics club is one of the top university athletics clubs in Britain. High quality coaching, extensiveSport Scholarship programme Athletics at Birmingham University of Birmingham Sport (UBSport facilities and a friendly atmosphere are just a few of the reasons why the University attracts athletes

Heinke, Dietmar

18

[Increased functional resources in athletes of cyclic sports].  

PubMed

The article covers individual coaching program specified by specialists in Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Center in Bournazian FMBC of the FMBA of Russia, to improve functional durability of highly qualified athletes. PMID:24340774

Kotenko, K V; U?ba, V V; Korchazhkina, N B; Petrova, M S; Kish, A A; Mikha?lova, A A

2013-01-01

19

Sport Fans' Impressions of Gay Male Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings

Jamonn Campbell; Denise Cothren; Ross Rogers; Lindsay Kistler; Anne Osowski; Nathan Greenauer; Christian End

2011-01-01

20

Intra-individual variation of GH-dependent markers in athletes: comparison of population based and individual thresholds for detection of GH abuse in sports.  

PubMed

The GH-2000 discriminant functions, using insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), enabled the detection of growth hormone (GH) doping despite the broad inter-individual normal range of both peptides. The sensitivity of the discriminant function-based methodology may perhaps be further increased in future by applying individual athlete profiles. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the intra-individual variability of IGF-I, PIIINP and the GH-2000 scores in athletes. For this purpose a total of eight blood samples were taken from each of fifty male and female elite athletes over a period of up to 18 months. The IGF-I and PIIINP levels, we found, lay predominantly within the reference range for elite athletes. The intra-individual variability for IGF-I ranged between 6 and 26%, while that for PIIINP ranged between 6 and 33%. The intra-individual variations of both parameters were higher in female than in male subjects and were found to be mostly moderate. We found that the intra-individual variations of the GH-2000 test scores, expressed as CV, ranged from 4 to 36% and were in most of the subjects markedly smaller than the inter-individual variation. Individual cut-offs for the GH-2000 scores would be lower than population based ones in most of the cases. PMID:23850935

Kniess, Astrid; Ziegler, Eckart; Thieme, Detlef; Müller, R Klaus

2013-10-01

21

Why Young Athletes Sign Up for Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students participate in sports because of several reasons. A coach may effectively guide his team if he knows what motivates each player. In this article, the authors investigate the reasons why athletes sign up for sports. They designed a questionnaire with open-ended and close-ended questions which focuses on how students perceived sports, why…

McGee, Zach; Strasser, Joe; McKenzie, Isaac; Stoll, Sharon

2005-01-01

22

Olympic athletes' transition from sport to workplace.  

PubMed

Research has supported the need for strategies to assist elite athletes with transition from full-time athletic activity to the work place. Early intervention with coaches' and peers' support programs have mediated the problems associated with the termination of athletic careers. The present study is a report about 57 prominent Olympians from 12 disciplines spanning 6 0 years of competitive sports. Analysis of the data suggests that focussed efforts early in the athletes' careers assisted preparation for life after the full athletic activity. Mentors not only assist in the athletes' careers but also offer guidance and counsel during later life. PMID:9229448

Ungerleider, S

1997-06-01

23

Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation, joining sports, constant participation, changing participation, dropping out, and inconsistent participation), using data from

Jennifer P. Agans; G. John Geldhof

2012-01-01

24

Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…

Anderson, Austin Robert

2011-01-01

25

Doping Control, Mandatory Arbitration, and Process Dangers for Accused Athletes in International Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes in a professional sports league in the United States are members of players unions, which assist their athletes in obtaining representation when they are involved in dispute resolution proceedings associated with disciplinary actions. However, individual athletes who participate in international competitions do not enjoy the same benefits. When these athletes are required to submit to mandatory drug testing, with

Maureen A. Weston

2012-01-01

26

Doping Control, Mandatory Arbitration, and Process Dangers for Accused Athletes in International Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes in a professional sports league in the United States are members of players unions, which assist their athletes in obtaining representation when they are involved in dispute resolution proceedings associated with disciplinary actions. However, individual athletes who participate in international competitions do not enjoy the same benefits. When these athletes are required to submit to mandatory drug testing, with

Maureen A. Weston

2009-01-01

27

Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes. PMID:24665795

Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

2013-12-01

28

University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Student-Athlete Health History 2013-14  

E-print Network

University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Student-Athlete Health History 2013____________________________________________ Sex_______ Date of Birth_______________ Sport(s)_________________________ UVA Student ID specified, all questions below refer to your lifetime health history. You must respond to all

Acton, Scott

29

Benefits of sports participation for executive function in disabled athletes.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of sports activity on physically-disabled individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Visual go/no-go discriminative and simple response tasks were used. Participants included 17 disabled athletes, 9 from open-skill (wheelchair basketball) and eight from closed-skill (swimming) sports, and 18 healthy non-athletes. Reaction times of the disabled athletes were slower than those of healthy non-athletes on both tasks (7% and 13% difference, respectively). Intra-individual variations in reaction times, switch cost, and number of false alarms, were higher in the swimmers, but comparable to healthy non-athletes, in the basketball group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) early components P1, N1, and P2 had longer latencies in the disabled athletes. The late P3 component had longer latency and smaller amplitude in the disabled athletes only in the discriminative response task. The N2 component, which reflected inhibition/execution processing in the discriminative response task, was delayed and reduced in the swimmer group, but was comparable to healthy subjects in the basketball group. Our results show that (1) the ERP components related to perceptual processing, and late components related to executive processing, were impaired in disabled subjects; and (2) open-skill sports such as basketball may partially compensate for executive control impairment by fostering the stability of motor responses and favoring response flexibility. PMID:20925480

Di Russo, Francesco; Bultrini, Alessandro; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Polidori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Spinelli, Donatella

2010-12-01

30

Benefits of Sports Participation for Executive Function in Disabled Athletes  

PubMed Central

Abstract We investigated the effect of sports activity on physically-disabled individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Visual go/no-go discriminative and simple response tasks were used. Participants included 17 disabled athletes, 9 from open-skill (wheelchair basketball) and eight from closed-skill (swimming) sports, and 18 healthy non-athletes. Reaction times of the disabled athletes were slower than those of healthy non-athletes on both tasks (7% and 13% difference, respectively). Intra-individual variations in reaction times, switch cost, and number of false alarms, were higher in the swimmers, but comparable to healthy non-athletes, in the basketball group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) early components P1, N1, and P2 had longer latencies in the disabled athletes. The late P3 component had longer latency and smaller amplitude in the disabled athletes only in the discriminative response task. The N2 component, which reflected inhibition/execution processing in the discriminative response task, was delayed and reduced in the swimmer group, but was comparable to healthy subjects in the basketball group. Our results show that (1) the ERP components related to perceptual processing, and late components related to executive processing, were impaired in disabled subjects; and (2) open-skill sports such as basketball may partially compensate for executive control impairment by fostering the stability of motor responses and favoring response flexibility. PMID:20925480

Bultrini, Alessandro; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Polidori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Spinelli, Donatella

2010-01-01

31

Stopping Sports Injuries in Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007 the STOP (Sports Trauma and Overuse Prevention) Sports Injuries campaign was created in response to the dramatic rise in overuse injuries among young athletes. The campaign uses public service announcements, posters, DVDs, brochures, electronic newsletter, an interactive web site and even social media like Facebook and Twitter to educate people on the topic of overuse injuries in the

Destin E. Hill; James R. Andrews

32

Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff  

PubMed Central

Background The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non?medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. Objective To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of <7?days' duration. Subjects 28 senior sports science or non?medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. Methods A single questionnaire. Results The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short?term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Conclusion Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for <1?week. This is at odds with currently available evidence of the diagnostic utility of these tests. Despite the current evidence base, individual factors in the athletes, coaches and doctors need to be considered when deciding on whether such testing has to be performed. PMID:17062653

Fallon, K E

2007-01-01

33

Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…

Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

2012-01-01

34

Transitions out of Competitive Sport for Athletes with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses sport transitions for athletes with disabilities, presenting a conceptual overview of sport withdrawal and the application of transition theory to sport transitions, examining factors associated with successful sport transitions, and making suggestions for how therapeutic recreation specialists and other sport figures can help athletes

Martin, Jeffrey J.

1996-01-01

35

The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.  

PubMed

Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport, remains to be determined and is an area for future study. Rodeo performance, as with all sports, is based on a multifactorial array of variables and, therefore, interdisciplinary efforts encompassing expertise across medicine, science and coaching are encouraged. Taking a comprehensive approach in the assessment of athletes, as well as the development and quantification of event-specific training protocols, may ultimately enhance athletic potential, minimize opportunity for injury and possibly provide information to coaches and allied health professionals for the appropriate development and optimal medical care of these athletes. PMID:20433213

Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

2010-05-01

36

Is the athlete’s sport important when picking an athlete to endorse a nonsport product?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Businesses will spend millions of dollars associating their products with athletes through product endorsements. Finding the “best” athlete to make the endorsement is a crucial decision. Several theoretical perspectives suggest that the sport from which the athlete comes may be an important factor in producing a favorable consumer response. In a study conducted to investigate the effects of the type

James H. Martin

1996-01-01

37

Echocardiographic Parameters in Athletes of Different Sports  

PubMed Central

Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian male canoe/kayak paddlers (n = 9), long distance runners (LDR, n = 18), middle distance runners (MDR, n = 17), basketball players (BP, n = 31), road cyclists (n = 8), swimmers (n = 10), strength/power athletes (n = 9) of similar age (range, 15 to 31 yrs), training experience (4 to 9 years), and age-matched healthy male sedentary controls (n = 15). Absolute interventricular septum (IVS) thickness and LV wall thickness, but not LV diameter, were greater in athletes than sedentary controls. Left ventricular mass of all athletes but relative wall thickness of only BP, swimmers, cyclists, and strength/power athletes were higher as compared with controls (p < 0.05). Among athletes, smaller IVS thickness was observed in MDR than BP, cyclists, swimmers or strength/power athletes, while LDR had higher body size-adjusted LV diameter as compared to BP, cyclists and strength/power athletes. In conclusion, relative LV diameter was increased in long distance runners as compared with basketball players, cyclists, and strength/power athletes. Basketball, road cycling, strength/power, and swimming training were associated with increased LV concentricity as compared with paddling or distance running. Key points The type of cardiac hypertrophy seems to be only moderately exercise-specific. Long-distance runners develop larger left ventricular dilation as compared with basketball players, cyclists, and strength/power athletes. Myocardial wall thickening is triggered by different sporting activities that involve large muscle groups. PMID:24150148

Venckunas, Tomas; Lionikas, Arimantas; Marcinkeviciene, Jolanta E.; Raugaliene, Rasa; Alekrinskis, Aleksandras; Stasiulis, Arvydas

2008-01-01

38

[Sports and athletes deserve doping hunting].  

PubMed

This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential adverse effects of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine wordwide. It is therefore important for the scientific societies, clinicians, dieticians sports federations to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs in order to have an important role in information and prevention attitudes that can lead to health risks or addictions! PMID:23971326

Gremion, G; Saugy, M

2013-07-17

39

Special-Admissions by Sport FOR FIRST-YEAR STUDENT-ATHLETES ON ATHLETICS AID BY SPORTS GROUP*  

E-print Network

-year student-athletes who were recruited, in accordance with NCAA Division I Bylaw 13.02.13.1 (RecruitedSpecial-Admissions by Sport FOR FIRST-YEAR STUDENT-ATHLETES ON ATHLETICS AID BY SPORTS GROUP* Operating Principle 2.1, Self-Study Item No. 6 1. Indicate the total number of entering first-year student-athletes

Vonessen, Nikolaus

40

What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?  

PubMed Central

Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

2013-01-01

41

Perceptions of Sport Retirement by Current Student-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the…

Leffler, Brandy Sue

2012-01-01

42

Sports Fans, Athletes' Salaries, and Economic Rent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fans in the United States are increasingly distressed by the fact that spectator sports, one of their favorite recreational activities, are just another commercial enterprise. They attribute this state of affairs to the greed of professional athletes, a charge they often make without any understanding of the concept of economic rent, a major component of the salaries received by

Rodney J. Morrison

1996-01-01

43

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa

Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

2010-12-01

44

Dartmouth College Athletics Date Time Sport Opponent  

E-print Network

Dartmouth College Athletics Schedule Date Time Sport Opponent Page 1 Aug 4, 2010as of: Away2010-11 Fall at Harvard University (Scrimmage)AugWed 25 5:00 PM Field Hockey at Sacred Heart Invitational vs. JacksonvilleSepFri 3 4:00 PM Women's Volleyball at Sacred Heart Invitational vs. BinghamtonSepSat 4 1:00 PM

Lotko, William

45

Sports or Athletics: A North American Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the 15th Annual Canadian American Seminar, the purpose of which was to explore the widening gulf between sports and athletics, and to examine and predict trends in the U.S. and Canada. The seminar presentations are divided into six sessions, plus the Frank Boland Memorial Lecture delivered by Jesse Owens. Each session includes…

Murray, J. Alex, Ed.

46

The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate) returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5). Seventy one (9.0%) individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5%) had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85), weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82), endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84), late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51), and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69). Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature that the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea is high in athletes. Furthermore, we provided the first report on the prevalence of PCOS in female athletes with amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. Athletes would be greatly benefited by greater general awareness about the complications of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. To increase awareness of exercise-associated menstrual cycle irregularities, it is necessary to design complete and comprehensive education programs for female athletes, their parents, their coaches, and the relevant authorities. PMID:19642982

Dadgostar, Haleh; Razi, Mohammad; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Alenabi, Talia; Dahaghin, Saeideh

2009-01-01

47

Television Sports and Athlete Sex: Looking At the Differences in Watching Male and Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are an underrepresented population, particularly in the world of televised sports. Women are undervalued as athletes, due to their perceived lack of athletic skill and competitive spirit. This paper demonstrates, via physiological measures, men's sports garner more cognitive effort while it is women's sports that are actually remembered better. Also discussed is how men's and women's sports do not

James R. Angelini

2008-01-01

48

The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these. PMID:24367777

Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

49

Double play : athletes' use of sport video games to enhance athletic performance  

E-print Network

A design feature of contemporary sport video games allows elite athletes to play as themselves in life-like representations of actual sporting events. The relation between playing sport video games and actual physical ...

Silberman, Lauren (Lauren Beth)

2010-01-01

50

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETES WITH SPORT CONCUSSION  

PubMed Central

Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary. The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals. Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22893863

McQueen-Borden, Emily; Bell, Roberta A.; Barr, Thomas; Juengling, Jenifer

2012-01-01

51

Somatotypes of Nigerian athletes of several sports.  

PubMed Central

Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs. Images p219-a p219-b p219-c PMID:4092144

Mathur, D N; Toriola, A L; Igbokwe, N U

1985-01-01

52

Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate symptoms and neurocognitive recovery patterns after sports-related concussion in high school and college athletes. Study design College athletes (n = 371) and high school athletes (n = 183) underwent baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals who received a concussion during athletic competition (n = 54) underwent serial neuropsychologic evaluation after injury and were compared with

Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

2003-01-01

53

Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports.  

PubMed

The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined. PMID:20528446

Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

2010-01-01

54

Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.  

PubMed

Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

2014-09-01

55

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS  

E-print Network

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS 2011-2012 We may call it a sports option, but it college football student attendance record. It's why Aggie Soccer owns the NCAA Division I regular: Do not purchase a sports option if you are in the Aggie Band, Hullaballoo Band, or a student athlete

Behmer, Spencer T.

56

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS  

E-print Network

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS 2010-2011 We may call it a sports option, but it. It's why Aggie Soccer owns the NCAA Division I regular season single game attendance record ­ set not purchase a sports option if you are in the Aggie Band, Hullaballoo Band, or a student athlete. **BEST

Behmer, Spencer T.

57

Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting,

STEPHEN J. BULL

1999-01-01

58

Sport orientation model for wheelchair basketball athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the validity of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Competitiveness: 13 items, Win Orientation: 6 items, and Goal Orientation: 6 items) in a sample of 195 wheelchair basketball athletes from the USA. Following evidence for sample-specific validity, the measurement model that underlies the questionnaire was examined. A short-form with 15 items for three factors of Competitiveness (7 items), Win Orientation (5 items) and Goal Orientation (3 items) fit the data (X2/df ratio=2.21, NNFI=.892, CFI=.991, RCFI=.935, SRMR=.058, RMSEA=.071). To evaluate the findings further, we cross-validated the short-form by sex. Structural equation modeling indicated there were similar measurement properties and factor structures for the men and women, indicating similar conceptualization of sport orientations. Meaningful comparisons across sex may be undertaken, since both men and women who are wheelchair basketball athletes perceive the three short-form SOQ factors similarly. PMID:16158694

Skordilis, E K; Stavrou, N A

2005-06-01

59

MEDIA FRAMING OF FEMALE ATHLETES AND WOMEN'S SPORTS IN SELECTED SPORTS MAGAZINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine how female athletes and women's sports are framed in sports magazines, a textual analysis was conducted on three popular sports magazines (ESPN Magazine, Sporting News, and Sports Illustrated). The researcher analyzed the texts within these three magazines and found four emergent themes commonly applied to women in sports: mental weakness, male reference, motherhood and sisterhood, and

STACEY NICELY

60

Development management model of elite athletes in team sports games.  

PubMed

The scientific and expert approach to defining a model of managing the development of top-level athletes in team sports games is oriented toward the challenging values that mark a certain position and role in a team sports game. A hypothetical dynamic model of development management of top-level athletes in team sports games, which explicitly shows the order of procedures in the process of multidimensional development of athletes using the concepts of the dynamic systems theory has been suggested. The hypothetical model of management shows that the athlete's development is primarily under the influence of genetic potential, sports preparation process and the competition format, as well as the management of their lifestyle. In the process, the athlete's development is seen as a dynamic and plastic process under the influence of selective procedures and training programs that enable a continuous change in the level of the athlete's performance and sports preparation process. PMID:19662752

Trnini?, Marko; Trnini?, Slavko; Papi?, Vladan

2009-06-01

61

Reflections on Sport Psychology and the Olympic Athlete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eventual role that educational and clinical sport psychologists may play in assisting high-level athletes is discussed. An example of research on Olympic-level rifle and pistol shooters is presented as an example of how sport scientists can be involved in influencing policy for Olympic athletes. Obstacles which prevent the applied potential of…

Landers, Daniel M.

62

Sport As Life Content of Successful Finnish Amateur Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents research findings on Finnish male top athletes' education, occupation and family life in the span of life, time expenditure during active sport career, and their relations with sport career. The frame of reference is Festinger's theory of dissonance. The population was the most successful athletes in the Olym pic years from 1956 to 1972. The results are

Pauli Vuolle

1978-01-01

63

High School and College Athletes' Attitudes Toward Sport Psychology Consulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore attitudes about sport psychology consulting of high school and college athletes living in the United States. The Sport Psychology Attitudes–Revised form (SPA-R; Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, & Page, 2002) was administered to 362 high school and 431 college athletes. A 2 (Gender) × 2 (Age Group: High School and College) × 2

Scott B. Martin

2005-01-01

64

African American Athletes’ Experiences of Race in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a qualitative exploration of male and female African American athletes’ experiences of race and race discrimination with regard to specific incidents that occurred during their athletic careers. Eight African American athletes from different competitive levels and sports were interviewed to obtain a deeper understanding of their experiences of race and race discrimination and the role it played

Suzanne Malia Lawrence

2005-01-01

65

Transition into College Sports: The Freshman Student-Athlete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in attitude, motivation, and values take place in the academic, athletic, and social areas of student-athletes' lives during their freshman year of college. Twenty incoming college freshman athletes involved in "revenue" sports (football, basketball, and ice hockey) participated in this study and were interviewed in the fall and again in…

Purdy, Dean; And Others

66

Sport-Type Differences in Alcohol Use Among Intercollegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has found that (a) intercollegiate athletes are especially “at-risk” for excessive alcohol consumption (e.g., Nelson & Wechsler, 2001), and (b) sport-type differences exist among college athletes in terms of yearly drinking prevalence rates (National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2001). No studies, however, have examined sport-type differences on more specific measures of alcohol consumption (e.g., drinks per week), or examined

Matthew P. Martens; Jack C. Watson II; Niels C. Beck

2006-01-01

67

Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement: athletes at high altitude.  

PubMed

Many sports incorporate training at altitude as a key component of their athlete training plan. Furthermore, many sports are required to compete at high altitude venues. Exercise at high altitude provides unique challenges to the athlete and to the sport medicine clinician working with these athletes. These challenges include altitude illness, alterations in training intensity and performance, nutritional and hydration difficulties, and challenges related to the austerity of the environment. Furthermore, many of the strategies that are typically utilized by visitors to altitude may have implications from an anti-doping point of view.This position statement was commissioned and approved by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine. The purpose of this statement was to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to assist clinicians with the preparation and management of athletes and individuals travelling to altitude for both competition and training. PMID:24569430

Koehle, Michael S; Cheng, Ivy; Sporer, Benjamin

2014-03-01

68

Preventing sports injuries: opportunities for intervention in youth athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998–1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high

Nancy L. Weaver; Stephen W. Marshall; Mark D. Miller

2002-01-01

69

African American football athletes' perspectives on institutional integrity in college sport.  

PubMed

This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in college sport. Institutional integrity involves an athletic program's actual commitment to the educational interests of college athletes as expressed through their structures, functions, and activities. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) there is a need for more African American role models in leadership positions within the athletic departments of these PWIHE; (b) there is a need for more financial support for athletes; and (c) African American athletes should be given a platform to voice concerns. These findings have implications for those educational stakeholders and researchers who are genuinely concerned with institutional integrity in college sport. PMID:19408472

Singer, John N

2009-03-01

70

Improving Athletes’ Perspectives of Sport Psychology ConsultationA Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes’ Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete’s experiences in sports, and the

B. Donohue; Y. Dickens; K. Lancer; T. Covassin; A. Hash; A. Miller; J. Genet

2004-01-01

71

Irish Athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to replicate previous research examining attitudes to sport psychology consultation conducted in the US, Germany and the UK, and New Zealand. The study employed the Sport Psychology Attitudes-Revised (SPA-R) questionnaire in order to examine the attitudes elite Irish athletes (N = 240) hold toward sport psychology, and also to compare these attitudes with those

David Lavallee; Des Jennings; Ailsa G. Anderson; Scott B. Martin

2005-01-01

72

Epidemiology of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes in 20 Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions.Purpose: To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: Using

Mallika Marar; Natalie M. McIlvain; Sarah K. Fields; R. Dawn Comstock

2012-01-01

73

Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.  

PubMed

The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes. PMID:20869282

Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

2010-12-01

74

Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.  

PubMed

The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. PMID:24422719

Fagher, K; Lexell, J

2014-10-01

75

Guide to over-the-counter sports supplements for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements are used by at least 40% of athletes, and depending on the sport, up to 100%. Often multiple supplements are taken in higher than normal doses. Both competitive and recreational athletes take supplements, though sometimes for different reasons. Some take them to support a poor quality diet; others take supplements because they simply feel that an ordinary diet,

Norbert Baume; Ien Hellemans; Martial Saugy

2007-01-01

76

College Sports Inc.: The Athletic Department vs. the University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Big-time intercollegiate athletics has become College Sports Inc., a huge entertainment conglomerate with operating methods and objectives totally separate from, and often opposed to, the educational aims of the schools housing its franchises. This article dispels prevailing myths and seeks a new role definition for intercollegiate athletics

Sperber, Murray

1990-01-01

77

Sports Counseling: Helping Student-Athletes. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a dramatic increase in interest and participation in sports during the past decade, and this increase has affected the college student-athlete. Approximately 10% of American college athletes suffer from problems appropriate for counseling interventions. There is a need for counseling professionals who are sensitive to interventions…

Hinkle, J. Scott

78

Athletes' career transition out of sport: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies on athletes' career transition out of sport from 1968 until the end of 2010. A total of 126 studies were evaluated and reported in three sections: sample characteristics, research designs and correlates of athletes' career transition adjustment. Samples ranged from 1 to 1617. Investigators examined a wide

Sunghee Park; David Lavallee; David Tod

2012-01-01

79

ATHLETICS AND RECREATION Varsity and High Performance Sport  

E-print Network

-athletes to compete in NCAA and have them return and compete at home. Designation of a sport development institute for high-performing athletes." a)UBC to play a leadership role in structuring a new model which fosters for success. Further discussion: Should be a two pronged message: 1. UBC to play a leadership role in creating

Handy, Todd C.

80

Sports ability after Bankart procedure in professional athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent anterior shoulder instability and the restoration of sports ability after surgery are common problems, especially among professional athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate, level and time of returning to sports activity after Bankart procedure in anterior shoulder instability in high level atheletes. From 1992–1994 61 patients suffering from recurrent anterior shoulder instability were operated

A. Pavlik; D. Csépai; P. Hidas; A. Bánóczy

1996-01-01

81

High school athletes’ perspectives on character development through sport participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative methodologies and little is known concerning athletes’ experiences and perceptions

Martin Camiré; Pierre Trudel

2010-01-01

82

Parental involvement and athletes’ career in youth sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was (a) to examine the pattern of involvement of parents in youth sport across career phases and career transitions, and (b) to identify this pattern from the perspective of athletes and both of their parents.Methods and design: The parental involvement in sport questionnaire (PISQ, Eur. J. Phys. Educ. 2 (1997) 167), which measures perceptions

S Wuerth; M. J Lee; D Alfermann

2004-01-01

83

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport (TOQS) among adolescent athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an inherent link between theory and measurement suggesting that validation of measures should be the first stage of theory testing. The aim of the present study was to cross-validate the factorial validity of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport for use among adolescent athletes. National standard young athletes (Individual N?=?204; Team N?=?360) completed the TOQS questionnaire. Single-sample and

Chris Harwood; Alan M. Nevill

2005-01-01

84

Understanding sport-related drinking motives in college athletes: Psychometric analyses of the Athlete Drinking Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have identified college student–athletes as a high-risk group for heavy alcohol consumption (e.g., Nelson, T. F., & Wechsler, H. (2001). Alcohol and college athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 43–47). Recently, Martens and colleagues (Martens, M. P., Watson, J. C., Royland, E. M., & Beck, N. C. (2005). Development of the Athlete Drinking Scale. Psychology of

Matthew P. Martens; Joseph W. Labrie; Justin F. Hummer; Eric R. Pedersen

2008-01-01

85

Gender Differences in the Sport Socialization Process of High School Varsity Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was…

Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.

86

Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: what gives?  

PubMed

Knee injuries occur commonly in sports, limiting field and practice time and performance level. Although injury etiology relates primarily to sports specific activity, female athletes are at higher risk of knee injury than their male counterparts in jumping and cutting sports. Particular pain syndromes such as anterior knee pain and injuries such as noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur at a higher rate in female than male athletes at a similar level of competition. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries can be season or career ending, at times requiring costly surgery and rehabilitation. Beyond real-time pain and functional limitations, previous injury is implicated in knee osteoarthritis occurring later in life. Although anatomical parameters differ between and within the sexes, it is not likely this is the single reason for knee injury rate disparities. Clinicians and researchers have also studied the role of sex hormones and dynamic neuromuscular imbalances in female compared with male athletes in hopes of finding the causes for the increased rate of ACL injury. Understanding gender differences in knee injuries will lead to more effective prevention strategies for women athletes who currently suffer thousands of ACL tears annually. To meet the goal in sports medicine of safely returning an athlete to her sport, our evaluation, assessment, treatments and prevention strategies must reflect not only our knowledge of the structure and innervations of the knee but neuromuscular control in multiple planes and with multiple forces while at play. PMID:15668560

Dugan, Sheila A

2005-02-01

87

Racial identity and sport: The case of a bi-racial athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the current study was to examine racial identity development in a bi-racial athlete. The variant approach of identity development suggests that individuals of more than one racial background are confronted with a unique set of developmental tasks in order to achieve racial identity. The sport environment may offer a unique context through which racial identity may

Christopher T. Stanley; Jamie E. Robbins

2011-01-01

88

The sport experience of athletes with intellectual disabilities: a national survey of special olympics athletes and their families.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving SO. Athletes with ID are similar to athletes without disabilities in that sport is a significant life experience. They participate in sport for fun (54%) and social interaction (21%). Like athletes without disabilities, SO athletes leave sport because of changes in interest (38%) but also because of program availability (33%). These findings suggest that we continue to document the involvement of people with ID in sports and work to expand the sport opportunities available. PMID:19246774

Mharada, Coreen M; Siperstein, Gary N

2009-01-01

89

Differences in television sports reporting of men's and women's athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by the nation's two nightly sports news\\/highlights programs: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. The two programs were found to devote only about five percent of their air time to women's sports. Other measures, such as story placement and use of on?camera comments also indicated an emphasis on men's

C. A. Tuggle

1997-01-01

90

Sports vision and the high school student athlete.  

PubMed

Thorough sports vision evaluations (SVE) utilizing a 30-test battery of established sports vision tests, variations of commonly accepted procedures, and newly designed instruments and/or methods were performed by the Wisconsin Sports Vision Project (WSVP) staff on 232 teenage male and female high school student athletes. Tests are described and results reveal that a state tournament qualifying girls volleyball team (n = 8) demonstrated significantly better visual skills and abilities than 1) the male and female general high school athlete sample (n = 224), 2) the female athlete sample (n = 78), and 3) the other female volleyball players in the sample (n = 46) in some areas of dominant eye vision contrast sensitivity, distance judgement, dynamic visual acuity, tachistoscopic skills, low light and glare-affected vision. PMID:1506610

Melcher, M H; Lund, D R

1992-07-01

91

A Longitudinal Investigation of Competitive Athletes' Return to Sport Following Serious Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Returning to sport following a serious injury can be a difficult process for competitive athletes (Bianco, 2001; Bianco, Malo, & Orlick, 1999; Gould, Udry, Bridges, & Beck, 1997). Unfortunately, no qualitative longitudinal studies were found that examine athlete return-to-sport experiences following injury recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of competitive athletes' returning to sport following

Leslie Podlog; Robert C. Eklund

2006-01-01

92

Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives- Sports related concussion is common in children and adults. However,age-related differences have never been studied. In this study we evaluate post-concussion recovery patterns between high school and college athletes. Study Design-371 college and 183 high school athletes underwent,baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals sustaining a concussion during athletic competition,underwent,serial neuropsychological evaluation following injury. Main outcome measures

Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

93

Sport Psychology and the Female Olympic Athlete--An Uncharted Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because sport psychology has so recently been recognized at the United States Olympic Training Center, sport psychologists have had little systematic access to Olympic athletes. Intervention strategies used with elite athletes were developed from studies using primarily male athletes. Further research should include a focus on female athletes. (MT)

Pemberton, Cynthia L.; Petlichkoff, Linda

1988-01-01

94

Return to sports activity by athletes after treatment of spondylolysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To clarify the efficacy of conservative and surgical treatment of spondylolysis in athletes. METHODS: PubMed was used to perform a search of the literature for studies published during the period from 1990 to 2009 that reported data on the outcome of conservative or surgical treatment of spondylolysis in athletes. The articles were examined for data on the percentage of athletes who returned to sports activities and the interval between the start of treatment and their return. RESULTS: Five studies were identified. Two studies were concerned with conservative treatment and the other three with surgical treatment (wire fixation or screw fixation with bone graft). The percentages of athletes who returned to sports activities ranged from 80.0% to 89.3% and from 81.9% to 100%, respectively, and the intervals until their return ranged from 5.4 to 5.5 mo and from 7 to 12 mo, respectively. CONCLUSION: The percentages of athletes who returned to sports activities after conservative and surgical treatment appeared to be satisfactory, but the interval until their return to sports activities was longer after surgery than after conservative treatment. PMID:22474624

Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

2010-01-01

95

Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?  

PubMed

Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

2012-09-01

96

Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.  

PubMed

Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period. PMID:24748461

Barnes, Matthew J

2014-07-01

97

Socializing Sport or Athletic Excellence: The Role of Interschool Sports in the Secondary Schools of Ontario.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an overview of a survey conducted to determine the educational and social role of interschool sports in the secondary schools of Ontario, Canada. The study is based on the theory that the goal of most youth sports organizations is participation--to get as many children involved as possible. Conversely, professional-athletic

Gerace, Mary; Moriarty, Dick

98

Current limitations of the Athlete's Biological Passport use in sports.  

PubMed

The Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) has received both criticisms and support during this year. In a recent issue of The Lancet, Michael Wozny considered that the use of the ABP makes it more difficult to take banned substances and that it was successfully used against the Italian elite cyclist Franco Pellizotti. After that, Italy's anti-doping tribunal considered that there was not enough evidence to prove manipulation of his own blood profile in Pellizotti's case. However, the UCI appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) that sanctioned Pellizotti with a suspension of 2 years. Since its implementation, some problems have emerged. From 2010 to date, a large number of reports regarding the stability of the blood variables used to determine the ABP have been published, showing mixed results. This study considers that there is a risk of misinterpreting the physiological variations of the hematological parameters determined by the anti-doping authorities in the ABP. The analytical variability due to exercise training and competitions and/or to different metabolic energy demands, hypoxia treatments, etc. could lead to an increase in false-positives when using the ABP with the dramatic consequences that they might cause in major sports events like the forthcoming London Olympic Games. Moreover, the ABP characteristics, procedures, thresholds, or individual determination of reference ranges, abnormal out-comes, strikes, "how the profile differs from what is expected in clean athletes" should be clearly stated and explained in a new public technical document to avoid misunderstandings and to promote transparency. PMID:21619474

Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

2011-09-01

99

The Athletic Directors’ Dilemma: “$$$ & Women’s Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athletic Directors’ Dilemma evaluates and ranks the Division I-A, I-AA, and I-AAA colleges according to their commitment to the spirit of Title IX in\\u000a intercollegiate sports. The colleges are graded on the criteria of proportionality, scholarships, operating expenses, recruitment\\u000a budget, and coaching salaries. The conferences are also evaluated and compared according to their sports’ expenditures and\\u000a revenues.

Charles L. Kennedy

2007-01-01

100

Goal Orientations and Empowerment of Individuals with a Disability in the Sport Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between ego and task goal orientations on various dimensions of empowerment with athletes with a disability. Empowerment is defined as a process by which individuals gain mastery and control over their own lives. Participants were 396 athletes in Norwegian Sports clubs, 211 with a disability of various types and

Marit Sørensen; Glyn C. Roberts

101

Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes.  

PubMed

In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting, mental and physical issues. The results were analysed using (1) the metric scaling procedure of correspondence analysis, (2) cultural consensus analysis and (3) PROperty FITting analysis. A two-dimensional solution provided the best interpretation of the similarity judgements. The correspondence analysis configuration positioned the sport psychologist centrally between a sport-oriented pair and the cluster of mental health professionals. Participants reported adequate consensus on all three expertise variables, which is consistent with the assumptions of Cultural Consensus Theory. Consistent with earlier research, the three variables were salient in the participants' similarity judgements of sport and mental health professionals. Our results suggest the existence of a more favourable perception of the sport psychologist and a distancing from a direct association with mental health practitioners. However, the centrality of the term may indicate a more cloudy distinction as to where the sport psychologist exists in relation to other professionals. PMID:10362387

Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

1999-03-01

102

Bone Mineral Density in Collegiate Female Athletes: Comparisons Among Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. Objective: To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: University health care system. Patients or Other Participants: All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Results: Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 ± 0.055 g·cm ?2) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 ± 0.086 g·cm ?2) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Conclusions: Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and sport type with regard to her bone health. PMID:18059997

Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

2007-01-01

103

Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other…

Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

2007-01-01

104

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining  

E-print Network

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining real sports marketing and communications experience. A marketing or business background athletic events. You will be the foot soldiers of the organization, and will get the word out through

Barthelat, Francois

105

Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9–50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts. PMID:17205239

Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F.; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H. Michael

2007-01-01

106

Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.  

PubMed

The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Much of the available information on this subject has been collected from sedentary subjects or low-level competitors, often without well matched controls. Other issues requiring clearer definition include the duration of fasting, the local environment, the timing of observations, and changes in training, diet and sleep patterns. Sleep may be shortened or made good with daytime naps. Circadian rhythms of temperature, metabolism, hormonal secretions and physical performance may be disrupted and incidental activities curtailed. Disturbances of psychomotor performance include daytime sleepiness, impaired vigilance and slower reactions. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Sedentary individuals sometimes exploit Ramadan to reduce body fat stores. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Protein intake must allow for gluconeogenesis, and provide quality protein ingested around training times. Blood sugar levels are likely to fall over a long and active day, even if morning glycogen reserves are maximized. Metabolism of fat should be encouraged, beginning prior to Ramadan; inclusion of fat in the pre-dawn meal also slows gastric emptying. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat, but the immediate deficit can usually be made good at night. Some studies show an initial fluid depletion, with recovery as Ramadan continues, possibly reflecting changes in urine and sweat production. Top athletes can maintain training throughout Ramadan, although coaches sometimes reduce demands through a pre-competitive tapering of effort. Late night or early morning training requires negotiation with players who are not observing Ramadan, and dietary adjustments to maintain optimal plasma amino acid levels when training. Performance of repeated anaerobic exercise is impaired, but aerobic power and muscular strength show little change during Ramadan. Ratings of fatigue are increased, and vigilance and reaction times are impaired, particularly during the afternoon. Medical issues during Ramadan are few. Athletes with diabetes mellitus should seek a medical exemption from fasting, and prescribed drug schedules should be carefully maintained. There is no major increase of injury rates, but competitors may have difficulty in producing urine for doping controls. Logical measures to minimize the effects of Ramadan include the optimization of mood state, maintenance of training, minimization of sleep loss, appropriate adjustments of diet, and the monitoring of competitors for chronic dehydration. Future research should concentrate on the changes observed in top athletes, particularly women, with data collected in the late afternoon after a known period of fasting in a well defined environment. It will be important to ensure that the lifestyle of those studied has been optimized. Implications of chronic dehydration for doping control also merit further investigation. Current data suggest that the impact of Ramadan upon athletic performance is small relative to the precision of test procedures, although it may be sufficient to cause a loss of medals. Negative effects vary widely with the type of sport, the season when fasting is observed, the local culture and the discipline exercised by the athlete. PMID:23888431

Shephard, Roy J

2013-12-01

107

Epidemiology of sports injury in pediatric athletes.  

PubMed

In the United States, youth interest in sports participation has increased steadily over the past 2 decades. Although such trends are encouraging to the medical community, especially given the concurrent obesity epidemic among American youth, this increase in sports participation is accompanied by an increase in rates of sports injury in the pediatric population. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these injuries by primary care and orthopedic providers rests heavily on a fundamental understanding of the epidemiology of such pathologies. PMID:21293232

Gottschalk, Andrew William; Andrish, Jack T

2011-03-01

108

Computerised cognitive assessment of athletes with sports related head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional and amateur participants in many sports are at risk of brain injury caused by impact with other players or objects. In many cases, mild cognitive deficits may persist after the common neurological signs of brain injury have passed. In recent years, the athlete's cognitive status after concussion has been measured with conventional “paper and pencil” neuropsychological tests. However, such

A Collie; D Darby; P Maruff

2001-01-01

109

Collaborative Multi-Camera Tracking of Athletes in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to tracking athletes in team sports us- ing multiple cameras is proposed that addresses several issues including occlusions and propagation of wrong information. The strength of this approach lies in the use of belief propagation which enables good ob- servations in some views to compensate for poor observations in other views due e.g. to occlusions. Each target

Wei Du; Jean-Bernard Hayet; Justus Piater; Jacques Verly

110

Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.  

PubMed

Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

2014-02-14

111

Doppler echocardiography in athletes from different sports  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown cardiac changes induced by intense and regular physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac structures and function in soccer players, cyclists and long-distance runners, and compare them with non-athlete controls. Material/Methods Cardiac structural, systolic, and diastolic function parameters in 53 athletes and 36 non-athlete controls were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Results Athletes presented higher left atrial volume, left ventricular (LV) thickness, and LV and right ventricular (RV) diastolic diameters (LVDD and RVDD, respectively) compared to non-athletes. Left atrium and LVDD were higher in cyclists than runners, and RVDD was higher in cyclists than soccer players. LV mass index was higher in athletes, and cyclists had higher values than runners and soccer players. LV systolic function did not differ significantly between groups. The only altered index of LV diastolic function was a higher E/A ratio in cyclists compared to controls. There was no difference in LV E/E’ ratio. RV systolic function evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging was higher in cyclists and soccer players than runners. There were no conclusive differences in RV diastolic function. Conclusions Soccer players, runners and cyclists had remodeling of left and right ventricular structures compared to controls. Cardiac remodeling was more intense in cyclists than runners and soccer players. PMID:23478754

Moro, Andre Santos; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Okoshi, Katashi

2013-01-01

112

Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous\\u000a study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical\\u000a concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine\\u000a athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients

Christoph J. Siepe; Karsten Wiechert; Mohamed F. Khattab; Andreas Korge; H. Michael Mayer

2007-01-01

113

Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.  

PubMed

In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. PMID:24530682

Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

2014-04-22

114

Women Athletes' Personal Responses to Sexual Harassment in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past two decades. It is especially important for sport psychology consultants to understand this issue because they have professional opportunities to influence both individual and organizational responses to it. This article uses interview data from an investigation of sexual harassment in sport to examine the

Kari Fasting; Celia Brackenridge; Kristin Walseth

2007-01-01

115

Risk of sports: do we need a pre-participation screening for competitive and leisure athletes?  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac arrest is most often the first clinical manifestation of an underlying cardiovascular disease and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. The risk benefit ratio of physical exercise differs between young competitive athletes and middle-age/senior individuals engaged in leisure-time sports activity. Competitive sports are associated with an increase in the risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in susceptible adolescents and young adults with underlying cardiovascular disorders. In middle-age/older individuals, physical activity can be regarded as a 'two-edged sword': vigorous exertion increases the incidence of acute coronary events in those who did not exercise regularly, whereas habitual physical activity reduces the overall risk of myocardial infarction and SCD. Although cardiovascular pre-participation evaluation offers the potential to identify athletes with life-threatening cardiovascular abnormalities before onset of symptoms and may reduce their risk of SCD, there is a significant debate among cardiologists about efficacy, impact of false-positive results and cost-effectiveness of routine screening. This review presents an appraisal of the available data and criticisms concerning screening programmes aimed to prevent SCD of either young competitive athletes or older individuals engaged in leisure-time sports activity. PMID:21278396

Corrado, Domenico; Schmied, Christian; Basso, Cristina; Borjesson, Mats; Schiavon, Maurizio; Pelliccia, Antonio; Vanhees, Luc; Thiene, Gaetano

2011-04-01

116

Effect of different sports on body cell mass in highly trained athletes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to verify the impact of various sports on body cell mass (BCM). Ninety-eight male subjects, 17-33 years of age, participated in the study. The sample included athletes from three professional Italian football (soccer) teams, representing three different divisions (A, n=16; B, n=14; and C, n=18), judo athletes (J, n=10), and water polo athletes (W, n=14) who all competed at the national level. Twenty-six age-matched individuals served as the control group (CG). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), and BCM were assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). There were no significant differences in body weight and FFM among the groups. A and B were significantly taller than J and CG. B had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) than CG, while C had a significantly lower BMI than J and CG. CG had a significantly greater FM and %BF than A, B, and C. C had a significantly lower BCM than Aand B. CG had a significantly lower BCM than A, B, J, and W. In conclusion, differences in BCM exist among athletes of different sports, and among athletes within the same sport who compete at different levels. PMID:14618450

Andreoli, A; Melchiorri, G; Brozzi, M; Di Marco, A; Volpe, S L; Garofano, P; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A

2003-10-01

117

Sports dietitians australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.  

PubMed

It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

2014-10-01

118

Beliefs about the causes of success in sports and susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individual sports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use. PMID:24016156

Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

2014-02-01

119

Postactivation potentiation response in athletic and recreationally trained individuals.  

PubMed

To determine if training status directly impacted the response to postactivation potentiation, athletes in sports requiring explosive strength (ATH; n = 7) were compared to recreationally trained (RT; n = 17) individuals. Over the course of 4 sessions, subjects performed rebound and concentric-only jump squats with 30%, 50%, and 70% 1 RM loads. Jump squats were performed 5 minutes and 18.5 minutes following control or heavy load warm-ups. Heavy load warm-up consisted of 5 sets of 1 repetition at 90% 1 RM back squat. Jump squat performance was assessed with a force platform and position transducer. Heavy load warm-up did not have an effect on the subjects as a single sample. However, when percent potentiation was compared between ATH and RT groups, force and power parameters were significantly greater for ATH (p < 0.05). Postactivation potentiation may be a viable method of acutely enhancing explosive strength performance in athletic but not recreationally trained individuals. Reference Data: Chiu, L.Z.F., A.C. Fry, L.W. Weiss, B.K. Schilling, L.E. Brown, and S.L. Smith. Postactivation potentiation response in athletic and recreationally trained individuals. PMID:14636093

Chiu, Loren Z F; Fry, Andrew C; Weiss, Lawrence W; Schilling, Brian K; Brown, Lee E; Smith, Stacey L

2003-11-01

120

2013 SPORT CAMPS Langille Athletic Centre  

E-print Network

$30 charge for all NSF cheques. What to Bring Packed lunch/snacks Labeled Water Bottle Indoor according to age and skill level. The Camp will take place at the DAL AC Langille Athletic Centre Code:___________________ Ph: (w)____________________(h)___________________(c)_______________ Backup

Brownstone, Rob

121

Sport concussion assessment tool: baseline values for varsity collision sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine baseline symptom and neurocognitive norms for non-concussed and previously concussed varsity athletes using the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT).Study Design:Descriptive cohort study.Setting:University of Calgary.Subjects:260 male and female university football, ice hockey and wrestling athletes over three seasons (2005–7).Methods:A baseline SCAT was completed during preseason medical evaluation. Subjects were grouped as follows: all participants, men, women, never concussed (NC)

N Shehata; J P Wiley; S Richea; B W Benson; L Duits; W H Meeuwisse

2009-01-01

122

The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving…

Harada, Coreen M.; Siperstein, Gary N.

2009-01-01

123

Gambling as an addictive disorder among athletes: clinical issues in sports medicine.  

PubMed

This article examines the role of gambling as an addictive disorder experienced by athletes, both college and professional. Gambling may often be seen as a comorbid factor with other addictions and with depression among athletes. The focus on addictions among athletes has gained considerable attention among sports medicine clinicians. Diagnostic indicators, risk and protective factors, and a stage model of addiction among athletes are addressed. An algorithm and pathway of care for athletes with an addictive disorder is offered as are recommendations that sports physicians, sports medicine specialists, coaches and counsellors need to address athletes who have an addictive disorder. PMID:11286353

Miller, T W; Adams, J M; Kraus, R F; Clayton, R; Miller, J M; Anderson, J; Ogilvie, B

2001-01-01

124

Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the values of anaerobic energetic capacity variables in athletes engaged in different sport disciplines and to compare them in relation to specific demands of each sport. Wingate anaerobic tests were conducted on 145 elite athletes (14 boxers, 17 wrestlers, 27 hockey players, 23 volleyball players, 20 handball players, 25 basketball players, and 19 soccer players). Three variables were measured as markers of anaerobic capacity: peak power, mean power, and explosive power. The highest values of peak power were measured in volleyball 11.71 +/- 1.56 W.kg and basketball players 10.69 +/- 1.67 W.kg, and the difference was significant compared with the other athletes (p 0.05). The measured results show the influence of anaerobic capacity in different sports and the referral values of these variables for the elite male athletes. Explosive power presented a new dimension of anaerobic power, i.e., how fast maximal energy for power development can be obtained, and its values are high in all sports activities that demand explosiveness and fast maximal energy production. Coaches or other experts in the field could, in the future, find useful to follow and improve, through training process, one of the variables that is most informative for that sport. PMID:19387405

Popadic Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Grujic, Nikola G

2009-05-01

125

Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

126

Entry into Elite Sport: A Preliminary Investigation into the Transition Experiences of Rookie Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes experience a number of transitions throughout their athletic career (Wylleman, Alfermann, & Lavallee, 2004). One pivotal transition that has received less attention in the literature is the transition into elite sport. The purpose of the present study was to examine the transitioning experience of young athletes entering elite sport. Using a phenomenological approach, rookie ice hockey players (N =

Mark W. Bruner; Krista J. Munroe-Chandler; Kevin S. Spink

2008-01-01

127

The effect of sport on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Broad criteria for abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, requiring additional testing, have been recommended for preparticipation exams (PPE) of athletes. As these criteria have not considered the sport in which athletes participate, we examined the effect of sports on the computerized ECG measurements obtained in college athletes.Methods: During the Stanford 2007 PPE, computerized 12-lead ECGs (Schiller AG) were obtained in

Maaike GJ Gademan; Abhimanyu Uberoi; Vy-Van Le; Sandra Mandic; Eddy R van Oort; Jonathan Myers; Victor F Froelicher

2012-01-01

128

Study on the Trait Sport-confidence of the collegiate basketball athletes and its influence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important component of the athletes' comprehensive abilities; sport-confidence impacts on the athletic performance whether before or during the event. By means of documental data method, survey method, psychological measurement, and statistical method, the research had directed on the trait sport-confidence (SC- Trait) of collegiate basketball athletes who had participated in college basketball matches of shanghai, china and its

Lu Tianfeng; Wang Enfeng

2011-01-01

129

A personal development model of sport psychology for athletes with disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving superior sport performance is often the result of well developed psychological skills (Morris & Thomas, 1995). However, little is known about psychological skill development in athletes with disabilities (Hanrahan, 1998). The purpose of the present paper is to help sport psychologists in their work with athletes with physical disabilities. Although there are many similarities among athletes with and without

Jeffrey J. Martin

1999-01-01

130

The effect of competition location on individual athlete performance and psychological states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine the performance and pre-competition psychological states of individual sport athletes in relation to competition location. It was hypothesized that skiers would perform better when competing at home. Self-reports of state anxiety were expected to be lower and self-confidence higher prior to home races compared to away.Design. Within-subjects design to examine athletes' performance and pre-competition psychological states at

S. R Bray; K. A Martin

2003-01-01

131

Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

2013-01-01

132

Understanding sport-related drinking motives in college athletes: psychometric analyses of the Athlete Drinking Scale.  

PubMed

Researchers have identified college student-athletes as a high-risk group for heavy alcohol consumption (e.g., Nelson, T. F., & Wechsler, H. (2001). Alcohol and college athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 43-47). Recently, Martens and colleagues (Martens, M. P., Watson, J. C., Royland, E. M., & Beck, N. C. (2005). Development of the Athlete Drinking Scale. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 158-164) developed a measure of sport-related motivations for drinking: the Athlete Drinking Scale (ADS). Initial research on the reliability and validity of the measure was promising, and the purpose of this study was to conduct additional psychometric analyses on the scale. Data were analyzed from 483 NCAA Division I athletes who volunteered to participate in the study. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided satisfactory support for the hypothesized factor structure of the ADS. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that scores on the ADS were associated with relevant alcohol-related outcome variables, even after controlling for the effects of demographic factors and general drinking motives. Thus, the ADS may be a useful tool for both clinicians and researchers working in alcohol prevention among collegiate athletes. PMID:18489064

Martens, Matthew P; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Pedersen, Eric R

2008-07-01

133

THE COACH-ATHLETE COMMUNICATION PROCESS. TOWARDS A BETTER HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN SPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal communication plays a key role in obtaining success in sports. Two important parties that communicate in sport are the coach and his athlete(s). The latter one(s) can be seen as the human resources a coach has to manage. These human resources are property of a sports club or team and. In order to improve his management, the coach has

Vlad ROSCA

2010-01-01

134

How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of “faster, higher, and stronger.” In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given sport, and help athletes interact with the environment more effectively.

Li Li

2012-01-01

135

Male and Female Athletes' and Nonathletes' Expectations about Sport Psychology Consulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore expectations of athletes and nonathletes about sport psychology consulting. Tinsley's (1982) Expectations About Coun-seling-Brief form was revised using sport psychology terms. The revised instrument, Expectations About Sport Psychology Consulting (EASPC) questionnaire, was administered to 111 athletes (64 male and 47 female) and 166 nonathletes (72 male and 94 female) attending an NCAA

Scott B. Martin; Allen Akers; Allen W. Jackson; Craig A. Wrisberg; Lynne Nelson; P. Jason Leslie; Larson Leidig

2001-01-01

136

Rules Limiting Athletic Performance or Prohibiting Athletic Participation for Health Reasons: Legal and Ethical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the paradox between: 1) intercollegiate sport's objectives of maximizing athletic performance and providing athletic participation opportunities to those possessing the requisite physical ability and skills to compete successfully; and 2) National Collegiate Athletic Association rules that limit athletic performance by all student-athletes, or university requirements that prohibit individual student-athletes from participating in intercollegiate sports, for health reasons.

Matthew J. Mitten

2009-01-01

137

Differences between male and female college lean sport athletes, nonlean sport athletes, and nonathletes on behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relative frequency of behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders in collegiate athletes and nonathletes. Participants were 230 male and 250 female nonathletes. and 187 male and 113 female varsity athletes. The male and female athletes were classified separately as either in a lean sport (i.e., where weight or appearance was central to success) or a

Trent A. Petrie

1996-01-01

138

Public health recommendations for athletes attending sporting events.  

PubMed

Public health planning in advance of the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games included an assessment of potential public health risks for athletes attending the Games and mitigation activities to reduce those risks, including provision of vaccination recommendations to athletes. Physicians providing care to athletes who will attend large sporting events at home or abroad should consider their need for routine and additional vaccinations well in advance of the event to permit completion of vaccination schedules, ensure development of immunity, and avoid adverse vaccine reactions in the final stages of athlete training. Specific vaccinations recommended will vary depending on the location of the event and time of year it is scheduled. Other simple prevention measures for athletes include hand washing recommendations, avoiding high-risk foods, practicing safe sex, and taking simple precautions to reduce the risk of injuries. No major public health problems occurred during the 2010 Winter Games, but a measles outbreak began in Vancouver coincident in time with the Games; no known cases occurred among participating athletes. PMID:21200174

Daly, Patricia; Gustafson, Réka

2011-01-01

139

Psychometric properties of the "sport satisfaction instrument (SSI)" in female athletes: predictive model of sport commitment.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to assess the psychometric properties of the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI) in a Spanish sample of female athletes in team sports federations, to decide whether it constitutes a valid and reliable instrument to be used in the context of female competitive sport in future research. The SSI was administered to a total of 615 athletes from 12 to 38 yr. of age. Confirmatory procedures and psychometric analysis supported the hypothesized theoretical model of two factors (Satisfaction/fun and Boredom). For female athletes, the 7-item model showed better goodness-of-fit indexes upon eliminating Item 2 from the Boredom subscale. Concurrent validity was explored through the correlations with the Perception of Success Questionnaire and Sport Commitment, obtaining positive correlations between Satisfaction/fun and Task Orientation and Sport Commitment, whereas Boredom correlated positively but less closely with Ego Orientation. The importance of Satisfaction/fun in the prediction of Sport Commitment, starting from task orientation, is emphasized. PMID:25153956

Granero-Gallegos, A; Baena-Extremera, A; Gómez-López, M; Abraldes, J A

2014-08-01

140

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-01-01

141

Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63\\/72; 87.5±12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female

B. J. Dascombe; M. Karunaratna; J. Cartoon; B. Fergie; C. Goodman

2010-01-01

142

Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

1983-01-01

143

Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

2013-12-01

144

Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n = 263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2014-01-01

145

Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

2011-01-01

146

Hypertension update and cardiovascular risk reduction in physically active individuals and athletes.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a prevalent disease worldwide. Its inadequate treatment leads to major cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. These conditions decrease life expectancy and are a substantial cost burden to health care systems. Physically active individuals and professional athletes are not risk free for developing this condition. Although the percentage of persons affected is substantially lower than the general population, these individuals still need to be thoroughly evaluated and blood pressure targets monitored to allow safe competitive sports participation. Regarding treatment, lifestyle modification measures should be routinely emphasized to athletes and active individuals with the same importance as for the general population. Medication treatment can be complicated because of restrictions by athletic organizations and possible limitations on maximal exercise performance. In addition, the choice of an antihypertensive drug should be made with consideration for salt and water losses that routinely occur in athletes, as well as preservation of exercise performance and endothelial function. First-line therapies for athletes and physically active individuals may be different from the general population. Some authorities believe that blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is more beneficial compared with diuretics because of ACE inhibitors and ARBs being able to avoid salt and water losses. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are another reasonable choice. Despite effects on heart rate, nondihydropyridine CCBs do not appear to impair exercise performance. beta-Blockers are not used as a first-line therapy in athletes because of effects on exercise and prohibition by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and World Anti-Doping Agency in certain sports. In this article, we address the evidence on hypertension and its related treatments in active individuals to provide recommendations that allow the best competitive sports results and reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:20424397

Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Lawless, Christine E

2010-04-01

147

Physical testing prior to returning to normal sports activity for elite athletes following ACL injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is among the most frequent sports-related injuries especially in contact sports such as football, basketball, soccer and skiing. In professional sports, ACL injury has a significant financial impact on both athlete and team, since several months are required before full return to professional sport activity. At the end of the rehab program an overall assessment

Georgios G Ziogas

2011-01-01

148

Keeping Your Head in the Game: Sport-Specific Imagery and Anxiety Among Injured Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. Objective: To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Design: Observational design. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Results: Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Conclusions: Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic anxiety before return to practice. Image content recommendations should encompass the cognitive and motivational functions of imagery, and the practitioner should assess if any image used by the athlete is debilitative. PMID:19593424

Monsma, Eva; Mensch, James; Farroll, Jennifer

2009-01-01

149

The GH-IGF-I Response to Typical Field Sports Practices in Adolescent Athletes: A Summary.  

PubMed

The present study compares previous reports on the effect of "real-life" typical field individual (ie, cross-country running and wrestling-representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (ie, volleyball and water polo-representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH?IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations. PMID:25372377

Eliakim, Alon; Cooper, Dan M; Nemet, Dan

2014-11-01

150

Female and male student athletes' perceptions of career transition in sport and higher education: a visual elicitation and qualitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The termination of a collegiate athletic career is inevitable for all student athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore student athletes' perceptions of the athletic career transition process. One-hundred-andforty- three (n= 143) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II student athletes were administered the Life After Sports Scale (LASS) designed by the authors. The LASS is a 58-item

Keith C. Harrison; Suzanne Malia Lawrence

2004-01-01

151

Kinanthropometric attributes of young male combat sports athletes.  

PubMed

Although there are enough studies concerning the kinanthropometric attributes of players of sports such as football, basketball, or volleyball in Turkey, there are not enough studies on the same for combat sports. Hence, our aim is to assess the kinanthropometric attributes of different combat sports like karate, taekwondo, judo and kickboxing. The present study included 48 national level male athletes from four different combat sports (age, 20.3 (3.19) years; number of years playing the sport, 8.33 (4.59); height, 174.3 (7.15) cm; weight, 67.35 (10.55 kg). Skinfold thickness was measured with a skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd., UK), and Yuhazs formula was used to calculate the body fat percentage. Somatotype assessment was carried out with a computer program (Sweat Technology Trial Version, South Australia). Width measurements were obtained with a slide caliper (HLT-100, Holtain Ltd.), and girth measurements were obtained with a non-flexible tape measure. The data obtained were analyzed with the computer program SPSS 17.0 in terms of the SD. The findings were as follows: body mass index (BMI), 22.00 (2.66) kg/m2; body fat percentage, 12.20% (3.07%); endomorphic component, 2.9 (1.30); mesomorphic component, 4.25 (1.30); and ectomorphic component, 3.10 (1.30). The cormic index was 51.99% (1.88%); Monourier index, 92.39% (4.47%); Acromio-iliac index, 60.87% (6.61%); Martine index, 6.29% (0.70%); Biacromial index, 22.58% (0.99%); and hip index, 13.91% (0.86%). The mesomorphic component was found to be dominant in our study. Although BMIs were found to be normal, body fat percentages were low. According to body proportions, the athletes who participated in this study had wide shoulders, narrow hips, and medium-sized trunks. PMID:24611359

Catikkas, Fatih; Kurt, Cem; Atalag, Ozan

2013-12-01

152

Reviewing Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Competitive Anxiety in Athlete Students, in Individual and Group Fields  

E-print Network

Abstract: Mental role in sports competitions and also the consequences of anxiety in sports psychology from the topics to be discussed is undeniable. One of environments rich in excitement and anxiety, the sports environment deal with the excitement and anxiety is inevitable. The purpose of this study investigated the relationship between dimensions of emotional intelligence and competitive anxiety in male and female student athlete group and individual courses are. 270 student athletes (180 team sports, individual sports in 1990) from the University of Fars province, all of which have 6 to 15 years had the championship, once the night before the race and the second time within half an hour before the contest conducted by questionnaire competitive anxiety and emotional intelligence Martnez (1970) to fill. Kendall correlation test to determine the relationship between variables, Smirnov test for normal distribution of data, independent samples T-test for comparing normal and test agents "U " Mann-Whitney to compare variables that were not normal. Also SPSS software for data analysis was used. Results showed that the only spontaneity between the dimensions of emotional intelligence with self-confidence was a significant relationship (p 0.05). Between athletes of individual and group about emotional intelligence and social skills and self-regulation

Ahmad Torkfar; Zohre Abbariki; Ali Ghorban Rostami; Esmat Karamiyan

153

Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter includes all cases involving student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. However, no case law is discussed that pertains to physical education instruction or intramural…

Sharp, Linda A.

154

Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter--new to the "Yearbook"--discusses all court cases reported in 1986 that involved student athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, interscholastic sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. It does not, however, include case…

Thomas, Stephen B.; White, Janet M.

155

Self-reported attitudes of elite athletes towards doping: differences between type of sport.  

PubMed

Although athletes' beliefs and values are known to influence whether or not an athlete will use banned drugs, little is known about the athletes' beliefs and attitudes in different sports. The aim of this study was to clarify the beliefs and attitudes of elite athletes towards banned substances and methods in sports. A total of 446 athletes (response rate 90.3 %; 446/494) financially supported by the National Finnish Olympic Committee completed a structured questionnaire during their national team camps in 2002. More than 90 % of the athletes reported to believe that banned substances and methods have performance enhancing effects, and 30 % reported that they personally know an athlete who uses banned substances. Of the male athletes 35 %, and 23 % of females reported they personally know an athlete using banned substances. A total of 15 % of the athletes reported that they had been offered banned substances: 21 % of the speed and power athletes, 14 % of the team sport athletes and of the athletes in motor skills demanding events, and 10 % of the endurance athletes. Stimulants were the most often offered substance group (to 7 % of all the athletes) followed by anabolic steroids (4 %). Subjects who regarded doping as a minor health risk seemed to be more often associated with doping users than those regarding doping as a significant health risk. Athletes in different sports have a different approach to doping. Risk of doping appears to be highest in speed and power sports and lowest in motor skills demanding sports. Males are at higher risk than females. Controlling doping only by tests is not sufficient. A profound change in the attitudes is needed, which should be monitored repeatedly. PMID:16586338

Alaranta, A; Alaranta, H; Holmila, J; Palmu, P; Pietilä, K; Helenius, I

2006-10-01

156

[Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].  

PubMed

The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than among biathletes. Reduced serum level of one antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but sometimes, conversely, their decline (vitamin A) to a level corresponding to the physiological needs. The revealed vitamin B2 deficiency may very likely indicate a lack of other B group vitamins. In this connection it is necessary to draw attention to the need to eliminate the existing vitamin deficiency, and not to focus exclusively on antioxidant vitamins. The most reasonable and at the same time a safe way to restore the lack of vitamins in the diet of most athletes is consistently including in the diet of athletes vitamin and mineral supplements and/or fortified foods, containing a complete set of all or at least most of vitamins, and in doses that are not excessive and are adequate to maintain optimum vitamin status. PMID:24741956

Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

2013-01-01

157

Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

2011-01-01

158

Critical Comments About Body Shape and Weight: Disordered Eating of Female Athletes and Sport Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation explored the role of critical comments about weight and body shape and disordered eating symptoms of female athletes (N = 157) and sport participants (N = 63). Results revealed that both athletes and sport participants who recalled critical comments, compared with those who did not, and those who recalled more severe critical comments, reported greater disordered eating (controlling

Anne C. Muscat; Bonita C. Long

2008-01-01

159

Tracing the origins of athlete development models in sport: a citation path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of the sport psychology literature have identified a number of models of athlete development in sport (Alfermann & Stambulova, 2007; Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001). However, minimal research has investigated the origins of knowledge from which each model was developed. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the influential texts responsible for providing the basis of athlete development

Mark W. Bruner; Karl Erickson; Kimberley McFadden; Jean Côté

2009-01-01

160

Disclosure as an Interaction: Why Lesbian Athletes Disclose Their Sexual Identities in Intercollegiate Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, the number of gay, bisexual, and lesbian athletes who have disclosed their sexual identities has been increasing. Given that sport has traditionally been defined as a heterosexist institution, this pattern is deserving of attention and investigation (Anderson, 2001). In response, the present study examines why intercollegiate lesbian athletes disclose their sexual identities in the sport context. In-depth

Suzanne Stoelting

2011-01-01

161

Staging globalization for national projects: Global sport markets and elite athletic transnational labour in Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global migration of elite athletes is a key feature of the transnational labour market. Following a background discussion and review of the literature on sport and transnationalism, this article explores this phenomenon in the context of Qatar. Beginning with the emergence, meaning and movement of the elite athlete transnational labour force that constitutes global sport markets, the article explores

Rook Campbell

2011-01-01

162

Transgender Student­Athletes and Sex­Segregated Sport: Developing Policies of Inclusion for Intercollegiate and Interscholastic Athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article discusses the discrimination of transgender students who may be excluded, discouraged, or simply made to feel uncomfortable participating in athletic programs for their natal sex, by the sex-segregated world of athletics. The Author believes that until sports' governing bodies develop and enforce policies of inclusion, transgender students will continue to be denied access to and the benefits of

Erin E. Buzuvis

2011-01-01

163

Symposium on interactive experiences, practices and challenges in sport psychology: approaches to psychological testing of athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing emphasis on psychological training of athletes at all levels of performance, testing of psychological characteristics of athletes has gained importance over the decades. The two approaches to effect this task are: (1) the use of general psychometric tests to study athletic behaviour and (2) construction, standardisation and administration of sport-specific psychological tests. Both approaches have their respective merits

M L Kamlesh

2010-01-01

164

Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

2013-01-01

165

Comparison of sport achievement orientation between wheelchair and able-bodied basketball athletes.  

PubMed

Differences in sport achievement orientations between 31 recreational wheelchair and 76 able-bodied basketball athletes were tested. Athletes from the New England region completed the three subscales of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation). Wheelchair athletes responded higher on the Competitiveness and Goal Orientation subscales. In discriminative function analysis competitiveness scores were the only significant discriminator between the two groups. PMID:11883565

Skordilis, E K; Koutsouki, D; Asonitou, K; Evans, E; Jensen, B

2002-02-01

166

Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were

Kazuto Omiya; Hiromitsu Sekizuka; Keisuke Kida; Kengo Suzuki; Yoshihiro J. Akashi; Haruo Ohba; Haruki Musha

2012-01-01

167

Sport and Gender Differences in Injury and Stress among Division III Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention has been given to injuries in youth sports, specifically with regards to early specialization and athlete stress. However, little research has attempted to link injury to other psychological or participation variables. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and sports-specific differences in injury and athlete stress. Eight-hundred and ninety-five Division III collegiate athletes were sampled in

Andrew Rose

2012-01-01

168

Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median?=?3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median?=?1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P?=?0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports. PMID:23662691

Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

2014-10-01

169

Evaluating the athlete’s perception of the sport psychologist’s effectiveness: What should we be assessing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To extend understanding of factors pertinent to the effective practice of applied sport psychologists in order to influence good evaluation practice.Method: Semi-structured interviews with 30 elite United Kingdom (UK) athletes (mean age=22.7±8.2) from a range of sports about their experiences of sport psychology. The interview transcripts were inductively content analyzed and appropriate trustworthiness criteria were incorporated.Results: A number of

A Anderson; A Miles; P Robinson; C Mahoney

2004-01-01

170

High-level athletes' perceptions of success in returning to sport following injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveFor many injured athletes, a safe and successful return to sport following injury is the ultimate aim of injury recovery. Little consensus exists however, regarding the meaning of a “successful” return to sport following injury recovery [Evans, L., Mitchell, I., & Jones, S. (2006). Psychological responses to sport injury: a review of current research. In S. Hanton, & S. D.

Leslie Podlog; Robert C. Eklund

2009-01-01

171

Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This updated second edition provides comprehensive and current information on women in sports, detailing the history, biography, bibliography, and statistics of female professional and amateur athletes. The book is divided into 4 parts with 6 chapters. Part 1, History of Women's Sports, presents: (1) Women in American Sports and (2) Women in the…

Woolum, Janet

172

Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

2013-01-01

173

Development of the Sports Performance Inventory: A Psychological Measure of Athletic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study extends existing sport psychology research by developing a more comprehensive athlete attitudinal survey—the Sports Performance Inventory (SPI). A multiple item survey consisting of sport-related attitudinal items was distributed to 274 students enrolled in a large Division I Midwestern university. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation performed on the original survey items resulted in an 83 item

John W. Jones; George Neuman; Robert Altmann; Brian Dreschler

2001-01-01

174

Principles of Liability for Athletic Trainers: Managing Sport-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide an overview of the general legal principles of negligence for sports medicine professionals and apply these principles to situations involving athletes with head injury. Data Sources: Case law dating back to 1976 and recent studies of sport-related concussion. Summary: One of the most difficult problems facing athletic trainers and team physicians is the recognition and treatment of sport-related concussion. Providing medical clearance for sports participation and treatment of athletic injuries involves legal as well as medical issues. The threat of lawsuits exists for the sports medicine professional, whether the athlete is allowed to play or not. In general, established medical malpractice principles govern claims by athletes for injury or death caused by improper treatment by health care providers. The elements of negligence are examined, as well as the primary defenses an athletic trainer would use in court and risk management techniques to avoid litigation. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers may protect themselves from liability by including standardized cognitive or postural stability testing in preparticipation examinations, using objective tests rather than subjective judgement to evaluate athletes who have sport-related concussion, working closely with physicians, and keeping excellent records. PMID:12937503

2001-01-01

175

MR spectroscopic evidence of brain injury in the non-diagnosed collision sport athlete.  

PubMed

With growing evidence of long-term neurological damage in individuals enduring repetitive head trauma, it is critical to detect lower-level damage accumulation for the early diagnosis of injury in at-risk populations. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic scans of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex were collected from high school American (gridiron) football athletes, prior to and during their competition seasons. Although no concussions were diagnosed, significant metabolic deviations from baseline and non-collision sport controls were revealed. Overall the findings indicate underlying biochemical changes, consequential to repetitive hits, which have previously gone unnoticed due to a lack of traditional neurological symptoms. PMID:25144258

Poole, Victoria N; Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Breedlove, Evan L; Breedlove, Katherine M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Dydak, Ulrike

2014-01-01

176

Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.  

PubMed

Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT indoors to further enhance individual and team performances. PMID:24263650

Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

2014-02-01

177

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. METHODS: The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium

Oluwatoyosi BA Owoeye

2010-01-01

178

Special Athletic Opportunities for Individuals with Handicapping Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains 12 author contributed chapters concerned with special athletic opportunities for individuals with handicapping conditions. The monograph begins with a detailed treatment of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 followed by descriptions of athletic programs developed by various groups. Remaining chapters are concerned…

Winnick, Joseph P., Ed.; Short, Francis X., Ed.

179

The Psychological Interface Between the Coach-Created Motivational Climate and the Coach-Athlete Relationship in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study's objective was to investigate the motivational significance of the coach- athlete relationship in team sports. 591 athletes completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000) to assess perceptions of the coach-created motivational climate and two Coach-Athlete Relationship Ques- tionnaires to assess direct perceptions (Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and meta-percep- tions (Jowett, in press)

Alkisti Olympiou; Sophia Jowett; Joan L. Duda

180

Cognitive effects of one season of head impacts in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season negatively affects cognitive performance in collegiate contact sport athletes. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study at 3 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic programs. Participants were 214 Division I college varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 45 noncontact sport athletes. All athletes were assessed prior to and shortly after the season with a cognitive screening battery (ImPACT) and a subgroup of athletes also were assessed with 7 measures from a neuropsychological test battery. Results: Few cognitive differences were found between the athlete groups at the preseason or postseason assessments. However, a higher percentage of the contact sport athletes performed more poorly than predicted postseason on a measure of new learning (California Verbal Learning Test) compared to the noncontact athletes (24% vs 3.6%; p < 0.006). On 2 postseason cognitive measures (ImPACT Reaction Time and Trails 4/B), poorer performance was significantly associated with higher scores on several head impact exposure metrics. Conclusion: Repetitive head impacts over the course of a single season may negatively impact learning in some collegiate athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent. PMID:22592370

Flashman, L.A.; Maerlender, A.; Greenwald, R.M.; Beckwith, J.G.; Tosteson, T.D.; Crisco, J.J.; Brolinson, P.G.; Duma, S.M.; Duhaime, A.-C.; Grove, M.R.; Turco, J.H.

2012-01-01

181

REVIEW OF SPORTS PERFORMANCE RESEARCH WITH YOUTH, COLLEGIATE, AND ELITE ATHLETES  

PubMed Central

This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research. PMID:22219554

Luiselli, James K; Woods, Kathryn E; Reed, Derek D

2011-01-01

182

Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

2011-01-01

183

Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes  

PubMed Central

Background In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. Results The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p?sport group the males presented better values (p?sports groups there weren’t any gender differences in either part of the test (p?=?0.18; p?=?0.056). Conclusions These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence. PMID:24447526

2014-01-01

184

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes

2010-01-01

185

Italian cardiological guidelines for sports eligibility in athletes with heart disease: part 2.  

PubMed

In Italy the existence of a law on health protection of competitive sports since 1982 has favored the creation and the revision of these cardiological guidelines (called COCIS), which have reached their fourth edition (1989-2009). The present article is the second English version, which has summarized the larger version in Italian. The experience of the experts consulted in the course of these past 20 years has facilitated the application and the compatibility of issues related to clinical cardiology to the sports medicine field. Such prolonged experience has allowed the clinical cardiologist to acquire knowledge of the applied physiology of exercise and, on the other hand, has improved the ability of sports physicians in cardiological diagnostics. All this work has produced these guidelines related to the judgment of eligibility for competitive sports in the individual clinical situations and in the different cardiovascular abnormalities and/or heart disease. Numerous arguments are debated, such as interpretation of the athlete's ECG, the utility of a preparticipation screening, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and other particular issues. PMID:23625056

Biffi, Alessandro; Delise, Pietro; Zeppilli, Paolo; Giada, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio; Penco, Maria; Casasco, Maurizio; Colonna, Pierluigi; D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Andrea, Luigi; Gazale, Giovanni; Inama, Giuseppe; Spataro, Antonio; Villella, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo; Pirelli, Salvatore; Romano, Vincenzo; Cristiano, Antonio; Bettini, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano; Furlanello, Francesco; Corrado, Domenico

2013-07-01

186

Italian cardiological guidelines for sports eligibility in athletes with heart disease: part 1.  

PubMed

In Italy the existence of a law on health protection of competitive sports since 1982 has favored the creation and the revision of these cardiological guidelines (called COCIS), which have reached their fourth edition (1989-2009). The present article is the second English version, which has summarized the larger version in Italian. The experience of the experts consulted in the course of these past 20 years has facilitated the application and the compatibility of issues related to clinical cardiology to the sports medicine field. Such prolonged experience has allowed the clinical cardiologist to acquire knowledge of the applied physiology of exercise and, on the other hand, has improved the ability of sports physicians in cardiological diagnostics. All this work has produced these guidelines related to the judgment of eligibility for competitive sports in the individual clinical situations and in the different cardiovascular abnormalities and/or heart disease. Numerous arguments are debated, such as interpretation of the athlete's ECG, the utility of a preparticipation screening, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and other particular issues. PMID:23615077

Biffi, Alessandro; Delise, Pietro; Zeppilli, Paolo; Giada, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio; Penco, Maria; Casasco, Maurizio; Colonna, Pierluigi; D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Andrea, Luigi; Gazale, Giovanni; Inama, Giuseppe; Spataro, Antonio; Villella, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo; Pirelli, Salvatore; Romano, Vincenzo; Cristiano, Antonio; Bettini, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano; Furlanello, Francesco; Corrado, Domenico

2013-07-01

187

Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Study Design: Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. Results: On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and ?0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R2 change 3.2%, P < .001). Conclusions: This study represents the largest sample of BMD data in senior athletes to date. Senior participation in high-impact sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. Clinical Relevance: These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging. PMID:23015914

Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

2009-01-01

188

Characterizations of Criminal Athletes: A Systematic Examination of Sports News Depictions of Race and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present content analysis systematically analyzed the frequency and quality of newspaper coverage of race and crime in sports news. A social identity framework, incorporating insights from framing, was applied. It was expected that the features associated with athletes as well as the tone and style of news reports would vary based on the race\\/ethnicity of the athlete. For African

Dana E. Mastro; Erin Blecha; Anita Atwell Seate

2011-01-01

189

A Qualitative Examination of Sport Transitions in First Year Collegiate Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

First year student athletes transitioning from high school to university experience simultaneous transitions in athletics, academics, social lives, family structures, support systems, and peer sport groups. These changes in their personal, social and occupational lives, can impact them cognitively, emotionally and behaviourally (Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994). The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the multi-dimensional transition experience of

Carolyn McEwen

2010-01-01

190

Substance Use among College Athletes: A Comparison Based on Sport/Team Affiliation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard…

Ford, Jason A.

2007-01-01

191

Effect of different sports on body cell mass in highly trained athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to verify the impact of various sports on body cell mass (BCM). Ninetyeight male subjects, 17–33 years of age, participated in the study. The sample included athletes from three professional Italian football (soccer) teams, representing three different divisions (A, n=16; B, n=14; and C, n=18), judo athletes (J, n=10), and water polo athletes (W,

A. Andreoli; G. Melchiorri; M. Brozzi; A. Di Marco; S. L. Volpe; P. Garofano; N. Di Daniele; A. De Lorenzo

2003-01-01

192

Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced.MethodsMultivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations.ResultsA representative sample of 13% of the

Karine Schaal; Muriel Tafflet; Hala Nassif; Valérie Thibault; Capucine Pichard; Mathieu Alcotte; Thibaut Guillet; Nour El Helou; Geoffroy Berthelot; Serge Simon; Jean-François Toussaint; Monica Uddin

2011-01-01

193

Effects of sports activity in athletes with bicuspid aortic valve and mild aortic regurgitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn this study, the impact of regular training on left ventricle morphology in a group of athletes with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was evaluated.DesignLongitudinal cohort study. A group of competitive athletes with BAV was followed up with a yearly standard echocardiographic examination for 5 years.SettingSport Medicine Centre, University of Florence, Pre-Participation Protocol StudyParticipantsA group of 88 consecutive athletes diagnosed with

G. Galanti; L. Stefani; L. Toncelli; M. C. R. Vono; R. Mercuri; N. Maffulli

2010-01-01

194

Reactions to sport career termination: a cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages

D. Alfermann; N. Stambulova; A. Zemaityte

2004-01-01

195

Effect of sports activity on bone mineral density in wheelchair athletes.  

PubMed

The present study carried out a measurement of body composition and a nutrition survey, targeting 28 male wheelchair athletes and comparing them with 25 male physically able healthy athletes as the controls. The DXA method was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD), percentage of body fat (% body fat), and lean body mass (LBM). Possible factors affecting the BMD of the wheelchair athletes with spinal injuries were analyzed including age, body part, type of sport, area of injury, length of injury, and the length of time it took before restarting sports activity after injury. BMD in the arms, body trunk, legs, and entire body was measured. There were no significant differences in the BMD of the wheelchair athletes by age group (from 20 to 29, from 30 to 39, and 40 years and older), by sports (basketball, track and field, and tennis), and by area of injury (high and low paraplegia). BMD in the legs (r = -0.549, P < 0.01), body trunk (r = -0.414, P < 0.05), and entire body (r = -0.452, P < 0.05) of the wheelchair athletes was negatively correlated with the period since injury; however, no such a relationship was observed in the arms. In addition, the multiple regression analysis for BMD of each body region showed that the earlier the wheelchair athletes restarted sports after injury, the higher values the BMD of legs (r = -0.467, P < 0.05), body trunk (r = -0.469, P < 0.05), and entire body (r = -0.488, P < 0.05), independent of age and sports. The leg BMD of the wheelchair athletes was lower than that of the physically able athletes, with a BMD 76.5% of the controls. The present study suggests that restarting sports activity in a timely manner after treatment and rehabilitation for the injury is useful in preventing loss of BMD in wheelchair athletes and ultimately improving their quality of life. PMID:18095071

Miyahara, Kimiko; Wang, Da-Hong; Mori, Keiko; Takahashi, Kayo; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takigawa, Tomoko; Takaki, Jiro; Ogino, Keiki

2008-01-01

196

Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valerie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-Francois

2011-01-01

197

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by lagos state athletes at the 16th national sports festival (kada games 2009) in nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria.ObjectiveThe study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival and providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes.DesignProspective descriptive study.SettingThe study was carried out at the Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and

O B A Owoeye

2011-01-01

198

Understanding female collegiate athletes' intentions to consume sports supplements: an application of the theory of planned behavior  

E-print Network

target for marketing. Additionally, pressures to achieve greater athletic performance or an ideal body image are strong motivators for young athletes. These factors create an environment in which adolescents are likely to consume dangerous sports...

Housman, Jeff Michael

2007-09-17

199

How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

Li, Li

2012-01-01

200

Relationship between Sports Drinks and Dental Erosion in 304 University Athletes in Columbus, Ohio, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic soft drinks, including sports drinks, have been implicated in dental erosion with limited supporting data in scarce erosion studies worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in a sample of athletes at a large Midwestern state university in the USA, and to evaluate whether regular consumption of sports drinks was associated with

Tanya Mathew; Paul S. Casamassimo; John R. Hayes

2002-01-01

201

Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

1976-01-01

202

Brain Function Decline in Healthy Retired Athletes who Sustained their Last Sports Concussion in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of sports concussions on cognitive and motor function may persist up to a few years post-injury. The present study sought to investigate the effects of having sustained a sports concussion more than 30 years prior to testing on cognitive and motor functions. Nineteen healthy former athletes, in late adulthood (mean age =

Louis De Beaumont; H Théoret; David Mongeon; Julie Messier; Suzanne Leclerc; Sebastien Tremblay; Dave Ellemberg; Maryse Lassonde

2009-01-01

203

Physiological measurements and analyses in motor sports: a preliminary study in racing kart athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to assess methods for performing physiological measurements in motor sports, and to carry out a preliminary study in athletes participating in kart racing. The measurement of physiological variables in motor sports is practically challenging, largely due to the restricted space available for sensors and instrumentation and to movement artefacts from driver's operations and car

Takehiro Yamakoshi; Kenta Matsumura; Yasuhiro Yamakoshi; Hajime Hirose; Peter Rolfe

2010-01-01

204

Athletes' Preferred Characteristics and Qualifications of Sport Psychology Practitioners: A Consumer Market Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies assessing the perceived characteristics of competent sport psychology practitioners have resulted in skewed data, making it difficult to discern the relative importance of each characteristic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the attributes of gender, ethnicity, interpersonal skills, physical appearance, athletic background, professional status, and sport culture in relation to one another using conjoint analysis, a

John Lubker; Amanda J. Visek; Jack C. Watson II; Darius Singpurwalla

2012-01-01

205

Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Sport: Relationships with Leadership, Team Cohesion, and Athlete Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to introduce the construct of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; Organ, 1988) into the sport psychology literature and examine its utility in sport. Based upon OCB research in the organizational literature, the Multidimensional Model of Leadership (MML; Chelladurai, 1978), the conceptual framework of team cohesion (CFC; Carron & Hausenblas, 1998), and a model of athlete

Mark W. Aoyagi; Richard H. Cox; Richard T. McGuire

2008-01-01

206

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing Sudden Death in Sports  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care. PMID:22488236

Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.

2012-01-01

207

Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

Gaines, Stacey A.

2012-01-01

208

Working memory capacity among collegiate student athletes: Effects of sport-related head contacts, concussions, and working memory demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Design: Ambidirectional cohort study. Setting: Athletics department at an American university. Participants: Student athletes competing

Lester B. Mayers; Thomas S. Redick; Sheila H. Chiffriller; Ashley N. Simone; Keith R. Terraforte

2011-01-01

209

From early to adult sport success: analysing athletes' progression in national squads.  

PubMed

Although some prospective studies have shown that many successful young athletes do not maintain the same level of success when they reach adulthood, there is still a lack of information regarding athletes who started their international involvement at early ages. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the international pathway of male and female athletes in different sports from the moment of their competitive debut, in order to determine how many international athletes at early ages competed or did not compete internationally as juniors and/or seniors. The sample included 395 athletes (soccer, volleyball, swimming and judo), born between 1974 and 1981, who could have competed in their national squads between 1988 and 2008. Results showed that only a third of international pre-junior athletes reappeared as senior athletes, confirming the difficulties of predicting late success based on early identification and selection. PMID:24444203

Barreiros, André; Côté, Jean; Fonseca, António Manuel

2014-01-01

210

A Survey of Sports Medicine Physicians Regarding Psychological Issues in Patient-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the extent to which sports medicine physicians encounter and discuss psychological issues among athletes they treat and to evaluate physicians' perceptions of the availability and efficacy of sport psychologists and other mental health resources.Study Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: A survey was sent via e-mail to all physician members of 4 prominent sports medicine professional associations: the American Orthopaedic

Barton J. Mann; William A. Grana; Peter A. Indelicato; Daniel F. ONeill; Steven Z. George

2007-01-01

211

Sports Counseling: Enhancing the Development of the Student-Athlete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores two problems, role conflict and athletic retirement, commonly faced by student athletes. Describes several potentially useful intervention models based on a psychoeducational approach, and suggests some directions for future research in aiding understanding of student-athlete development. (Author/KS)

Chartrand, Judy M.; Lent, Robert W.

1987-01-01

212

Sports statistics: Trends and random fluctuations in athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in the results of athletic competitions are often considered to stem from better training and equipment, but elements of chance are always present in athletics and these also contribute. Here we distinguish between these two effects by estimating the range into which athletic records would have fallen in the absence of systematic progress and then comparing this with actual

Daniel Gembris; John G. Taylor; Dieter Suter

2002-01-01

213

Superstitions of Canadian Intercollegiate Athletes: an Inter-Sport Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belief structures categorized as superstitions were investigated among members of six selected Intercollegiate athletic teams enrolled at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada during the 1971-72 aca demic year. A mailed questionnaire was employed as the survey instru ment and distributed to 174 athletes chosen by systematic random sampling from lists supplied by the Department of Athletics. The over

C. Jane Gregory; Brian M. Petrie

1975-01-01

214

How to Build an Optimized Movement Analysis Laboratory for High Performance Athletes of Various Sport Disciplines (P116)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement analysis plays an important role for both, enhancing athletes’ performance and movement techniques in various sport\\u000a disciplines as well as optimising sport equipment. Therefore an optimal movement analysis laboratory should provide most realistic\\u000a conditions for a variety of sport disciplines, such as track and field, gymnastics and team sports as well as for testing\\u000a sport equipment ranging from sport

Lars Janshen

215

How to Build an Optimized Movement Analysis Laboratory for High Performance Athletes of Various Sport Disciplines (P116)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement analysis plays an important role for both, enhancing athletes’ performance and movement techniques in various sport\\u000a disciplines as well as optimising sport equipment Therefore an optimal movement analysis laboratory should provide most realistic\\u000a conditions for a variety of sport disciplines, such as track and field, gymnastics and team sports as well as for testing\\u000a sport equipment ranging from sport

Lars Janshen

216

Character Development. Does Sport Affect Character Development in Athletes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of sport on character development, noting that historically British and American schools have valued sports for helping develop social character and citizenship. The paper discusses research on sport as a character builder, suggesting that the effect of sport on character depends on the positive or negative social contextual…

Sage, George

1998-01-01

217

Campus Newspaper Coverage of Varsity SportsGetting Closer to Equitable and Sports-related Representations of Female Athletes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the coverage of women's and men's varsity sport teams in the English- and French-language student newspapers at the University of Ottawa, Canada, during three academic years from 2004 to 2007. The analysis revealed unique findings, considering that previous research on campus print media had shown an enduring disparity of coverage featuring female athletes. In contrast, our descriptive

Steph MacKay; Christine Dallaire

2009-01-01

218

Sport nutrition and doping factors in swimming; parallel analysis among athletes and coaches.  

PubMed

The sport nutrition and doping are known to be important issues in sports, but there is evident lack of studies which investigated those issues in swimming, especially with regard to parallel analysis of coaches and athletes. The first aim of this study was to compare knowledge of swimming coaches and their athletes about nutrition and doping. Also, we have identified interrelationships between studied sociodemographic-, sport-; nutrition- and doping-related-factors. The sample of subjects comprised 55 athletes (20.3 +/- 2.2 years of age; 24 females) and 22 coaches (mean age 36.5 +/- 7.8 years; 4 females) from Croatia (98% of respondents). In the first phase of the investigation we have validated specific questionnaires to determine the knowledge of sport nutrition (KSN), and knowledge on doping (KD). The test-retest correlation and percentage of equally responded queries revealed both questionnaires as reliable. The discriminative validity was proven also since coaches scored better than their athletes on both questionnaires. Athletes declared their coaches as the primary sources of knowledge about nutrition and doping. Among coaches, formal and self-education are equally important sources of information about doping and nutrition. The age is negatively, while the formal education is positively correlated to KD and KSN scores among coaches. Consequently, permanent educational programs about nutrition and doping are emphasized, especially among older coaches and younger athletes. PMID:23914506

Sajber, Dorica; Rodek, Jelena; Escalante, Yolanda; Oluji?, Dragana; Sekuli?, Damir

2013-05-01

219

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.  

PubMed

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology. PMID:20640439

Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

2010-11-01

220

Development of the 2012 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians position statement on concussion in athletics  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the development of the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians (ACBSP) Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics regarding the management of concussion in sport and to offer suggestions to qualifying doctors of chiropractic (DCs) to make return-to-play decisions and clarify common concepts pertaining to evaluating and managing concussion in sport. Methods A literature review of position statements from sports medicine organizations was performed. The authors reviewed each statement for content. Key issues in the management of concussion in sport were identified with special consideration to concussion management by DCs. A position statement on the management of concussion in sport was drafted by the authors and submitted to the Board of Directors of the ACBSP for review. The Board of Directors called for minor revision; and after all revisions were made, the document was resubmitted. The Board of Directors of the ACBSP accepted the document for publication and presentation. The document was presented and disseminated to certificants by the ACBSP at the 2011 Chiropractic Sports Sciences Symposium. Results The 2012 ACBSP Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics was accepted by the ACBSP Board of Directors. Conclusion The Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics has been accepted by the ACBSP. This document offers guidance on the management of concussion in sport and provides qualifying DCs information to make return-to-play decisions. PMID:24396329

Moreau, William J.; Nabhan, Dustin C.

2013-01-01

221

Sport-specific conditioning.  

PubMed

The goal of the athlete is to optimize performance. The goal of the sports medicine physician is to minimize injury risk. By preparing the athlete's body for the mechanical and metabolic demands inherent in a particular sport, sport-specific conditioning programs can help achieve both these goals. Periodization of the conditioning program is the ideal framework for keeping the individual athlete's workload as high as possible without overtraining and injury. PMID:8037286

Kibler, W B; Chandler, T J

1994-01-01

222

Athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and coaching competency in sport teams: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and two theoretically derived dimensions of coaching competency (i.e., game strategy and technique competencies). A total of 243 players from 26 teams representing various interdependent sports completed French versions of the Role Ambiguity Scale and the Coaching Competency Scale. Multilevel analyses supported the existence of relationships between the four dimensions of role ambiguity and the two dimensions of coaching competency at both individual and team levels. When the levels were considered jointly, athletes perceiving greater ambiguity in their role in both offensive and defensive contexts were more critical of their coach's capacities to lead their team during competitions and to diagnose or formulate instructions during training sessions. The results also indicated that the dimension of scope of responsibilities was the main contributor to the relationship with coaching competency at an individual level, whereas role evaluation was the main contributor to this relationship at a group level. Findings are discussed in relation to the role episode model, the role ambiguity dimensions involved in the relationships according to the level of analysis considered, and the salience of ambiguity perceptions in the offensive context. PMID:22691398

Bosselut, Grégoire; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Eys, Mark A; Fontayne, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe

2012-06-01

223

The role of autonomic function on sport performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Devastating paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal cardiovascular control present significant hemodynamic challenges to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially during exercise. In general, resting arterial pressure after SCI is lower than with able-bodied individuals and is commonly associated with persistent orthostatic intolerance along with transient episodes of life-threatening hypertension, known as "autonomic dysreflexia." During exercise, the loss of central and reflexive cardiovascular control attenuates maximal heart rate and impairs blood pressure regulation and blood redistribution, which ultimately reduces venous return, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Thermoregulation also is severely compromised in high-lesion SCI, a problem that is compounded when competing in hot and humid conditions. There is some evidence that enhancing venous return via lower body positive pressure or abdominal binding improves exercise performance, as do cooling strategies. Athletes with SCI also have been documented to self-induce autonomic dysreflexia before competition with a view of increasing blood pressure and improving their performance, a technique known as "boosting." For health safety reasons, boosting is officially banned by the International Paralympics Committee. This article addresses the complex issue of how the autonomic nervous system affects sports performance in athletes with SCI, with a specific focus on the potential debilitating effects of deranged cardiovascular control. PMID:25134753

Krassioukov, Andrei; West, Christopher

2014-08-01

224

Sports, Outdoor Recreation, and Games for Visually and Physically Impaired Individuals: Reference Circular No. 91-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide lists and describes print materials, nonprint materials, and organizations dealing with sports, outdoor recreation, and games for visually and physically impaired individuals. Section I focuses on national organizations that sponsor athletic events on various levels and provide related services for children, youth, and adults…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

225

ACUTE AVULSION FRACTURES OF THE PELVIS IN ADOLESCENT COMPETITIVE ATHLETES: PREVALENCE, LOCATION AND SPORTS DISTRIBUTION OF 203 CASES COLLECTED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the prevalence, localisation and sports distribution of pelvic avulsion fractures in adolescent competitive athletes. Design and patients. One thousand two hundred and thirty eight radiographs of the pelvis taken in athletes (11-35 age ranging) attained for focal traumatic symptoms, performed in 22 years (1976-1998) and filed at the Radiology Department of the Sports Science Institute of the

Folco Rossi; Stefano Dragoni

226

No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

2011-01-01

227

Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

2014-05-01

228

Comparison of sport achievement orientation of male wheelchair basketball athletes with congenital and acquired disabilities.  

PubMed

The study was designed to examine the sport achievement orientations of male wheelchair basketball athletes who differed by onset of experienced disability (congenital and acquired). The full Sport Orientation Questionnaire was administered to 166 U.S. national athletes. Athletes with congenital disabilities had higher mean scores than their peers with acquired disabilities on the three subscales of the full form and on the extraction items as a short form (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). Multivariate analysis of variance yielded no significant differences between groups. Significant differences on Competitiveness and Goal Orientation, with a higher mean were found for the group with congenital disabilities than for the group with acquired disabilities. The results are discussed in relation to the literature, nature of wheelchair basketball, and application of the test to such athletes. PMID:17326496

Skordilis, E K; Skafida, F A; Chrysagis, N; Nikitaras, N

2006-12-01

229

Stressors experienced by injured athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the stressors participants experienced during three phases of injury (onset, rehabilitation and return to competitive sport). Within- and cross-case analyses showed that athletes experienced sport, medical/physical, social and financial stressors. There were a number of differences in the stressors experienced across the three phases and between team and individual-sport athletes. Findings have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions aimed at managing the potentially stressful sport injury experience and facilitating injured athletes' return to competitive sport. PMID:22551525

Evans, Lynne; Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon; Mitchell, Ian

2012-05-01

230

Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.  

PubMed

In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:24444205

Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

2014-01-01

231

Athlete burnout in elite sport: A self-determination perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs

Chris Lonsdale; Ken Hodge; Elaine Rose

2009-01-01

232

Influence of sports participation and menarche on bone mineral density of female high school athletes.  

PubMed

Weight-bearing exercise during adolescence may enhance peak bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce osteoporosis risk. The association of sports participation before and after menarche with areal BMD (by central DXA) was investigated in 99 female high school athletes (age 15.5+/-1.3 year). The frequency and duration of structured sports (school-based or other organized team) were assessed using an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Overall, the average number of years of weight-bearing sport participation was 7.4+/-3.4 years; 72% of the athletes began sport participation before menarche. Training patterns and BMD were examined by tertiles of yearly weight-bearing sport participation (hours/year) before (WBpre), after (WBpost) menarche, and in total (WBtotal). After adjusting for chronological age, gynecological age, and BMI, compared to athletes in the WBtotal low tertile, athletes in the WBtotal high tertile had significantly greater BMD at the spine (p=0.009), total hip (p=0.03), trochanter (p=0.03), and total body (p=0.009). Similar patterns were found by WBpre or WBpost status, separately, with the exception of spine BMD which was significantly different across tertiles in WBpost only (p<0.01). While the number of years of participation was similar across tertiles of WBtotal, the number of months/year was significantly greater among athletes in the high tertile than athletes in the low tertile (9.2+/-3.4 month/year versus 5.0+/-2.9 month/year, respectively (p<0.001)). These results indicate that near year-round participation in structured weight-bearing sports during early adolescence may help young girls optimize bone mineral accrual during these critical years, and may decrease their risk of osteoporosis with advancing age. PMID:16846752

Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Lawson, Mandra J; Levy, Susan S

2007-06-01

233

Patello-femoral arthralgia in athletes attending a Sports Injury Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a five year period, 137 athletes presented to a Sports Injury Clinic with patello-femoral arthralgia. This was 5.4% of the total injuries seen and a quarter of all knee problems treated. Running contributed to 32% of the athletes with patello-femoral pain. There was a 4:1 male:female ratio and nearly 70% were in the 16-25 year age range. A follow-up

M. D. Devereaux; S. M. Lachmann

1984-01-01

234

Motivation for sport participation in older Italian athletes: the role of age, gender and competition level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at identifying whether age, competition level and gender influence motivation for sport participation in\\u000a Italian senior athletes. Four hundred and thirty-three athletes aged 45–80 years participated in the study by completing the\\u000a SMS questionnaire validated for this population. Separate scores for the 7 Extrinsic Motivation (EM), Intrinsic Motivation\\u000a (IM) and Amotivation (AM) subscales of the SMS questionnaire,

Roberta De Pero; Stefano Amici; Cinzia Benvenuti; Carlo Minganti; Laura Capranica; Caterina Pesce

2009-01-01

235

Elite and Novice Athletes' Imagery Use in Open and Closed Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little research has investigated differences in imagery use between open-and closed-skill sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of competitive level (elite\\/novice) and skill-type (open\\/closed) on athletes' imagery use. A total of 83 British athletes (39 elite, 44 novice) from open-(n = 40: 23 rugby; 17 martial arts) and closed-skill (n = 43: 28 golf;

Monna Arvinen-Barrow; Daniel A. Weigand; Scott Thomas; Brian Hemmings; Malcolm Walley

2007-01-01

236

Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008–2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by

Carlos González-Haro; Julio Calleja-González; Jesus F. Escanero

2010-01-01

237

Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

Almagro, Bartolome J.; Saenz-Lopez, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

2010-01-01

238

Prediction of sport adherence through the influence of autonomy-supportive coaching among spanish adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key pointsImportance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes.Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation.Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

Almagro, Bartolomé J; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A

2010-01-01

239

Is it profitable to represent the country? Evidence on the sport-related income of funded top-level athletes in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several countries have introduced support mechanisms for top-level athletes who represent their nation in international competitions such as the Olympics. Many of these athletes receive funding as they do not generate sufficient income through their sport. Previous research has focused on self-sufficient athletes in professional sports demonstrating a research gap regarding the income of funded athletes. The purpose of the

Pamela Wicker; Christoph Breuer; Tassilo von Hanau

2012-01-01

240

Career transitions and identity: a discursive psychological approach to exploring athlete identity in retirement and the transition back into elite sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes' career transitions have received widespread research attention and have been identified as potentially distressing for athletes. Yet, the transition back into elite sport following retirement, although rare, has not been a focus of research attention. The concept of athlete identity has been widely researched within sport psychology to give insight into the varied experiences of athletes, especially in relation

Suzanne Cosh; Amanda LeCouteur; Shona Crabb; Lisa Kettler

2012-01-01

241

Iron Stores in Professional Athletes Throughout the Sports Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports anemia provoked by iron deficiency develops slowly and although the existence or reality of this condition is under discussion, the ferritin levels tend to reduce with sports practice. This paper analyzes the variations of iron metabolism, including the organism stores of this metal throughout a sports season in a group of professional sportsmen (soccer players) belonging to a team

Jesus Fernando Escanero; Jesus Villanueva; Angel Rojo; Adolfo Herrera; Carlos del Diego; Manuel Guerra

1997-01-01

242

An athletic Clio: sport history and television history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport historians have largely avoided television history even though several series, like Ken Burn's Baseball and the BBC's More Than a Game, have reached large audiences. Only one journal, The Journal of Sport History, regularly reviews mediated forms of sport history, while the other journals only sporadically engage with television history and film. This article evaluates the documentary The Original

Murray G. Phillips

2008-01-01

243

Men Get 70% of Money Available for Athletic Scholarships at Colleges That Play Big-Time Sports, New Study Finds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on sex equity by the National Collegiate Athletic Association found men's college athletic teams receive 70 percent of athletic scholarship money, 77 percent of operating money, and 83 percent of recruiting money spent by colleges playing big-time sports, despite virtually equal enrollment of men and women. Interpretations of the data…

Lederman, Douglas

1992-01-01

244

Comparison of sport achievement orientation of male professional, amateur, and wheelchair basketball athletes.  

PubMed

To examine the differences in sport achievement orientation among 35 professional, 36 amateur, and 35 wheelchair basketball athletes, these men completed three subscales of Competitiveness, Win orientation, and Goal orientation of the 25-item Sport Orientation Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among groups. Win orientation was the factor, through discriminant function analysis, that significantly separated the athletes into the three groups. The highest win score was obtained by the professional, followed by the amateur and wheelchair groups. Replication study is necessary to confirm the present findings. PMID:14620236

Skordilis, E K; Gavriilidis, A; Charitou, S; Asonitou, K

2003-10-01

245

The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female

Haleh Dadgostar; Mohammad Razi; Ashraf Aleyasin; Talia Alenabi; Saeideh Dahaghin

2009-01-01

246

Drugs in sport: a scientist-athlete's perspective: from ambition to neurochemistry  

PubMed Central

This article, by the United Kingdom's last Olympic Marathon Medal winner, Charlie Spedding, and his brother, the pharmacologist, Michael Spedding, covers the difficulties posed by the availability of powerful drugs to ameliorate athletic performance, from an athlete's perspective, particularly in view of the fact that performances are becoming highly optimised with less margin for further physiological improvement. The authors have had long athletic careers and argue that doping not only devalues performance but sport, and exercise, as a whole. Furthermore, the neurotrophic and metabolic changes involved in exercise and training, which can be modified by drugs, are central to health and reflect a part of the epidemic in obesity. PMID:18500377

Spedding, M; Spedding, C

2008-01-01

247

Drugs in sport: a scientist-athlete's perspective: from ambition to neurochemistry.  

PubMed

This article, by the United Kingdom's last Olympic Marathon Medal winner, Charlie Spedding, and his brother, the pharmacologist, Michael Spedding, covers the difficulties posed by the availability of powerful drugs to ameliorate athletic performance, from an athlete's perspective, particularly in view of the fact that performances are becoming highly optimised with less margin for further physiological improvement. The authors have had long athletic careers and argue that doping not only devalues performance but sport, and exercise, as a whole. Furthermore, the neurotrophic and metabolic changes involved in exercise and training, which can be modified by drugs, are central to health and reflect a part of the epidemic in obesity. PMID:18500377

Spedding, M; Spedding, C

2008-06-01

248

Prevention of overuse sports injuries in the young athlete.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism, and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young athletic population. This information provides valuable insight into the state of the current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as the potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

Paterno, Mark V; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

2013-10-01

249

Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as…

Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

2001-01-01

250

CAFFEINE USE IN SPORTS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ATHLETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ergogenic effects of caffeine on athletic performance have been shown in many studies, and its broad range of metabolic, hormonal, and physiologic effects has been recorded, as this review of the literature shows. However, few caffeine studies have been published to include cognitive and physiologic considerations for the athlete. The following practical recom- mendations consider the global effects of

BULENT SOKMEN; L AWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG; W ILLIAM J. KRAEMER; J. CASA; JOAO C. DIAS; D ANIEL A. JUDELSON; CARL M. MARESH

251

Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2013-01-01

252

NCAA Division-I Student-Athletes' Receptivity to Mental Skills Training by Sport Psychology Consultants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study NCAA Division I student-athletes (n = 2,440) completed a Web-based survey assessing their willingness to seek mental skills training, perceptions of the potential benefits of mental training for their team, and support of possible roles for a sport psychology consultant at their institution. Multiple chi-square tests revealed significant (p<.001) dependence of respondents' ratings on gender, sport

Craig A Wrisberg; Duncan Simpson; Lauren A Loberg; Jenny L Withycombe; Ann Reed

2009-01-01

253

Young People's Socialisation into Sport: A Case Study of an Athletics Club  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores young people's (9 to 15 years old) early socialisation into sport. We draw on data from an 18-month-long ethnography of the junior section of an athletics club in England, using field notes, interviews and a psychometric questionnaire. We begin by noting a trend towards increasing numbers of younger children participating in adult-organised, community-based sport. Within this context,

Ann Macphail; Trish Gorely; David Kirk

2003-01-01

254

Type of sport played and motivation orientation as predictors of subjective well-being in college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship of subjective well-being in college student-athletes with the type of sport played and motivation for participation. Specifically, motivation was investigated as a possible mediating influence in the relationship between sport participation and subjective well-being. One hundred twenty-four undergraduate student athletes, ranging in age from 18 to 23, participating in a sport requiring interpersonal support,

Robyn Wesler Landow

1997-01-01

255

Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.  

PubMed

Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception. PMID:22833850

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

2012-01-01

256

Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete  

PubMed Central

The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

2003-01-01

257

Gender, age, and sport differences in relative age effects among US Masters swimming and track and field athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relative age effect has been identified in Masters sports (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007). Since gender, age, and type of sport have been found to influence the relative age effect in youth sports (Musch & Grondin, 2001), we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes. Using archived data

Nikola Medic; Bradley W. Young; Janet L. Starkes; Patricia L. Weir; J. Robert Grove

2009-01-01

258

Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to…

Day, Bill D., Comp.

259

1Athletic Training & Sports Health Care | Vol. 5 No. X 2013 Enhancing Ice Hockey Skills Through  

E-print Network

1Athletic Training & Sports Health Care | Vol. 5 No. X 2013 Enhancing Ice Hockey Skills Through in professional ice hockey players. Participants trained either with stroboscopic eyewear (strobe group of a competitor, and an ice hockey player must be able to precisely time and locate a constantly moving puck

Mitroff, Stephen

260

The Sports Experience of the Black College Athlete: Exploitation in the Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of college student-athletes, especially black ones, is a dominant theme in the American sport literature. The present research explores this motif as seen through the eyes of college basketball players (n = 505) performing at NCAA Divisions I, II, and III. The most provocative general finding is that discrepancies exist between the actors' and critics' definitions of the

Wilbert Marcellus Leonard

1986-01-01

261

Intersectionality, Critical Race Theory, and American Sporting Oppression: Examining Black and Gay Male Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and

Eric Anderson; Mark McCormack

2010-01-01

262

The Medallion Program: Using the Generic Sport Model to Train Athletes with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)

Dahlgren, Wendy J.; And Others

1991-01-01

263

Relationships between training load, injury, and fitness in sub-elite collision sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that estimate the influence of training load on training injury and physical fitness in collision sport athletes. The incidence of training injuries was studied in 183 rugby league players over two competitive seasons. Participants were assessed for height, body mass, skinfold thickness, vertical jump, 10-m, 20-m and 40-m sprint time,

Tim J. Gabbett; Nathan Domrow

2007-01-01

264

Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational

Kielan Yarrow; John W. Krakauer; Peter Brown

2009-01-01

265

Effects of Sport Pressures on Female Collegiate Athletes: A Preliminary Longitudinal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female athletes have been identified as a population at risk for disordered eating, and a recent theoretical model (Petrie & Greenleaf, in press) has identified sociocultural factors that may define that risk. In this study, we examined three central constructs in the model—sport pressures regarding body, weight, and appearance; body dissatisfaction; and dietary restraint—within a sample of female collegiate gymnasts

Carlin M. Anderson; Trent A. Petrie; Craig S. Neumann

2012-01-01

266

Ephedra and Its Application To Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang (ephedra), comparing these claims with data from searches of MEDLINE and SPORT Discus from 1970-00 and discussing the use of ephedra in athletic training. Results indicate that there are many serious side effects associated with using ma huang, and they far outweigh any possible…

Powers, Michael E.

2001-01-01

267

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

2007-01-01

268

Sport, National Identity, and Media Discourse over Foreign Athletes in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the perception of Jewish-Israeli nationality and the boundaries of the Israeli collective, as reflected in the media coverage of foreign basketball and soccer players during the years 2002–2006. We show that while foreign athletes play a central role in the efforts of Israeli sport clubs, they remain largely excluded from the Israeli collective. At times they

Eran Shor; Yuval Yonay

2010-01-01

269

Athlete burnout in elite sport: a self-determination perspective.  

PubMed

Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs satisfaction and athlete burnout. Our self-determination theory-derived hypotheses were largely supported. Relationships among athlete burnout and behavioural regulations mostly varied according to their rank on the self-determination continuum, with less self-determined motives showing positive associations and more self-determined motives showing negative correlations with burnout. The basic needs of competence and autonomy, plus self-determined motivation, accounted for significant amounts of variance in athlete burnout symptoms (exhaustion, R(2) = 0.31; devaluation, R(2) = 0.49; reduced accomplishment, R(2) = 0.61; global burnout, R(2) = 0.74). Self-determined motivation fully mediated the relationships that competence and autonomy had with exhaustion. Analyses showed indirect relationships between these two needs and devaluation, through their associations with self-determined motivation. Motivation partially mediated the needs-reduced sense of accomplishment relationships, but the direct effects were more prominent than the indirect effects. PMID:19437185

Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine

2009-06-01

270

Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

2014-08-01

271

Health in Elite Sports from a Salutogenetic Perspective: Athletes' Sense of Coherence  

PubMed Central

Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and elite sport. PMID:25014085

Mayer, Jochen; Thiel, Ansgar

2014-01-01

272

Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches  

PubMed Central

Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key Points Although most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition. The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmers The data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among younger coaches, while among athletes,younger swimmers should be targeted PMID:24421736

Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

2013-01-01

273

Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches.  

PubMed

Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key PointsAlthough most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition.The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmersThe data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming.We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among younger coaches, while among athletes,younger swimmers should be targeted. PMID:24421736

Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

2013-01-01

274

PE and Sport for Disabled Individuals in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the significant influences on the evolution and status of physical education and sport for disabled individuals. Topics include legislative mandates, adapted physical education, professional preparation in adapted physical education, the changing role of the physical education specialist, disabled sport, and research…

DePauw, Karen P.

1990-01-01

275

Determinants of Individual Consumption on Sports Attendance in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge regarding individual consumption on sports attendance—a subject that has been rarely analyzed in the economic literature due to the lack of appropriate databases. Specifically, we analyze the determinants of sports attendance consumption using Spanish survey data, assuming that the consumption decision is derived from the attendance decision. In the empirical analysis, we

Fernando Lera-López; Manuel Rapún-Gárate; María José Suárez

2011-01-01

276

Human Capital, Sport Performance, and Salary Determination of Professional Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to the high availability of data, professional sport represents a unique laboratory in order to test labour market theories and predictions. In par- ticular, one of the most important propositions concerns the role that hu- man capital plays in shaping the life-cycle earnings patterns of workers. To the extent that sport can be considered as a type of human

Roberto Antonietti

2006-01-01

277

The Child Athlete: Psychological Implications of Participation in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is directed at those parents and other adults who are responsible for the design and philos ophy of the competitive sports program for the 30 million of our children who are now actively competing. It is hoped that by pointing out a number of the important dangers present in competitive sports, certain psychological and social traumas may be

Bruce Ogilvie

1979-01-01

278

Multifaceted analyses of Masters athletes' participation motivation and sport commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to gain a better understanding of the motivational processes underlying lifelong involvement in sport. Accordingly, five sequential studies, which were grounded in the three empirically based social-cognitive models of motivation including the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2002), the achievement goal theory (Duda 2001; Nicholls, 1984), and the sport commitment model (Scanlan, Carpenter,

Nikola Medic

2007-01-01

279

Sport injury rehabilitation adherence: Perspectives of recreational athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate recreational participants’ experiences of adhering to a sport injury rehabilitation program. Six participants undertaking a rehabilitation program for a tendonitis?related injury as a result of sport involvement took part in this study. Data were collected using semi?structured interviews and were thematically analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003). Five themes

Andrew R. Levy; Remco C. J. Polman; Adam R. Nicholls; David C. Marchant

2009-01-01

280

High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

2010-01-01

281

Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

Francois, Denise; And Others

1979-01-01

282

Sports-Specific Features of Athlete’s Heart and their Relation to Echocardiographic Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic physical training may induce morphological and useful functional adaptations which affect all cardiac chambers. Morphological modifications are mainly modest and far from pathologic ones. All these adaptations seem helpful for sport’s performance. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral stresses depend on the muscular exercise type performed, static or dynamic. However, sports-specific adaptive cardiac structural changes are yet debated. Actually, it appears that

Julie Barbier; Nathalie Ville; Gaelle Kervio; Guillaume Walther; François Carré

2006-01-01

283

Goal Discrepancy in African American Male Student-Athletes' Unrealistic Expectations for Careers in Professional Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether African American male college student-athletes unrealistically focus their career goals on professional athletics to the detriment of their academic pursuits. The study considered the professional athleticaspirations of 702 AfricanAmerican male student-athletesfrom42 NCAA Division I universities using the concept of goal discrepancy to identify individuals whose professional athletic aspirations were inconsistent with their current status asfirst

Robert M. Sellers; Gabriel P. Kuperminc

1997-01-01

284

Do undergraduate students' ratings of perceived aggression in sport reflect athletes' self-reported aggression? Comments on Pedersen (2007).  

PubMed

In 2007 Pedersen described the results of undergraduate students' ratings of 16 common sports based on their perceptions of the aggression in each sport. Unfortunately, it is unclear whether Pedersen's sample's perception of aggression actually reflects aggression of athletes who participate in these sports. Therefore, response of 1,441 British competitive athletes (817 men, mean age = 21.5, SD = 4.9) to a short aggression questionnaire were analysed to distinguish whether the same pattern of ranks reported by Pedersen could be replicated. In general, data were consistent with Pedersen's rankings (Correlations were moderate to high), but some exceptions were evident, particularly for male athletes. PMID:18380110

Maxwell, J P

2007-12-01

285

Long-term effects of athletics meet on the perceived competence of individuals with intellectual disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided equally into six groups: (a) segregated basketball, (b) integrated basketball, (c)

Grégory Ninot; Christophe Maïano

2007-01-01

286

Goal perspectives and sport participation motivation of Special Olympians and typically developing athletes.  

PubMed

Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (<15, 15-17, 18-20, >20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. PMID:23643768

Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon

2013-07-01

287

Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

288

Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes  

PubMed Central

Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. PMID:24379720

Merkel, Donna L

2013-01-01

289

Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63/72; 87.5+/-12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female (31/36; 86.1+/-13.9%) and male (32/36; 88.9+/-11.1%) athletes. Kayakers (6.0+/-2.9) consumed a higher number of nutritional supplements than swimmers (4+/-2.2), field hockey (1.5+/-1.0), rowing (2.4+/-1.4), waterpolo (2.3+/-2.4), athletics (2.5+/-1.9) and netball (1.7+/-1.0) athletes. The athletes believed that nutritional supplements are related to performance enhancements (47/72; 65.3%), positive doping results (45/72; 62.5%), and that heavy training increases supplement requirements (47/72; 65.3%). The cohort was equivocal as to their health risks (40/72; 55.6%) or their need with a balanced diet (38/72; 52.8%). The most popular supplements were minerals (33/72; 45.8%), vitamins (31/72; 43.1%), other (23/72; 31.9%), iron (22/72; 30.6%), caffeine (16/72; 22.2%), protein (12/72; 16.7%), protein-carbohydrate mix (10/72; 13.9%), creatine (9/72; 12.5%) and glucosamine (3/72; 4.2%). The majority of supplementing athletes (n=63) did not know their supplements active ingredient (39/63; 61.9%), side effects (36/63; 57.1%) or mechanism of action (34/63; 54.0%) and admitted to wanting additional information (36/63; 57.0%). Only half of the athletes knew the recommended supplement dosages (33/63; 52.4%). The performance enhancing perception may explain the large proportion of athletes that reported using nutritional supplements, despite over half of the athletes believing that supplements are not required with a balanced diet and can cause positive doping violations. PMID:19775936

Dascombe, B J; Karunaratna, M; Cartoon, J; Fergie, B; Goodman, C

2010-03-01

290

Sport nutrition and doping in tennis: an analysis of athletes' attitudes and knowledge.  

PubMed

Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key PointsThe incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females.Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes' trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping.There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports. PMID:24149808

Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan

2013-01-01

291

Effect of Unified Sport on Maladaptive Behaviors Among Special Olympics Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of participating in a Unified Bowling program on maladaptive behaviors among Special Olympics athletes. Athletes aged 11 to 68 years with a mean age of 32 years ($$n=40), participated in a 12-week Unified Bowling program. A comparison group of individuals aged 16 to 68 years with a mean age of

Erik Rosegard; Shane Pegg; David M. Compton

2001-01-01

292

Overtraining and Elite Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ?20–30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individual sport athletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception

Richard Winsley; Nuno Matos

2011-01-01

293

3D Pre-vs. Post-Season Comparisons of Surface and Relative Pose of the Corpus Callosum in Contact Sport Athletes  

E-print Network

of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected Sport Athletes Yi Lao1,2 , Niharika Gajawelli1,2 , Lauren Haas2 , Bryce Wilkins1,2 , Darryl Hwang2, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA 1 Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive

Wang, Yalin

294

Ankle Injuries Among United States High School Sports Athletes, 2005-2006  

PubMed Central

Context: Ankle injuries are the most common sport-related injuries. To date, no studies have been published that use national data to present a cross-sport, cross-sex analysis of ankle injuries among US high school athletes. Objective: To investigate the incidence rates of ankle injuries by sex, type of exposure, and sport. Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Setting: One hundred US high schools. Patients or Other Participants: United States high school athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): We reviewed ankle injury data collected over the 2005–2006 school year from a nationally representative sample obtained by High School RIO, an injury surveillance system. Specific sports studied were boys' football, boys' and girls' soccer, girls' volleyball, boys' and girls' basketball, boys' wrestling, boys' baseball, and girls' softball. Results: An estimated 326?396 ankle injuries occurred nationally in 2005–2006, yielding an injury rate of 5.23 ankle injuries per 10?000 athlete-exposures. Ankle injuries occurred at a significantly higher rate during competition (9.35 per 10?000 athlete-exposures) than during practice (3.63) (risk ratio = 2.58; 95% confidence interval = 2.26, 2.94; P < .001). Boys' basketball had the highest rate of ankle injury (7.74 per 10?000 athlete-exposures), followed by girls' basketball (6.93) and boys' football (6.52). In all sports except girls' volleyball, rates of ankle injury were higher in competition than in practice. Overall, most ankle injuries were diagnosed as ligament sprains with incomplete tears (83.4%). Ankle injuries most commonly caused athletes to miss less than 7 days of activity (51.7%), followed by 7 to 21 days of activity loss (33.9%) and more than 22 days of activity loss (10.5%). Conclusions: Sports that combine jumping in close proximity to other players and swift changes of direction while running are most often associated with ankle injuries. Future research on ankle injuries is needed to drive the development and implementation of more effective preventive interventions. PMID:18059994

Nelson, Alex J; Collins, Christy L; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R. Dawn

2007-01-01

295

Are Sports Overemphasized in the Socialization Process of African American Males? A Qualitative Analysis of Former Collegiate Athletes’ Perception of Sport Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as

Krystal K. Beamon

2010-01-01

296

The effects of visual distracter complexity on auditory evoked p3b in contact sports athletes.  

PubMed

"Classic" P3b auditory oddball paradigms are insensitive to subtle deficits. An auditory oddball paradigm paired with visual distracters was used to compare football players with history of concussion, football players without history of concussion, and non-contact sport athletes. As hypothesized, increasing complexity of, and attention to, visual distracters reduced P3b amplitude. P3b amplitudes from non-contact athletes were larger than those from football players; however, players with and without a history of concussion were not significantly different. An auditory oddball paradigm with simple visual distracter improves sensitivity to cognitive deficits. Subconcussive impacts may contribute to brain damage frequently attributed to concussions. PMID:24571930

Wilson, Matthew J; Harkrider, Ashley W; King, Kristin A

2014-01-01

297

Effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest on haematological, physiological, and performance parameters in multi-sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 weeks of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest was able to elicit changes that would benefit multi-sport athletes. Twenty-two multi-sport athletes of mixed ability were exposed to either a normobaric hypoxic gas (intermittent hypoxic training group) or a placebo gas containing normal room air (placebo group). The participants breathed the

Michael John Hamlin; John Hellemans

2007-01-01

298

An Analysis of Goal Achievement Orientation and Sport Morality Levels of Division IA Non-Revenue Collegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this study was to investigate the goal orientations of non-revenue producing team student-athletes and the potential correlation to sport morality levels. Student-athletes (SA’s) (male n=114, female n=118) from a southeastern university, from non-revenue teams, in both semi-contact and non-contact areas, were compared and contrasted by the use of the Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionaire (TEOSQ) and

John W. Lata

2005-01-01

299

Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Neuropsychological testing is a valuable tool in concussion diagnosis and management. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological testing program, consists of eight cognitive tasks and a 21-item symptom inventory. Method: ImPACT was used to examine the cognitive performance of 104 concussed athletes at baseline, 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury. Dependent measures included composite scores from the ImPACT computerized test battery,

Michael P. McClincy; Mark R. Lovell; Jamie Pardini; Michael W. Collins; Molly K. Spore

2006-01-01

300

Participation in Sports for the Athlete with the Marfan Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Marfan syndrome was first described in 1896 by Dr. Antoine Marfan, a French pediatrician [1, 2]. He described a young\\u000a girl who manifested the classic musculoskeletal findings. This syndrome along with its propensity for aortic dilatation has\\u000a been recognized across the world as one of the causes of sudden death in high-profile athletes receiving considerable media\\u000a attention [3]. The

Marla Mendelson

301

The Woman Athlete and Alternative Approaches to Explaining Sport Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the model of feminist frameworks offered by Jagger and Struhl (1978) in the women's sport setting. The framework offers a classification of models of feminism (Liberalism, Marxism, Radicalism, and Socialism) describing the forms of women's oppression and offers a solution for eliminating such oppression. The Jaggen and Struhl's…

DeSensi, Joy T.

302

Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports.  

PubMed

Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational and physiological theories inspired by much simpler laboratory tasks. In this way we hope to inspire neuroscientists to consider how their basic research might help to explain sporting skill at the highest levels of performance. PMID:19571792

Yarrow, Kielan; Brown, Peter; Krakauer, John W

2009-08-01

303

Who's Got Game?: Exposure to Sports and Entertainment Media and Social Physique Anxiety in Division I Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared college female athletes' exposure to two types of media—sport and entertainment--and looked for possible associations with social physique anxiety an affective trait that could be present in women who have eating disorder tendencies. Our survey of Division I female athletes yielded very inconsistent patterns with regard to the type of media that is more likely to be

Katie Hines Porterfield

2006-01-01

304

Athletic Trainers' and Physical Therapists' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Psychological Skills Within Sport Injury Rehabilitation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport- injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. Objective: To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabil- itation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Design: The ATs and PTs were

J. Jordan Hamson-Utley; Scott Martin; Jason Walters

2008-01-01

305

Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .  

PubMed

Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills. PMID:21174872

Beamon, Krystal K

2010-01-01

306

Need Satisfaction, Well-Being, and Perceived Return-to-Sport Outcomes Among Injured Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether components of psychological well-being (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and vitality) mediated the relationship between self-determination theory (SDT) basic needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and perceived return-to-sport outcomes. Competitive athletes (n = 204) from Australia, Canada, and the United States completed an injury need satisfaction scale, psychological well-being inventories, and

Leslie Podlog; Marc Lochbaum; Tara Stevens

2010-01-01

307

Influence of sport on personal development and social investment among Botswana Olympic athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keeping in mind the constructed, partial and shifting nature of identity, this study explores the role of sport in shaping the personal development and capacities for social investment among 17 Botswana Olympic athletes. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was employed to generate the data analysed in this study. Written and oral narratives were collected through a self-administered open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured

Jimoh Shehu; Moses Moruisi

2011-01-01

308

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent\\u000a athletes. The sample consisted of N=260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed\\u000a that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the variance in prosocial behavior could be

Esther A. Rutten; Geert Jan J. M. Stams; Gert J. J. Biesta; Carlo Schuengel; Evelien Dirks; Jan B. Hoeksma

2007-01-01

309

Influence of sport type and interdependence on the developmental experiences of youth male athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport type, interdependence (task and outcome), and the developmental experiences of select male basketball players (n=129) and middle-distance runners (n=83) aged 14–17 years. Athletes completed the Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 (Hansen & Larson, 2005) and a modified measure assessing task and outcome interdependence (Van der Vegt, Emans, & Van

Mark W. Bruner; Jonathan Hall; Jean Côté

2011-01-01

310

Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 2: principles of emergency care.  

PubMed

Catastrophic cervical spine injuries can lead to devastating consequences for the collision athlete. Improved understanding of these injuries can lead to identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, and effective on-field management. This article is the second in a 2-part series. The first part, published in the June 2004 issue, reviewed the current concepts regarding the epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnostic considerations relevant to cervical spine trauma in collision sports. In this article, the principles of on-field emergency care of the spine-injured athlete are reviewed. The authors discuss the need for effective pre-event planning, on-field evaluation and management of cervical spine injuries, and the transition of care from the playing field to the emergency room. The protocol for equipment removal, when necessary, is also reviewed. An organized, rapid approach to the management of cervical spine-injured collision athletes can help to optimize the outcomes of these catastrophic injuries. PMID:15494346

Banerjee, Rahul; Palumbo, Mark A; Fadale, Paul D

2004-01-01

311

Patello-femoral arthralgia in athletes attending a Sports Injury Clinic.  

PubMed Central

Over a five year period, 137 athletes presented to a Sports Injury Clinic with patello-femoral arthralgia. This was 5.4% of the total injuries seen and a quarter of all knee problems treated. Running contributed to 32% of the athletes with patello-femoral pain. There was a 4:1 male:female ratio and nearly 70% were in the 16-25 year age range. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 72 athletes seen in the last two years with a 78% response rate. Symptoms and treatment are discussed. After conservative therapy only 28.6% were entirely symptom free with a mean follow up of 13.1 months. Images p18-a p18-b PMID:6722419

Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

1984-01-01

312

What is the optimal composition of an athlete's diet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing the most suitable diet for an athlete requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant scientific literature, the training and competition demands of the sport, the individual athlete's preferences and social situation. The scientific literature contains an abundance of information on nutritional demands of athletes undertaking endurance or strength training programmes, but much less information is available on sprint\\/power sports,

Elizabeth M. Broad; Gregory R. Cox

2008-01-01

313

Relationship of sports experience and ego development of adolescent Japanese athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship of sports experience with ego development. A questionnaire was used to assess experience of Crisis, Exploration, and Commitment in the issues of Athletic Performance and of Being a Teammate in 782 adolescent Japanese athletes (423 boys, M age = 15.2 yr.; 359 girls, M age = 15.0 yr.). Their Ego Levels were assessed using the Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Correlations indicated that scores on Crisis, Exploration, and Commitment in the issues of Athletic Performance and Being a Teammate were generally associated with Ego Development. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, for boys, the issue of Athletic Performance was closely associated with Ego Development, while for girls, the issue of Being a Teammate was closely associated with Ego Development. Sports experience with crisis, exploration, and commitment may be related to accommodation, which is, in turn, related to ego development. The sex differences on issues related to ego development may be associated with differences in sex-role development for boys and girls. PMID:15460354

Takenouchi, Takashi; Taguchi, Tae; Okuda, Aiko

2004-08-01

314

Sport modality affects bradycardia level and its mechanisms of control in professional athletes.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of sport modalities in resting bradycardia and its mechanisms of control in highly trained athletes. In addition, the relationships between bradycardia mechanisms and cardiac structural adaptations were tested. Professional male athletes (13 runners, 11 cyclists) were evaluated. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at rest on beat-to-beat basis (ECG). Selective pharmacological blockade was performed with atropine and esmolol. Vagal effect, intrinsic heart rate (IHR), parasympathetic (n) and sympathetic (m) modulations, autonomic influence (AI) and autonomic balance (Abal) were calculated. Plasmatic norepinephrine (high-pressure liquid chromatography) and cardiac structural adaptations (echocardiography) were evaluated. Runners presented lower resting HR, higher vagal effect, parasympathetic modulation (n), AI and IHR than cyclists (P<0.05). Abal, sympathetic modulation (m) and norepinephrine level were similar within athletes regardless of modality. The cardiac chambers were also similar between runners and cyclists (P=0.30). However, cyclists displayed higher septum and posterior wall thickness than runners (P=0.04). Further analysis showed a trend towards inverse correlation between IHR with septum wall thickness and posterior wall thickness (P=0.056). Type of sport influences the resting bradycardia level and its mechanisms of control in professional athletes. Resting bradycardia in runners is mainly dependent on an autonomic mechanism. In contrast, a cyclist's resting bradycardia relies on a non-autonomic mechanism probably associated with combined eccentric and concentric hypertrophy. PMID:24886917

Azevedo, L F; Perlingeiro, P S; Hachul, D T; Gomes-Santos, I L; Brum, P C; Allison, T G; Negrão, C E; De Matos, L D N J

2014-10-01

315

"I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…

Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

2008-01-01

316

From Diving Boards to Pole Vaults: Gendered Athlete Portrayals in the “Big Four” Sports at the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 70 prime-time hours of host and reporter commentary in NBC's 2004 Athens Summer Olympic telecast was undertaken to determine if announcer commentary in the sports of gymnastics, track and field, swimming, and diving each contained gender biases. Results indicated that gymnastics was the most gender-marked of the four major Olympic sports, with men and women athletes being covered

Andrew C. Billings

2007-01-01

317

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use as a Complicating Factor in the Female Athlete Triad: Behavioral Implications for Sport Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, recognizing a ubiquitous pattern of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis among young women participating in competitive sports, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) initiated a dialogue about the Female Athlete Triad. Since then, members of ACSM and other professional societies have offered theoretical models for reducing problem behaviors, but few have conceptualized how the use of anabolic-androgenic

Bryan E. Denham; Katherine W. Hawkins; Karyn Ogata Jones; Andrew C. Billings

2007-01-01

318

Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.  

PubMed

Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513

Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

2013-05-01

319

Differences in distal lower extremity tissue masses and mass ratios exist in athletes of sports involving repetitive impacts.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the effects of sex and sport on the tissue composition of the distal lower extremity of varsity athletes, in sports that involve repetitive-impact loading patterns. Fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content and wobbling mass were predicted for the leg and leg + foot segments of varsity basketball, cross-country, soccer and volleyball athletes. The absolute masses were normalised to body mass, and also expressed relative to each other as ratios. Females and males differed on most normalised tissue masses and ratios by 11-101%. Characteristic differences were found in the normalised tissue masses across sports, with the lowest and highest values displayed by cross-country and volleyball (female)/basketball (male) athletes, respectively. Conversely, cross-country athletes had the highest wobbling mass:bone mineral content and lean mass:bone mineral content ratios for females by 10% and 16%, respectively. The differences between sports may be explained in part by different impact loading patterns characteristic of each sport. Tissue mass ratio differences between sports may suggest that the ratios of soft to rigid tissues are optimised by the body in response to typical loading patterns, and may therefore be useful in investigations of distal lower extremity injury mechanisms in athletes. PMID:24050754

Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M

2014-01-01

320

The mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in relationships between types of passion for sport and athlete burnout.  

PubMed

Research indicates that obsessive and harmonious passion can explain variability in burnout through various mediating processes (e.g., Vallerand, Paquet, Phillippe, & Charest, 2010). The current study extended previous research (Curran, Appleton, Hill, & Hall, 2011; Gustafsson, Hassmén, & Hassmén, 2011) by testing a model in which the effects of passion for sport on athlete burnout were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-three academy soccer players completed self-report measures of passion for sport, psychological need satisfaction, and athlete burnout. Results indicated that psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and athlete burnout but not obsessive passion and athlete burnout. The findings indicate that the inverse relationship between harmonious passion and burnout can be explained by higher levels of psychological need satisfaction. However, this was not the case for obsessive passion, which was not associated with psychological need satisfaction or most symptoms of athlete burnout. PMID:23148547

Curran, Thomas; Appleton, Paul R; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K

2013-01-01

321

Long-term effect of continuing sports activity in competitive athletes with frequent ventricular premature complexes and apparently normal heart.  

PubMed

The long-term outcome of athletes with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) and apparently normal heart has not been fully clarified. To evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of VPCs and the influence of continuing sports activity during follow-up, we studied 120 healthy athletes (96 men; median age 16 years) in whom frequent VPCs (>100 VPCs/24 hours) were discovered by chance during preparticipation screening. All athletes were followed up for a median of 84 months. During follow-up, 96 underwent serial 24-hour Holter recording and 62 underwent serial echocardiography. The median number of VPCs/24 hours on basal Holter was 3,760. During follow-up, 81 athletes continued sports activity, whereas 39 did not. No athlete died or developed overt heart disease. The median number of VPCs/24 hours decreased in both athletes who continued sports activity and those who did not (from 3,805 to 1,124, p <0.0001 and from 5,787 to 1,298, p <0.0001, respectively). During follow-up, left ventricular ejection fraction slightly decreased to <55% in 9 of 62 athletes who, in respect to the remaining 53, had more VPCs/24 hours both in the basal state (12,000 vs 3,880) and during follow-up (10,702 vs 1,368), and a longer follow-up (95 vs 36 months). In conclusion, (1) frequent VPCs in athletes without heart disease have a long-term benign prognostic significance, (2) sporting activity does not modify this benign outcome, (3) during follow-up, the burden of VPCs decreases whether or not subjects continue sports activity, and (4) in 14.5% of athletes, ejection fraction slightly decreases over time. PMID:24135302

Delise, Pietro; Sitta, Nadir; Lanari, Emanuela; Berton, Giuseppe; Centa, Monica; Allocca, Giuseppe; Cati, Arianna; Biffi, Alessandro

2013-11-01

322

Eccentric Exercise Protocols for Patella Tendinopathy: Should we Really be Withdrawing Athletes from Sport? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The 2007 review by Visnes and Bahr concluded that athletes with patella tendinopathy should be withdrawn from sport whilst engaging in eccentric exercise (EE) rehabilitation programs. However, deprivation of sport is associated with a number of negative psychological and physiological effects. Withdrawal from sport is therefore a decision that warrants due consideration of the risk/benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to warrant withdrawal of athletes from sport during an eccentric exercise rehabilitation program. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify relevant randomised trials. Data was extracted to determine whether athletes were withdrawn from sport, what evidence was presented to support the chosen strategy and whether this affected the clinical outcome. Seven studies were included. None of these reported high quality evidence to support withdrawal. In addition, three studies were identified in which athletes were not withdrawn from sport and still benefited from EE. This review has demonstrated that there is no high quality evidence to support a strategy of withdrawal from sport in the management of patella tendinopathy. PMID:23248727

Saithna, Adnan; Gogna, Rajiv; Baraza, Njalalle; Modi, Chetan; Spencer, Simon

2012-01-01

323

Age-predicted vs. measured maximal heart rate in young team sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Although maximal heart rate (HR)max is used widely to assess exercise intensity in sport training and particularly in various team sports, there are limited data with regards to the use of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in sport populations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured-HRmax with three prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220-age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208-0.7×age and Nikolaidis-HRmax = 223-1.44×age) in young team sport athletes. Materials and Methods: Athletes of soccer, futsal, basketball and water polo, classified into three age groups (u-12, 9?12 years, n = 50; u-15, 12?15 years, n = 40; u-18, 15?18 years, n = 57), all members of competitive clubs, voluntarily performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test) to assess HRmax. Results: Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax, while Tanaka-HRmax underestimated it (P < 0.001). However, this trend was not consistent when examining each group separately; measured-HRmax was similar with Tanaka-HRmax in u-12 and u-15, while it was similar with Nikolaidis-HRmax in u-18. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to validate two widely used and one recently developed prediction equations in a large sample of young athletes, indicating the need for specific equation in different age groups. Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers should prefer Tanaka-HRmax when desiring to avoid overtraining, while Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax should be their choice in order to ensure adequate exercise intensity. PMID:25114367

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2014-01-01

324

Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

2004-01-01

325

Perception of Nigerian athletes of the use of mouth guards to prevent the stresses of sports injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: The perception of Nigerian athletes of the use of mouth guards to prevent the stresses of sports injuries was examined using psychological, sociological, and physical stress variables. Methods: The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. Participants (n = 333) were selected using the purposive random sampling technique and data were collected using the 4 point Likert type instrument. The coefficient ? was used to determine the reliability of the instrument with r = 0.79 for psychological, r = 0.66 for physical, and r = 0.74 for sociological stress. Results: The result reveals that female athletes perceived the use of mouth guards as being more important to prevent the stresses of sports injuries than male athletes, while athletes who had used mouth guards for longer periods also perceived them as being more important to prevent the stresses of sports injuries compared to those who had used them less. The result also revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) among the various sport groups as independent variables on the psychological and physical stress variables. Scheffé post hoc analysis was used to identify the group where significant difference was found. Conclusions: The study concluded that since the impact of injury is perceived to affect the cognitive function of athletes, athletes should be educated on the use of mouth guards in order to reduce the incidence of oral and dental injuries to the barest minimum. PMID:15562160

Adegbesan, O; Onyeaso, C

2004-01-01

326

Derogation of student female athletes who consult a sport psychologist: an alternative perspective on the negative halo effect.  

PubMed

This study attempts to further research female student athletes' perceptions of the sport psychologist and other sport and mental health professionals. 90 British student athletes from 17 different sports completed a two-part questionnaire to examine the potential derogation effect as a result of consulting one of three identified professionals and to explore the perceived definition and role of the sport psychologist. A fictitious selection report of a female field hockey player was presented to subjects with coach, sport psychologist and psychotherapist as the three professionals. It was hypothesised that subjects' recommendations regarding selection would differ depending on the consultant used. No differences were found which suggests the absence of a negative halo effect and that derogation would not occur within this sample group. Definitions and perceived role of the sport psychologist varied with the subjective tone of the responses from participants being mainly positive (74%). These results indicate that this female student athlete sample has a moderated, even a positive, perception of the sport psychologist. A general acceptance of the sport psychologist falls in line with the suggestions of Murstein and Fontaine (1993) concerning a reported increase in acceptance of mental health professionals. PMID:11339492

Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

2001-03-01

327

Total haemoglobin mass, blood volume and morphological indices among athletes from different sport disciplines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Haemoglobin is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. This study's objective was to assess total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), as well as blood volume and morphological indices in athletes training different sports disciplines. Material and methods This study was conducted on 176 endurance and non-endurance athletes (males and females). tHb-mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and red cell volume (RCV) were determined by optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood count (RBC) were also determined. Results In endurance sports, gender regardless, no significant differences in relative mean values of tHb-mass (12.8–13.1 g/kg – males; 10.4–10.6 g/kg – females), BV (90.8–94.0 ml/kg – males; 82.7–86.9 ml/kg – females), RCV (36.6–38.0 ml/kg – males; 31.1–31.5 ml/kg – females) or of PV in males (54.2–56.4 ml/kg) were observed. The above indices’ relative values, gender regardless, were significantly lower in judo (11.2 ±0.7 g/kg, 81.8 ±5.9 ml/kg, 48.6 ±4.5 ml/kg and 33.1 ±2.0 ml/kg – males; 9.3 ±0.7 g/kg, 74.3 ±5.6 ml/kg, 46.4 ±4.0 ml/kg and 27.9 ±2.1 ml/kg – females) compared to endurance sports (p < 0.001). No substantial differences were observed in morphological blood indices in males, whereas this differentiation was found between certain sports in female athletes. Conclusions The lack of differences in tHb-mass, BV, PV and RCV in endurance sports and presence of this differentiation between various sports shows that the types of training might affect levels of mentioned indices. Measurements of tHb-mass and BV parameters prove Hb, Hct and RBC to have limited value for haematological status evaluations. PMID:24273557

Sitkowski, Dariusz; Orysiak, Joanna; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Szygula, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

328

“Going Pro”: the deferential effects of high aspirations for a professional sports career on African-American student athletes and White student athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists have long noted the effects of the images of the African-American male brought forth in popular culture. In fact, popular culture and organized sports have been credited as major contributors to many of the social problems that exist among African-American males. Those social problems are characterized in the oppositional relationship that has formed between athletic and academic achievement,

Krystal Beamon; Patricia A Bell

2002-01-01

329

Undergraduate Programmes School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences  

E-print Network

beginner to Olympic athlete. Birmingham is consistently ranked in the top three in the British Universities the physical activity and sport needs of all individuals and communities ranging from elite athletes, to young

Miall, Chris

330

Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.  

PubMed

The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

2012-08-01

331

Including immigrants in elite and recreational sports: the experiences of athletes, sport providers and immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport participation is one way in which immigrants interact with established and long-term community residents. This involvement has the potential for facilitating immigrants' sense of inclusion and belonging in their new communities, and for long-term residents to learn the traditional cultural practices of immigrants, which may differ from those of the dominant groups. This study explores the involvement of immigrants

Susan Tirone; Lori A. Livingston; A. Jordan Miller; Emma L. Smith

2010-01-01

332

The Relationship of Symptoms and Neurocognitive Performance to Perceived Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion Among Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes’ self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to

Natalie K. Sandel; Mark R. Lovell; Nathan E. Kegel; Michael W. Collins; Anthony P. Kontos

2012-01-01

333

Games and Sets: Women, Media and Sport In Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feminist critique of sport that has been sounded for over three decades concludes that the marginalization and trivialization of female athletes only serves to perpetuate male domination of women. Specifically within the Israeli context, although female athletes are represented in both team and individual sports, and although they have proven themselves in major sporting events, they do not enjoy

Alina Bernstein; Yair Galily

2008-01-01

334

Organizational and Psychological Consultation in Collegiate Sports Medicine Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex authority, accountability, and supervisory structures of sports medicine groups in athletic departments can lead to conflicts that affect healthcare delivery for student—athletes. The authors review consultation models that counselors, sport psychologists, and other organizational consultants can use in dealing with these problems in collegiate sports medicine groups and offer examples of improved functioning through systemic, group, and individual

Mark B. Andersen; Britton W. Brewer

1995-01-01

335

Games and Sets: Women, Media and Sport in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feminist critique of sport that has been sounded for over three decades concludes that the marginalization and trivialization of female athletes only serves to perpetuate male domination of women. Specifically within the Israeli context, although female athletes are represented in both team and individual sports, and although they have proven themselves in major sporting events, they do not enjoy

Alina Bernstein; Yair Galily

336

Athletes' and coaches' perceptions of sport psychology services offered by graduate students at one NCAA Division I university.  

PubMed

In recent years, there have been increasing calls for graduate programs in sport psychology to include supervised practicum experiences. While supervision and applied experience is vital to the professional growth of graduate students, periodic evaluations are also needed to determine students' effectiveness in providing sport psychology services. This study represented an initial attempt to assess athletes' and coaches' perceptions of services provided by graduate students at one NCAA Division I university. Analyses showed 118 participants' ratings of consultants' effectiveness were comparable to those provided by U.S. Olympic athletes for professional consultants in earlier research by Gould, Murphy, Tammen, and May. PMID:15077766

Gentner, Noah B; Fisher, Leslee A; Wrisberg, Craig A

2004-02-01

337

The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).  

PubMed

Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations. PMID:24620037

Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

2014-04-01

338

A survey of Fellows in the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences (Canada): their intervention practices and intended therapeutic outcomes when treating athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compile baseline data regarding the treatment practices and therapeutic outcomes that fellows of the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences Canada (CCSS(C)) strive for when treating athletes. Design Cross-sectional self-report mail out survey of CCSS(C) fellows. Participants Current registered fellows of the CCSS(C) as determined by the College at the time of survey distribution. Results The majority of questioned fellows believe that they can cause direct and specific improvements in an athlete’s sport performance. The most commonly utilized therapeutic intervention was spinal joint manipulation/mobilization. The most anticipated outcomes following the treatment of athletes with the goal of affecting athletic performance were “changing or improving aberrant body mechanics,” “restoring or improving aberrant muscle function,” and “improving joint function or reducing joint dysfunction.” Conclusion The majority of respondent fellows of the CCSS(C) believe their therapy to be effective in enhancing an athlete’s sport performance. PMID:21120021

Miners, Andrew L.; deGraauw, Christopher

2010-01-01

339

African American Football Athletes' Perspectives on Institutional Integrity in College Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in…

Singer, John N.

2009-01-01

340

Acute avulsion fractures of the pelvis in adolescent competitive athletes: prevalence, location and sports distribution of 203 cases collected  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the prevalence, location and sports distribution of pelvic avulsion fractures in adolescent competitive athletes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients. One thousand two hundred and thirty-eight radiographs of the pelvis taken for focal traumatic symptoms in athletes with\\u000a an age range of 11–35 years over a period of 22 years were reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results. One hundred and ninety-eight adolescent athletes were

F. Rossi; S. Dragoni

2001-01-01

341

Teaching Sport Psychology to High School Student-Athletes: The Psychological UNIFORM and the Game Plan Format  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to share a sport psychology program (the Psychological UNIFORM) and its unique teaching system (the Game Plan Format) designed specifically for high school (HS) student-athletes. The Game Plan Format uses sport terms (Warm-up, Conditioning, Films, etc.) and includes a multi-method approach (interactive lectures, in-class assignments, films, homework, physical activities, and journaling) to help participants

Jenelle N. Gilbert

2011-01-01

342

Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.  

PubMed

The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. PMID:24732956

Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

2014-06-01

343

Women in Sports: Recommended Books for Children and Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female sports stars featured in this annotated bibliography have excelled in a variety of sports, often overcoming prejudice and discrimination because of their gender or race. Nine general works and 41 works focusing on 28 individual athletes are cited. (SLD)

Goldberg, Martin

1996-01-01

344

Relationship between running loads and soft-tissue injury in elite team sport athletes.  

PubMed

Although the potential link between running loads and soft-tissue injury is appealing, the evidence supporting or refuting this relationship in high-performance team sport athletes is nonexistent, with all published studies using subjective measures (e.g., ratings of perceived exertion) to quantify training loads. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of low-intensity (e.g., walking, jogging, total distances) and high-intensity (e.g., high acceleration and velocity efforts, repeated high-intensity exercise bouts) movement activities on lower body soft-tissue injury in elite team sport athletes. Thirty-four elite rugby league players participated in this study. Global positioning system data and the incidence of lower body soft-tissue injuries were monitored in 117 skill training sessions during the preseason and in-season periods. The frailty model (an extension of the Cox proportional regression model for recurrent events) was applied to calculate the relative risk of injury after controlling for all other training data. The risk of injury was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2-6.5) times higher when very high-velocity running (i.e., sprinting) exceeded 9 m per session. Greater distances covered in mild, moderate, and maximum accelerations and low- and very low-intensity movement velocities were associated with a reduced risk of injury. These results demonstrate that greater amounts of very high-velocity running (i.e., sprinting) are associated with an increased risk of lower body soft-tissue injury, whereas distances covered at low and moderate speeds offer a protective effect against soft-tissue injury. From an injury prevention perspective, these findings provide empirical support for restricting the amount of sprinting performed in preparation for elite team sport competition. However, coaches should also consider the consequences of reducing training loads on the development of physical qualities and playing performance. PMID:22323001

Gabbett, Tim J; Ullah, Shahid

2012-04-01

345

Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic…

Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri

2006-01-01

346

Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mental toughness among athletes of different: (a) achievement level, (b) gender, (c) age, (d) sporting experience, and (e) sport type (team vs. individual and contact vs. non-contact sports). Participants were 677 athletes and consisted of sports performers competing at international (n=60), national (n=99), county (n=198), club\\/university (n=289), and beginner (n=31)

Adam R. Nicholls; Remco C. J. Polman; Andrew R. Levy; Susan H. Backhouse

2009-01-01

347

SIR/CAR Analysis Technique for Voluntary School Sport or Amateur Athletic Organizations. A SIR/CAR Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper delineates the exact methodology developed by the Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) for applying a systems analysis technique to a voluntary mutual benefit organization, such as a school or amateur athletic group. The functions of the technique are to compare avowed and actual behavior, to utilize group…

Moriarty, Dick; Zarebski, John

348

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

349

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

350

Validation of a French Version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ): In Competitive Sport and Physical Education Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops a psychometrically sound measure of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001) in French (Le Questionnaire du Burnout Sportif, QBS). We first developed a preliminary version and then had 895 French adolescents involved in competitive sport or physical education at school complete the survey. The results showed good internal consistency (all Cronbach’s ? values >

Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur; Marie Oger; Emma Guillet; Charles Martin-Krumm

2010-01-01

351

Stressors experienced by injured athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore

Lynne Evans; Ross Wadey; Sheldon Hanton; Ian Mitchell

2012-01-01

352

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. \\u000aBackground: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes

Paula Sammarone Turocy; Bernard F. DePalma; Craig A. Horswill; Kathleen M. Laquale; Thomas J. Martin; Arlette C. Perry; Marla J. Somova; Alan C. Utter

2011-01-01

353

This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions. PMID:25282771

Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

2014-09-01

354

The relationship of symptoms and neurocognitive performance to perceived recovery from sports-related concussion among adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes' self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). A total of 101 concussed athletes (62 males, 39 females) aged 12 to 18 years old were included in the study (M(age) = 14.75, SD = 1.76). Athletes were asked to rate their "percent back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery) at the time of evaluation. A multiple regression for neurocognitive performance and symptoms revealed a significant model that accounted for 58% of the variance in perceptions of recovery. Adolescent athletes base their perceptions primarily on somatic symptoms (e.g., headache, nausea, vomiting, etc.), and these perceptions may be incongruent with objective neurocognitive measures. Athletes' tendency to overlook several factors when forming their perceptions of recovery should caution the sports medicine practitioner from relying on self-reported symptoms as their primary criterion for return-to-play decisions. These data further support the need for valid and reliable measures for concussion management. PMID:23427778

Sandel, Natalie K; Lovell, Mark R; Kegel, Nathan E; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

2013-01-01

355

Conformity to Gender Norms Among Female Student-Athletes: Implications for Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport exposes athletes to attributes that are typically associated with traditional masculine traits (e.g., individualism, competitiveness, aggressiveness, power). Female athletes often participate in sport using standards of traditional male athleticism, yet at the same time attempt to manage societal expectations of conforming to traditional femininity. By exploring conformity to gender norms in sport, we examined the relationship between gender norms,

Jesse A. Steinfeldt; Rebecca Zakrajsek; Hailee Carter; Matthew Clint Steinfeldt

2011-01-01

356

Meet Me at the Crossroads: African American Athletic and Racial Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

How individuals define themselves has considerable implications within the realms of sport. Considering the large proportion of African Americans participating in high profile college sports, matters of identity likely become quite relevant. This article addresses issues related to athletic and racial identity contextualized in the sport domain. The potential relationship between athletic identity (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) and

Albert Y. Bimper; Louis Harrison

2011-01-01

357

Differences in Ball Sports Athletes Speed Discrimination Skills Before and After Exercise Induced Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Substantial research exists in relation to the effect of fatigue on the cognitive skills of athletes. Very few studies in the sport domain, however, have investigated decision-making time and accuracy in relation to the discrimination of the speed of a moving object following exercise at maximal intensity. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of elite ballgames athletes to determine if they prioritize accuracy or speed of decision-making when physically exhausted. The participants in the study were 163 males (M = 21.17, SD = 4.18) Estonian national level soccer (n = 79), basketball (n = 63) and volleyball (n = 21) players. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed during completion of an incremental exercise test on a treadmill. Speed discrimination stimuli were images of red square-shapes on a grey background presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen. Repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for the decision-making time factor. A second MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for the decision-making accuracy factor. The soccer group made a significantly lower number of errors than the basketball group (p = 0.015) in pre- and post-fatigue decision-making accuracy. The results showed that athletes’ decision-making time decreased and decision-making errors increased after a maximal aerobic capacity exercise task. A comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of experienced basketball, volleyball and soccer players indicated that the only significant difference was for decision-making accuracy between the soccer and basketball groups. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster at the expense of accuracy when fatigued. Key points The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre- and post-fatigue speed discrimination skills of elite ballgames athletes to determine if they prioritize accuracy or speed of decision-making when physically exhausted. Speed discrimination stimuli were images of red square-shapes on a grey background presented moving along the sagittal axis at four different virtual velocities on a computer (PC) screen that represented the frontal plane. The participants exercised on a treadmill to level of 100% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Repeated measures MANOVA revealed significant main effects for both the decision-making time and accuracy factors. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster but with greater errors when fatigued. Post hoc analyses of the differences between the ball game sport groups indicated that soccer group participants reported a significantly lower number of errors than the basketball group (p = .015) in pre- and post-fatigue decision-making accuracy. Further investigations are required to clarify the equivocal set of previous findings regarding the relationship between the cognitive function of athletes at varying physical workload intensities. PMID:24149535

Thomson, Kaivo; Watt, Anthony P.; Liukkonen, Jarmo

2009-01-01

358

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment modalities and they also play a major role in establishing injury prevention routines. This data provides information that will be useful to both state and federal medical teams in preparing for future games. PMID:20205785

2010-01-01

359

Sport Biomechanist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

Sullivan, Megan

2005-01-01

360

Smena: Case Study of a Soviet Sport School for Elite Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "Smena," a Specialist Children's and Young People's Sport School of Olympic Reserves, located in Leningrad, which trains elite young soccer players. Information is given on: (1) the facilities of the school; (2) the schools' long-range individual and team goals; (3) instructional methods and hours; (4) the responsibilities of…

Jefferies, Stephen C.

361

Comparison Of Normalized Maximum Aerobic Capacity And Body Composition Of Sumo Wrestlers To Athletes In Combat And Other Sports  

PubMed Central

Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared “aerobic muscle quality”, meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (VO2max /SMM), between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05) body mass (mean ± SD; 117.0 ± 4.9 vs. 56.1 ± 9.8 kg), percent fat (24.0 ± 1.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.5), fat-free mass (88.9 ± 4.2 vs. 48.4 ± 6.8 kg), predicted SMM (48.2 ± 2.9 vs. 20.6 ± 4.7 kg) and absolute VO2max (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 L·min-1). Mean VO2max /SMM (ml·kg SMM-1·min-1) was significantly different (p < 0.05) among aerobic athletes (164.8 ± 18.3), combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 ± 9.3 and 128.6 ± 13.6, respectively), power athletes (96.5 ± 5.3), and sumo wrestlers (71.4 ± 5.3). There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75) between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05). We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest “aerobic muscle quality ”(VO2max /SMM), both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a “ceiling ”at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max. Key Points Sumo wrestlers have a high absolute VO2max compared to untrained controls. However, sumo wrestlers have a low VO2max /kg of skeletal muscle mass compared to other combat sports, other strength/power sports, and untrained controls. The reason for this is unknown, but is probably related to alterations in sumo skeletal muscle compared to other sports. Based on the present and previous data, there appears to be a “ceiling ”at which increases in skeletal muscle mass do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max PMID:24357971

Beekley, Matthew D.; Abe, Takashi; Kondo, Masakatsu; Midorikawa, Taishi; Yamauchi, Taro

2006-01-01

362

The Institution's Obligations to Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many commentators have noted that growing commercialization of college sports has made it increasingly difficult for universities to reconcile the gap between college sports and the fundamental mission of higher education. This article considers those individuals who choose to be a student athlete in good faith, and suggests strategies that can be…

Sharp, Linda A.; Sheilley, Holly K.

2008-01-01

363

Neural adaptations with sport-specific resistance training in highly skilled athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of variations in the volume and intensity of resistance training in highly skilled athletes on neural adaptive mechanisms: the maximality and pattern of neural drive. The maximality of muscle activation was measured using a high-resolution sample and hold amplifier to record interpolated twitches. The pattern of neural drive was measured by analysing isometric torque-time curves and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics during the performance of rapid isometric contractions at maximal effort. The volume and intensity of training were varied at 4-weekly intervals to systematically emphasize the development of strength, power and motor performance in 14 highly skilled track and field athletes (e.g. discus, hammer, javelin, shot put and weight). Knee extension strength increased significantly by 15% during steady maximal isometric contractions and by 24% during rapid isometric contractions at maximal effort after the 16-week training programme (P < 0.05). Increases in EMG amplitude and rate of EMG activation indicated that improvements to the pattern of neural drive occurred with sport-specific resistance training (P < 0.05). The maximality and pattern of neural drive did not change in the control group. PMID:12800864

Judge, Larry W; Moreau, Chad; Burke, Jeanmarie R

2003-05-01

364

Monitoring of immunological parameters in adolescent basketball athletes during and after a sports season.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to monitor the immunological and hormonal responses and the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms in adolescent basketball athletes during the different stages of a sports season. Anthropometric measures, biochemical analyses (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, testosterone and cortisol), neuromuscular evaluations (standing vertical jumping ability, agility and estimated VO2max) and leukocyte counts were performed at four moments: 72 h before the season (-72 h); before the season (Pre-season); after six weeks, at the end of the preparatory period (Preparatory); and after 20 weeks, at the end of the competitive period (Competitive). Also, the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms was collected weekly during all stages of the season. There were significant increases in monocytes, cortisol, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein at the Competitive moment as compared to the Pre-season. In addition, interleukin-10 decreased at the Competitive moment as compared to the Pre-season. Occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms demonstrated increases (38%) during the competitive period as compared to the preparatory. These results suggest that periods of training and competition could increase the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms in adolescent athletes and this may be due to the unwanted effects of an inflammatory process in response to the excessive stress of training and competition. PMID:24479737

Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Rodrigues, Ariel; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Bonganha, Valéria; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

2014-01-01

365

Resilience in competitive athletes with spinal cord injury: the role of sport participation.  

PubMed

Individuals who experience loss of their physical abilities often face the challenges of adapting to a new way of life. Past research has shown that sport participation can assist the physical and psychological adaptation to acquired physical disabilities. The purposes of our study were to examine the following: (a) the resilience process of sport participants with acquired spinal cord injury, and (b) the role of sport participation in the resilience process. We conducted semistructured phenomenological interviews with 12 male quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players. Results show that the development of resilience is a multifactorial process involving pre-existing factors and pre-adversity experiences, disturbance/disturbing emotions, various types and sources of social support, special opportunities and experiences, various behavioral and cognitive coping strategies, motivation to adapt to changes, and learned attributes or gains from the resilience process. We discuss implications for future research and practice. PMID:23771633

Machida, Moe; Irwin, Brandon; Feltz, Deborah

2013-08-01

366

Race and racism: Experiences of black Norwegian athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines race and racism in sport based on the experiences of black Norwegian athletes. The findings are based on in-depth qualitative interviews with nine female and eight male black athletes. Race and racism concepts are explored to draw attention to different approaches of understanding racism in sport, from the individual to the institutional level. The findings add to

Prisca Bruno Massao; Kari Fasting

2010-01-01

367

Relationship Between the Hip and Low Back Pain in Athletes Who Participate in Rotation-Related Sports  

PubMed Central

Context Hip function has been proposed to be related to low back pain (LBP) because of the anatomical proximity of the hip and lumbopelvic region. To date, findings have been inconclusive, possibly because the samples studied were heterogeneous. Sub-grouping samples based on characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex might clarify research findings. Objective To describe and summarize studies that examine 3 factors proposed to be important to the study of the hip–LBP relationship. Design Review of cross-sectional studies. Setting Academic healthcare center and research laboratory. Subjects 3 groups: athletes with a history of LBP who regularly participate in rotation-related sports, athletes without a history of LBP who are active but do not regularly participate in rotation-related sports, and athletes without a history of LBP who participate in rotation-related sports. Main Outcome Hip range of motion and hip–lumbopelvic region coordination. Measures Hip range of motion was measured with an inclinometer. Coordination was examined based on kinematics obtained with a 3-dimensional motion-capture system. Result Differences among groups were found based on activity demand, LBP classification, and sex. Conclusion When assessing athletes with and without LBP, characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex should be considered. PMID:19321907

Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Sahrmann, Shirley A.; Van Dillen, Linda R.

2009-01-01

368

Participation in leanness sports but not training volume is associated with menstrual dysfunction: a national survey of 1276 elite athletes and controls  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the total population of Norwegian elite female athletes and national representative controls in the same age group. Methods: A detailed questionnaire that included questions on training and/or physical activity patterns, menstrual, dietary, and weight history, oral contraceptive use, and eating disorder inventory subtests was administered to all elite female athletes representing the country at the junior or senior level (aged 13–39 years, n = 938) and national representative controls in the same age group (n = 900). After exclusion, a total of 669 athletes (88.3%) and 607 controls (70.2%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. Results: Age at menarche was significantly (p<0.001) later in athletes (13.4 (1.4) years) than in controls (13.0 (1.3) years), and differed among sport groups. A higher percentage of athletes (7.3%) than controls (2.0%) reported a history of primary amenorrhoea (p<0.001). A similar percentage of athletes (16.5%) and controls (15.2%) reported present menstrual dysfunction, but a higher percentage of athletes competing in leanness sports reported present menstrual dysfunction (24.8%) than athletes competing in non-leanness sports (13.1%) (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: These novel data include virtually all eligible elite athletes, and thus substantially extend previous studies. Age at menarche occurred later and the prevalence of primary amenorrhoea was higher in elite athletes than in controls. A higher percentage of athletes competing in sports that emphasise thinness and/or a specific weight reported present menstrual dysfunction than athletes competing in sports focusing less on such factors and controls. On the basis of a comparison with a previous study, the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction was lower in 2003 than in 1993. PMID:15728691

Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

2005-01-01

369

Understanding Consumer Support: Extending the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to Examine Individual Differences among Women's Professional Sport Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study used the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to further our understanding of how motivation can be characterised as individual difference factors among sport consumers. The SII was augmented through qualitative feedback involving four focus groups, a pilot test (n = 80) and later validated on a sample of season ticket holders and single-game attendees (n = 623) of

Daniel C. Funk; Lynn L. Ridinger; Anita M. Moorman

2003-01-01

370

Relationship between unilateral jumping ability and asymmetry on multidirectional speed in team-sport athletes.  

PubMed

Lockie, RG, Callaghan, SJ, Berry, SP, Cooke, ERA, Jordan, CA, Luczo, TM, and Jeffriess, MD. Relationship between unilateral jumping ability and asymmetry on multidirectional speed in team-sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 28(12): 3557-3566, 2014-The influence of unilateral jump performance, and between-leg asymmetries, on multidirectional speed has not been widely researched. This study analyzed how speed was related to unilateral jumping. Multidirectional speed was measured by 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20-m intervals), left- and right-leg turn 505, and modified T-test performance. Unilateral jump performance, and between-leg asymmetries, was measured by vertical (VJ), standing broad (SBJ), and lateral (LJ) jumping. Thirty male team-sport athletes (age = 22.60 ± 3.86 years; height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m; mass = 79.03 ± 12.26 kilograms) were recruited. Pearson's correlations (r) determined speed and jump performance relationships; stepwise regression ascertained jump predictors of speed (p ? 0.05). Subjects were divided into lesser and greater asymmetry groups from each jump condition. A 1-way analysis of variance found between-group differences (p ? 0.05). Left-leg VJ correlated with the 0-10 and 0-20-m intervals (r = -0.437 to -0.486). Right-leg VJ correlated with all sprint intervals and the T-test (r = -0.380 to -0.512). Left-leg SBJ and LJ correlated with all tests (r = -0.370 to -0.729). Right-leg SBJ and LJ related to all except the left-leg turn 505 (r = -0.415 to -0.650). Left-leg SBJ predicted the 20-m sprint. Left-leg LJ predicted the 505 and T-test. Regardless of the asymmetry used to form groups, no differences in speed were established. Horizontal and LJ performance related to multidirectional speed. Athletes with asymmetries similar to this study (VJ = ?10%; SBJ = ?3%; LJ = ?5%) should not experience speed detriments. PMID:24942166

Lockie, Robert G; Callaghan, Samuel J; Berry, Simon P; Cooke, Erin R A; Jordan, Corrin A; Luczo, Tawni M; Jeffriess, Matthew D

2014-12-01

371

Paths to Expertise in Portuguese National Team Athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key points Although most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise. The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey. There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete’s primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

2009-01-01

372

Identification of the role of the sports pharmacist with a model for the prediction of athletes' actions to cope with sickness.  

PubMed

In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established Sports Pharmacist-a system for certified pharmacists. There are many over-the-counter drugs that contain prohibited substances in Japan, and they are easily available. In Japan, most doping violations are committed when athletes unintentionally take prohibited substances. Therefore, the Sports Pharmacist has a vital role in promoting the prevention of doping. In the present study, surveys involving a total of 350 athletes, (including 260 representatives of Ehime Prefecture in the National Athletic Meets and 90 college students who participated in the intercollegiate athletics Shikoku area meets), on awareness regarding doping and medical drugs were conducted. Using correspondence and logistic regression analyses, the results were examined to develop a model for the prediction of athletes' actions to cope with sickness based on changes in their awareness of anti-doping, and the relationship between them was also analyzed. The survey results suggested that attitudes towards doping were strongly influenced by gender, rather than the athletic ability and whether or not a doping test is scheduled. Their behavior and criteria for the selection of drugs to address sickness were strongly correlated with awareness of anti-doping. Therefore, athletes with an increased awareness of anti-doping are expected to consult a pharmacist prior to using medicine. The Sports Pharmacist should further promote environmental development, such as activities to improve awareness of doping among young athletes and the establishment of medical drug consultation services for athletes (female athletes in particular). PMID:24189566

Yamaguchi, Takumi; Horio, Ikuo; Aoki, Ryouta; Yamashita, Noboru; Tanaka, Mamoru; Izushi, Fumio; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki

2013-01-01

373

Title: Postdoctoral Position at Stanford: Concussion Prevention in American Football Description: Job opportunity to work as part of a collaborative team involving Stanford Athletics, Sports  

E-print Network

: Job opportunity to work as part of a collaborative team involving Stanford Athletics, Sports Medicine and simulations of impact biomechanics. Ideal candidates should be able to work effectively across departments: Biomechanics system modeling and simulation Electromechanical system design with sensors

Berdichevsky, Victor

374

The National Sports Safety in Secondary Schools Benchmark (N4SB) Study: Defining Athletic Training Practice Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Context: Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. Objective: To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Design: ?Descriptive study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 17?558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): ?A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Results: Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. Conclusions: This is the first study to describe secondary school athletic training that reflects national practice trends. To improve the quality of athletic training care and to support and improve current working conditions, the profession must examine how its members practice on a day-to-day basis. PMID:23768120

McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C. Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Parsons, John T.

2013-01-01

375

Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.  

PubMed

Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; Beaumont, Louis De

2014-11-01

376

Balance index score as a predictive factor for lower sports results or anterior cruciate ligament knee injuries in Croatian female athletes--preliminary study.  

PubMed

Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. ACL injuries result either from contact mechanisms or from certain unexplained non-contact mechanisms occurring during daily professional sports activities. The occurrence of non-contact injuries points to the existence of certain factors intrinsic to the knee that can lead to ACL rupture. When knee joint movement overcomes the static and the dynamic constraint systems, non-contact ACL injury may occur. Certain recent results suggest that balance and neuromuscular control play a central role in knee joint stability, protection and prevention of ACL injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate balance neuromuscular skills in healthy Croatian female athletes by measuring their balance index score, as well as to estimate a possible correlation between their balance index score and balance effectiveness. This study is conducted in an effort to reduce the risk of future injuries and thus prevent female athletes from withdrawing from sports prematurely. We analysed fifty-two female athletes in the high-risk sports of handball and volleyball, measuring for their static and dynamic balance index scores, using the Sport KAT 2000 testing system. This method may be used to monitor balance and coordination systems and may help to develop simpler measurements of neuromuscular control, which can be used to estimate risk predictors in athletes who withdraw from sports due to lower sports results or ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted preventive interventions. The tested Croatian female athletes with lower sports results and ACL knee injury incurred after the testing were found to have a higher balance index score compared to healthy athletes. We therefore suggest that a higher balance index score can be used as an effective risk predictor for lower sports results and lesser sports motivation, anterior cruciate ligament injury and the ultimate decision to withdraw from active participation in sports. If the balance testing results prove to be effective in predicting the occurrence of ligament injuries during future sports activities, we suggest that prophylactic training programs be introduced during athlete training, since the prevention of an initial injury will be more effective than prevention of injury recurrence. PMID:17598410

Vrbani?, Tea Schnurrer-Luke; Ravli?-Gulan, Jagoda; Gulan, Gordan; Matovinovi?, Damir

2007-03-01

377

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE TEST CORRELATES OF PROLONGED ,H IGH-INTENSITY, INTERMITTENT RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN MODERATELY TRAINED WOMEN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sirotic, A.C., and A.J. Coutts. Physiological and per- formance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermit- tent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):138-144. 2007.—A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly pro- duce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal inten- sity.

ANITA C. SIROTIC; AARON J. COUTTS

378

Representative Baseline Values on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) in Adolescent Athletes Vary by Gender, Grade, and Concussion History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To improve and standardize the sideline evaluation of sports-related concussion, the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) was developed. This tool assesses concussion-related signs and symptoms, cognition, balance, and coordination. This newly published assessment tool has not established representative baseline data on adolescent athletes.Hypothesis: Representative baseline SCAT2 scores in adolescent athletes will differ by gender, grade in school, and

Tamara C. Valovich McLeod; R. Curtis Bay; Kenneth C. Lam; Anikar Chhabra

2012-01-01

379

Investigating Athletes’ Retirement from Sport: From Decision-Making to Optimal Support Programmes.  

E-print Network

??This thesis aimed to extend knowledge of athletes’ career transitions through examining athletes’ retirement decision-making process and influence of cultural diversity and organisational culture on… (more)

Park, Sunghee

2012-01-01

380

Leadership Ability and Achieving Styles among Student-Athletes at a NCAA-II University in the Northeast United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined student-athletes' self-reported leadership ability and achieving styles. It analyzed leadership ability and achieving style preferences as they related to gender, class status, ethnicity, and sport classification: individual-sport vs. team-sport athletes. A paper and pencil survey consisting of a composite variable of six…

Nigro, Mary Theresa

2012-01-01

381

[The estimation of the effectiveness of early rehabilitation of the athletes practicing different sports after the knee injury with the use of specific simulators].  

PubMed

There are yet no optimal criteria to be applied in rehabilitative sports medicine for the estimation of the restoration of the athletes' physical conditions to enable them to return to their professional activities. The primary objective of the present study was to develop specific methods for the assessment of the physical performance of the athletes safe enough for the use at any stage of testing and sufficiently informative to give idea of the athlete's condition. To this effect, we compared the effectiveness of various testing procedures specific for different sports. We divided the athletes suffering injuries to the knee joint into two groups. The control group consisted of athletes that were tested by classical diagnostic methods employed in sports medicine. The study group was comprised of the athletes examined by the methods specific for a given sport. The effectiveness of diagnostic methods was estimated based on the calculation of the frequency of repeated injuries during two months after the athletes were permitted to resume training. Results. The study has demonstrated that specific methods designed for testing alpine skiers, hockey players, and football players are more specific and produce better results if used for the assessment of the athletes' physical conditions in combination with the conventional diagnostic tests. Such an approach makes it possible to decrease the number of repeated injuries. PMID:24137935

Preobrazhenski?, V Iu; Sidorenko, E V; Preobrazhenski?, A V; Preobrazhenskaia, M V; Zinov'ev, O V

2013-01-01

382

Traditional Managerial Activities and Interscholastic Athletic Directors: Examining the Differences, Similarities, and Connections between Engagement, Gender, and Success of High School Sports Administrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The business realities of operating an interscholastic athletic program suggest that there is a rise in the behavioral similarities among traditional business managers and sport managers. This study explored how interscholastic athletic directors allocated their time when engaged in managerial activities; determined if gender influenced behavior; and to what extent the level of engagement in those activities influenced success. The

Warren A. Whisenant; Paul M. Pedersen

2004-01-01

383

An exploration of the relationships between the quality of the sport, social, and academic experiences of college student-athletes and their adjustment to college: A qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercollegiate athletics at major universities provide a variety of opportunities and challenges for student-athletes who choose to participate. This qualitative project studies the quality of interactions in the sport, the social, and the academic experiences for freshman football and male soccer student-athletes and their adjustment to college.\\u000aThe five research questions under review were as follows: Is there a relationship

Susan L Freeman

2009-01-01

384

The Relationships among Goal Orientation,Athletics' Coachability,and Sources of Sport-Confidence of Male Basketball Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to observe the relationships between goal orientation,athletics'coachability, and sources of sporting confidence for female basketball players. One hundred and thirty night male basketball players who competed in final eight division-1 high school basketball league in the 2004 academic year were recruited as participants. Their average age was 17.12±1.25 years. Participants were asked to complete

Chien-Te Ho; Chih-Ling Su

385

Initiation Rites and Athletics: A National Survey of NCAA Sports Teams. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alfred University conducted a national survey of college athletes, coaches, and staff members at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions early in 1999 to determine the extent of hazing and initiation rites. A national random sample of 10,000 athletes was taken from a composite list of all athletes from 224 NCAA institutions…

Alfred Univ., NY.

386

Intramural Sports Policies, Rules and Regulations Individuals and teams participating in the intramural program of Texas Tech University  

E-print Network

Intramural Sports ­ Policies, Rules and Regulations Individuals and teams participating to participation. Risk Statement The Texas Tech University Recreational Sports Department strives to conduct all of the Division of Recreational Sports, the intramural rules, and University Regulations. The staff

Gelfond, Michael

387

Sports, Recreation, & Leisure Sample Occupations  

E-print Network

Sports, Recreation, & Leisure Sample Occupations Academic Advisor/Athletes Agent, Business Announcer/Broadcaster Sports Industry Publicist Sports Information Director Sports Lawyer Sports Marketing in Travel, Tourism, Hospitality ................. IIB 39-6000 E2 Career Opportunities in the Sports Industry

Ronquist, Fredrik

388

"Inside the Bubble": A Look at the Experiences of Student-Athletes in Revenue-Producing Sports during College and beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study sought to address the overarching research questions: What are the costs and benefits of participation in Division I college sports? How does participation in Division I college sports prepare student-athletes for life after college? A qualitative methodology was selected to provide richer data than that which could be…

Menke, Donna J.

2010-01-01

389

Achievement Motivation, Coping Processes, and Sports Participation of Athletes with Physical Handicaps: A Student-Initiated Project. Final Report, July 1, 1985 to September 15, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined how the coping behaviors and achievement motivation of 181 athletes (aged 18-66) with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities influence participation in the normalized activity of competitive sport. The project examined the following cognitive aspects of performance: (1) reasons for becoming involved in sports; (2) how the…

Overton, Sara R.; And Others

390

Predictors of Academic Success for Male Student-Athletes: A Comparison of Traditional Measures, Noncognitive Variables, and Type of Sport Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1986-1990 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) dataset, this study examined the effect of college male athletic participation in the sports of football or basketball as compared to participation in other "minor" sports on academic performance as measured by grade point average. Results indicate that the type of…

Garrett, Mark D.

391

Eating disorders among high performance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

1993-01-01

392

Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and\\u000a stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes\\u000a in contact sports.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n?=?10), ice hockey (n?=?10), bandy (n?=?10) and female floor-ball

Hannu Paajanen; Heikki Hermunen; Jari Karonen

2011-01-01

393

Understanding how organized youth sport maybe harming individual players within the family unit: a literature review.  

PubMed

Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little to date has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of papers on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. Ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

Bean, Corliss N; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

2014-01-01

394

Individual differences of action orientation for risktaking in sports.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing Prospective Action Orientation and State Orientation in Success, Failure, and Planning Situations as action-oriented or state-oriented decision makers. The results of the experiment show that action-oriented players shoot faster and more often to the basket and that state-oriented players prefer to pass to a playmaker more often. Four versions of a computational model of decision making, Decision Field Theory, were compared to evaluate whether behavioral differences depend on the focus of attention, the initial preferences, threshold values, or an approach-avoidance interpretation of the task. Different starting preferences explained individual choices and decision times most accurately. Risk taking in basketball shooting behavior can be best explained by different preferences for starting values for risky and safe options caused by different levels of action orientation. PMID:15487295

Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G

2004-09-01

395

Technology to improve sports performance in wheelchair sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport and recreation are cornerstones of how we define ourselves as human beings and the competitive spirit is just as prominent in individuals with disabilities as it is in their able-bodied counterparts. Wheelchair sports were initially developed following WWII as a rehabilitation tool to care for the young men and women injured during the war. Today athletes with disabilities are

Justin Z. Laferrier; Ian Rice; Jon Pearlman; Michelle L. Sporner; Rosi Cooper; Tanya Liu; Rory A. Cooper

2012-01-01

396

Sports medicine and ethics.  

PubMed

Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

2013-01-01

397

Local versus global optimal sports techniques in a group of athletes.  

PubMed

Various optimization algorithms have been used to achieve optimal control of sports movements. Nevertheless, no local or global optimization algorithm could be the most effective for solving all optimal control problems. This study aims at comparing local and global optimal solutions in a multistart gradient-based optimization by considering actual repetitive performances of a group of athletes performing a transition move on the uneven bars. Twenty-four trials by eight national-level female gymnasts were recorded using a motion capture system, and then multistart sequential quadratic programming optimizations were performed to obtain global optimal, local optimal and suboptimal solutions. The multistart approach combined with a gradient-based algorithm did not often find the local solution to be the best and proposed several other solutions including global optimal and suboptimal techniques. The qualitative change between actual and optimal techniques provided three directions for training: to increase hip flexion-abduction, to transfer leg and arm angular momentum to the trunk and to straighten hand path to the bar. PMID:24156618

Huchez, Aurore; Haering, Diane; Holvoët, Patrice; Barbier, Franck; Begon, Mickael

2015-06-01

398

Performance analysis in sport: contributions from a joint analysis of athletes' experience and biomechanical indicators.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of combining two types of analysis to investigate sports performance with the aim of optimizing it. These two types of analysis correspond to two levels of athletes' activity: (a) their experiences during performance and (b) the biomechanical characteristics of their movements. Rowing served as an illustration, and the activity of one female crew member was studied during a race. Three types of data were collected: (a) audiovisual data recorded during the race; (b) verbalization data obtained in interviews conducted afterward; and (c) biomechanical data. The courses of experience of the two rowers during the race were reconstructed on the basis of the audiovisual and verbalization data. This paper presents a detailed analysis of a single phenomenon of the race experienced by one of the rowers. According to the coaches, it reflected a dysfunction in crew coordination. The aim of this analysis was to identify the biomechanical characteristics of the rowers' movements that might explain it. The results showed that the phenomenon could be explained principally by an amplitude differential between the two rowers' strokes. On this basis, the coaches defined new training objectives to remedy the dysfunction in crew coordination. PMID:22150999

Sève, C; Nordez, A; Poizat, G; Saury, J

2013-10-01

399

Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

400

The Athletics Plan for the Eighties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawaii's Interscholastic Athletics program involves 38 high schools in a voluntary program designed to develop athletically talented students and to foster student and community identity with the schools. Although the ten-year old program offering sixteen team and individual sports has been successful, several issues remain unresolved in the areas…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

401

Why Athletics Are Vulnerable to Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incidents of point-shaving and placing and accepting bets are evidence that professional gamblers are influencing college sports and campus life. Because of student athletes' competitive nature, they may be more likely to engage in gambling. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and individual colleges are examining and addressing this…

Naughton, Jim

1998-01-01

402

Talent identification and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The start of a new Olympic cycle offers a fresh chance for individuals and nations to excel at the highest level in sport. Most countries attempt to develop systematic structures to identify gifted athletes and to promote their development in a certain sport. However, forecasting years in advance the next generation of sporting experts and stimulating their development remains problematic.

Roel Vaeyens; Arne Güllich; Chelsea R. Warr; Renaat Philippaerts

2009-01-01

403

Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports.  

PubMed

The present study examined the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist, and the Stroop task. Based on a brief self-report concussion history survey, male and female athletes who participated in ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, and/or soccer were assigned to one of three concussion-history conditions: Non-concussed, Non-recent concussed (i.e., more than 2 years since last concussion), or Recent concussed (i.e., 2 years or less since last concussion). A fourth group of subjects consisting of non-concussed/non-athletes served in the control condition. Group differences emerged on the RBANS when immediate memory, delayed memory, and total scores were analyzed. Specifically, recent concussed athletes and, surprisingly, non-concussed athletes scored lower than control subjects in the two memory domains, whereas all three athlete groups had lower total RBANS scores than those of control subjects. Moreover, recent concussed athletes not only had lower immediate memory scores than control subjects, but also were impaired relative to non-recent concussed athlete subjects in this memory domain. No group differences were detected on the Stroop task or on the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist. Interestingly, however, the severity of the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist scores for the two athlete-concussed groups, taken in aggregate, correlated negatively with RBANS scores for attention (r = -.65) and delayed memory (r = -.61), and with the total RBANS score (r = -.59). In recent concussed athletes, lower delayed memory scores correlated with more severe Postconcussion Symptom Checklist scores (r = -.90), while more severe/higher number of concussions correlated with increased processing speed on the Stroop interference task (r = .90). These findings indicate that recent head injury produces alterations in neuropsychological function, especially that of memory, that resolve with time. More provocatively, the data also suggest that participation in contact sports may produce sub-clinical cognitive impairments in the absence of a diagnosable concussion presumably resulting from the cumulative consequences produced by multiple mild head trauma. PMID:15939185

Killam, Chad; Cautin, Robin L; Santucci, Anthony C

2005-07-01

404

Back pain and MRI changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine of top athletes in four different sports: a 15-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

A total 71 male athletes (weight lifters, wrestlers, orienteers, and ice-hockey players) and 21 non-athletes were randomly selected, for a baseline MRI study. After 15 years all the participants at baseline were invited to take part in a follow-up examination, including a questionnaire on back pain and a follow-up MRI examination. Thirty-two athletes and all non-athletes had disc height reduction at one or several disc levels. Disc degeneration was found in more than 90% of the athletes and deterioration had occurred in 88% of the athletes, with the highest frequency in weight lifters and ice-hockey players. 78% of the athletes and 38% of the non-athletes reported previous or present history of back pain at baseline and 71 and 75%, respectively at follow-up. There was no statistically significant correlation between back pain and MRI changes. In conclusion, athletes in sports with severe or moderate demands on the back run a high risk of developing disc degeneration and other abnormalities of the spine on MRI and they report high frequency of back pain. The study confirmed our hypothesis, i.e. that most of the spinal abnormalities in athletes seem to occur during the growth spurt, since the majority of the abnormalities demonstrated at follow-up MRI after the sports career were present already at baseline. The abnormalities found at young age deteriorated to a varying degree during the 15-year follow-up, probably due to a combination of continued high load sporting activities and normal ageing. Preventive measures should be considered to avoid the development of these injuries in young athletes. PMID:19305975

Baranto, Adad; Hellström, Mikael; Cederlund, C-G; Nyman, Rickard; Swärd, Leif

2009-09-01

405

Emotional Intelligence, Body Image and Disordered Eating Attitudes in Combat Sport Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible differences in body image, emotional intelligence, anx- iety levels and disordered eating attitudes in a group of Taekwondo (TKD) and Judo athletes and non-athletes. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. A total of 60 subjects were recruited: 20 were national and international TKD and Judo athletes and

Vassiliki Costarelli; Dimitra Stamou

2009-01-01

406

Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

2012-01-01

407

Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

2008-01-01

408

ESPN's "SportsCenter": Socialization of America's Athletes, Coaches and Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined what values, attitudes, and behaviors are conveyed through televised sports news programming that would be expected in both sport and the world of work. The study involved viewing 102 editions of ESPN's "SportsCenter," a sports news program, and recording comments made by program anchors, news journalists, players, coaches,…

Aicinena, Steven

409

Sports in extreme conditions: the impact of exercise in cold temperatures on asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are frequently reported among elite athletes of outdoor endurance winter sports, particularly in cross-country and biathlon skiers. The pathogenesis of EIA is related to water loss and heat-loss through the increased respiration during exercise, leading to mediator release, airways inflammation and increased parasympathetic nervous activity in the airways, causing bronchial constriction and BHR. In the competing elite athlete this is presently considered to be due to the frequently repeated increased ventilation during training and competitions in combination with the repeated environmental exposure to cold air in outdoor winter sports. It is important that athletes at risk of asthma and BHR are monitored through regular medical control with assessment of lung function and BHR, and when BHR or asthma is diagnosed, optimal controlling treatment through anti-inflammatory treatment by inhaled steroids should be started and relieving treatment (inhaled ipratropium bromide and inhaled ?2-agonists) should be used to relieve bronchial constriction if present. PMID:22906782

Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

2012-09-01

410

Working in Competitive Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work with competitive athletes is rewarding and challenging. Understanding the unique aspects of the elite sport environment can enhance psychological consultation. This paper begins with several case examples, then background characteristics common to many athletes are described, e.g., early involvement in sport participation, reliance on sport specific behavioral norms. It is suggested that paying particular attention to athletes' sport history,

Judy L. Van Raalte

1998-01-01

411

Social Capital and College Sport: In Search of the Bridging Potential of Intercollegiate Athletics  

E-print Network

provides this process. As Heere & James (2007) suggested, one’s identifying with a team and the benefits derived is a balance of group identities. College Sport and Social Capital 187 It is within these specific identities that sport must be able...174 Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 2011, 4, 174-189 © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc. Clopton is with the Dept. of Health, Sport, & Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. Social Capital and College Sport: In Search of the Bridging...

Clopton, Aaron Walter

2011-01-01

412

SPORT CLUBS HANDBOOK PAGE 1 KENT STATE UNIVERSITY CLUB SPORTS MANUAL  

E-print Network

Procedures 15 V. Student Code of Conduct Hazing 15 - 16 #12;SPORT CLUBS HANDBOOK PAGE 2 Individual Warnings is designed to offer athletic/recreational opportunities primarily to Kent State University students

Khan, Javed I.

413

The Eect of Professional Sports on the Earnings of Individuals: Evidence from Microeconomic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of professional sports teams and stadiums on the wages of individuals employed in several narrowly defined occupational groups in cities in the United States. The occupational groups examined are among those that proponents of public funding of professional sports claim will benefit economically from these stadiums. Our analysis uses data from the March Supplement to

Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

2003-01-01

414

The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.  

PubMed

A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ? 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power. PMID:21912294

Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

2012-06-01

415

The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training. PMID:22476167

Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

2013-02-01

416

Selected Cutaneous Disorders in Athletes  

PubMed Central

The author discusses selected cutaneous diseases seen in the athlete. These diseases may be caused by interaction with the elements, the playing surface, other athletes, or the clothing or equipment worn during sport. All of these dermatological conditions are relatively common, but the physically active individual can suffer from these maladies and their complications more often than the inactive person. The emphasis in caring for the participant is on prevention, early recognition and practical aspects of management of cutaneous diseases. PMID:21264034

Walker, James D.

1988-01-01

417

Sleep duration and quality in elite athletes measured using wristwatch actigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is known to be an important component of recovery from training, yet little is known about the quality and quantity of sleep achieved by elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to quantify sleep in elite athletes using wristwatch actigraphy. Individual nights of sleep from a cohort of Olympic athletes (n = 47) from various sports were analysed and

Jonathan Leeder; Mark Glaister; Kathleen Pizzoferro; Jean Dawson; Charles Pedlar

2012-01-01

418

Transitioning to an athletic subjectivity: first-semester experiences at a corporate (sporting) university  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of a corporatized Division-I University. As sport has become increasingly corporatized, low-profile sports

Bryan C. Clift; Ronald L. Mower

2011-01-01

419

Sports Coaching and Athletic Performance is a 20 credit-hour  

E-print Network

by NASPE (National Association for Sport and Physical Education) and the NCACE (National Council & Physical Education ­ Obtain the knowledge and skills of sports management and administration in both to plan sound programs, and objectively evaluate program effectiveness in physical education and sport. (3

Fork, Richard

420

Children's Perceptions of Male and Female Athletes as Presented in Sports Illustrated for Kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite gains made by Title IX in the past 36 years, including increased female participation in high school and collegiate sport, there is evidence that gender equity in sport is not fully achieved. Researchers target the media because they tend to shape social values and disseminate information to the masses (Kane, 1978, in Fink & Kensicki, 2002). As sports become

Brittany Perotti

2009-01-01

421

Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports

Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

2008-01-01

422

Empowerment among athletes - an e-survey design.  

PubMed

This study focus on a healthcare system integrating citizens orientation towards a healthy sports active lifestyle in combination with an individual health information, to prevent them from sports injuries and to empower them in an everyday context. Sports give quality of life, but often result in injuries. In this survey population of 1,320 athletes, 90% had sports related injuries and 80% had received medical treatment. An e-survey investigates how the athletes use IT in relation to health and is a descriptive research into investigating specific indicators of individual empowerment. PMID:19592953

Pallesen, Bodil; Engberg, Axel; Barlach, Anders

2009-01-01

423

Concussion in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: The vast differences between individual athletes makes identifying and evaluating sports-related concussion one of the most complex and perplexing injuries faced by medical personnel. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature supporting the use of a multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation on the sideline of the athletic field. Information was drawn from a PubMed search (MEDLINE) for the terms sport concussion for the most recent and relevant literature. Conclusions: By using a standardized clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of concussion-related symptoms, mental status, and postural control, the medical professional becomes well equipped to make an informed diagnosis. PMID:23015894

Broglio, Steven P.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

2009-01-01

424

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study on the White Matter Skeleton in Individuals with Sports-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recognizing and managing the effects of cerebral concussion is very challenging, given the discrete symptomatology. Most individuals with sports-related concussion will not score below 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but will present with rapid onset of short-lived neurological impairment, demonstrating no structural changes on traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. The return-to-play decision is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been primarily based on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. We assessed white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity in varsity level college athletes with sports-related concussion without loss of consciousness, who experienced protracted symptoms for at least 1 month after injury. Evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the WM skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed a large cluster of significantly increased MD for concussed subjects in several WM fiber tracts in the left hemisphere, including parts of the inferior/superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and posterior thalamic and acoustic radiations. Qualitative comparison of average FA and MD suggests that with increasing level of injury severity (ranging from sports-related concussion to severe traumatic brain injury), MD might be more sensitive at detecting mild injury, whereas FA captures more severe injuries. In conclusion, the TBSS analysis used to evaluate diffuse axonal injury of the WM skeleton seems sensitive enough to detect structural changes in sports-related concussion. PMID:21083414

Cubon, Valerie A.; Putukian, Margot; Boyer, Cynthia

2011-01-01

425

Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators  

PubMed Central

Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, ? 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, ? 2 = .013), relativism ( P < .001, ? 2 = .050), and ethical decision-making scores ( P < .001, ? 2 = .027). Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis indicated that educators possessed lower idealism scores (36.90 ± 5.70) and relativism scores (29.92 ± 4.86) and higher ethical decision-making scores (82.98 ± 7.62) than did students. Conclusions: Our findings do not support changes in athletic training ethics education practices to address sex-specific needs. However, when opportunities occur for students to reason using different ethical perspectives, educators should be aware of their students' and their own moral philosophies in order to optimally facilitate professional growth. PMID:18345347

Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

2008-01-01

426

Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

2009-01-01

427

The Undiscovered Athlete: A Perspective on Collegiate Sports for Persons with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the need for athletic programming adapted for students with disabilities at the college level, impediments to the development of such programs, and the actions required to stimulate program development. The paper examines the impact of athletics on overall life quality, the need for generalist coaches to provide these services…

Hedrick, Brad N.; Hedrick, Sharon

428

Effects of a Motivational Climate Intervention for Coaches on Young Athletes' Sport Performance Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes' cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear

Ronald E. Smith; Frank L. Smoll; Sean P. Cumming

2007-01-01

429

Prevention of sudden cardiac death: return to sport considerations in athletes with identified cardiovascular abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young

M S Link

2009-01-01

430

Asthma and increased bronchial responsiveness in elite athletes: Atopy and sport event as risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma has been found in cross-country skiers. There is limited evidence that asthma and bronchial responsiveness would be common also in athletes with summer events. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate occurrence of and risk factors for increased bronchial responsiveness and asthma in elite athletes with summer events and to

Ilkka J. Helenius; Heikki O. Tikkanen; Seppo Sarna; Tari Haahtela

1998-01-01

431

Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

Filsinger, Lora C.

2012-01-01

432

Spinal deformity and athletics.  

PubMed

Exercise and athletic competition for the young individual has become increasingly more important in society. Scoliosis and Scheurmann kyphosis are spinal deformities prevalent in up to 2% to 3% and 7% of the population respectively, requiring nonoperative and occasionally operative treatment. Curve progression and patient physiologic age dictate treatment regimens. Bracing and physical therapy is the mainstay for nonoperative treatment, whereas soft tissue releases and fusion with instrumentation are used for operative correction. Athletic activity and sports participation is usually allowed for patients undergoing nonoperative treatment. Return to sport after surgical correction is variable, often decided by the treating surgeon, and based on the level of fusion and sporting activity. Although most treating surgeons promote some form of activity regardless of treatment modality chosen, caution should be taken when deciding on participation in collision activities such as football and wrestling. PMID:18277259

Schiller, Jonathan R; Eberson, Craig P

2008-03-01

433

Gait Patterns Differ Between ACL-Reconstructed Athletes Who Pass Return-to-Sport Criteria and Those Who Fail  

PubMed Central

Background The current standard of practice for an athlete to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is varied. Attempt to return to activity is typically advised 6 months after surgery, but functional performance deficits and gait abnormalities are often still evident and may have important implications on future function. Hypothesis When comparing the involved and uninvolved limbs, patients who failed return-to-sport (RTS) criteria would demonstrate (1) smaller peak knee angles, extensor moments, and peak power absorption at the knee of the involved limb and (2) larger peak hip angles, extensor moments, and peak power generation of the involved limb. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A total of 42 patients completed functional and biomechanical gait assessment 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Functional testing involved an isometric quadriceps strength test, 4 single-legged hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to measure sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of the hip and knee. A mixed-model analysis of variance and post hoc t tests were used to compare the limb symmetry of those who passed and those who did not pass RTS criteria. Minimal clinically important differences were calculated from healthy gait data and used to further define meaningful limb asymmetries. Results Twenty of the 42 (48%) patients passed RTS criteria 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Patients who did not pass the criteria demonstrated statistically significant differences between limbs on all kinematic and kinetic variables at the knee (P ? .027). Clinically meaningful asymmetries at the hip were also identified in this group. Only kinetic asymmetries at the knee were identified in the patients who passed RTS criteria. Conclusion Athletes who demonstrate superior functional performance 6 months after ACL reconstruction may have fewer abnormal and asymmetrical gait behaviors than their poorer performing counterparts. Patients who did not pass RTS criteria not only demonstrated larger kinematic and kinetic asymmetries between limbs but also appeared to use a gait strategy more closely aligned with athletes early after ACL rupture. Clinical Relevance Poor performance on a battery of functional performance measures may be related to the presence of movement asymmetries in athletes after ACL reconstruction. Objective RTS criteria have the potential to provide information to clinicians who determine when these athletes return to activity, and may aid in the prescription of targeted rehabilitation to address underlying movement asymmetry. PMID:23562809

Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Logerstedt, David; Gardinier, Emily S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2013-01-01

434

Muscular Oxidative Capacity in Ovariectomized Rats Discussion on the Endurance Performance of Female Athletes with Sports-Related-Amenorrhea  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group), and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group). One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR spectra of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (GPS) muscles group at rest and during electric stimulation. Wet weight and maximum tension of the whole GPS muscles group were also measured. From the MRS measurements, the muscle oxidative capacity in the OVX group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05) at both one and four weeks after surgery. The muscle’s wet weight one week after surgery in the OVX group was the same as the Sham group, while four weeks after surgery it was significantly greater than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in maximum tension among the groups. In conclusion, in adult rats the oxidative capacity decreased due to ovariectomy despite the increase in muscle weight. It is suggested that the muscular endurance capacity in female adult athletes with sports related amenorrhea may deteriorate. Key Points In vivo measurement of muscular energy metabolism. Effects of ovariectomy on muscle function and volume. Muscle function of sports-related amenorrhea. PMID:24778549

Sasa, Takahiro; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Ishikawa, Makoto; Fukunaga, Mari; Yasui, Natsuo

2004-01-01

435

Are sports medicine journals relevant and applicable to practitioners and athletes?  

PubMed Central

Methods: Original research articles, short reports, and case reports published in four major sport and exercise medicine journals were studied and classified according to the main topic of study and type of subjects used. Results: The most common topic was sports science, and very few studies related to the treatment of injuries and medical conditions. The majority of published articles used healthy subjects sampled from the sedentary population, and few studies have been carried out on injured participants. Conclusions: There is a dearth of studies addressing diagnostic and treatment interventions in the sports medicine literature. The evidence base for sports medicine must continue to increase in terms of volume and quality. PMID:15388567

Bleakley, C; MacAuley, D; McDonough, S

2004-01-01

436

Health Care Delivery in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A structural framework is provided for a responsive athletic injury control program, the Health Supervision Loop in Sport. The use of certified athletic trainers is recommended to lessen the risk of sport-related injuries. (FG)

Clarke, Kenneth S.

1982-01-01

437

A Research on Identifying the Need for Distance Education for National Athletes Who Study in School of Physical Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured…

Bozkus, Taner

2014-01-01

438

It Takes a Team! Making Sports Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Athletes and Coaches. An Education Kit for Athletes, Coaches, and Athletic Directors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational kit focuses on the safe education of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. It includes four sections that examine: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., why it is important to address homophobia in sport, educator responsibilities, and who this educational kit is for); (2) "The Core Program: Video and Discussion"…

Griffin, Pat; Perrotti, Jeff; Priest, Laurie; Muska, Mike

439

Psychosocial determinants of young athletes' continued participation over time.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the differences in psychosocial and motivational variables between persistent and dropout youth athletes and between groups with different years in training. Team and individual youth athletes completed questionnaires measuring autonomy support from parents and coaches, peer motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and sport motivation. The results showed that athletes who dropped out perceived significantly less competence, relatedness, and autonomy need satisfaction, and they perceived less autonomy support from parents and were less intrinsically motivated than persistent athletes. Youth athletes with up to one year in training reported significantly lower effort and intra-team conflict with peers, relatedness need satisfaction, and external motivation than athletes with 1 to 3 years and >3 years in training. Findings extend knowledge of the psychosocial determinants of sport continuation behaviour among young athletes. PMID:21987909

Jõesaar, Helen; Hein, Vello

2011-08-01

440

Effect of sports activity on bone mineral density in wheelchair athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study carried out a measurement of body composition and a nutrition survey, targeting 28 male wheelchair athletes\\u000a and comparing them with 25 male physically able healthy athletes as the controls. The DXA method was used to measure bone\\u000a mineral density (BMD), percentage of body fat (% body fat), and lean body mass (LBM). Possible factors affecting the BMD

Kimiko Miyahara; Da-Hong Wang; Keiko Mori; Kayo Takahashi; Nobuyuki Miyatake; Bing-Ling Wang; Tomoko Takigawa; Jiro Takaki; Keiki Ogino

2008-01-01

441

The Foundation of Athletics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a coach, this author likes to share some thoughts on children and sports. After 42 years in athletics in all capacities--coach, athletic director, official, parent, athlete, and observer--he can easily say he has seen, heard, or experienced it all. Each experience has helped him gain some insights on youth and interscholastic sports. Parent of…

Curry, Tom

2012-01-01

442

Female and Male Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport and Higher Education: A Visual Elicitation and Qualitative Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The termination of a collegiate athletic career is inevitable for all student athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore student athletes' perceptions of the athletic career transition process. One-hundred-and-forty-three (n = 143) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II student athletes were administered the Life After…

Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

2004-01-01