Note: This page contains sample records for the topic individual sport athletes from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Imagery use of athletes in individual and team sports that require open and closed skill.  

PubMed

This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports. PMID:22913017

Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik

2012-06-01

2

Sex Role Orientations of Male and Female Collegiate Athletes from Selected Individual and Team Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses the Bem Sex Role Inventory to compare the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes. Results indicate no significant differences for team sports players, but higher femininity scores for females in individual sports. (FMW)|

Wrisberg, Craig A.; And Others

1988-01-01

3

Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

2013-01-01

4

Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.  

PubMed

Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

2013-03-01

5

Sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes from selected individual and team sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes were more similar in team sports than in individual sports. It was predicted that females in masculine-oriented team sports (basketball and volleyball) would exhibit sex role orientations more similar to those of their male counterparts than would females in individual

Craig A. Wrisberg; M. Vanessa Draper; John J. Everett

1988-01-01

6

Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)  

MedlinePLUS

... Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ... Resources Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) A sports hernia is a ...

7

Chronotype and PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in individual sports athletes.  

PubMed

A link between diurnal preference and a variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the PERIOD3 gene (PER3) has been demonstrated: the longer PER3(5) and shorter PER3(4) alleles with preferences for mornings and evenings, respectively. As many competitive events in South Africa for individual athletes are scheduled for the early mornings, we hypothesized that this might favor those athletes with a preference for morning activities. Self-selected white, male cyclists (CYC, n = 125), runners (RUN, n = 120) and Ironman triathletes (IM, n = 287) of European descent were compared with a control population of active, non-competitive individuals (CON, n = 96). The chronotypes of all CYC, RUN and CON participants and a sub-sample of the IM group (n =? 49) were assessed using the Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and the PER3 VNTR genotype for each participant was determined. The athlete groups contained more morning-type individuals than the CON group (CYC: 72%, n = 90; RUN: 67%, n = 80; IM: 59%, n = 29; CON: 41%, n = 39; p athlete groups (CYC: 61%, n =? 152; RUN: 58%, n = 132; IM: 56%, n = 324; CON: 38%, n = 76; p athletes were genotyped as PER3(5/5) than CON individuals (CYC: 41%, n = 51; RUN: 23%, n = 26; IM: 28%, n = 81, CON: 9%, n = 8; p athletes preferred to train was related to their chronotype (p sporting population, and the results have not yet been replicated. These data suggest that white males of European descent participating in individual endurance sports in South Africa are more likely to be morning types. Furthermore, the PER3 VNTR may be one of the factors contributing to this observation. PMID:22971169

Kunorozva, Lovemore; Stephenson, Kim J; Rae, Dale E; Roden, Laura C

2012-10-01

8

Individual Self-Determination and Relationship Satisfaction of Athletes in Dyadic Sports: Examining the Moderating Role of Dyadic Self-Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to explore a multilayered hierarchical model of motivation in which the role of self-determination at the dyadic level is expected to moderate the relationship between individual self-determination and both cohesion and relationship quality of athletes in dyadic sports. The sample consisted of 66 athletes from 3 different sports: badminton, figure skating, and synchronized

Patrick Gaudreau; Marie-Claude Fecteau; Stéphane Perreault

2010-01-01

9

Athlete leadership dispersion and satisfaction in interactive sport teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAthlete leadership on sport teams can be represented by an individual occupying a formal or informal leadership role within a team who influences a group of team members to achieve a common goal [Loughead, Hardy, & Eys, (2006). The nature of athlete leadership. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29, 142–158]. Previous research has suggested that individuals involved in sport view the

Mark A. Eys; Todd M. Loughead; James Hardy

2007-01-01

10

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

11

Sports nutrition for young athletes.  

PubMed

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the nutrition knowledge of athletes and their sources of nutrition information. Topics covered include energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat and micronutrient needs, hydration requirements, timing of meals, and issues related to age, gender, and specific sports. Other issues addressed include "making weight" and ergogenic aids. Proper nutrition for young athletes is critical not only to their athletic success, but more importantly to their growth, development, and overall health. Nutritional recommendations should be based on the most current scientific data; we provide information about appropriate resources for the school nurse when advising student athletes and their coaches and parents. PMID:16419340

Cotunga, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E; McBee, Sheldon

2005-12-01

12

Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes.MethodsAn argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in

Jenny Jacobsson; Toomas Timpka; Joakim Ekberg; Jan Kowalski; Sverker Nilsson; Per Renström

2010-01-01

13

Differences in Television Sports Reporting of Men's and Women's Athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. Results indicated: both programs devoted only about 5% of their air time to women's sports; story placement and on-camera comments indicated an emphasis on men's athletics; and stories about women involved individual competition, with almost no…

Tuggle, C. A.

1997-01-01

14

Athlete Eligibility Requirements and Legal Protection of Sports Participation Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares and examines the existing legal frameworks governing athletic eligibility rules and dispute resolution processes for Olympic, professional, college, and high school sports from both private law and public law perspectives. At all levels of sports competition, monolithic sports leagues and governing bodies establish eligibility requirements and conditions that must be satisfied for an individual to participate in

Matthew J. Mitten; Timothy Davis

2008-01-01

15

DIFFERENCES IN DYNAMIC BALANCE SCORES IN ONE SPORT VERSUS MULTIPLE SPORT HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Methods: Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. Results: No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ.

Butler, Robert J.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J.

2012-01-01

16

Injury of elite athletes: Sport? and gender?related representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated psychocognitive processes used by athletes following an injury. Based on a differential perspective, the study evaluates the effects of the type the sport (individual vs. team), of gender on representations, believes, and causal attributional processes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of athletes discourses confirmed the traumatic nature of the injuries causing major psychological disturbances. The results suggested that

Annie San Jose

2003-01-01

17

Contemporary sport sociology and ancient Greek athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated at a point of critical intersection between leisure and labour, ancient athletics was in the most essential respects just as complex and ‘modern’ as its contemporary counterpart and can thus benefit from the methods of contemporary sport sociology, which can in turn find in ancient Greece a useful comparandum. As with contemporary sport, athletic pursuits must be situated within

Thomas Hubbard

2008-01-01

18

Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation, joining sports, constant participation, changing participation, dropping out, and inconsistent participation), using data from

Jennifer P. Agans; G. John Geldhof

2012-01-01

19

Parental Behaviors in Team Sports: How do Female Athletes Want Parents to Behave?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents display various positive and negative behaviors at youth sport competitions. This study examined early adolescent female athletes’ preferred parental behaviors at team sport competitions. Individual interviews were conducted with 36 female athletes (M age = 13.5 years) who frequently competed in team sports. Data analysis led to the identification of three categories of parental behavior across different phases of

Camilla J. Knight; Kacey C. Neely; Nicholas L. Holt

2011-01-01

20

Youth soccer athletes' involvement in different sport practice contexts.  

PubMed

The sport can serve as an informal educational context, helping the youth development positive values and healthy habits. The ecological theories give importance to the contexts where the individual are inserted and to the involvement time on those, through the Process-Person-Context-Time model. The orientation to performance or to socialization and healthy habits can promote different values and behaviors in the youth athletes. We aim to: a) examine the contextual effects in youth soccer players; b) observe the effects of a season involvement in the developmental assets, attitudes and enjoyment; c) examine the sport involvement effects according to age in the developmental assets, attitudes and enjoyment in sport. The participants (n=135) were male soccer players aged 12-18 years (M=15, SD=2) from three different contexts: Professional Club (n=45), Amateur Urban Club (n=46), Amateur Rural Club (n=44). They fulfilled the Sources of enjoyment in youth sport questionnaire, Developmental Assets Profile and to Sport Attitudes Questionnaire. A multilevel analysis was performed. The Professional Club athletes reveal lower levels of assets, enjoyment and sport attitudes than the other contexts athletes, suggesting a disadvantage context for positive development. The sport involvement during a soccer season has negative effects in the athletes' enjoyment and attitudes, revealing that a season exposure leads to athletes perceive less interest in being involved in those sport contexts. This findings reinforces the solicitudes of sport contexts influences in athletes development, as well the need to promote enjoyable and pro-social practice environment to augment the interest in being involved in sport. PMID:24159116

Santos, Aj; Carvalho, Hm; Gonçalves, Ce

2013-11-01

21

Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians…

Anderson, Austin Robert

2011-01-01

22

Doping Control, Mandatory Arbitration, and Process Dangers for Accused Athletes in International Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes in a professional sports league in the United States are members of players unions, which assist their athletes in obtaining representation when they are involved in dispute resolution proceedings associated with disciplinary actions. However, individual athletes who participate in international competitions do not enjoy the same benefits. When these athletes are required to submit to mandatory drug testing, with

Maureen A. Weston

2012-01-01

23

Doping Control, Mandatory Arbitration, and Process Dangers for Accused Athletes in International Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes in a professional sports league in the United States are members of players unions, which assist their athletes in obtaining representation when they are involved in dispute resolution proceedings associated with disciplinary actions. However, individual athletes who participate in international competitions do not enjoy the same benefits. When these athletes are required to submit to mandatory drug testing, with

Maureen A. Weston

2009-01-01

24

Echocardiographic parameters in athletes of different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M- mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in

Tomas Venckunas; Arimantas Lionikas; Jolanta E. Marcinkeviciene; Rasa Raugaliene; Aleksandras Alekrinskis; Arvydas Stasiulis

25

Stopping Sports Injuries in Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007 the STOP (Sports Trauma and Overuse Prevention) Sports Injuries campaign was created in response to the dramatic rise in overuse injuries among young athletes. The campaign uses public service announcements, posters, DVDs, brochures, electronic newsletter, an interactive web site and even social media like Facebook and Twitter to educate people on the topic of overuse injuries in the

Destin E. Hill; James R. Andrews

26

Athlete experiences of disordered eating in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, research into disordered eating in sport has focused on the prevalence and the identification of putative risk factors. Findings suggest that elite female athletes participating in sports with a focus on leanness or aesthetics are at greatest risk. A paucity of research remains as to the period after onset and how existing sufferers manage their illness over time.

Anthony Papathomas; David Lavallee

2010-01-01

27

Benefits of Sports Participation for Executive Function in Disabled Athletes  

PubMed Central

Abstract We investigated the effect of sports activity on physically-disabled individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Visual go/no-go discriminative and simple response tasks were used. Participants included 17 disabled athletes, 9 from open-skill (wheelchair basketball) and eight from closed-skill (swimming) sports, and 18 healthy non-athletes. Reaction times of the disabled athletes were slower than those of healthy non-athletes on both tasks (7% and 13% difference, respectively). Intra-individual variations in reaction times, switch cost, and number of false alarms, were higher in the swimmers, but comparable to healthy non-athletes, in the basketball group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) early components P1, N1, and P2 had longer latencies in the disabled athletes. The late P3 component had longer latency and smaller amplitude in the disabled athletes only in the discriminative response task. The N2 component, which reflected inhibition/execution processing in the discriminative response task, was delayed and reduced in the swimmer group, but was comparable to healthy subjects in the basketball group. Our results show that (1) the ERP components related to perceptual processing, and late components related to executive processing, were impaired in disabled subjects; and (2) open-skill sports such as basketball may partially compensate for executive control impairment by fostering the stability of motor responses and favoring response flexibility.

Bultrini, Alessandro; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Polidori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Spinelli, Donatella

2010-01-01

28

Iron status of female collegiate athletes involved in different sports.  

PubMed

Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18-25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However, several athletes from different sports had suboptimal iron status indexes. Of 17 athletes with a serum ferritin concentration < or = 15 microg/L, 8 (4 freshmen, 2 sophomores, 2 unknown) also exhibited low serum iron concentrations (< 60 microg/dL) and low transferrin saturation (< 16%). Thirteen (6 freshmen, 3 sophomores, 2 juniors, 2 seniors) of 51 (25%) athletes failed to consume two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron and exhibited suboptimal serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and/or transferrin saturation. Of nine athletes taking iron supplements, one exhibited suboptimal iron status. In summary, nonanemic iron depletion was present among female collegiate athletes involved in many different sports and in all years of participation (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior athletes). Female athletes should continue to be individually and routinely evaluated for nutritional deficiencies throughout their collegiate athletic careers. PMID:16388098

Gropper, Sareen S; Blessing, Daniel; Dunham, Kim; Barksdale, Jeffrey M

2006-01-01

29

Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…

Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

2012-01-01

30

Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…

Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

2012-01-01

31

The pediatric athlete: younger athletes with sport-related concussion.  

PubMed

Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. PMID:21074088

Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark

2011-01-01

32

The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.  

PubMed

Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport, remains to be determined and is an area for future study. Rodeo performance, as with all sports, is based on a multifactorial array of variables and, therefore, interdisciplinary efforts encompassing expertise across medicine, science and coaching are encouraged. Taking a comprehensive approach in the assessment of athletes, as well as the development and quantification of event-specific training protocols, may ultimately enhance athletic potential, minimize opportunity for injury and possibly provide information to coaches and allied health professionals for the appropriate development and optimal medical care of these athletes. PMID:20433213

Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

2010-05-01

33

The Female High School Athlete and Interscholastic Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the effect on existing athletic programs of the female high school athlete's legally protectable interest in the benefits of an interscholastic sports program where one is provided for the male athletes. (Author)|

Fabri, Candace J.; Fox, Elaine S.

1975-01-01

34

Athletic Shoe Lacing in Sports Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Optimal athletic shoe fit and function depends on a number of factors, including foot type, biomechanical foot function, the\\u000a type of sport, socks, as well as shoe lacing. Athletic shoelaces and lacing patterns are often overlooked, but can enhance\\u000a better shoe fit and function as well as help minimize painful conditions of the foot.

Matthew B. Werd

35

[Sports and athletes deserve doping hunting].  

PubMed

This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential adverse effects of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine wordwide. It is therefore important for the scientific societies, clinicians, dieticians sports federations to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs in order to have an important role in information and prevention attitudes that can lead to health risks or addictions! PMID:23971326

Gremion, G; Saugy, M

2013-07-17

36

Sport participation by physically and cognitively challenged young athletes.  

PubMed

Many physically and cognitively challenged athletes participate in organized and recreational sports. Health benefits of sport participation by athletes with disabilities have been well recognized. A careful preparticipation evaluation and proper classification of athletes ensures safe sports participation by athletes with disabilities. Some conditions in these athletes, such as problems with thermoregulation, autonomic control, neurogenic bladder and bowel, latex allergy, and many associated and secondary complications deserve special consideration. This article reviews common medical issues that relate to sport participation by athletes with physical and cognitive disabilities. PMID:20538157

Patel, Dilip R; Greydanus, Donald E

2010-06-01

37

Sports Fans, Athletes' Salaries, and Economic Rent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fans in the United States are increasingly distressed by the fact that spectator sports, one of their favorite recreational activities, are just another commercial enterprise. They attribute this state of affairs to the greed of professional athletes, a charge they often make without any understanding of the concept of economic rent, a major component of the salaries received by

Rodney J. Morrison

1996-01-01

38

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa

Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

2010-12-01

39

The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate) returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5). Seventy one (9.0%) individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5%) had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85), weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82), endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84), late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51), and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69). Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature that the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea is high in athletes. Furthermore, we provided the first report on the prevalence of PCOS in female athletes with amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. Athletes would be greatly benefited by greater general awareness about the complications of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. To increase awareness of exercise-associated menstrual cycle irregularities, it is necessary to design complete and comprehensive education programs for female athletes, their parents, their coaches, and the relevant authorities.

Dadgostar, Haleh; Razi, Mohammad; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Alenabi, Talia; Dahaghin, Saeideh

2009-01-01

40

Television Sports and Athlete Sex: Looking At the Differences in Watching Male and Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are an underrepresented population, particularly in the world of televised sports. Women are undervalued as athletes, due to their perceived lack of athletic skill and competitive spirit. This paper demonstrates, via physiological measures, men's sports garner more cognitive effort while it is women's sports that are actually remembered better. Also discussed is how men's and women's sports do not

James R. Angelini

2008-01-01

41

Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports.  

PubMed

The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined. PMID:20528446

Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

2010-01-01

42

Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate symptoms and neurocognitive recovery patterns after sports-related concussion in high school and college athletes. Study design College athletes (n = 371) and high school athletes (n = 183) underwent baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals who received a concussion during athletic competition (n = 54) underwent serial neuropsychologic evaluation after injury and were compared with

Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

2003-01-01

43

Athletes with Visual Impairments: Attributes and Sports Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of athlete members of the United States Association of Blind Athletes (n=159) assessed factors affecting sport participation and sport attitudes. Those who received physical education in junior high school or high school were more likely to participate in school or college sports than were those who did not. (Contains references.)…

Ponchillia, Paul E.; Strause, Brad; Ponchillia, Susan V.

2002-01-01

44

Damaging the perfect image of athletes: How sport promotes envy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the behavioural and affective differences between subjects practicing sport activities and subjects not practicing sport. Are athletes more distressed by unfavourable social comparisons and more prone to engage in hostile behaviour than non-athletes? Using experimental methods, we investigate the connection between sport practice and antisocial behaviour. In our experiment we capture the satisfaction subjects derive from unflattering social

Jérémy CELSE

2011-01-01

45

Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting,

STEPHEN J. BULL

1999-01-01

46

MEDIA FRAMING OF FEMALE ATHLETES AND WOMEN'S SPORTS IN SELECTED SPORTS MAGAZINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine how female athletes and women's sports are framed in sports magazines, a textual analysis was conducted on three popular sports magazines (ESPN Magazine, Sporting News, and Sports Illustrated). The researcher analyzed the texts within these three magazines and found four emergent themes commonly applied to women in sports: mental weakness, male reference, motherhood and sisterhood, and

STACEY NICELY

47

Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science\\/sports medicine staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient’s satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and,

K E Fallon; D F Gerrard

2007-01-01

48

Sport orientation model for wheelchair basketball athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the validity of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Competitiveness: 13 items, Win Orientation: 6 items, and Goal Orientation: 6 items) in a sample of 195 wheelchair basketball athletes from the USA. Following evidence for sample-specific validity, the measurement model that underlies the questionnaire was examined. A short-form with 15 items for three factors of Competitiveness (7 items), Win Orientation (5 items) and Goal Orientation (3 items) fit the data (X2/df ratio=2.21, NNFI=.892, CFI=.991, RCFI=.935, SRMR=.058, RMSEA=.071). To evaluate the findings further, we cross-validated the short-form by sex. Structural equation modeling indicated there were similar measurement properties and factor structures for the men and women, indicating similar conceptualization of sport orientations. Meaningful comparisons across sex may be undertaken, since both men and women who are wheelchair basketball athletes perceive the three short-form SOQ factors similarly. PMID:16158694

Skordilis, E K; Stavrou, N A

2005-06-01

49

Sports-Related Knee Injuries in Female Athletes: What Gives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dugan SA: Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: What gives? Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:122-130. Knee injuries occur commonly in sports, limiting field and practice time and performance level. Although injury etiology relates primarily to sports specific activity, female athletes are at higher risk of knee injury than their male coun- terparts in jumping and cutting sports. Particular pain

Sheila A. Dugan

2005-01-01

50

Development management model of elite athletes in team sports games.  

PubMed

The scientific and expert approach to defining a model of managing the development of top-level athletes in team sports games is oriented toward the challenging values that mark a certain position and role in a team sports game. A hypothetical dynamic model of development management of top-level athletes in team sports games, which explicitly shows the order of procedures in the process of multidimensional development of athletes using the concepts of the dynamic systems theory has been suggested. The hypothetical model of management shows that the athlete's development is primarily under the influence of genetic potential, sports preparation process and the competition format, as well as the management of their lifestyle. In the process, the athlete's development is seen as a dynamic and plastic process under the influence of selective procedures and training programs that enable a continuous change in the level of the athlete's performance and sports preparation process. PMID:19662752

Trnini?, Marko; Trnini?, Slavko; Papi?, Vladan

2009-06-01

51

Current concepts for rehabilitation and return to sport after knee articular cartilage repair in the athlete.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage injury is observed with increasing frequency in both elite and amateur athletes and results from the significant acute and chronic joint stress associated with impact sports. Left untreated, articular cartilage defects can lead to chronic joint degeneration and athletic and functional disability. Treatment of articular cartilage defects in the athletic population presents a therapeutic challenge due to the high mechanical demands of athletic activity. Several articular cartilage repair techniques have been shown to successfully restore articular cartilage surfaces and allow athletes to return to high-impact sports. Postoperative rehabilitation is a critical component of the treatment process for athletic articular cartilage injury and should take into consideration the biology of the cartilage repair technique, cartilage defect characteristics, and each athlete's sport-specific demands to optimize functional outcome. Systematic, stepwise rehabilitation with criteria-based progression is recommended for an individualized rehabilitation of each athlete not only to achieve initial return to sport at the preinjury level but also to continue sports participation and reduce risk for reinjury or joint degeneration under the high mechanical demands of athletic activity. PMID:22383103

Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Logerstedt, David; Ricci, Margherita; Silvers, Holly; Della Villa, Stefano

2012-02-29

52

Parental Sport Involvement: Parental Influence to Encourage Young Athlete Continued Sport Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to examine parental and family influences that help encourage young athletes' sport participation. In Study 1, former high school athletes (N?=?276) reflected upon their families' sport orientation and perceived parental compliance-gaining techniques (activation of impersonal commitment, expertise, rewarding behaviors). Findings indicated that dimensions of family sport orientation served as significant predictors for each compliance dimension, while

Paul D. Turman

2007-01-01

53

Communication differences between male and female team sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has been equivocal with respect to sex differences in communication. Although the bulk of the literature suggests that any differences are small to moderate, several characteristics of sport teams suggest that male and female athletes may communicate differently. A sample of 299 athletes (150 female and 148 male) completed the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports. Multivariate Analyses

Philip Sullivan

2004-01-01

54

High School and College Athletes' Attitudes Toward Sport Psychology Consulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore attitudes about sport psychology consulting of high school and college athletes living in the United States. The Sport Psychology Attitudes–Revised form (SPA-R; Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, & Page, 2002) was administered to 362 high school and 431 college athletes. A 2 (Gender) × 2 (Age Group: High School and College) × 2

Scott B. Martin

2005-01-01

55

Reflections on Sport Psychology and the Olympic Athlete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eventual role that educational and clinical sport psychologists may play in assisting high-level athletes is discussed. An example of research on Olympic-level rifle and pistol shooters is presented as an example of how sport scientists can be involved in influencing policy for Olympic athletes. Obstacles which prevent the applied potential of…

Landers, Daniel M.

56

The athlete as widget: how exploitation explains elite sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject position of elite athletes has become increasingly clear as sport becomes more commercialized and spectacularised. Elite athletes are exploited and relatively power-less in their chosen fields of endeavour because of the reserve army of athletes attempting to play at the elite level. The exploitation continues with the burden of injury and medical intervention falling upon them as well

James Connor

2009-01-01

57

What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?  

PubMed

Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond requirements during long events. Across the sparse literature on competition hydration practices in other sports, there are examples of planned and/or ad hoc opportunities to consume fluid, where enhanced access to drinks may allow situations at least close to ad libitum drinking. However, this situation is not universal and, again, the complex array of factors that influence the opportunity to drink during an event is also often beyond the athletes' control. Additionally, some competition formats result in athletes commencing the event with a body fluid deficit because of their failure to rehydrate from a previous bout of training/competition or weight-making strategies. Finally, since fluids consumed during exercise may also be a source of other ingredients (e.g., carbohydrate, electrolytes, or caffeine) or characteristics (e.g., temperature) that can increase palatability or performance, there may be both desirable volumes and patterns of intake that are independent of hydration concerns or thirst, as well as benefits from undertaking a "paced" fluid plan. Further studies of real-life hydration practices in sports including information on motives for drinking or not, along with intervention studies that simulate the actual nature of real-life sport, are needed before conclusions can be made about ideal drinking strategies for sports. Different interpretations may be needed for elite competitors and recreational participants. PMID:23529286

Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

2013-07-01

58

African American football athletes' perspectives on institutional integrity in college sport.  

PubMed

This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in college sport. Institutional integrity involves an athletic program's actual commitment to the educational interests of college athletes as expressed through their structures, functions, and activities. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) there is a need for more African American role models in leadership positions within the athletic departments of these PWIHE; (b) there is a need for more financial support for athletes; and (c) African American athletes should be given a platform to voice concerns. These findings have implications for those educational stakeholders and researchers who are genuinely concerned with institutional integrity in college sport. PMID:19408472

Singer, John N

2009-03-01

59

Epidemiology of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes in 20 Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions.Purpose: To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: Using

Mallika Marar; Natalie M. McIlvain; Sarah K. Fields; R. Dawn Comstock

2012-01-01

60

Outcomes of sport-related concussion among college athletes.  

PubMed

The author collected and analyzed data for all student-athletes diagnosed with concussion between 1998 and 2011. Outcome measurements were post-concussion symptom duration, time interval until return-to-play, and clinical outcomes self-reported by athletes and by athlete's parent/guardian 1 year post-injury. A total of 98 concussions occurred in 95 student athletes among a cohort averaging 350 athletes competing yearly. Athletes were managed according to expert-consensus guidelines. Forty-one (43%) of the athletes had experienced a previously-diagnosed concussion (range: 1-3). Eight athletes (10.4%), retired from their sport for concussion-related issues. Six athletes (6.3%) with completed follow-up experienced memory and/or concentration impairment(s) lasting more than 1 year. PMID:23686028

Mayers, Lester B

2013-01-01

61

Sports Counseling: Helping Student-Athletes. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been a dramatic increase in interest and participation in sports during the past decade, and this increase has affected the college student-athlete. Approximately 10% of American college athletes suffer from problems appropriate for counseling interventions. There is a need for counseling professionals who are sensitive to interventions…

Hinkle, J. Scott

62

Guide to over-the-counter sports supplements for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplements are used by at least 40% of athletes, and depending on the sport, up to 100%. Often multiple supplements are taken in higher than normal doses. Both competitive and recreational athletes take supplements, though sometimes for different reasons. Some take them to support a poor quality diet; others take supplements because they simply feel that an ordinary diet,

Norbert Baume; Ien Hellemans; Martial Saugy

2007-01-01

63

Profile of Community College Athletes in Selected Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nearly 60% of all community colleges field athletic teams with over 72,000 students participating in these sports. That represents approximately 11% of all community college male students (5% of female students). Additionally, community colleges invest nearly $50 million dollars annually in financial aid to student athletes. With such a strong…

Kissinger, Daniel B.; Miller, Michael T.

2007-01-01

64

Bone Mineral Density in Collegiate Female Athletes: Comparisons Among Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. Objective: To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: University health care system. Patients or Other Participants: All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Results: Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 ± 0.055 g·cm ?2) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 ± 0.086 g·cm ?2) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Conclusions: Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and sport type with regard to her bone health.

Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

2007-01-01

65

Athletic injuries: Comparison by age, sport, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries treated at the University of Rochester Section of Sports Medicine over a 7 year period were surveyed. Patients were drawn from professional, intercollegiate (Division 111), high school, intramural, and unorganized athletics at the University and the surrounding com munity. Data on injury diagnosis was available for 4,551 cases, with data on age, gender, and sport of injury available for

Kenneth E. DeHaven; David M. Lintner

1986-01-01

66

Sports psychology’ a crucial ingredient for athletes success: conceptual view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally sports people have dedicated an enormous amount of preparation to their physical conditioning and technical skills. The importance and attention to psychological preparation can often be over looked. The diversity, unpredictability and intensity of sport places challenges to the athlete both on a physically and psychologically level. The human mind is complex with people learning and developing at different

Parsanjeet Kumar; Awadhesh Kr Shirotriya

2010-01-01

67

Sports ability after Bankart procedure in professional athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent anterior shoulder instability and the restoration of sports ability after surgery are common problems, especially among professional athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate, level and time of returning to sports activity after Bankart procedure in anterior shoulder instability in high level atheletes. From 1992–1994 61 patients suffering from recurrent anterior shoulder instability were operated

A. Pavlik; D. Csépai; P. Hidas; A. Bánóczy

1996-01-01

68

African American Student Athletes and Sports Media Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the use of media for sports information among African American student athletes. Television was indicated as the primary source of sports information by about one third of the target group, whereas newspapers were used much less as a source. About one fourth got their information from multiple sources. A somewhat unexpected finding was the limited use of

E. Bun Lee; Louis A. Browne

2009-01-01

69

Delivering Sport Science and Sport Medicine Services to Regional, Rural and Remote Athletes in New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study that describes how the Northern Inland Academy of Sport (NIAS) has provided sport physiotherapy, sport psychology, and sport nutrition to young athletes living throughout the vast north-west region of New South Wales (NSW). NIAS is a NSW regional academy that commenced in November 1992. Each year, it offers 150-180 scholarships to talented adolescent athletes

Peter Annis-Brown; Warren Ansell; Steven A. Christensen; Gillian Woodward

70

Athletic Identity and Well-Being among Young Talented Athletes who Live at a Dutch Elite Sport Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in athletic identity and well-being were examined between athletes living in a Dutch elite sport center (CTO) and athletes not living in such a center (age range: 16–30). Measures included the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer & Cornelius, 2001), the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001).

Kirsten T. Verkooijen; Pepijn van Hove; Giel Dik

2012-01-01

71

Gender Differences in the Sport Socialization Process of High School Varsity Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was…

Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.

72

MEDICAL SPORTS INJURIES IN THE YOUTH ATHLETE: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT  

PubMed Central

As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi?factorial process encompassing pre?participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions.

Molony Jr, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

73

Medical sports injuries in the youth athlete: emergency management.  

PubMed

As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi-factorial process encompassing pre-participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions. PMID:22530197

Merkel, Donna L; Molony, Joseph T

2012-04-01

74

How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

Gee, Chris J.

2010-01-01

75

Understanding sport-related drinking motives in college athletes: Psychometric analyses of the Athlete Drinking Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have identified college student–athletes as a high-risk group for heavy alcohol consumption (e.g., Nelson, T. F., & Wechsler, H. (2001). Alcohol and college athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 43–47). Recently, Martens and colleagues (Martens, M. P., Watson, J. C., Royland, E. M., & Beck, N. C. (2005). Development of the Athlete Drinking Scale. Psychology of

Matthew P. Martens; Joseph W. Labrie; Justin F. Hummer; Eric R. Pedersen

2008-01-01

76

Differences in television sports reporting of men's and women's athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by the nation's two nightly sports news\\/highlights programs: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. The two programs were found to devote only about five percent of their air time to women's sports. Other measures, such as story placement and use of on?camera comments also indicated an emphasis on men's

C. A. Tuggle

1997-01-01

77

Sports-specific adaptations and differentiation of the athlete's heart.  

PubMed

Although the sports-specific adaptations and differentiation of an athlete's heart (AH) were first described 100 years ago, the condition is still an area of active debate. In clinical practice, there is often an obvious lack of basic knowledge concerning the prerequisites and well established extent of the structural and functional characteristics of an AH. Some misunderstandings arise from the somewhat misleading term 'athlete's heart' because not every athlete, even if he or she is training and competing at a very high level, develops an enlarged heart. Such a condition can only be expected after years of quantitative and qualitative demanding aerobic endurance training. Although the correlation with competitive performance of endurance events is rather low in trained athletes, the relationship between heart dimensions and ergometric performance represents an important criterion for differentiation between physiological and pathological cardiac enlargement. The assessment of measures exceeding the usual clinical limits, especially concerning volume-dependent echocardiographic parameters, also requires consideration of the strong influence of anthropometric data. The existence of a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in strength-trained athletes is still a topic of debate in the literature, but is rejected by most recent well-conducted trials. In our review. only bodybuilders using anabolic steroids exhibited a distinctly higher hypertrophic index compared with all other groups of endurance or strength athletes. Current unsolved issues in clinical sports medicine concern the early detection of myocardial complications in athletes exercising during infectious diseases, and the eligibility for competitive sport in cases of borderline LVH. PMID:10565550

Urhausen, A; Kindermann, W

1999-10-01

78

Player and athlete attitudes to drugs in Australian sport: implications for policy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on 12 case histories with a view to 1) uncovering the attitudes of players and athletes to drugs in sport, and 2) exploring the implications of these attitudes for the formulation of effective anti-doping policy. The theoretical approach of the research was informed by Zinberg's (1984) model which assumes that the relationship between the drug, individual characteristics

Bob Stewart; Aaron Smith

2010-01-01

79

Developing Young Athletes: A Sport Psychology Based Approach to Coaching Youth Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth sport is a social institution designed to help improve the health and wellness of the athletes and provide an opportunity for positive youth development. Coaches have a strong influence upon the benefits experienced by youth athletes. Given the importance of the coaching role, the purpose of this article is to outline several positive steps that coaches can take to

Jack C. Watson II; Ian Connole; Peter Kadushin

2011-01-01

80

Relation between serum creatinine and body mass index in elite athletes of different sport disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To document the relation between serum creatinine concentration and body mass index in elite athletes from five different sports, and to study potential differences among athletes performing different sports with different features and requirements.Methods: Before the start of the competitive season, serum creatinine was measured in 151 elite athletes from five different sports: rugby (n = 44), soccer (n

G Banfi; M Del Fabbro

2006-01-01

81

A Longitudinal Investigation of Competitive Athletes' Return to Sport Following Serious Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Returning to sport following a serious injury can be a difficult process for competitive athletes (Bianco, 2001; Bianco, Malo, & Orlick, 1999; Gould, Udry, Bridges, & Beck, 1997). Unfortunately, no qualitative longitudinal studies were found that examine athlete return-to-sport experiences following injury recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of competitive athletes' returning to sport following

Leslie Podlog; Robert C. Eklund

2006-01-01

82

The Influence of Student Engagement and Sport Participation on College Outcomes among Division I Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most of the internal and public scrutiny of college sports involves high profile athletes in sports such as football and men's basketball; yet, recent research on the impact of sport participation on student learning and development has largely focused on comparing all athletes to their non-athlete peers across institutional types. There is a…

Gayles, Joy Gaston; Hu, Shouping

2009-01-01

83

Sports Nutrition Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists  

PubMed Central

Context: Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. Objective: To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. Patients and Other Participants: The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Results: Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program should be integrated for ATs and SCSs. This integrative approach is beneficial for the continuity of care, as both categories of professionals might be developing and integrating preventive or rehabilitative programs for athletes.

Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Pritchett, Kelly L.; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M.; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

2012-01-01

84

Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives- Sports related concussion is common in children and adults. However,age-related differences have never been studied. In this study we evaluate post-concussion recovery patterns between high school and college athletes. Study Design-371 college and 183 high school athletes underwent,baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals sustaining a concussion during athletic competition,underwent,serial neuropsychological evaluation following injury. Main outcome measures

Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

85

Delivering Sport Science and Sport Medicine Services to Regional, Rural and Remote Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do you provide sport science and sport medicine services to young athletes living in the large and sparsely populated New England and North West Region of New South Wales? In the most economical and cost effective manner as possible. However this response typically means minimizing the program costs while tacitly lowering the expectations of what rural, regional, and remote

Warren Ansell; Steven A. Christensen; Gillian Woodward

2007-01-01

86

The Athletic Directors’ Dilemma: “$$$ & Women’s Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athletic Directors’ Dilemma evaluates and ranks the Division I-A, I-AA, and I-AAA colleges according to their commitment to the spirit of Title IX in\\u000a intercollegiate sports. The colleges are graded on the criteria of proportionality, scholarships, operating expenses, recruitment\\u000a budget, and coaching salaries. The conferences are also evaluated and compared according to their sports’ expenditures and\\u000a revenues.

Charles L. Kennedy

2007-01-01

87

Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other…

Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

2007-01-01

88

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have equivalent credentials and be the commonly used term. All weight management and exercise protocols used to achieve these goals should be safe and based on the most current evidence. Athletes, clients, parents, and coaches should be educated on how to determine safe weight and body composition so that athletes and clients more safely achieve competitive weights that will meet sport and activity requirements while also allowing them to meet their energy and nutritional needs for optimal health and performance.

Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

2011-01-01

89

Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9–50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts.

Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F.; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H. Michael

2007-01-01

90

Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant's resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9-50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts. PMID:17205239

Siepe, Christoph J; Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H Michael

2007-01-05

91

Sports supplements. Can dietary additives boost athletic performance and potential?  

PubMed

Nutritional sports supplements, many of which are endorsed by professional athletes, are increasing in popularity among casual and adolescent sports enthusiasts, bodybuilders, and weight lifters. Because many people consider nutritional additives to be "natural" and therefore "safe," patients may not consider the possible effects of those substances when taken in high doses or in combination with medications. Drs Rubinstein and Federman present an interesting overview of several sports supplements and examine the consequences and caveats of their use, as well as the reasons for their popularity. PMID:11021262

Rubinstein, M L; Federman, D G

2000-09-15

92

Computerised cognitive assessment of athletes with sports related head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional and amateur participants in many sports are at risk of brain injury caused by impact with other players or objects. In many cases, mild cognitive deficits may persist after the common neurological signs of brain injury have passed. In recent years, the athlete's cognitive status after concussion has been measured with conventional “paper and pencil” neuropsychological tests. However, such

A Collie; D Darby; P Maruff

2001-01-01

93

Collaborative Multi-Camera Tracking of Athletes in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to tracking athletes in team sports us- ing multiple cameras is proposed that addresses several issues including occlusions and propagation of wrong information. The strength of this approach lies in the use of belief propagation which enables good ob- servations in some views to compensate for poor observations in other views due e.g. to occlusions. Each target

Wei Du; Jean-Bernard Hayet; Justus Piater; Jacques Verly

94

Women Athletes' Personal Responses to Sexual Harassment in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past two decades. It is especially important for sport psychology consultants to understand this issue because they have professional opportunities to influence both individual and organizational responses to it. This article uses interview data from an investigation of sexual harassment in sport to examine the

Kari Fasting; Celia Brackenridge; Kristin Walseth

2007-01-01

95

Sport Psychology Consulting with Latin American Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to provide the sport psychology consultant with information about Latin American cultural groups in relation to sport psychology consulting. The paper contains a review of key multicultural terms and concepts, such as worldview and acculturation. This is followed by a brief overview of the various historical influences on Latin American culture. Next, we discussed

Anthony P. Kontos; Erick Arguello

2005-01-01

96

[Sports injuries, sports damages and diseases of world class athletes practicing modern pentathlon].  

PubMed

108 world class athletes (54 males, 54 females) practicing modern pentathlon had been interviewed about their individual training and competition efforts as well as their sports related injuries, damages and diseases in the last world cup season using a standardized empirical questionnaire. The mean training extent was about 25 hours per week, the mean number of national and international competitions athletes made was 9, especially concerning swimming and running. Mean number of health threatening incidents of each athlete had been 2 with 41% diseases such as otitis and pharyngitis, 23% injuries such as contusions and distortions and 33% damages such as tendinitis, periostitis and strains. Head and neck involvement were more frequent than those of pelvis and the lower extremities. Training efforts were the most frequent reasons for health threatening events (84%), especially concerning diseases and damages, whereas most of the injuries happened during competitions (p<.01). Most of the injuries happened practicing horse riding during competitions (9%). Running was the most frequent reason for damages, whereas horse riding is the leading cause for injuries, furthermore damages and injuries are typical for fencing. Swimming is often associated with diseases. In contrary shooting did not show typically affiliated health threatening events. The incidence of health threatening incidents concerning world class athletes practicing modern pentathlon is quite low. Especially running and swimming combined with a high training extent empirically predisposed to suffer from damages and diseases. Horse riding with a quite low training extent and fencing show a higher incidence of injuries. From the training-methodological point of view the training extent should not be too extended. Due to a high number of diseases it may be profitable to be in attendance of an inner medicine physician. PMID:12690554

Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pitsch, W; Kirn-Jünemann, U; Engel, C; Kohn, D; Regitz, T

2003-03-01

97

Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.  

PubMed

Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595

Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

2013-06-01

98

Doppler echocardiography in athletes from different sports  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown cardiac changes induced by intense and regular physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac structures and function in soccer players, cyclists and long-distance runners, and compare them with non-athlete controls. Material/Methods Cardiac structural, systolic, and diastolic function parameters in 53 athletes and 36 non-athlete controls were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Results Athletes presented higher left atrial volume, left ventricular (LV) thickness, and LV and right ventricular (RV) diastolic diameters (LVDD and RVDD, respectively) compared to non-athletes. Left atrium and LVDD were higher in cyclists than runners, and RVDD was higher in cyclists than soccer players. LV mass index was higher in athletes, and cyclists had higher values than runners and soccer players. LV systolic function did not differ significantly between groups. The only altered index of LV diastolic function was a higher E/A ratio in cyclists compared to controls. There was no difference in LV E/E’ ratio. RV systolic function evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging was higher in cyclists and soccer players than runners. There were no conclusive differences in RV diastolic function. Conclusions Soccer players, runners and cyclists had remodeling of left and right ventricular structures compared to controls. Cardiac remodeling was more intense in cyclists than runners and soccer players.

Moro, Andre Santos; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Okoshi, Katashi

2013-01-01

99

Sports ability after Bankart procedure in professional athletes.  

PubMed

Recurrent anterior shoulder instability and the restoration of sports ability after surgery are common problems, especially among professional athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate, level and time of returning to sports activity activity after Bankart procedure in anterior shoulder instability in high level athletes. From 1992-1994 61 patients suffering from recurrent anterior shoulder instability were operated on open Bankart procedure, 44 out of 61 were professional athletes. There were 7 handball, 7 basketball, 6 football, 2 waterpolo and 1 baseball player and 4 wrestlers, 2 weight-lifters, 2 boxers, 3 bicyclists, 2 motorists, 2 swimmers, 2 sailors, 2 kayakers and 2 skiers. The mean duration of instability was 19.1 months (3-72) before operation. 29 patients had posttraumatic recurrent anterior dislocation and 15 patients had posttraumatic anterior subluxations. The average number of redislocations was 4.4, ranging from 2 to 11. At the follow-up examination the patients were tested clinically for instability using the special score created by Walch and Duplay and the Constant functional score. We measured the strength of the rotator cuff by Kintrex isokinetic device from the 10th postoperative week. 35 out of 44 professional athletes could be followed-up. The average follow-up period was 14.2 months, from 6 to 31. 88% of the patients were able to return to sports participation, 66% on the previous level and 22% on a lower level. 12% of the patients finished their professional sports career. The mean rehabilitation period was 5.8 months, the average period of full restoration of sports ability was 9.3 months. Similar results were documented with the Constant score and the Walch-Duplay test (88% excellent or good, 12% fair). The main reason for the inability to continue sports activity was some pain during extreme abduction and external rotation of the arm and recurrent sensations of subluxation (3 cases). Based on the results of the follow-up examinations an early diagnosis is paramount followed by timely surgical intervention to restore anatomical integrity in proven cases of shoulder instability in professional athletes. The open Bankart procedure is preferred giving excellent functional results and providing good chances for the athletes to return to their previous sports level. PMID:8884733

Pavlik, A; Csépai, D; Hidas, P; Bánóczy, A

1996-01-01

100

Working with young athletes: views of a nutritionist on the sports medicine team.  

PubMed

Athletes are influenced by coaches, other athletes, media, parents, the national sport governing body, members of the sports medicine team, and the athlete's own desire for success. It is impossible, therefore, for one member of the sports medicine team to unilaterally determine workable solutions that enhance performance and diminish health problems in an athlete. A focus on ensuring that the athlete can perform to the best of her ability is a key to encouraging discussion between the nutritionist, athlete, and coach. Using the assumption that health and top athletic performance are compatible, this focus on performance provides a discussion point that all parties can agree to and, if approached properly, also fulfills the nutritionist's goal of achieving optimal nutritional status. Membership on the sports medicine team mandates that the nutritionist know the paradigms and health risks associated with the sport and develop assessment and feedback procedures specific to the athlete's needs. PMID:8744784

Benardot, D

1996-06-01

101

Sport concussion assessment tool: baseline values for varsity collision sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine baseline symptom and neurocognitive norms for non-concussed and previously concussed varsity athletes using the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT).Study Design:Descriptive cohort study.Setting:University of Calgary.Subjects:260 male and female university football, ice hockey and wrestling athletes over three seasons (2005–7).Methods:A baseline SCAT was completed during preseason medical evaluation. Subjects were grouped as follows: all participants, men, women, never concussed (NC)

N Shehata; J P Wiley; S Richea; B W Benson; L Duits; W H Meeuwisse

2009-01-01

102

Self-esteem of female athletes and nonathletes relative to sex role type and sport type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship of the self-esteem of female athletes and nonathletes to sex role type and sport type. The athletic group was comprised of 75 female collegiate athletes from eight sports and the nonathletic group consisted of a random sample of 75 female nonathletes. An assessment of self-esteem and sex role type

Evelyn G. Hall; Beverly Durborow; Janice L. Progen

1986-01-01

103

Study on the Trait Sport-confidence of the collegiate basketball athletes and its influence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important component of the athletes' comprehensive abilities; sport-confidence impacts on the athletic performance whether before or during the event. By means of documental data method, survey method, psychological measurement, and statistical method, the research had directed on the trait sport-confidence (SC- Trait) of collegiate basketball athletes who had participated in college basketball matches of shanghai, china and its

Lu Tianfeng; Wang Enfeng

2011-01-01

104

A personal development model of sport psychology for athletes with disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving superior sport performance is often the result of well developed psychological skills (Morris & Thomas, 1995). However, little is known about psychological skill development in athletes with disabilities (Hanrahan, 1998). The purpose of the present paper is to help sport psychologists in their work with athletes with physical disabilities. Although there are many similarities among athletes with and without

Jeffrey J. Martin

1999-01-01

105

Sports Psychology and the Collegiate Athlete: One Size Does Not Fit All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reacts to four previous articles on sport psychology and counseling psychology. Commends articles but questions lack of any significant reference to minority athlete, considering that articles focused on college athletics, that football and basketball are instrumental to college sport, and that participation of African-American athletes is…

Hill, Thomas L.

1993-01-01

106

A Changing Game: The Inclusion of Transsexual Athletes in the Sports Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joseph Randall explores the emerging trend in the sports industry towards the inclusion of transsexual athletes. He analyzes the impact of Renee Richards v. United States Tennis Association, the first case to speak on the legal rights of transsexual athletes, and then provides an overview of how the sports industry is gradually making it easier for transsexual athletes to compete

Joseph Randall

2012-01-01

107

Sports Psychology and the Collegiate Athlete: One Size Does Not Fit All.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reacts to four previous articles on sport psychology and counseling psychology. Commends articles but questions lack of any significant reference to minority athlete, considering that articles focused on college athletics, that football and basketball are instrumental to college sport, and that participation of African-American athletes is…

Hill, Thomas L.

1993-01-01

108

The effect of sport on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Broad criteria for abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, requiring additional testing, have been recommended for preparticipation exams (PPE) of athletes. As these criteria have not considered the sport in which athletes participate, we examined the effect of sports on the computerized ECG measurements obtained in college athletes.Methods: During the Stanford 2007 PPE, computerized 12-lead ECGs (Schiller AG) were obtained in

Maaike GJ Gademan; Abhimanyu Uberoi; Vy-Van Le; Sandra Mandic; Eddy R van Oort; Jonathan Myers; Victor F Froelicher

2012-01-01

109

Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

110

Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…

Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

2004-01-01

111

Entry into Elite Sport: A Preliminary Investigation into the Transition Experiences of Rookie Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes experience a number of transitions throughout their athletic career (Wylleman, Alfermann, & Lavallee, 2004). One pivotal transition that has received less attention in the literature is the transition into elite sport. The purpose of the present study was to examine the transitioning experience of young athletes entering elite sport. Using a phenomenological approach, rookie ice hockey players (N =

Mark W. Bruner; Krista J. Munroe-Chandler; Kevin S. Spink

2008-01-01

112

The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving…

Harada, Coreen M.; Siperstein, Gary N.

2009-01-01

113

The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for…

Harada, Coreen M.; Siperstein, Gary N.

2009-01-01

114

Improving athletes' perspectives of sport psychology consultation: a controlled evaluation of two interview methods.  

PubMed

Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete's experiences in sports, and the other focused on delineating sport psychology and its potential benefits to the athlete. Upon being interviewed, athletes were readministered the ATSSPCQ. Discussing sport psychology and its personal benefits was more effective in enhancing athletes' perception of need for sport psychology than discussing sport experiences. However, neither interview format enhanced athletes' perceptions of openness to discuss personal issues with a sport psychology consultant and tolerance of stigma associated with sport psychology consultation. Indeed, participants who received the discussion of sports intervention reported a significant decrease in personal openness to discuss personal issues relevant to sports psychology from pre- to postintervention. Intervention effects were similar for male and female athletes. Study implications and future directions are discussed in light of these results. PMID:14997947

Donohue, B; Dickens, Y; Lancer, K; Covassin, T; Hash, A; Miller, A; Genet, J

2004-03-01

115

Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the values of anaerobic energetic capacity variables in athletes engaged in different sport disciplines and to compare them in relation to specific demands of each sport. Wingate anaerobic tests were conducted on 145 elite athletes (14 boxers, 17 wrestlers, 27 hockey players, 23 volleyball players, 20 handball players, 25 basketball players, and 19 soccer players). Three variables were measured as markers of anaerobic capacity: peak power, mean power, and explosive power. The highest values of peak power were measured in volleyball 11.71 +/- 1.56 W.kg and basketball players 10.69 +/- 1.67 W.kg, and the difference was significant compared with the other athletes (p 0.05). The measured results show the influence of anaerobic capacity in different sports and the referral values of these variables for the elite male athletes. Explosive power presented a new dimension of anaerobic power, i.e., how fast maximal energy for power development can be obtained, and its values are high in all sports activities that demand explosiveness and fast maximal energy production. Coaches or other experts in the field could, in the future, find useful to follow and improve, through training process, one of the variables that is most informative for that sport. PMID:19387405

Popadic Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Grujic, Nikola G

2009-05-01

116

THE COACH-ATHLETE COMMUNICATION PROCESS. TOWARDS A BETTER HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN SPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpersonal communication plays a key role in obtaining success in sports. Two important parties that communicate in sport are the coach and his athlete(s). The latter one(s) can be seen as the human resources a coach has to manage. These human resources are property of a sports club or team and. In order to improve his management, the coach has

Vlad ROSCA

2010-01-01

117

Rules Limiting Athletic Performance or Prohibiting Athletic Participation for Health Reasons: Legal and Ethical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the paradox between: 1) intercollegiate sport's objectives of maximizing athletic performance and providing athletic participation opportunities to those possessing the requisite physical ability and skills to compete successfully; and 2) National Collegiate Athletic Association rules that limit athletic performance by all student-athletes, or university requirements that prohibit individual student-athletes from participating in intercollegiate sports, for health reasons.

Matthew J. Mitten

2009-01-01

118

CONNECTION BETWEEN PERSONALITY TYPE AND SPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to find out if there is any relationship between personality type and sport preference; why certain people choose a particular sport, why some people prefer a team sport, and others prefer an individual sport. In this research, athletes from four different sports (three individual and one team sport) and non-athletes took part in the

Urska Dobersek; Carl Bartling

119

African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: A Qualitative and Visual Elicitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…

Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

2003-01-01

120

African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: A Qualitative and Visual Elicitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…

Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

2003-01-01

121

African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: a qualitative and visual elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item inventory utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively examine seven different domains which influence perceptions

C. Keith Harrison; Suzanne Malia Lawrence

2003-01-01

122

Contextual influences and athlete attitudes to drugs in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on 11 narrative-based case histories which sought to: (1) uncover the attitudes of players and athletes to drugs in sport, and (2) explore contextual factors influencing the formation of those attitudes as informed by social ecology theory. Overall, participants viewed the use of banned performance-enhancing substances as cheating, ‘hard’ non-performance-enhancing recreational or illicit substances as unwise, legal

Aaron C. T. Smith; Bob Stewart; Sunny Oliver-Bennetts; Sharyn McDonald; Lynley Ingerson; Alastair Anderson; Geoff Dickson; Paul Emery; Fiona Graetz

2010-01-01

123

Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63\\/72; 87.5±12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female

B. J. Dascombe; M. Karunaratna; J. Cartoon; B. Fergie; C. Goodman

2010-01-01

124

The effect of competition location on individual athlete performance and psychological states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine the performance and pre-competition psychological states of individual sport athletes in relation to competition location. It was hypothesized that skiers would perform better when competing at home. Self-reports of state anxiety were expected to be lower and self-confidence higher prior to home races compared to away.Design. Within-subjects design to examine athletes' performance and pre-competition psychological states at

S. R Bray; K. A Martin

2003-01-01

125

Professional Preparation in Athletic Administration and Sport Management: Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Programs in athletic administration and sport management offered by four Canadian institutions are briefly outlined with information including availability of financial aid, degree requirements, and program description. (JMF)

Parkhouse, Bonnie L.; Stoy, Christopher J.

1979-01-01

126

The preparticipation sports examination for high school and college athletes.  

PubMed

The PSE can be used as a tool to allow athletes to participate safely in sports. The goal of the PSE is not to disqualify athletes but to ensure that their participation in sports does not unnecessarily increase their risk of injury. The PSE is most effectively conducted by the station method with multiple examiners, one of whom should have specialty training in musculoskeletal disorders. The examination should be conducted 6 weeks prior to the beginning of the season and at the beginning of each new level of competition, unless directed differently by local laws. The correct use of the PSE should screen for signs and symptoms of pathological states that may lead to a nontraumatic death while participating in sports. An effective musculoskeletal examination should detect any postinjury deficits that may lead to subsequent reinjury later in the season. It is our hope that a PSE, based on the literature, can be used to prevent some of the nontraumatic deaths and musculoskeletal injury associated with sports participation. PMID:9330803

Grafe, M W; Paul, G R; Foster, T E

1997-10-01

127

Risk Factors for Injury During Sports Among High School Athletes with Disabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to describe the patterns of sports-related injury in a special population of children. The following research questions were addressed: how frequent are student athletes with special needs injured during organized sports; w...

2006-01-01

128

Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.  

PubMed

In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. PMID:6661608

Devereaux, M D; Lachmann, S M

1983-12-01

129

Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter--new to the "Yearbook"--discusses all court cases reported in 1986 that involved student athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, interscholastic sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. It does not, however, include case…

Thomas, Stephen B.; White, Janet M.

130

Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter includes all cases involving student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels, but does not include case law involving physical education or intramural participation. Sections…

Thomas, Stephen B.

131

Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter includes all cases involving student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. However, no case law is discussed that pertains to physical education instruction or intramural…

Sharp, Linda A.

132

Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter includes all cases involving student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels, but does not include case law involving physical education or intramural participation. Sections discuss…

Thomas, Stephen B.

133

Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: An athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

2013-08-29

134

Keeping Your Head in the Game: Sport-Specific Imagery and Anxiety Among Injured Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. Objective: To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Design: Observational design. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Results: Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Conclusions: Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic anxiety before return to practice. Image content recommendations should encompass the cognitive and motivational functions of imagery, and the practitioner should assess if any image used by the athlete is debilitative.

Monsma, Eva; Mensch, James; Farroll, Jennifer

2009-01-01

135

Female and male student athletes' perceptions of career transition in sport and higher education: a visual elicitation and qualitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The termination of a collegiate athletic career is inevitable for all student athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore student athletes' perceptions of the athletic career transition process. One-hundred-andforty- three (n= 143) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II student athletes were administered the Life After Sports Scale (LASS) designed by the authors. The LASS is a 58-item

Keith C. Harrison; Suzanne Malia Lawrence

2004-01-01

136

Epilepsy in football players and other land-based contact or collision sport athletes: when can they participate, and is there an increased risk?  

PubMed

We discuss the impact of epilepsy on the lives of athletes involved in contact sports. Recommendations for epilepsy patients with regard to contact sports have changed over the years from avoidance to encouragement. It is conceivable that exercise could exacerbate seizures either directly, through hyperventilation, or indirectly by alteration of anticonvulsant levels. Seizures could also be injurious in contact sports, and recurrent minor head trauma could worsen epilepsy. However, evidence to the contrary abounds and very few case reports support these notions. Exercise benefits individuals with epilepsy in many ways including improved seizure control, mood, and quality of life. We suggest that athletes with epilepsy be evaluated on an individual basis, and follow sensible guidelines while participating in contact sports. There is no significant evidence to suggest that contact sports are harmful to athletes with epilepsy; however, common sense rules still apply. PMID:15324597

Sahoo, Sanjiv K; Fountain, Nathan B

2004-10-01

137

The Sport Commitment Model: An Investigation of Structural Relationships with Thai Youth Athlete Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…

Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter

2009-01-01

138

On the relativity of athletic performance: a comparison perspective on performance judgments in sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the best performance at a specific point in time constitutes the central purpose of all competitive sports. In many sports, this decision is based on subjective performance judgments. In the present chapter, we consider how these judgments are formed by emphasizing the relative nature of person judgments and athletic performance judgments in particular. Specifically, we argue that athletic judgments

Lysann Damisch; Thomas Mussweiler

2009-01-01

139

Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

2011-01-01

140

Democratization and governance in international sport: addressing issues with athlete involvement in organizational policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaders of national and international sport organizations are increasingly recognising the importance of involving stakeholders in the development of policies. In the governance of international high performance sport, an important group of stakeholders includes athletes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the increasing role high performance athletes are playing in the development of policies in international

Lucie Thibault; Lisa Kihl; Kathy Babiak

2010-01-01

141

A comparison of bone mineral densities among female athletes in impact loading and active loading sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMD) of collegiate female athletes who compete in impact loading sports; volleyball players (N = 8) and gymnasts (N = 13), to a group of athletes who participate in an active loading sport; swimmers (N = 7), and a group of controls (N = 17). All of the volleyball,

P. C. Fehling; L. Alekel; J. Clasey; A. Rector; R. J. Stillman

1995-01-01

142

Critical Comments About Body Shape and Weight: Disordered Eating of Female Athletes and Sport Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation explored the role of critical comments about weight and body shape and disordered eating symptoms of female athletes (N = 157) and sport participants (N = 63). Results revealed that both athletes and sport participants who recalled critical comments, compared with those who did not, and those who recalled more severe critical comments, reported greater disordered eating (controlling

Anne C. Muscat; Bonita C. Long

2008-01-01

143

Sexual Harassment in SportPerceptions and Experiences of American Female Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment at institutions of higher learning is not a new phenomenon, but discussions of this problem in the sporting arena and in related research are still scarce. Most studies have focused on student-instructor relationships, while few analyses have analysed coach-athlete relationships. This study examines American female college athletes' experiences with, and emotional responses to, sexual harassment in sport by

Karin A. E. Volkwein; Frauke I. Schnell; Dennis Sherwood; Anne Livezey

1997-01-01

144

Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.  

PubMed

Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea level, the 'live high-train low' model of altitude training can help athletes in endurance events to maximize performance. PMID:19837773

Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

2009-10-16

145

Hypertension update and cardiovascular risk reduction in physically active individuals and athletes.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a prevalent disease worldwide. Its inadequate treatment leads to major cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. These conditions decrease life expectancy and are a substantial cost burden to health care systems. Physically active individuals and professional athletes are not risk free for developing this condition. Although the percentage of persons affected is substantially lower than the general population, these individuals still need to be thoroughly evaluated and blood pressure targets monitored to allow safe competitive sports participation. Regarding treatment, lifestyle modification measures should be routinely emphasized to athletes and active individuals with the same importance as for the general population. Medication treatment can be complicated because of restrictions by athletic organizations and possible limitations on maximal exercise performance. In addition, the choice of an antihypertensive drug should be made with consideration for salt and water losses that routinely occur in athletes, as well as preservation of exercise performance and endothelial function. First-line therapies for athletes and physically active individuals may be different from the general population. Some authorities believe that blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is more beneficial compared with diuretics because of ACE inhibitors and ARBs being able to avoid salt and water losses. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are another reasonable choice. Despite effects on heart rate, nondihydropyridine CCBs do not appear to impair exercise performance. beta-Blockers are not used as a first-line therapy in athletes because of effects on exercise and prohibition by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and World Anti-Doping Agency in certain sports. In this article, we address the evidence on hypertension and its related treatments in active individuals to provide recommendations that allow the best competitive sports results and reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:20424397

Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Lawless, Christine E

2010-04-01

146

Personality hardiness, burnout and sport competition anxiety among athletics and wrestling coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coaching is a challenging profession that requires the coaches to reconcile the often contrary goals of developing winning athletic programme and providing positive personal and academic experiences for their athletes. In at least all the games and sports, about 50% is the role of a coach to prepare a team\\/athlete to give high performance in national and international competitions. The

Harmanpreet Singh Bawa

2010-01-01

147

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing Sudden Death in Sports  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care.

Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.

2012-01-01

148

Sport and Gender Differences in Injury and Stress among Division III Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention has been given to injuries in youth sports, specifically with regards to early specialization and athlete stress. However, little research has attempted to link injury to other psychological or participation variables. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and sports-specific differences in injury and athlete stress. Eight-hundred and ninety-five Division III collegiate athletes were sampled in

Andrew Rose

2012-01-01

149

Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were

Kazuto Omiya; Hiromitsu Sekizuka; Keisuke Kida; Kengo Suzuki; Yoshihiro J. Akashi; Haruo Ohba; Haruki Musha

2012-01-01

150

Assessment of the transition from junior-to-senior sports in Swedish athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the Transition Monitoring Survey (TMS) for assessing athletes' transition from junior-to-senior sports, (2) to describe the transition from junior-to-senior sports in Swedish athletes based on the TMS data, and (3) to explore how the transition variables contribute to the athletes' perceived degree of adjustment to the senior level and to their

Natalia Stambulova; Alina Franck; Fredrik Weibull

2012-01-01

151

Public Attitude Survey of Canada on School/Amateur Sports, Amateur and Professional Athletics, and the Effect of T.V. Sports/Athletics Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a public attitude survey of a quota sample of approximately 4,000 age 18 and older Canadians, in which respondents were asked to express their opinion on who should own and operate professional athletics, national and international amateur athletics, and school/amateur sport. Attitude was also assessed on what…

Moriarty, Dick; Leduc, Larry

152

Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median?=?3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median?=?1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P?=?0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports. PMID:23662691

Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

2013-05-13

153

Development of the Sports Performance Inventory: A Psychological Measure of Athletic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study extends existing sport psychology research by developing a more comprehensive athlete attitudinal survey—the Sports Performance Inventory (SPI). A multiple item survey consisting of sport-related attitudinal items was distributed to 274 students enrolled in a large Division I Midwestern university. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation performed on the original survey items resulted in an 83 item

John W. Jones; George Neuman; Robert Altmann; Brian Dreschler

2001-01-01

154

High-level athletes' perceptions of success in returning to sport following injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveFor many injured athletes, a safe and successful return to sport following injury is the ultimate aim of injury recovery. Little consensus exists however, regarding the meaning of a “successful” return to sport following injury recovery [Evans, L., Mitchell, I., & Jones, S. (2006). Psychological responses to sport injury: a review of current research. In S. Hanton, & S. D.

Leslie Podlog; Robert C. Eklund

2009-01-01

155

Peak Performance in Sport: Identifying Ideal Performance States and Developing Athletes' Psychological Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can psychologists help performers in sport, business, and the performing arts achieve peak performances more often and with greater consistency? Sport psychologists have taken the lead in researching peak performance in an attempt to answer this question. This article focuses on optimal experiences in sport and ways in which the author works with athletes to help them achieve peak performances.

Robert J. Harmison

2006-01-01

156

Peak Performance in Sport: Identifying Ideal Performance States and Developing Athletes' Psychological Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can psychologists help performers in sport, business, and the performing arts achieve peak performances more often and with greater consistency? Sport psychologists have taken the lead in researching peak performance in an attempt to answer this question. This article focuses on optimal experiences in sport and ways in which the author works with athletes to help them achieve peak performances.

Robert J. Harmison

2011-01-01

157

Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This updated second edition provides comprehensive and current information on women in sports, detailing the history, biography, bibliography, and statistics of female professional and amateur athletes. The book is divided into 4 parts with 6 chapters. Part 1, History of Women's Sports, presents: (1) Women in American Sports and (2) Women in the…

Woolum, Janet

158

Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

2013-01-01

159

Evaluating the athlete’s perception of the sport psychologist’s effectiveness: What should we be assessing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To extend understanding of factors pertinent to the effective practice of applied sport psychologists in order to influence good evaluation practice.Method: Semi-structured interviews with 30 elite United Kingdom (UK) athletes (mean age=22.7±8.2) from a range of sports about their experiences of sport psychology. The interview transcripts were inductively content analyzed and appropriate trustworthiness criteria were incorporated.Results: A number of

A Anderson; A Miles; P Robinson; C Mahoney

2004-01-01

160

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not needed if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume unbalanced diets with low micronutrient density may require supplements. Because regulations specific to nutritional ergogenic aids are poorly enforced, they should be used with caution and only after careful product evaluation for safety, efficacy, potency, and legality. A qualified sports dietitian and, in particular, the Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics in the United States, should provide individualized nutrition direction and advice after a comprehensive nutrition assessment. PMID:19225360

Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

2009-03-01

161

Principles of Liability for Athletic Trainers: Managing Sport-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide an overview of the general legal principles of negligence for sports medicine professionals and apply these principles to situations involving athletes with head injury. Data Sources: Case law dating back to 1976 and recent studies of sport-related concussion. Summary: One of the most difficult problems facing athletic trainers and team physicians is the recognition and treatment of sport-related concussion. Providing medical clearance for sports participation and treatment of athletic injuries involves legal as well as medical issues. The threat of lawsuits exists for the sports medicine professional, whether the athlete is allowed to play or not. In general, established medical malpractice principles govern claims by athletes for injury or death caused by improper treatment by health care providers. The elements of negligence are examined, as well as the primary defenses an athletic trainer would use in court and risk management techniques to avoid litigation. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers may protect themselves from liability by including standardized cognitive or postural stability testing in preparticipation examinations, using objective tests rather than subjective judgement to evaluate athletes who have sport-related concussion, working closely with physicians, and keeping excellent records.

2001-01-01

162

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. METHODS: The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium

Oluwatoyosi BA Owoeye

2010-01-01

163

Supporting the Student-Athlete's Return to the Classroom After a Sport-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: This article provides a framework for school athletic trainers to use in advising colleagues about the health and academic needs of student-athletes presenting with concussions. Background: Management of sport-related concussions has been an area of growing concern for school athletic programs. Recent work in this area has highlighted significant risks for student-athletes presenting with these mild traumatic brain injuries. Description: Topics covered include general teaching points for the athletic trainer to use with school colleagues. An integrated model for school management of sport concussion injuries is presented that includes involvement of the student's athletic trainer, school nurse, guidance counselor, teachers, social worker, psychologist, physicians, and parents. Clinical Advantages: Academic accommodations for specific postconcussion symptoms are proposed that may help the student-athlete strike an optimum balance between rest and continued academic progress during recovery.

McGrath, Neal

2010-01-01

164

Sport and training influence bone and body composition in women collegiate athletes.  

PubMed

This is a novel descriptive study to characterize off-season, preseason, and postseason bone and body composition measures in women collegiate athletes. From 2006 through 2008, 67 women collegiate athletes from 5 sports, softball (n = 17), basketball (n = 10), volleyball (n = 7), swimming (n = 16), and track jumpers and sprinters (n = 17) were scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 seasonal periods: (a) off-season = before preseason training, (b) preseason = after preseason training, and (c) postseason = after competitive season. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed for total body mass, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD), arm BMD, leg BMD, pelvis BMD, and spine BMD. Data were analyzed between sports using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc follow-ups, and within each sport using repeated-measures ANOVA and LSD; alpha < 0.05. Significant off-season to preseason or postseason changes in %BF, LM, and BMD within each sport were as follows, respectively: softball, -7, +4, +1%; basketball, -11, +4, +1%; volleyball, unchanged, unchanged, +2%; swimming, unchanged, +2.5%, unchanged; track jumpers and sprinters, -7, +3.5, +1%. Comparisons among athletes in each sport showed bone measurements of swimmers averaged 4-19% lower than that of athletes in any other sport, whereas for track jumpers and sprinters, %BF and FM averaged 36 and 43% lower compared with other sports at all seasonal periods. Values for athletes playing basketball and volleyball were most similar, whereas softball athletes' values fell between all other athletes. These data serve as sport-specific reference values for comparisons at in-season and off-season training periods among women collegiate athletes in various sports. PMID:20453684

Carbuhn, Aaron F; Fernandez, Tara E; Bragg, Amy F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

2010-07-01

165

The Psychological Interface Between the Coach-Created Motivational Climate and the Coach-Athlete Relationship in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study's objective was to investigate the motivational significance of the coach- athlete relationship in team sports. 591 athletes completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000) to assess perceptions of the coach-created motivational climate and two Coach-Athlete Relationship Ques- tionnaires to assess direct perceptions (Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and meta-percep- tions (Jowett, in press)

Alkisti Olympiou; Sophia Jowett; Joan L. Duda

166

REVIEW OF SPORTS PERFORMANCE RESEARCH WITH YOUTH, COLLEGIATE, AND ELITE ATHLETES  

PubMed Central

This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

Luiselli, James K; Woods, Kathryn E; Reed, Derek D

2011-01-01

167

Cognitive effects of one season of head impacts in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season negatively affects cognitive performance in collegiate contact sport athletes. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study at 3 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic programs. Participants were 214 Division I college varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 45 noncontact sport athletes. All athletes were assessed prior to and shortly after the season with a cognitive screening battery (ImPACT) and a subgroup of athletes also were assessed with 7 measures from a neuropsychological test battery. Results: Few cognitive differences were found between the athlete groups at the preseason or postseason assessments. However, a higher percentage of the contact sport athletes performed more poorly than predicted postseason on a measure of new learning (California Verbal Learning Test) compared to the noncontact athletes (24% vs 3.6%; p < 0.006). On 2 postseason cognitive measures (ImPACT Reaction Time and Trails 4/B), poorer performance was significantly associated with higher scores on several head impact exposure metrics. Conclusion: Repetitive head impacts over the course of a single season may negatively impact learning in some collegiate athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent.

Flashman, L.A.; Maerlender, A.; Greenwald, R.M.; Beckwith, J.G.; Tosteson, T.D.; Crisco, J.J.; Brolinson, P.G.; Duma, S.M.; Duhaime, A.-C.; Grove, M.R.; Turco, J.H.

2012-01-01

168

Centre of pressure sway characteristics during static one-legged stance of athletes from different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of one-legged stance and two-legged stance differs considerably among sports. We therefore expect the balance ability of athletes from different sports to vary. This study compared the sway characteristics during a static one-legged stance of soccer players, basketball players, swimmers, and non-athletes. The centre of pressure sway during one-legged stance of ten male participants representing each of the

Shigeki Matsuda; Shinichi Demura; Masanobu Uchiyama

2008-01-01

169

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes

2010-01-01

170

Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Study Design: Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. Results: On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and ?0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R2 change 3.2%, P < .001). Conclusions: This study represents the largest sample of BMD data in senior athletes to date. Senior participation in high-impact sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. Clinical Relevance: These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging.

Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

2009-01-01

171

Comprehensive Sports Medicine Treatment of an Athlete Who Runs Cross-Country and is Iron Deficient  

PubMed Central

Background Optimal athletic performance may be dependent upon an athlete maintaining adequate iron levels through the consumption of dietary forms of iron and subsequent metabolism. Endurance athletes, especially female distance runners, have been identified as being at risk for developing iron deficiency. While iron deficiency is treatable, early diagnosis may be delayed if an adequate medical history and evaluation is not conducted. Objective To describe the evaluation, diagnosis, and comprehensive sports medicine treatment of a collegiate cross-country athlete with a medical diagnosis of iron deficiency with anemia and sports-related musculoskeletal pain. Case Description A 21-year-old female collegiate cross-country athlete experienced a decline in her running performance beginning her freshman year of school. She continued to experience degradation in sports performance despite medical intervention. Two-and-a-half years after initially seeking medical attention she was diagnosed with iron deficiency with anemia by a primary care medical doctor. Additionally, the subject required rehabilitation due to the onset of sports-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Outcomes Comprehensive treatment for this patient consisted of iron supplementation, therapeutic exercises, manual therapy, and modalities. The athlete was able to compete during her entire cross-country season and earn All-American status at the Division-III level. Discussion Sports medicine professionals must consider iron deficiency as a possible differential diagnosis when evaluating endurance athletes. Subtle signs of iron deficiency may, unfortunately, be overlooked ultimately delaying treatment.

McIntosh, Linda; Rutt, Richard

2009-01-01

172

Effects of a motivational climate inntervention for coaches on young athletes' sport performance anxiety.  

PubMed

The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes'cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams. PMID:17556775

Smith, Ronald E; Smoll, Frank L; Cumming, Sean P

2007-02-01

173

Male Athletes and the Cult(ure) of Thinness in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although female emaciators and anorexics in sport have received considerable academic attention as a deviant population of athletes (Atkinson 2008; Grieve 2007), researchers have only recently attended to the onset and development of self-starvation or weight minimization programs among male athletes (Hargreaves and Tiggemann 2006; Papathomas and Lavallee 2006). The bulk of academic literature on eating pathologies among male (or

Michael Atkinson

2011-01-01

174

Athletes' Efforts to Meet College Academic Standards Buoy Prep-School Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some high-school athletes with borderline grades and low achievement-test scores are enrolling in small, private preparatory schools in an effort to meet the National Collegiate Athletic Association's academic standards and play sports during their freshman year in college. (MLW)|

Lederman, Douglas

1987-01-01

175

Bone mineral density in top level male athletes of different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of muscle strength, trainingspecific and anthropometric parameters on bone mineral density (BMD) in male top athletes of different sports in comparison to untrained controls. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 173 males, aged 18 to 31 years. Of these, 104 were athletes (runners, n = 21; cyclists,

Petra Platen; Eun-heui Chae; Roswita Antz; Reiner Lehmann; Jens Kühlmorgen; Bruno Allolio

2001-01-01

176

Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes’ Coping with Interpersonal Stressors in Sport: More Similarities than Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in the types of coping strategies adolescent athletes use to manage sport-related interpersonal stress. To explain gender coping differences, the dispositional and situational gender coping hypotheses were explored (Tamres, Janicki, & Helgenson, 2002). Adolescent athletes from Western Canada (N = 524) completed measures of stress appraisal and coping-strategy use in response to a self-selected interpersonal

Sharleen D. Hoar; Peter R. E. Crocker; Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen

2010-01-01

177

A Qualitative Examination of Sport Transitions in First Year Collegiate Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

First year student athletes transitioning from high school to university experience simultaneous transitions in athletics, academics, social lives, family structures, support systems, and peer sport groups. These changes in their personal, social and occupational lives, can impact them cognitively, emotionally and behaviourally (Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994). The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the multi-dimensional transition experience of

Carolyn McEwen

2010-01-01

178

Substance Use among College Athletes: A Comparison Based on Sport/Team Affiliation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard…

Ford, Jason A.

2007-01-01

179

Characterizations of Criminal Athletes: A Systematic Examination of Sports News Depictions of Race and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present content analysis systematically analyzed the frequency and quality of newspaper coverage of race and crime in sports news. A social identity framework, incorporating insights from framing, was applied. It was expected that the features associated with athletes as well as the tone and style of news reports would vary based on the race\\/ethnicity of the athlete. For African

Dana E. Mastro; Erin Blecha; Anita Atwell Seate

2011-01-01

180

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by lagos state athletes at the 16th national sports festival (kada games 2009) in nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria.ObjectiveThe study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival and providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes.DesignProspective descriptive study.SettingThe study was carried out at the Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and

O B A Owoeye

2011-01-01

181

Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced.MethodsMultivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations.ResultsA representative sample of 13% of the

Karine Schaal; Muriel Tafflet; Hala Nassif; Valérie Thibault; Capucine Pichard; Mathieu Alcotte; Thibaut Guillet; Nour El Helou; Geoffroy Berthelot; Serge Simon; Jean-François Toussaint; Monica Uddin

2011-01-01

182

Reactions to sport career termination: a cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages

D. Alfermann; N. Stambulova; A. Zemaityte

2004-01-01

183

Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valerie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-Francois

2011-01-01

184

Influence of sport participation on blood lipids and lipoproteins in competitive female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross?sectional data on 67 competitive female athletes representing seven Division I sports were examined for serum lipids and lipoproteins, body composition, and dietary intake as well as a control group consisting of demographically similar yet inactive women. Sports included cross?country, gymnastics, swimming, basketball, volleyball, golf, and tennis. Results indicated that all groups were similar for age, height, and weight. Of

Daniel L. Blessing; Beverly J. Warren; Henry N. Williford; Robert E. Keith

1996-01-01

185

How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

Li, Li

2012-01-01

186

Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

1976-01-01

187

Relationship between Sports Drinks and Dental Erosion in 304 University Athletes in Columbus, Ohio, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic soft drinks, including sports drinks, have been implicated in dental erosion with limited supporting data in scarce erosion studies worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in a sample of athletes at a large Midwestern state university in the USA, and to evaluate whether regular consumption of sports drinks was associated with

Tanya Mathew; Paul S. Casamassimo; John R. Hayes

2002-01-01

188

How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

Li, Li

2012-01-01

189

Brain Function Decline in Healthy Retired Athletes who Sustained their Last Sports Concussion in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of sports concussions on cognitive and motor function may persist up to a few years post-injury. The present study sought to investigate the effects of having sustained a sports concussion more than 30 years prior to testing on cognitive and motor functions. Nineteen healthy former athletes, in late adulthood (mean age =

Louis De Beaumont; H Théoret; David Mongeon; Julie Messier; Suzanne Leclerc; Sebastien Tremblay; Dave Ellemberg; Maryse Lassonde

2009-01-01

190

Disengagement of Advanced and Elite Greek Male Athletes from Organized Competitive Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to previous quantitative research on the disengagement from sport which suffers from methodological weakness, in the present research it is argued that disengagement from sport can best be examined from a social action perspective, especially from a phenomenological perspective. Moreover, unlike previous research which presented a static and functional view of the world, former athletes in the present

Konstantinos Koukouris

1991-01-01

191

Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Sport: Relationships with Leadership, Team Cohesion, and Athlete Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to introduce the construct of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; Organ, 1988) into the sport psychology literature and examine its utility in sport. Based upon OCB research in the organizational literature, the Multidimensional Model of Leadership (MML; Chelladurai, 1978), the conceptual framework of team cohesion (CFC; Carron & Hausenblas, 1998), and a model of athlete

Mark W. Aoyagi; Richard H. Cox; Richard T. McGuire

2008-01-01

192

Incidence of Sport Injury in Female Collegiate Athletes across the Four Phases of the Menstrual Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous published investigations into the relationship between the menstrual cycle and sport behavior have focused on physiological variables associated with incidence of injury, specifically ACL laxity. More recent research has begun to look at the psychological nature of injury in sport and psychological variables that may influence the likelihood of athletic injury. This thesis research examines the link between psychological

Yaacov V Petscher

2004-01-01

193

Prevalence of Jumper’s Knee Among Nonelite Athletes From Different Sports: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of jumper’s knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown.Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper’s knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper’s knee.Design: Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2.Methods: The authors interviewed 891 male and female nonelite athletes from 7 popular sports

Johannes Zwerver; Steven W. Bredeweg; Inge van den Akker-Scheek

2011-01-01

194

Working memory capacity among collegiate student athletes: Effects of sport-related head contacts, concussions, and working memory demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Design: Ambidirectional cohort study. Setting: Athletics department at an American university. Participants: Student athletes competing

Lester B. Mayers; Thomas S. Redick; Sheila H. Chiffriller; Ashley N. Simone; Keith R. Terraforte

2011-01-01

195

Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

Gaines, Stacey A.

2012-01-01

196

Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

Gaines, Stacey A.

2012-01-01

197

Development of sports injury awareness programs for athletes and coaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApproximately 2.7 million Danes are active in sports and leisure activities. In 2009 over 100.000 sports injuries were registered as medically attended sports injuries in Denmark. National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark and The Association of Danish Sports Physiotherapists have identified the need for increasing the level of awareness about sports injuries and rehabilitation among Danish citizens.ObjectiveThe objective

K Kotila; B Andersen; L Kirkegaard

2011-01-01

198

Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports: A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing.

Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

2013-01-01

199

How to Build an Optimized Movement Analysis Laboratory for High Performance Athletes of Various Sport Disciplines (P116)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement analysis plays an important role for both, enhancing athletes’ performance and movement techniques in various sport\\u000a disciplines as well as optimising sport equipment. Therefore an optimal movement analysis laboratory should provide most realistic\\u000a conditions for a variety of sport disciplines, such as track and field, gymnastics and team sports as well as for testing\\u000a sport equipment ranging from sport

Lars Janshen

200

How to Build an Optimized Movement Analysis Laboratory for High Performance Athletes of Various Sport Disciplines (P116)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement analysis plays an important role for both, enhancing athletes’ performance and movement techniques in various sport\\u000a disciplines as well as optimising sport equipment Therefore an optimal movement analysis laboratory should provide most realistic\\u000a conditions for a variety of sport disciplines, such as track and field, gymnastics and team sports as well as for testing\\u000a sport equipment ranging from sport

Lars Janshen

201

Species variety of staphylococcal microflora of the skin in athletes engaged in water sports.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal flora of the skin was studied in athletes whose professional activity involved training in water. Inoculations were carried out by impressions in selective agar medium (yolk saline agar; YSA) in bacteriological signets. Drug sensitivity was studied by the disk diffusion method modified by Kerby-Bauer using standard disks with antibiotics. The study was carried out in 4 groups of athletes engaged in water sports (athletic and synchronous swimming, modern pentathlon, and water polo). Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of staphylococcal flora in water athletes are presented, MRSA strains are detected, and antibiotic sensitivity of staphylococcal microflora was evaluated. PMID:22485221

Zaborova, V A; Arzumanin, V G; Gurevich, K G; Terekhova, M V; Artemyeva, T A; Butovchenko, L M; Shkurnikov, M Yu

2011-10-01

202

Sport-specific biomechanics of spinal injuries in aesthetic athletes (dancers, gymnasts, and figure skaters).  

PubMed

Young aesthetic athletes require special understanding of the athletic biomechanical demands peculiar to each sport. The performance of these activities may impart specific biomechanical stresses and subsequent injury patterns. The clinician must understand these aspects as well as the spinal changes that occur with growth when many of these injuries often occur. Further, athletes, parents, coaches, and healthcare providers must be sensitive to the overall aspects of the athlete, including nutrition, overtraining, adequate recovery, proper technique, and limiting repetition of difficult maneuvers to minimize injuries. PMID:22657991

d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Luke, Anthony

2012-04-20

203

Campus Newspaper Coverage of Varsity SportsGetting Closer to Equitable and Sports-related Representations of Female Athletes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the coverage of women's and men's varsity sport teams in the English- and French-language student newspapers at the University of Ottawa, Canada, during three academic years from 2004 to 2007. The analysis revealed unique findings, considering that previous research on campus print media had shown an enduring disparity of coverage featuring female athletes. In contrast, our descriptive

Steph MacKay; Christine Dallaire

2009-01-01

204

Sport nutrition and doping factors in swimming; parallel analysis among athletes and coaches.  

PubMed

The sport nutrition and doping are known to be important issues in sports, but there is evident lack of studies which investigated those issues in swimming, especially with regard to parallel analysis of coaches and athletes. The first aim of this study was to compare knowledge of swimming coaches and their athletes about nutrition and doping. Also, we have identified interrelationships between studied sociodemographic-, sport-; nutrition- and doping-related-factors. The sample of subjects comprised 55 athletes (20.3 +/- 2.2 years of age; 24 females) and 22 coaches (mean age 36.5 +/- 7.8 years; 4 females) from Croatia (98% of respondents). In the first phase of the investigation we have validated specific questionnaires to determine the knowledge of sport nutrition (KSN), and knowledge on doping (KD). The test-retest correlation and percentage of equally responded queries revealed both questionnaires as reliable. The discriminative validity was proven also since coaches scored better than their athletes on both questionnaires. Athletes declared their coaches as the primary sources of knowledge about nutrition and doping. Among coaches, formal and self-education are equally important sources of information about doping and nutrition. The age is negatively, while the formal education is positively correlated to KD and KSN scores among coaches. Consequently, permanent educational programs about nutrition and doping are emphasized, especially among older coaches and younger athletes. PMID:23914506

Sajber, Dorica; Rodek, Jelena; Escalante, Yolanda; Oluji?, Dragana; Sekuli?, Damir

2013-05-01

205

Sports drinks and dental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To discuss the composition and rationale for the use of sports drinks along with recent studies investigating the relationship between sports drinks and dental erosion. Methods: A review of the literature of sports drinks and dental erosion was done. Results: For most athletes and individuals engaged in physical activity, the use of sports drinks does not provide a benefit

JEFF S. COOMBES

206

Gender Equity in Collegiate Sports: The Role of Athletic Associations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the evolution of opportunities for females in college athletics at four-year institutions, including the impact of Title IX and subsequent court decisions. Analyzes the roles of various athletic associations. Examines Title IX initiatives implemented by dominant athletic associations. (MKA)

Hutchens, Lisa C.; Townsend, Barbara K.

1998-01-01

207

Superstitions of Canadian Intercollegiate Athletes: an Inter-Sport Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belief structures categorized as superstitions were investigated among members of six selected Intercollegiate athletic teams enrolled at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada during the 1971-72 aca demic year. A mailed questionnaire was employed as the survey instru ment and distributed to 174 athletes chosen by systematic random sampling from lists supplied by the Department of Athletics. The over

C. Jane Gregory; Brian M. Petrie

1975-01-01

208

Sports Counseling: Enhancing the Development of the Student-Athlete.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores two problems, role conflict and athletic retirement, commonly faced by student athletes. Describes several potentially useful intervention models based on a psychoeducational approach, and suggests some directions for future research in aiding understanding of student-athlete development. (Author/KS)|

Chartrand, Judy M.; Lent, Robert W.

1987-01-01

209

Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

210

Coming Out in the Heterosexist World of Sport: A Qualitative Analysis of Web Postings by Gay Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on coming out typically concerns experiences with family and friends, but apart from a few (auto)biographies by elite gay athletes, there is very little published on how gay athletes come out to their sporting peers. Since most sports are infused with ideals and practices associated with hegemonic masculinity and heterosexuality, coming out is likely to present some unique

Brendan Gough

2007-01-01

211

Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

2008-01-01

212

Stressors experienced by injured athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the stressors participants experienced during three phases of injury (onset, rehabilitation and return to competitive sport). Within- and cross-case analyses showed that athletes experienced sport, medical/physical, social and financial stressors. There were a number of differences in the stressors experienced across the three phases and between team and individual-sport athletes. Findings have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions aimed at managing the potentially stressful sport injury experience and facilitating injured athletes' return to competitive sport. PMID:22551525

Evans, Lynne; Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon; Mitchell, Ian

2012-05-03

213

The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on sport spectators and sport fans is examined to develop a model of the psychological connections that individuals experience with sports or sport teams. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) is introduced. It provides an extended view of sport spectator and sport fan involvement, and outlines general parameters that may mediate the relationship between an individual and a sport or

Daniel C. Funk; Jeff James

2001-01-01

214

Career transitions and identity: a discursive psychological approach to exploring athlete identity in retirement and the transition back into elite sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes' career transitions have received widespread research attention and have been identified as potentially distressing for athletes. Yet, the transition back into elite sport following retirement, although rare, has not been a focus of research attention. The concept of athlete identity has been widely researched within sport psychology to give insight into the varied experiences of athletes, especially in relation

Suzanne Cosh; Amanda LeCouteur; Shona Crabb; Lisa Kettler

2012-01-01

215

Is it profitable to represent the country? Evidence on the sport-related income of funded top-level athletes in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several countries have introduced support mechanisms for top-level athletes who represent their nation in international competitions such as the Olympics. Many of these athletes receive funding as they do not generate sufficient income through their sport. Previous research has focused on self-sufficient athletes in professional sports demonstrating a research gap regarding the income of funded athletes. The purpose of the

Pamela Wicker; Christoph Breuer; Tassilo von Hanau

2012-01-01

216

Motivation for sport participation in older Italian athletes: the role of age, gender and competition level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at identifying whether age, competition level and gender influence motivation for sport participation in\\u000a Italian senior athletes. Four hundred and thirty-three athletes aged 45–80 years participated in the study by completing the\\u000a SMS questionnaire validated for this population. Separate scores for the 7 Extrinsic Motivation (EM), Intrinsic Motivation\\u000a (IM) and Amotivation (AM) subscales of the SMS questionnaire,

Roberta De Pero; Stefano Amici; Cinzia Benvenuti; Carlo Minganti; Laura Capranica; Caterina Pesce

2009-01-01

217

Patello-femoral arthralgia in athletes attending a Sports Injury Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a five year period, 137 athletes presented to a Sports Injury Clinic with patello-femoral arthralgia. This was 5.4% of the total injuries seen and a quarter of all knee problems treated. Running contributed to 32% of the athletes with patello-femoral pain. There was a 4:1 male:female ratio and nearly 70% were in the 16-25 year age range. A follow-up

M. D. Devereaux; S. M. Lachmann

1984-01-01

218

Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008–2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by

Carlos González-Haro; Julio Calleja-González; Jesus F. Escanero

2010-01-01

219

Acute effects of self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss in combat sports athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML) on mus- cle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD) reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by

Saima Timpmann; Vahur Ööpik; Mati Pääsuke; Luule Medijainen; Jaan Ereline

220

Sports, Outdoor Recreation, and Games for Visually and Physically Impaired Individuals: Reference Circular No. 91-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource guide lists and describes print materials, nonprint materials, and organizations dealing with sports, outdoor recreation, and games for visually and physically impaired individuals. Section I focuses on national organizations that sponsor athletic events on various levels and provide related services for children, youth, and adults…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

221

The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.  

PubMed

Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. PMID:22609334

Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

2012-05-17

222

Men Get 70% of Money Available for Athletic Scholarships at Colleges That Play Big-Time Sports, New Study Finds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study on sex equity by the National Collegiate Athletic Association found men's college athletic teams receive 70 percent of athletic scholarship money, 77 percent of operating money, and 83 percent of recruiting money spent by colleges playing big-time sports, despite virtually equal enrollment of men and women. Interpretations of the data…

Lederman, Douglas

1992-01-01

223

Men Get 70% of Money Available for Athletic Scholarships at Colleges That Play Big-Time Sports, New Study Finds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study on sex equity by the National Collegiate Athletic Association found men's college athletic teams receive 70 percent of athletic scholarship money, 77 percent of operating money, and 83 percent of recruiting money spent by colleges playing big-time sports, despite virtually equal enrollment of men and women. Interpretations of the data…

Lederman, Douglas

1992-01-01

224

Comparison of sport achievement orientation of male professional, amateur, and wheelchair basketball athletes.  

PubMed

To examine the differences in sport achievement orientation among 35 professional, 36 amateur, and 35 wheelchair basketball athletes, these men completed three subscales of Competitiveness, Win orientation, and Goal orientation of the 25-item Sport Orientation Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among groups. Win orientation was the factor, through discriminant function analysis, that significantly separated the athletes into the three groups. The highest win score was obtained by the professional, followed by the amateur and wheelchair groups. Replication study is necessary to confirm the present findings. PMID:14620236

Skordilis, E K; Gavriilidis, A; Charitou, S; Asonitou, K

2003-10-01

225

Prevalence of jumper's knee among non-elite athletes from different sports; a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe jumper's knee (JK) is a difficult-to-treat overuse injury of the patellar and quadriceps tendon with a very negative impact on the careers of many athletes. The prevalence of JK among non-elite athletes from different sports and its aetiology are unknown.ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of JK in non-elite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for JK.DesignCross-sectional

J Zwerver; SW Bredeweg; I van den Akker-Scheek

2011-01-01

226

An athletic Clio: sport history and television history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport historians have largely avoided television history even though several series, like Ken Burn's Baseball and the BBC's More Than a Game, have reached large audiences. Only one journal, The Journal of Sport History, regularly reviews mediated forms of sport history, while the other journals only sporadically engage with television history and film. This article evaluates the documentary The Original

Murray G. Phillips

2008-01-01

227

Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport

Danish, Steven J.; And Others

1993-01-01

228

Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport

Danish, Steven J.; And Others

1993-01-01

229

Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future.

Almagro, Bartolome J.; Saenz-Lopez, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

2010-01-01

230

The athlete's heart Part II Influencing factors on the athlete's heart: Types of sports and age (Review).  

PubMed

In our previous review characteristics of the athlete's heart were divided into three groups: morphologic (left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, improved coronary circulation), functional (better diastolic function) and regulatory (lower heart rate (HR)) features. In the present review, the influences of the types of sports and the age on the athlete's heart are discussed. Studies using echocardiographic, Doppler-echocardiographic, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results are mostly involved. The coronary circulation was investigated overwhelmingly in animal experiments. In the LV hypertrophy a major contributor is the increase of the LV wall thickness (WT) than that of the LV internal diameter (ID). A right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy can also be seen in athletes. Athletic features are induced mostly by endurance training. Approximately two years regular physical training is needed to develop characteristics of the athlete's heart, hence, in the young children they are less marked. LV hypertrophy and lower HR are characteristic in young and adult athletes, but they are less marked in older ones. A richer coronary capillary network can develop mostly at a young age. PMID:23471039

Pavlik, Gábor; Major, Zs; Csajági, E; Jeserich, M; Kneffel, Zs

2013-03-01

231

NCAA Division-I Student-Athletes' Receptivity to Mental Skills Training by Sport Psychology Consultants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study NCAA Division I student-athletes (n = 2,440) completed a Web-based survey assessing their willingness to seek mental skills training, perceptions of the potential benefits of mental training for their team, and support of possible roles for a sport psychology consultant at their institution. Multiple chi-square tests revealed significant (p<.001) dependence of respondents' ratings on gender, sport

Craig A Wrisberg; Duncan Simpson; Lauren A Loberg; Jenny L Withycombe; Ann Reed

2009-01-01

232

Type of sport played and motivation orientation as predictors of subjective well-being in college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship of subjective well-being in college student-athletes with the type of sport played and motivation for participation. Specifically, motivation was investigated as a possible mediating influence in the relationship between sport participation and subjective well-being. One hundred twenty-four undergraduate student athletes, ranging in age from 18 to 23, participating in a sport requiring interpersonal support,

Robyn Wesler Landow

1997-01-01

233

Sports injuries in young athletes: long-term outcome and prevention strategies.  

PubMed

Physical activity plays a significant role in the physical and emotional well-being of a child. In the past 15 to 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in sports participation at a young age, which has offered numerous health benefits, including self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility, and strength. Children are playing sports at younger ages. This article assesses the long-term outcome of sports injuries in young athletes, with suggestions on how to prevent such injuries. There are no definitive epidemiological data on withdraw from sports activities due to injury in young athletes. Disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury can result in length discrepancy, angular deformity, or altered joint mechanics, and may cause significant long-term disability. Sequelae of Osgood-Schlatter lesion include painful ossicle in the distal patellar tendon. Fragmentation or separation of the apophysis appears to be the result of adaptive changes to the increased stress that occurs in overuse activities. The presence of these changes undeniably demonstrates an osseous reaction, although they are not disabling. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle is encouraged worldwide, particularly with regard to the many health benefits. Reduction of only a moderate proportion of all sports injuries is of significance for the young athletes' health and could have a long-term economic impact on health care costs. It is therefore important to convince medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers and coaches, as well as athletes of the necessity to implement active prevention measures in their therapy and training programs, thus decreasing the injury and re-injury rate and enhancing athletic performance. PMID:20631461

Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

2010-06-01

234

Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as…

Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

2001-01-01

235

Prevention of overuse sports injuries in the young athlete.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism, and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young athletic population. This information provides valuable insight into the state of the current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as the potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

Paterno, Mark V; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

2013-08-29

236

CAFFEINE USE IN SPORTS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ATHLETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ergogenic effects of caffeine on athletic performance have been shown in many studies, and its broad range of metabolic, hormonal, and physiologic effects has been recorded, as this review of the literature shows. However, few caffeine studies have been published to include cognitive and physiologic considerations for the athlete. The following practical recom- mendations consider the global effects of

BULENT SOKMEN; L AWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG; W ILLIAM J. KRAEMER; J. CASA; JOAO C. DIAS; D ANIEL A. JUDELSON; CARL M. MARESH

237

Gender, age, and sport differences in relative age effects among US Masters swimming and track and field athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relative age effect has been identified in Masters sports (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007). Since gender, age, and type of sport have been found to influence the relative age effect in youth sports (Musch & Grondin, 2001), we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes. Using archived data

Nikola Medic; Bradley W. Young; Janet L. Starkes; Patricia L. Weir; J. Robert Grove

2009-01-01

238

The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female

Haleh Dadgostar; Mohammad Razi; Ashraf Aleyasin; Talia Alenabi; Saeideh Dahaghin

2009-01-01

239

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not needed if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume unbalanced diets with low micronutrient density, may require supplements. Because regulations specific to nutritional ergogenic aids are poorly enforced, they should be used with caution, and only after careful product evaluation for safety, efficacy, potency, and legality. A qualified sports dietitian and in particular in the United States, a Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics, should provide individualized nutrition direction and advice subsequent to a comprehensive nutrition assessment. PMID:19278045

Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

2009-03-01

240

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

241

Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

Francois, Denise; And Others

1979-01-01

242

From the Trenches: The Landscape of Sports Dispute Resolution and Athlete Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Act that gave the Olympic Committee its authority is the Ted Steven's Olympic and Amateur Sports Act. It was first passed in 1978 under the tutelage of Senator Stevens of Alaska. It was updated in 1998, and in the update there was a passage added regarding the creation of the position of athlete ombudsman. One of the primary authors

John Ruger

2012-01-01

243

The Parent-Coach/Child-Athlete Relationship in Youth Sport: Cordial, Contentious, or Conundrum?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and…

Weiss, Maureen R.; Fretwell, Susan D.

2005-01-01

244

Sport, National Identity, and Media Discourse over Foreign Athletes in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the perception of Jewish-Israeli nationality and the boundaries of the Israeli collective, as reflected in the media coverage of foreign basketball and soccer players during the years 2002–2006. We show that while foreign athletes play a central role in the efforts of Israeli sport clubs, they remain largely excluded from the Israeli collective. At times they

Eran Shor; Yuval Yonay

2010-01-01

245

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water…

Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

2010-01-01

246

Analysis of Florida high school athlete's sports injury data for 2008–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo analyze the Florida high school athletes sports injury data for the 2008–2009 academic year and to provide recommendations for further research and practice. The data collected for this study were part of the initiatives of the SMART Institute of the University of South Florida. The surveillance tool is unique in that no other instrument captures the incidence, prevalence, risk

K D Liller; B Morris; J Konin; S Jang; S Wong; S Thorson

2010-01-01

247

The Sports Experience of the Black College Athlete: Exploitation in the Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of college student-athletes, especially black ones, is a dominant theme in the American sport literature. The present research explores this motif as seen through the eyes of college basketball players (n = 505) performing at NCAA Divisions I, II, and III. The most provocative general finding is that discrepancies exist between the actors' and critics' definitions of the

Wilbert Marcellus Leonard

1986-01-01

248

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

2010-01-01

249

Effects of Sport Pressures on Female Collegiate Athletes: A Preliminary Longitudinal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female athletes have been identified as a population at risk for disordered eating, and a recent theoretical model (Petrie & Greenleaf, in press) has identified sociocultural factors that may define that risk. In this study, we examined three central constructs in the model—sport pressures regarding body, weight, and appearance; body dissatisfaction; and dietary restraint—within a sample of female collegiate gymnasts

Carlin M. Anderson; Trent A. Petrie; Craig S. Neumann

2012-01-01

250

The Parent-Coach/Child-Athlete Relationship in Youth Sport: Cordial, Contentious, or Conundrum?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and…

Weiss, Maureen R.; Fretwell, Susan D.

2005-01-01

251

Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray

A. Heinonen; P. Oja; P. Kannus; H. Sievanen; H. Haapasalo; A. Mänttäri; I. Vuori

1995-01-01

252

Efficacy of Dextrose Prolotherapy in Elite Male Kicking-Sport Athletes With Chronic Groin Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Topol GA, Reeves KD, Hassanein KM. Efficacy of dextrose,prolotherapy,in elite male,kicking-sport athletes with chronic groin pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86: 697-702. Objective: To determine,the,efficacy,of simple,dextrose

Gastrin Andres Topol; K. Dean Reeves; Khatab Mohammed Hassanein

2005-01-01

253

Relationships between training load, injury, and fitness in sub-elite collision sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that estimate the influence of training load on training injury and physical fitness in collision sport athletes. The incidence of training injuries was studied in 183 rugby league players over two competitive seasons. Participants were assessed for height, body mass, skinfold thickness, vertical jump, 10-m, 20-m and 40-m sprint time,

Tim J. Gabbett; Nathan Domrow

2007-01-01

254

College Athletes and Drug Testing: Attitudes and Behaviors by Gender and Sport  

PubMed Central

We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis players were most likely to agree that drug use by college athletes is socially acceptable. Lacrosse players were most likely to know of atleast one teammate using drugs. Overall, attitudes towards the mandatory drug education and testing program were ambivalent. About half of our responding athletes believed drug testing was necessary and discouraged drug use. Only 17% believed that the program was an invasion of privacy.

Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce

1993-01-01

255

Sport injury rehabilitation adherence: Perspectives of recreational athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate recreational participants’ experiences of adhering to a sport injury rehabilitation program. Six participants undertaking a rehabilitation program for a tendonitis?related injury as a result of sport involvement took part in this study. Data were collected using semi?structured interviews and were thematically analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003). Five themes

Andrew R. Levy; Remco C. J. Polman; Adam R. Nicholls; David C. Marchant

2009-01-01

256

Human Capital, Sport Performance, and Salary Determination of Professional Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to the high availability of data, professional sport represents a unique laboratory in order to test labour market theories and predictions. In par- ticular, one of the most important propositions concerns the role that hu- man capital plays in shaping the life-cycle earnings patterns of workers. To the extent that sport can be considered as a type of human

Roberto Antonietti

2006-01-01

257

Multifaceted analyses of Masters athletes' participation motivation and sport commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to gain a better understanding of the motivational processes underlying lifelong involvement in sport. Accordingly, five sequential studies, which were grounded in the three empirically based social-cognitive models of motivation including the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2002), the achievement goal theory (Duda 2001; Nicholls, 1984), and the sport commitment model (Scanlan, Carpenter,

Nikola Medic

2007-01-01

258

Women, Sports, and Science: Do Female Athletes Have an Advantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes data from a longitudinal study of high school youth to suggest that involvement in sports often has a strong and positive association with young womens' success in high school science. Associates participation in cheerleading with negative results. Summarizes both the functionalist and conflict theories regarding the purpose of sports.…

Hanson, Sandra L.; Kraus, Rebecca S.

1998-01-01

259

High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

2010-01-01

260

Do undergraduate students' ratings of perceived aggression in sport reflect athletes' self-reported aggression? Comments on Pedersen (2007).  

PubMed

In 2007 Pedersen described the results of undergraduate students' ratings of 16 common sports based on their perceptions of the aggression in each sport. Unfortunately, it is unclear whether Pedersen's sample's perception of aggression actually reflects aggression of athletes who participate in these sports. Therefore, response of 1,441 British competitive athletes (817 men, mean age = 21.5, SD = 4.9) to a short aggression questionnaire were analysed to distinguish whether the same pattern of ranks reported by Pedersen could be replicated. In general, data were consistent with Pedersen's rankings (Correlations were moderate to high), but some exceptions were evident, particularly for male athletes. PMID:18380110

Maxwell, J P

2007-12-01

261

Long-run Labour Market Effects of Individual Sports Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This microeconometric study analyzes the effects of individual leisure sports participation on long-term labour market variables, on socio-demographic as well as on health and subjective well-being indicators for West Germany based on individual data from the German Socio-Economic Panel study (GSOEP) 1984 to 2006. Econometric problems due to individuals choosing their own level of sports activities are tackled by combining

Michael Lechner

2008-01-01

262

Sports-Specific Features of Athlete’s Heart and their Relation to Echocardiographic Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic physical training may induce morphological and useful functional adaptations which affect all cardiac chambers. Morphological modifications are mainly modest and far from pathologic ones. All these adaptations seem helpful for sport’s performance. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral stresses depend on the muscular exercise type performed, static or dynamic. However, sports-specific adaptive cardiac structural changes are yet debated. Actually, it appears that

Julie Barbier; Nathalie Ville; Gaelle Kervio; Guillaume Walther; François Carré

2006-01-01

263

Sources of collective and individual efficacy of collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sources of information athletes select for self?efficacy and collective efficacy information, the potential for additional categories of efficacy information, and patterns of sources among individual players or teams. Information was collected from 34 women collegiate basketball players prior to 12 basketball games. Results indicated that players do not choose the same sources

Melissa A. Chase; Deborah L. Feltz; Cathy D. Lirgg

2003-01-01

264

Sport Nutrition and Doping in Tennis: An Analysis of Athletes' Attitudes and Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key points The incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females. Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes’ trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping. There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports.

Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan

2013-01-01

265

Sport nutrition and doping in tennis: an analysis of athletes' attitudes and knowledge.  

PubMed

Nutrition and doping issues are rarely studied in the sport of tennis. The aims of this investigation were to determine knowledge on doping (KD) and knowledge on sport nutrition (KSN), and corresponding socio-demographic-, sport-, and sport-nutrition- and doping-factors among an international sample of high-level tennis players of both sexes (43 females; 22 years old on average). In the first phase of the investigation, the KSN and KD questionnaires were studied for their reliability and validity. The consumption of NS is found to be very high, with almost of all the females and 80% of the males using NS at least occasionally. The athletes showed a low tendency regarding future doping usage, although most of them are convinced that doping does exist in tennis. Since athletes declared that their coaches are their main source of information about NS and doping, future studies should investigate what coaches actually know about such problems. KSN has been found to be protective against potential doping behavior in the future. Males are found to be more prone to doping than females. Therefore, in order to prevent doping behavior in tennis we strongly suggest intensive educational programs on sports nutrition and doping-related problems. Key PointsThe incidence of nutritional supplementation use among the tennis players is found to be very high, especially among the females.Although most of the subjects are of the opinion that the doping behavior is present in tennis circuit, we have found a low tendency regarding future doping usage, and high levels of athletes' trust in their coaches with regard to nutritional supplementation and doping.There are indices that the knowledge about nutrition is protective factor against potential doping behavior. It clearly reinforces the need to include a wide educational program on sports nutrition in tennis, but also in other sports. PMID:24149808

Kondric, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Zvan, Milan

2013-06-01

266

Perceived parental beliefs about the causes of success in sport: relationship to athletes' achievement goals and personal beliefs.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between perceived parental beliefs and young athletes' achievement goal orientations and personal beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Participants were 183 male and female athletes, 11-18 years old, involved in team sports. Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire, and two modified versions of the latter inventory to assess their perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental beliefs were related to goal orientations and personal beliefs in a conceptually coherent fashion. Thus, the perceived parental belief that effort leads to success in sport was related to athletes' task orientation and personal belief that effort causes sport success. In contrast, the perceived parental beliefs that superior ability, external factors, and using deceptive tactics are precursors to success in sport corresponded to athletes' ego orientation and the same personal beliefs. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the socialization experiences of young athletes. PMID:14723789

White, Sally A; Kavussanu, Maria; Tank, Kari M; Wingate, Jason M

2004-02-01

267

Goal Discrepancy in African American Male Student-Athletes' Unrealistic Expectations for Careers in Professional Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether African American male college student-athletes unrealistically focus their career goals on professional athletics to the detriment of their academic pursuits. The study considered the professional athleticaspirations of 702 AfricanAmerican male student-athletesfrom42 NCAA Division I universities using the concept of goal discrepancy to identify individuals whose professional athletic aspirations were inconsistent with their current status asfirst

Robert M. Sellers; Gabriel P. Kuperminc

1997-01-01

268

Goal perspectives and sport participation motivation of Special Olympians and typically developing athletes.  

PubMed

Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (<15, 15-17, 18-20, >20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. PMID:23643768

Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon

2013-04-30

269

Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

270

Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nutritional supplement intake of athletes from a state-based sports institute. Athletes (n=72) from seven sports (kayaking, field hockey, rowing, waterpolo, swimming, athletics and netball) completed a questionnaire detailing their daily usage and rationale therefore. The large majority (63/72; 87.5+/-12.5%) of surveyed athletes reported using nutritional supplements, with no difference between female (31/36; 86.1+/-13.9%) and male (32/36; 88.9+/-11.1%) athletes. Kayakers (6.0+/-2.9) consumed a higher number of nutritional supplements than swimmers (4+/-2.2), field hockey (1.5+/-1.0), rowing (2.4+/-1.4), waterpolo (2.3+/-2.4), athletics (2.5+/-1.9) and netball (1.7+/-1.0) athletes. The athletes believed that nutritional supplements are related to performance enhancements (47/72; 65.3%), positive doping results (45/72; 62.5%), and that heavy training increases supplement requirements (47/72; 65.3%). The cohort was equivocal as to their health risks (40/72; 55.6%) or their need with a balanced diet (38/72; 52.8%). The most popular supplements were minerals (33/72; 45.8%), vitamins (31/72; 43.1%), other (23/72; 31.9%), iron (22/72; 30.6%), caffeine (16/72; 22.2%), protein (12/72; 16.7%), protein-carbohydrate mix (10/72; 13.9%), creatine (9/72; 12.5%) and glucosamine (3/72; 4.2%). The majority of supplementing athletes (n=63) did not know their supplements active ingredient (39/63; 61.9%), side effects (36/63; 57.1%) or mechanism of action (34/63; 54.0%) and admitted to wanting additional information (36/63; 57.0%). Only half of the athletes knew the recommended supplement dosages (33/63; 52.4%). The performance enhancing perception may explain the large proportion of athletes that reported using nutritional supplements, despite over half of the athletes believing that supplements are not required with a balanced diet and can cause positive doping violations. PMID:19775936

Dascombe, B J; Karunaratna, M; Cartoon, J; Fergie, B; Goodman, C

2009-09-22

271

Are Sports Overemphasized in the Socialization Process of African American Males? A Qualitative Analysis of Former Collegiate Athletes’ Perception of Sport Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as

Krystal K. Beamon

2010-01-01

272

Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…

Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah

2012-01-01

273

Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…

Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah

2012-01-01

274

Acculturation in elite sport: a thematic analysis of immigrant athletes and coaches.  

PubMed

Abstract To identify key issues concerning the acculturation of immigrant athletes in sport psychology, a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) was conducted on focus group interview data from immigrant elite athletes relocated to Canada (n = 13) and coaches working with such athletes (n = 10). Two central themes were identified: (a) navigating two world views which referred to acculturation as a fluid process where athletes navigated between cultural norms of the home community and the host community, and (b) acculturation loads, which referred to whether immigrants and those in the host country shared acculturation (i.e., acculturation as a two-way process) or managed the load with or without support from others (i.e., acculturation as one-directional). Each of these central themes comprised sub-themes, which provided further insight into the experiences of acculturation for immigrant elite athletes. From the project, the authors recommend further research utilising case studies to provide a holistic description of the acculturation process from the vantage of various people within the sport context. PMID:23688005

Schinke, Robert Joel; McGannon, Kerry R; Battochio, Randy Cesar; Wells, Greg D

2013-05-20

275

Effect of Unified Sport on Maladaptive Behaviors Among Special Olympics Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of participating in a Unified Bowling program on maladaptive behaviors among Special Olympics athletes. Athletes aged 11 to 68 years with a mean age of 32 years ($$n=40), participated in a 12-week Unified Bowling program. A comparison group of individuals aged 16 to 68 years with a mean age of

Erik Rosegard; Shane Pegg; David M. Compton

2001-01-01

276

The Relationship between Gender, Type of Sport, Body Dissatisfaction, Self Esteem and Disordered Eating Behaviors in Division I Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether gender, type of sport (lean v. non-lean), body dissatisfaction and self esteem were associated with disordered eating behaviors in Division I college athletes. More female than male athletes displayed disordered eating behaviors; approximately one-quarter of the population was at risk for a clinically diagnosable eating disorder. The results also revealed that females in non-lean sports

BreeAnn Milligan; Mary Pritchard

2006-01-01

277

Effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest on haematological, physiological, and performance parameters in multi-sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 weeks of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest was able to elicit changes that would benefit multi-sport athletes. Twenty-two multi-sport athletes of mixed ability were exposed to either a normobaric hypoxic gas (intermittent hypoxic training group) or a placebo gas containing normal room air (placebo group). The participants breathed the

Michael John Hamlin; John Hellemans

2007-01-01

278

An Analysis of Goal Achievement Orientation and Sport Morality Levels of Division IA Non-Revenue Collegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this study was to investigate the goal orientations of non-revenue producing team student-athletes and the potential correlation to sport morality levels. Student-athletes (SA’s) (male n=114, female n=118) from a southeastern university, from non-revenue teams, in both semi-contact and non-contact areas, were compared and contrasted by the use of the Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionaire (TEOSQ) and

John W. Lata

2005-01-01

279

Overtraining and Elite Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison to adults, our knowledge of the overtraining syndrome in elite young athletes is lacking. The evidence indicates an incidence rate of ?20–30%, with a relatively higher occurrence seen in individual sport athletes, females and those competing at the highest representative levels. The most commonly reported symptoms are similar to those observed in over trained adult athletes: increased perception

Richard Winsley; Nuno Matos

2011-01-01

280

Copper status of collegiate female athletes involved in different sports.  

PubMed

Copper status was assessed in 70 female collegiate athletes aged 18 to 25 years participating in cross country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics during the 2000-2001 season. A group of 8 college-aged females, 20 to 23 years of age, who were not collegiate athletes, served as controls. Mean copper intakes including supplements did not differ significantly among the controls and athletic teams. Mean copper intakes including supplements as micrograms/day and percent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) were as follows: controls 1071 +/- 772 microg (119 +/- 86%), cross country track 1468 +/- 851 microg (163 +/- 95%), tennis 1099 +/- 856 microg (122 +/- 95%), softball 654 +/- 420 microg (73 +/- 47%), swimming 1351 +/- 1060 g (150 +/- 118%), soccer 695 +/- 368 microg (77 +/- 41%), and gymnastics 940 +/- 863 microg (104 +/- 96%). Forty-one percent of athletes and 29% of controls failed to consume two thirds of the RDA for copper. Mean serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were within the normal range and did not differ significantly among the controls (117 +/- 22 microg/dl, 445 +/- 122 mg/L) and cross country track (98 +/- 17 microg/dl, 312 +/- 59 mg/L), tennis (140 +/- 84 microg/dl, 424 +/- 244 mg/L), softball (95 +/- 30 microg/dl, 310 +/- 77 mg/L), swimming (98 +/- 25 microg/dl, 312 +/- 40 mg/L), soccer (93 +/- 15 microg/dl, 324 +/- 54 mg/ L), basketball (85 +/- 10 microg/dl, 280 +/- 62 mg/L), and gymnastics (96 +/- 21 microg/dl, 315 +/- 68 mg/L) teams. Copper status of female collegiate athletes appears to be adequate in this cross-sectional assessment. PMID:14669934

Gropper, Sareen S; Sorrels, L Michelle; Blessing, Daniel

2003-09-01

281

Long-Term Effects of Athletics Meet on the Perceived Competence of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided…

Ninot, Gregory; Maiano, Christophe

2007-01-01

282

Long-term effects of athletics meet on the perceived competence of individuals with intellectual disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided equally into six groups: (a) segregated basketball, (b) integrated basketball, (c)

Grégory Ninot; Christophe Maïano

2007-01-01

283

Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .  

PubMed

Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills. PMID:21174872

Beamon, Krystal K

2010-01-01

284

Athletic Trainers' and Physical Therapists' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Psychological Skills Within Sport Injury Rehabilitation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport- injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. Objective: To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabil- itation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Design: The ATs and PTs were

J. Jordan Hamson-Utley; Scott Martin; Jason Walters

2008-01-01

285

Who's Got Game?: Exposure to Sports and Entertainment Media and Social Physique Anxiety in Division I Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared college female athletes' exposure to two types of media—sport and entertainment--and looked for possible associations with social physique anxiety an affective trait that could be present in women who have eating disorder tendencies. Our survey of Division I female athletes yielded very inconsistent patterns with regard to the type of media that is more likely to be

Katie Hines Porterfield

2006-01-01

286

Evaluation of immunoassays for the measurement of insulin and C-peptide as indirect biomarkers of insulin misuse in sport: values in selected population of athletes.  

PubMed

Insulin and C-peptide have been proposed as possible biomarkers of human insulin hormone misuse in sport. An extended intra- and inter-laboratory validation of commercially available immunoassays was performed. Enzyme Amplified Sensitivity Immunoassay (EASIA) assays (Human Insulin-EASIA and C-peptide EASIA kits from BioSource) were evaluated for insulin and C-peptide in serum. The intra- and inter-laboratory precision and accuracy values were good for the evaluated assays with maximum imprecision and inaccuracy of 16% and 23%, respectively, obtained just for one day C-peptide assay evaluation. The range of concentrations found in serum samples under investigation was always covered by the calibration curves of the studied immunoassays. However, a 19.7% of the samples felt below the estimated insulin limit of quantification. High concordance between laboratory results was obtained for insulin assay (intraclass correlation coefficient -ICC=0.857), whereas that for C-peptide was lower (ICC=0.539). Evaluated immunoassays were used to measure serum concentrations of insulin and C-peptide in elite athletes of various sport disciplines at different moment of training season, in recreational athletes at baseline conditions and finally in sedentary individuals. Serum insulin was statistically lower both in recreational and elite athletes when compared to sedentary individuals. Among elite athletes, the specific sport affected serum insulin (e.g., weightlifting) and C-peptide (e.g., triathlon) concentrations. Over the training season, a within athletes variability was observed for taekwondo, swimming and weightlifting athletes. Variations due to those aspects should be taken in careful consideration in the hypothesis of setting reference concentration ranges for doping detection. PMID:19181472

Abellan, Rosario; Ventura, Rosa; Palmi, Ilaria; di Carlo, Simonetta; di Giovannandrea, Rita; Bellver, Montse; Olive, Ramon; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pacifici, Roberta; Segura, Jordi; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pichini, Simona

2009-01-08

287

Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Neuropsychological testing is a valuable tool in concussion diagnosis and management. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological testing program, consists of eight cognitive tasks and a 21-item symptom inventory. Method: ImPACT was used to examine the cognitive performance of 104 concussed athletes at baseline, 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury. Dependent measures included composite scores from the ImPACT computerized test battery,

Michael P. McClincy; Mark R. Lovell; Jamie Pardini; Michael W. Collins; Molly K. Spore

2006-01-01

288

Iron status of female collegiate athletes involved in different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18–25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball,\\u000a swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total\\u000a iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter\\u000a for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However,

Sareen S. Gropper; Daniel Blessing; Kim Dunham; Jeffrey M. Barksdale

2006-01-01

289

Participation in Sports for the Athlete with the Marfan Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Marfan syndrome was first described in 1896 by Dr. Antoine Marfan, a French pediatrician [1, 2]. He described a young\\u000a girl who manifested the classic musculoskeletal findings. This syndrome along with its propensity for aortic dilatation has\\u000a been recognized across the world as one of the causes of sudden death in high-profile athletes receiving considerable media\\u000a attention [3]. The

Marla Mendelson

290

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent\\u000a athletes. The sample consisted of N=260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed\\u000a that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the variance in prosocial behavior could be

Esther A. Rutten; Geert Jan J. M. Stams; Gert J. J. Biesta; Carlo Schuengel; Evelien Dirks; Jan B. Hoeksma

2007-01-01

291

Need Satisfaction, Well-Being, and Perceived Return-to-Sport Outcomes Among Injured Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether components of psychological well-being (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and vitality) mediated the relationship between self-determination theory (SDT) basic needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and perceived return-to-sport outcomes. Competitive athletes (n = 204) from Australia, Canada, and the United States completed an injury need satisfaction scale, psychological well-being inventories, and

Leslie Podlog; Marc Lochbaum; Tara Stevens

2010-01-01

292

Influence of sport type and interdependence on the developmental experiences of youth male athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport type, interdependence (task and outcome), and the developmental experiences of select male basketball players (n=129) and middle-distance runners (n=83) aged 14–17 years. Athletes completed the Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 (Hansen & Larson, 2005) and a modified measure assessing task and outcome interdependence (Van der Vegt, Emans, & Van

Mark W. Bruner; Jonathan Hall; Jean Côté

2011-01-01

293

"I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…

Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

2008-01-01

294

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use as a Complicating Factor in the Female Athlete Triad: Behavioral Implications for Sport Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, recognizing a ubiquitous pattern of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis among young women participating in competitive sports, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) initiated a dialogue about the Female Athlete Triad. Since then, members of ACSM and other professional societies have offered theoretical models for reducing problem behaviors, but few have conceptualized how the use of anabolic-androgenic

Bryan E. Denham; Katherine W. Hawkins; Karyn Ogata Jones; Andrew C. Billings

2007-01-01

295

From Diving Boards to Pole Vaults: Gendered Athlete Portrayals in the “Big Four” Sports at the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 70 prime-time hours of host and reporter commentary in NBC's 2004 Athens Summer Olympic telecast was undertaken to determine if announcer commentary in the sports of gymnastics, track and field, swimming, and diving each contained gender biases. Results indicated that gymnastics was the most gender-marked of the four major Olympic sports, with men and women athletes being covered

Andrew C. Billings

2007-01-01

296

We Can Be Athletic and Feminine, But Do We Want To? Challenging Hegemonic Femininity in Women's Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

More women than ever before are panicipating in a diverse array of sports. However, at the same time, this popularity accentuates the femininity of these sportswomen, protecting the “image” of women's sports. The underlying message is that athleticism and femininity contrddictory, and females have to go out of their way to show that they can be athletic and be socially

Vikki Krane

2001-01-01

297

What is the optimal composition of an athlete's diet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing the most suitable diet for an athlete requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant scientific literature, the training and competition demands of the sport, the individual athlete's preferences and social situation. The scientific literature contains an abundance of information on nutritional demands of athletes undertaking endurance or strength training programmes, but much less information is available on sprint\\/power sports,

Elizabeth M. Broad; Gregory R. Cox

2008-01-01

298

Patello-femoral arthralgia in athletes attending a Sports Injury Clinic.  

PubMed Central

Over a five year period, 137 athletes presented to a Sports Injury Clinic with patello-femoral arthralgia. This was 5.4% of the total injuries seen and a quarter of all knee problems treated. Running contributed to 32% of the athletes with patello-femoral pain. There was a 4:1 male:female ratio and nearly 70% were in the 16-25 year age range. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 72 athletes seen in the last two years with a 78% response rate. Symptoms and treatment are discussed. After conservative therapy only 28.6% were entirely symptom free with a mean follow up of 13.1 months. Images p18-a p18-b

Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

1984-01-01

299

Recurrent shoulder instability among athletes: changes in quality of life, sports activity, and muscle function following open repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recurrent anterior shoulder instability is a disabling condition in young athletes with possibly underestimated\\u000a impact on quality of life and sports activity. Commonly used clinical scoring systems do not reflect the impairment of quality\\u000a of life and sports activity. It was our aim to assess the return to preinjury levels of quality of life and sports activity\\u000a as well

Rupert Meller; Christian Krettek; Thomas Gösling; Knut Wähling; Michael Jagodzinski; Johannes Zeichen

2007-01-01

300

Influence of female sports dietitians' physical characteristics on athlete perception of effectiveness.  

PubMed

Research in sports-science disciplines such as sport psychology has demonstrated that practitioners' physical characteristics influence clients' perceptions of their effectiveness, potentially mediating the efficacy of subsequent interventions. However, very little research has been directed toward this issue for sports dietitians (SDs), the health professionals whom athletes are likely to engage to assist with manipulation of traits of physique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether SDs' phenotype, specifically body-mass index (BMI), and type of dress influence potential clients' preference to consult them for dietetic support and if this affects their perceived effectiveness. Methods: One hundred volunteers (mean age 18.7 ± 0 .8 years) all participating in regular competitive sport, classified by gender (male, n = 55, or female, n = 45) and competitive standard (elite/subelite, n = 68, or club/recreational, n = 32) viewed slides representing four concurrently presented computer-generated images of the same female SD manipulated to represent different BMIs and dress types. Participants were asked to rank the SDs in order of their preference to work with them and, second, to rate their perceived effectiveness of each of the SDs. Results: Key findings included the observation of a significant BMI main effect F(6, 91) = 387.39, p < .001 (effect size .96), with participants' ranking of preference and rating of perceived effectiveness of female SDs decreasing with increasing BMI. Conclusion: SDs should consider their physical appearance when meeting with athletes, as this may affect their perceived efficacy. PMID:23239682

Lovell, Geoff P; Parker, John K; Slater, Gary J

2012-12-07

301

Reaction time and anticipatory skill of athletes in open and closed skill-dominated sport.  

PubMed

Abstract In sports, reaction time and anticipatory skill are critical aspects of perceptual abilities. To date, no study has compared reaction time and anticipatory skill of athletes from open and closed skill-dominated sport. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether a difference exists in sensory-cognitive skills between these two different sport domains. Eleven volleyball players and 11 sprinters participated in this experiment. Reaction time and anticipatory skill of both groups were recorded by a custom-made software called SART (speed anticipation and reaction time test). This software consists of six sensory-cognitive tests that evaluate visual choice reaction time, visual complex choice reaction time, auditory choice reaction time, auditory complex choice reaction time, and anticipatory skill of the high speed and low speed of the ball. For each variable, an independent t-test was performed. Results suggested that sprinters were better in both auditory reaction times (P<0.001 for both tests) and volleyball players were better in both anticipatory skill tests (P = 0.007 and P = 0.04 for anticipatory skill of the high speed and low speed of the ball, respectively). However, no significant differences were found in both visual choice reaction time tests (P > 0.05 for both visual reaction time tests). It is concluded that athletes have greater sensory-cognitive skills related to their specific sport domain either open or closed. PMID:24050458

Nuri, Leila; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Ghotbi, Nastaran; Attarbashi Moghadam, Behrouz

2012-11-12

302

Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.  

PubMed

Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513

Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

2013-05-01

303

Knee popping and clicking in a pediatric athlete: meniscal injury or sports tumor?  

PubMed

This case report presents a teenage patient who initially was thought to have a sports-related injury but ultimately was diagnosed with a primary soft tissue tumor. A previously healthy 16-year-old softball player presented with a history of left knee joint line pain, clicking, and swelling. The patient was presumed to have a lateral meniscus tear. However, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra-articular mass. Arthroscopy revealed a 2.5- × 1.5-cm firm pedicular mass in the lateral joint. Histological exam demonstrated localized pigmented villonodular synovitis. The patient healed uneventfully and returned to sporting activities. This report re-emphasizes the possibility that "sports tumors" can mimic symptoms of a meniscal tear in young athletes. PMID:23327856

Plakke, Michael J; Hennrikus, William L; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E

2012-01-01

304

The mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in relationships between types of passion for sport and athlete burnout.  

PubMed

Research indicates that obsessive and harmonious passion can explain variability in burnout through various mediating processes (e.g., Vallerand, Paquet, Phillippe, & Charest, 2010). The current study extended previous research (Curran, Appleton, Hill, & Hall, 2011; Gustafsson, Hassmén, & Hassmén, 2011) by testing a model in which the effects of passion for sport on athlete burnout were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-three academy soccer players completed self-report measures of passion for sport, psychological need satisfaction, and athlete burnout. Results indicated that psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and athlete burnout but not obsessive passion and athlete burnout. The findings indicate that the inverse relationship between harmonious passion and burnout can be explained by higher levels of psychological need satisfaction. However, this was not the case for obsessive passion, which was not associated with psychological need satisfaction or most symptoms of athlete burnout. PMID:23148547

Curran, Thomas; Appleton, Paul R; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K

2012-11-14

305

Long-term effect of continuing sports activity in competitive athletes with frequent ventricular premature complexes and apparently normal heart.  

PubMed

The long-term outcome of athletes with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) and apparently normal heart has not been fully clarified. To evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of VPCs and the influence of continuing sports activity during follow-up, we studied 120 healthy athletes (96 men; median age 16 years) in whom frequent VPCs (>100 VPCs/24 hours) were discovered by chance during preparticipation screening. All athletes were followed up for a median of 84 months. During follow-up, 96 underwent serial 24-hour Holter recording and 62 underwent serial echocardiography. The median number of VPCs/24 hours on basal Holter was 3,760. During follow-up, 81 athletes continued sports activity, whereas 39 did not. No athlete died or developed overt heart disease. The median number of VPCs/24 hours decreased in both athletes who continued sports activity and those who did not (from 3,805 to 1,124, p <0.0001 and from 5,787 to 1,298, p <0.0001, respectively). During follow-up, left ventricular ejection fraction slightly decreased to <55% in 9 of 62 athletes who, in respect to the remaining 53, had more VPCs/24 hours both in the basal state (12,000 vs 3,880) and during follow-up (10,702 vs 1,368), and a longer follow-up (95 vs 36 months). In conclusion, (1) frequent VPCs in athletes without heart disease have a long-term benign prognostic significance, (2) sporting activity does not modify this benign outcome, (3) during follow-up, the burden of VPCs decreases whether or not subjects continue sports activity, and (4) in 14.5% of athletes, ejection fraction slightly decreases over time. PMID:24135302

Delise, Pietro; Sitta, Nadir; Lanari, Emanuela; Berton, Giuseppe; Centa, Monica; Allocca, Giuseppe; Cati, Arianna; Biffi, Alessandro

2013-11-01

306

Winter sports athletes: long-term effects of cold air exposure.  

PubMed

Athletes such as skaters and skiers inhale large volumes of cold air during exercise and shift from nasal to mouth breathing. Endurance athletes, like cross-country skiers, perform at 80% or more of their maximal oxygen consumption and have minute ventilations in excess of 100 l/min. Cold air is always dry, and endurance exercise results in loss of water and heat from the lower respiratory tract. In addition, athletes can be exposed to indoor and outdoor pollutants during the competitive season and during all-year training. Hyperpnoea with cold dry air represents a significant environmental stress to the airways. Winter athletes have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine and hyperpnoea. The acute effects of exercise in cold air are neutrophil influx as demonstrated in lavage fluid and airway epithelial damage as demonstrated by bronchoscopy. Upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been observed in horses. Chronic endurance training damages the epithelium of the small airways in mice. Airway inflammation has been observed on bronchoscopy of cross-country skiers and in dogs after a 1100-mile endurance race in Alaska. Neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation with remodelling is present in bronchial biopsies from skiers. Repeated peripheral airway hyperpnoea with dry air causes inflammation and remodelling in dogs. As it is currently unknown if these airway changes are reversible upon cessation of exposure, preventive measures to diminish exposure of the lower airways to cold air should be instituted by all winter sports athletes. PMID:22267570

Sue-Chu, Malcolm

2012-01-20

307

Brain function decline in healthy retired athletes who sustained their last sports concussion in early adulthood.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of sports concussions on cognitive and motor function may persist up to a few years post-injury. The present study sought to investigate the effects of having sustained a sports concussion more than 30 years prior to testing on cognitive and motor functions. Nineteen healthy former athletes, in late adulthood (mean age = 60.79; SD = 5.16), who sustained their last sport-related concussion in early adulthood (mean age = 26.05; SD = 9.21) were compared with 21 healthy former athletes with no history of concussion (mean age = 58.89; SD = 9.07). Neuropsychological tests sensitive to age-related changes in cognition were administered. An auditory oddball paradigm was used to evoke P3a and P3b brain responses. Four TMS paradigms were employed to assess motor cortex excitability: (i) resting motor threshold; (ii) paired-pulse intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation; (iii) input/output curve and (iv) cortical silent period (CSP). A rapid alternating movement task was also used to characterize motor system dysfunctions. Relative to controls, former athletes with a history of concussion had: (i) lower performance on neuropsychological tests of episodic memory and response inhibition; (ii) significantly delayed and attenuated P3a/P3b components; (iii) significantly prolonged CSP and (iv) significantly reduced movement velocity (bradykinesia). The finding that the P3, the CSP as well as neuropsychological and motor indices were altered more than three decades post-concussion provides evidence for the chronicity of cognitive and motor system changes consecutive to sports concussion. PMID:19176544

De Beaumont, Louis; Théoret, Hugo; Mongeon, David; Messier, Julie; Leclerc, Suzanne; Tremblay, Sébastien; Ellemberg, Dave; Lassonde, Maryse

2009-01-28

308

Derogation of student female athletes who consult a sport psychologist: an alternative perspective on the negative halo effect.  

PubMed

This study attempts to further research female student athletes' perceptions of the sport psychologist and other sport and mental health professionals. 90 British student athletes from 17 different sports completed a two-part questionnaire to examine the potential derogation effect as a result of consulting one of three identified professionals and to explore the perceived definition and role of the sport psychologist. A fictitious selection report of a female field hockey player was presented to subjects with coach, sport psychologist and psychotherapist as the three professionals. It was hypothesised that subjects' recommendations regarding selection would differ depending on the consultant used. No differences were found which suggests the absence of a negative halo effect and that derogation would not occur within this sample group. Definitions and perceived role of the sport psychologist varied with the subjective tone of the responses from participants being mainly positive (74%). These results indicate that this female student athlete sample has a moderated, even a positive, perception of the sport psychologist. A general acceptance of the sport psychologist falls in line with the suggestions of Murstein and Fontaine (1993) concerning a reported increase in acceptance of mental health professionals. PMID:11339492

Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

2001-03-01

309

Perception of Nigerian athletes of the use of mouth guards to prevent the stresses of sports injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: The perception of Nigerian athletes of the use of mouth guards to prevent the stresses of sports injuries was examined using psychological, sociological, and physical stress variables. Methods: The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. Participants (n = 333) were selected using the purposive random sampling technique and data were collected using the 4 point Likert type instrument. The coefficient ? was used to determine the reliability of the instrument with r = 0.79 for psychological, r = 0.66 for physical, and r = 0.74 for sociological stress. Results: The result reveals that female athletes perceived the use of mouth guards as being more important to prevent the stresses of sports injuries than male athletes, while athletes who had used mouth guards for longer periods also perceived them as being more important to prevent the stresses of sports injuries compared to those who had used them less. The result also revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) among the various sport groups as independent variables on the psychological and physical stress variables. Scheffé post hoc analysis was used to identify the group where significant difference was found. Conclusions: The study concluded that since the impact of injury is perceived to affect the cognitive function of athletes, athletes should be educated on the use of mouth guards in order to reduce the incidence of oral and dental injuries to the barest minimum.

Adegbesan, O; Onyeaso, C

2004-01-01

310

Centre of pressure sway characteristics during static one-legged stance of athletes from different sports.  

PubMed

The frequency of one-legged stance and two-legged stance differs considerably among sports. We therefore expect the balance ability of athletes from different sports to vary. This study compared the sway characteristics during a static one-legged stance of soccer players, basketball players, swimmers, and non-athletes. The centre of pressure sway during one-legged stance of ten male participants representing each of the four groups was measured using a stabilometer. Centre of pressure sway was assessed by four sway factors: sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway, horizontal sway, and high-frequency sway. None of the four groups of participants showed significant differences in body sway between standing on the dominant leg and standing on the non-dominant leg. The soccer players had more high-frequency sway and less anterior-posterior sway and horizontal sway than the basketball players, swimmers, and non-athletes. These results suggest that soccer players have superior ability to maintain a stable one-legged stance. Further study is required to determine how much of the superior balance ability in soccer players is innate and how much is developed through training, as well as to determine the relationship between balance ability and playing performance. PMID:18409108

Matsuda, Shigeki; Demura, Shinichi; Uchiyama, Masanobu

2008-05-01

311

Games and Sets: Women, Media and Sport in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feminist critique of sport that has been sounded for over three decades concludes that the marginalization and trivialization of female athletes only serves to perpetuate male domination of women. Specifically within the Israeli context, although female athletes are represented in both team and individual sports, and although they have proven themselves in major sporting events, they do not enjoy

Alina Bernstein; Yair Galily

312

Games and Sets: Women, Media and Sport In Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feminist critique of sport that has been sounded for over three decades concludes that the marginalization and trivialization of female athletes only serves to perpetuate male domination of women. Specifically within the Israeli context, although female athletes are represented in both team and individual sports, and although they have proven themselves in major sporting events, they do not enjoy

Alina Bernstein; Yair Galily

2008-01-01

313

“Going Pro”: the deferential effects of high aspirations for a professional sports career on African-American student athletes and White student athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists have long noted the effects of the images of the African-American male brought forth in popular culture. In fact, popular culture and organized sports have been credited as major contributors to many of the social problems that exist among African-American males. Those social problems are characterized in the oppositional relationship that has formed between athletic and academic achievement,

Krystal Beamon; Patricia A Bell

2002-01-01

314

Fear of Reinjury, Negative Affect, and Catastrophizing Predicting Return to Sport in Recreational Athletes With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries at 1 Year Postsurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine fear of reinjury, negative affect, and pain catastrophizing as determinants of athletes' confidence in their ability to take part in sport activity and their reported return to sport 1 year after undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Participants: 49 recreational-level athletes (27 men and 22 women; Mage = 29.15 years, SD = 11.57). Results: Negative affect was

Dean A. Tripp; William Stanish; Anna Ebel-Lam; Britton W. Brewer; John Birchard

2007-01-01

315

Fear of Reinjury, Negative Affect, and Catastrophizing Predicting Return to Sport in Recreational Athletes With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries at 1 Year Postsurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine fear of reinjury, negative affect, and pain catastrophizing as determinants of athletes' confidence in their ability to take part in sport activity and their reported return to sport 1 year after undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Participants: 49 recreational-level athletes (27 men and 22 women; Mage = 29.15 years, SD = 11.57). Results: Negative affect was

Dean A. Tripp; William Stanish; Anna Ebel-Lam; Britton W. Brewer; John Birchard

2011-01-01

316

Using self-determination theory to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

Motivational characteristics are influential in shaping adolescents' desire to persist in sport or to discontinue their sport participation. Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) was utilized as the theoretical framework for this study. This theory examines whether sustained participatory involvement, defined as continued participation in the sport through the next year, was influenced by individuals' self-determined motivation and by the fulfillment of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Four hundred ninety two soccer players between the ages of 13 and 17 years comprised the sample. Results indicated sport dropout was explained by higher levels of amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation and by lower satisfaction of relatedness and autonomy needs. The findings of this study contribute to the knowledge base on sport dropout as they supported many of self-determination theory. PMID:20977017

García Calvo, Tomás; Cervelló, Eduardo; Jiménez, Ruth; Iglesias, Damián; Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

2010-11-01

317

New Perspectives In Sports Medicine  

PubMed Central

The current status of sports medicine is reviewed, with its emphasis upon treatment of the individual, particularly the elite athlete. A plea is made for greater interest in sporting activities of the general public, with emphasis upon prevention of disease. Suggestions are advanced for future research, and an appropriate curriculum for the training of the sports physician is proposed.

Shephard, Roy J.

1974-01-01

318

College Athletes' Perceptions of Effective Coaching Behaviors and How Perceptions Influence Individual Performance and Team Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study collected data both quantitatively and qualitatively on athletes’ perceptions of their current coaches and whether these perceptions influenced individual performance and team satisfaction as perceived by the athlete. Athletes at two community colleges participated (n=145) in the quantitative portion, the Athletes’ Perceptions of Effective Coaching Traits Questionnaire (APECT-Q), along with five being interviewed. Overall, on the APECT-Q it

David Brent Holstein

2010-01-01

319

Influence of sprint acceleration stance kinetics on velocity and step kinematics in field sport athletes.  

PubMed

The interaction between step kinematics and stance kinetics determines sprint velocity. However, the influence that stance kinetics has on effective acceleration in field sport athletes requires clarification. About 25 men (age = 22.4 ± 3.2 years; mass = 82.8 ± 7.2 kg; height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m) completed twelve 10-m sprints, 6 sprints each for kinematic and kinetic assessment. Pearson's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m velocity; step kinematics (mean step length [SL], step frequency, contact time [CT], flight time over each interval); and stance kinetics (relative vertical, horizontal, and resultant force and impulse; resultant force angle; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF] for the first, second, and last contacts within the 10-m sprint). Relationships were found between 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m SL and 0-5 and 0-10 m velocity (r = 0.397-0.535). CT of 0-5 and 0-10 m correlated with 5-10 m velocity (r = -0.506 and -0.477, respectively). Last contact vertical force correlated with 5-10 m velocity (r = 0.405). Relationships were established between the second and last contact vertical and resultant force and CT over all intervals (r = -0.398 to 0.569). First and second contact vertical impulse correlated with 0-5 m SL (r = 0.434 and 0.442, respectively). Subjects produced resultant force angles and RatF suitable for horizontal force production. Faster acceleration in field sport athletes involved longer steps, with shorter CT. Greater vertical force production was linked with shorter CT, illustrating efficient force production. Greater SLs during acceleration were facilitated by higher vertical impulse and appropriate horizontal force. Speed training for field sport athletes should be tailored to encourage these technique adaptations. PMID:23222091

Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Callaghan, Samuel J

2013-09-01

320

Cultural differences in athlete attributions for success and failure: the sports pages revisited.  

PubMed

Self-serving biases in attribution, while found with relative consistency in research with Western samples, have rarely been found in Japanese samples typically recruited for research. However, research conducted with Japanese participants to date has tended to use forced-choice and/or reactive paradigms, with school or university students, focusing mainly on academic performance or arbitrary and/or researcher-selected tasks. This archival study explored whether self-serving attributional biases would be shown in the real-life attributions for sporting performance made by elite Olympic athletes from Japan and Australia. Attributions (N?=?216) were extracted from the sports pages of Japanese and Australian newspapers and rated by Australian judges for locus and controllability. It was hypothesized that Australian, but not Japanese, athletes would show self-serving biases such that they attributed wins to causes more internal and controllable than the causes to which they attributed losses. Contrary to predictions, self-serving biases were shown to at least some extent by athletes of both nationalities. Both Australian and Japanese men attributed wins to causes more internal than those to which they attributed losses. Women, however, attributed wins and losses to causes that did not differ significantly in terms of locus. All athletes tended to attribute wins to causes that were more controllable than the causes to which losses were attributed. Results are inconsistent with a large body of research suggesting that Japanese do not show self-serving biases in attribution, and are discussed in the light of differences in methodology, context, and participants that may have contributed to these effects. PMID:22046996

Aldridge, Lynley J; Islam, Mir Rabiul

2011-07-26

321

When to consider retiring an athlete after sports-related concussion.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of concussion may lead to a variety of both short- and long-term effects, which may lead to a decision to retire from contact sports. These effects follow a recognizable progression and may cause an athlete to opt out of play at any point along this progression. To elucidate the effect of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury and weigh in on a decision to retire, the treating physician needs to take into account the history, neurologic examination, brain imaging, and neuropsychological testing. In addition, myriad social factors surrounding play must be taken into consideration. PMID:21074092

Sedney, Cara L; Orphanos, John; Bailes, Julian E

2011-01-01

322

Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.  

PubMed

The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

2012-08-01

323

The Relationship of Symptoms and Neurocognitive Performance to Perceived Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion Among Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes’ self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to

Natalie K. Sandel; Mark R. Lovell; Nathan E. Kegel; Michael W. Collins; Anthony P. Kontos

2012-01-01

324

Injury Representations, Coping, Emotions, and Functional Outcomes in Athletes With Sports-Related Injuries: A Test of Self-Regulation Theory1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of injury representations on emotions and outcomes of athletes with sports-related musculoskeletal injuries using self-regulation theory. Partici- pants were athletes (N = 220; M age = 23.44 years, SD = 8.42) with a current sports- related musculoskeletal injury. Participants self-reported their cognitive and emotional injury representations, emotions coping procedures, physical and sports functioning, attendance at

Martin S. Hagger; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Murray Griffin; Joanne Thatcher

2005-01-01

325

Preventing ACL injuries in team-sport athletes: a systematic review of training interventions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria and were independently rated by two reviewers using the McMaster Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group scale. Consensus scores ranged from 3 to 8 out of 10. Seven out of nine studies demonstrated that training interventions have a preventive effect on ACLI. Collectively, the studies indicate there is moderate evidence to support the use of multifaceted training interventions, which consisted of stretching, proprioception, strength, plyometric and agility drills with additional verbal and/or visual feedback on proper landing technique to decrease the rate of ACLIs in team sport female athletes, while the paucity of data preclude any conclusions for male athletes. PMID:22742077

Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

2012-07-01

326

Sport Biomechanist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

Sullivan, Megan

2005-01-01

327

African American Football Athletes' Perspectives on Institutional Integrity in College Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in…

Singer, John N.

2009-01-01

328

ATHLETES, YOGIS AND INDIVIDUALS WITH SEDENTARY LIFESTYLES; DO THEIR LUNG FUNCTIONS DIFFER ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffalo health study concluded that pulmonary function is a long-term predictor for overall survival rates. It is essential to be involved in physical activity or sports which help in achieving better lung function. Cross sectional observation study was conducted to determine if yoga and athletic activity (running) are associated with better lung functions as compared to subjects with sedentary lifestyles

SHIVESH PRAKASH; SUSHANT MESHRAM; UJJWAL RAMTEKKAR

2007-01-01

329

[Doping in endurance sports. Survey of individual [Hb] levels can expose doping].  

PubMed

Doping through increasing [Hb] increases physical performance in sport. Therefore, no cross-country skiers with [Hb] values above 160 and 175 g/l for women and men, respectively, may start in competitions. Even plasma expanders have been used, possibly for lowering a high [Hb] but this procedure may not increase physical performance. There are methods available for detecting the use of erythropoietin but not reinfusion of erythrocytes to increase [Hb]. To make it more difficult to increase [Hb] by different unethical methods we suggest that the [Hb] in endurance athletes is determined both during the training and the competition season to establish individual [Hb] mean values and range. Since endurance training at altitude does not increase [Hb] after return to sea level, an occasional increased [Hb] is suspicious. In such a case complementary doping tests may be used. PMID:11769364

Ekblom, B; Holmberg, H C; Eriksson, K

2001-11-28

330

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

331

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

332

Morphological and functional characteristics of 9-to 22-year-old female athletes involved in sports aerobics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of physical development, the cardiorespiratory system, and physical fitness were studied in female athletes aged\\u000a 9–22 years. It was found that sports aerobics affects profoundly the functional capacity of the muscular and cardiorespiratory\\u000a systems and, to a smaller degree, the morphological characteristics of the body.

Yu. S. Filippova; V. B. Rubanovich; R. I. Aizman

2006-01-01

333

Contemporary Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics--An Annotated Bibliography and Proposed Course Outline: "Contemporary Issues in Collegiate Sports."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although sport has reached the pinnacle of success, there remain serious questions regarding the role it plays in education. An annotated bibliography of athletics and a course outline are presented with topics including: history, amateurism, violence, injuries,and the mass media. (MLW)|

Jones, Edward L.

1986-01-01

334

BodySense: An Evaluation of a Positive Body Image Intervention on Sport Climate for Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of

Annick Buchholz; Heidi Mack; Gail McVey; Stephen Feder; Nicholas Barrowman

2008-01-01

335

Conformity to Gender Norms Among Female Student-Athletes: Implications for Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport exposes athletes to attributes that are typically associated with traditional masculine traits (e.g., individualism, competitiveness, aggressiveness, power). Female athletes often participate in sport using standards of traditional male athleticism, yet at the same time attempt to manage societal expectations of conforming to traditional femininity. By exploring conformity to gender norms in sport, we examined the relationship between gender norms,

Jesse A. Steinfeldt; Rebecca Zakrajsek; Hailee Carter; Matthew Clint Steinfeldt

2011-01-01

336

Athletes, yogis and individuals with sedentary lifestyles; do their lung functions differ?  

PubMed

Buffalo health study concluded that pulmonary function is a long-term predictor for overall survival rates. It is essential to be involved in physical activity or sports which help in achieving better lung function. Cross sectional observation study was conducted to determine if yoga and athletic activity (running) are associated with better lung functions as compared to subjects with sedentary lifestyles and how does athletes and yogis differ in lung function. Spirometric parameters were assessed in randomly selected 60 healthy male, non-smoking; non-obese subjects-athletes, yogis and sedentary workers. The groups differed significantly in FEV1 and PEFR. The highest mean FEV1 and PEFR were observed in yogis. Both yogis and athletes had significantly better FEV1 as compared to sedentary workers. Yogis also had significantly better PEFR as compared to sedentary workers and athletes. Yogis and athletes had similar lung functions except for better PEFR amongst yogis. Involvement in daily physical activity or sport preferably yoga can help in achieving better pulmonary function. PMID:17877296

Prakash, Shivesh; Meshram, Sushant; Ramtekkar, Ujjwal

337

Stressors experienced by injured athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore

Lynne Evans; Ross Wadey; Sheldon Hanton; Ian Mitchell

2012-01-01

338

The relationship of symptoms and neurocognitive performance to perceived recovery from sports-related concussion among adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes' self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). A total of 101 concussed athletes (62 males, 39 females) aged 12 to 18 years old were included in the study (M(age) = 14.75, SD = 1.76). Athletes were asked to rate their "percent back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery) at the time of evaluation. A multiple regression for neurocognitive performance and symptoms revealed a significant model that accounted for 58% of the variance in perceptions of recovery. Adolescent athletes base their perceptions primarily on somatic symptoms (e.g., headache, nausea, vomiting, etc.), and these perceptions may be incongruent with objective neurocognitive measures. Athletes' tendency to overlook several factors when forming their perceptions of recovery should caution the sports medicine practitioner from relying on self-reported symptoms as their primary criterion for return-to-play decisions. These data further support the need for valid and reliable measures for concussion management. PMID:23427778

Sandel, Natalie K; Lovell, Mark R; Kegel, Nathan E; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

2012-05-22

339

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. \\u000aBackground: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes

Paula Sammarone Turocy; Bernard F. DePalma; Craig A. Horswill; Kathleen M. Laquale; Thomas J. Martin; Arlette C. Perry; Marla J. Somova; Alan C. Utter

2011-01-01

340

Skeletal mass in adolescent male athletes and nonathletes: relationships with high-impact sports.  

PubMed

Dias Quiterio, AL, Canero, EA, Baptista, FM, and Sardinha, LB. Skeletal mass in adolescent male athletes and nonathletes: relationships with high-impact sports. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3439-3447, 2011-This study examined the relationships between the practice of different categories of sports (high-impact vs. nonimpact) and bone status in adolescent male athletes and investigated differences from an age-matched control group. A total of 54 adolescent male athletes and 26 adolescent nonathletes were evaluated. Bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area at the whole-body, limbs, and lumbar spine were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, along with total and regional fat-free mass and body fat. The high-impact group included 34 athletes: 9 gymnasts, 18 basketball players, and 7 handball players (age: 15.7 ± 1.6 years; weight: 72.0 ± 15.0 kg; height: 178.5 ± 12.5 cm). The nonimpact group consisted of 20 swimmers (age: 16.4 ± 2.5 years; weight: 66.9 ± 10.4 kg; height: 173.7 ± 10.9 cm). The nonathletic control group included 26 male adolescents (age: 15.9 ± 2.8 years; weight: 64.7 ± 16.3 kg; height: 168.6 ± 15.1 cm). No differences were observed between the nonimpact and the control group in all bone variables, before and after adjustments for maturation level, body weight, and height (p > 0.05). After adjustments for these variables, the high-impact group displayed greater bone mass in most of the measured sites when compared to the other 2 groups (p < 0.001). Subjects in the nonimpact group showed lower values of BMC, particularly in the lower limbs, than both the high-impact and the nonathletic control groups (p < 0.05) after adjustments for maturation, high, and fat-free mass. This study reinforces the positive associations between high-impact physical activities and skeletal health in adolescent boys. PMID:22080311

Dias Quiterio, Ana L; Carnero, Elvis A; Baptista, Fátima M; Sardinha, Luís B

2011-12-01

341

Global positioning system data analysis: velocity ranges and a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes.  

PubMed

Global positioning system (GPS) technology has improved the speed, accuracy, and ease of time-motion analyses of field sport athletes. The large volume of numerical data generated by GPS technology is usually summarized by reporting the distance traveled and time spent in various locomotor categories (e.g., walking, jogging, and running). There are a variety of definitions used in the literature to represent these categories, which makes it nearly impossible to compare findings among studies. The purpose of this work was to propose standard definitions (velocity ranges) that were determined by an objective analysis of time-motion data. In addition, we discuss the limitations of the existing definition of a sprint and present a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes. Twenty-five GPS data files collected from 5 different sports (men's and women's field hockey, men's and women's soccer, and Australian Rules Football) were analyzed to identify the average velocity distribution. A curve fitting process was then used to determine the optimal placement of 4 Gaussian curves representing the typical locomotor categories. Based on the findings of these analyses, we make recommendations about sport-specific velocity ranges to be used in future time-motion studies of field sport athletes. We also suggest that a sprint be defined as any movement that reaches or exceeds the sprint threshold velocity for at least 1 second and any movement with an acceleration that occurs within the highest 5% of accelerations found in the corresponding velocity range. From a practical perspective, these analyses provide conditioning coaches with information on the high-intensity sprinting demands of field sport athletes, while also providing a novel method of capturing maximal effort, short-duration sprints. PMID:22310509

Dwyer, Dan B; Gabbett, Tim J

2012-03-01

342

The aging spine in sports.  

PubMed

1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996

Borg-Stein, Joanne; Elson, Lauren; Brand, Erik

2012-04-14

343

Body composition in athletes: a comparison of densitometric methods and tracking of individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring body composition in athletes can provide valuable information on training and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to compare percentage body fat (PF) obtained by hydrostatic weighing (HW) to PF via air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and to evaluate tracking of individual differences between both methods over time in elite college athletes. Thirty-one male and 33 female athletes (18.0–36.4

Maarten Wim Peeters; Marina Goris; Greet Keustermans; Koen Pelgrim; Albrecht L Claessens

2011-01-01

344

Hierarchical Linear Modeling of Individual Athlete Performance-Affect Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current approach to the empirical study of the relationship between affect and the performance of athletes before and during a competition is idiographic in nature. Affect-performance zones are estimated for each athlete based on a sufficient number of paired affect and performance observations. Though extremely important for practitioners, the idiographic approaches introduced in the literature until now do not

Richard L. Tate; Gershon Tenenbaum; Ayesha Delpish

2006-01-01

345

The Institution's Obligations to Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many commentators have noted that growing commercialization of college sports has made it increasingly difficult for universities to reconcile the gap between college sports and the fundamental mission of higher education. This article considers those individuals who choose to be a student athlete in good faith, and suggests strategies that can…

Sharp, Linda A.; Sheilley, Holly K.

2008-01-01

346

Building a sports medicine team.  

PubMed

There have been a growing number of participants in high school and collegiate athletics in recent years, placing ever-increasing demands on the sports medicine team. Building a winning sports medicine team is equally as important to the success of an athletic organization as fielding talented athletes. Acquisition of highly qualified, motivated, and hard-working individuals is essential in providing high quality and efficient health care to the athlete. Maintaining open paths of communication between all members of the team is the biggest key to success and an optimal way to avoid confusion and pitfalls. PMID:17499620

Fu, Freddie H; Tjoumakaris, Fotios Paul; Buoncristiani, Anthony

2007-04-01

347

Race and racism: Experiences of black Norwegian athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines race and racism in sport based on the experiences of black Norwegian athletes. The findings are based on in-depth qualitative interviews with nine female and eight male black athletes. Race and racism concepts are explored to draw attention to different approaches of understanding racism in sport, from the individual to the institutional level. The findings add to

Prisca Bruno Massao; Kari Fasting

2010-01-01

348

Participation in leanness sports but not training volume is associated with menstrual dysfunction: a national survey of 1276 elite athletes and controls  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the total population of Norwegian elite female athletes and national representative controls in the same age group. Methods: A detailed questionnaire that included questions on training and/or physical activity patterns, menstrual, dietary, and weight history, oral contraceptive use, and eating disorder inventory subtests was administered to all elite female athletes representing the country at the junior or senior level (aged 13–39 years, n = 938) and national representative controls in the same age group (n = 900). After exclusion, a total of 669 athletes (88.3%) and 607 controls (70.2%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. Results: Age at menarche was significantly (p<0.001) later in athletes (13.4 (1.4) years) than in controls (13.0 (1.3) years), and differed among sport groups. A higher percentage of athletes (7.3%) than controls (2.0%) reported a history of primary amenorrhoea (p<0.001). A similar percentage of athletes (16.5%) and controls (15.2%) reported present menstrual dysfunction, but a higher percentage of athletes competing in leanness sports reported present menstrual dysfunction (24.8%) than athletes competing in non-leanness sports (13.1%) (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: These novel data include virtually all eligible elite athletes, and thus substantially extend previous studies. Age at menarche occurred later and the prevalence of primary amenorrhoea was higher in elite athletes than in controls. A higher percentage of athletes competing in sports that emphasise thinness and/or a specific weight reported present menstrual dysfunction than athletes competing in sports focusing less on such factors and controls. On the basis of a comparison with a previous study, the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction was lower in 2003 than in 1993.

Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

2005-01-01

349

The general practitioner as sports physician.  

PubMed Central

General practitioners must become more knowledgeable about sports medicine in order both to treat the injured athlete and to provide better rehabilitative treatment and advice on fitness and exercise to other patients. Close involvement with young amateur athletes also helps to keep the older physician "in tune" with the younger generation. Finances remain a major problem for amateur sporting events and sports medicine groups, as well as for the individual physician volunteering his time.

Timpson, R. J.

1977-01-01

350

Ephedra and Its Application to Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The ma huang herb, otherwise known as ephedra, has gained widespread popularity as an ergogenic supplement. With the sympathomimetic alkaloid ephedrine as its primary active ingredient, ma huang is marketed to reduce fatigue; increase strength, power, and speed; decrease reaction time; and improve body composition. Although numerous side effects have been associated with the use of ma huang, its popularity in athletes continues to grow. This review provides rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang and compares and contrasts those claims with data from scientifically controlled investigations. Data Sources: MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1970 to 2000 using the key words ma huang, ephedra, and ephedrine in combination with humans, exercise, performance, and side effects. Data Synthesis: Ephedrine has been used alone or in combination with other drugs as an effective weight-loss agent. The weight loss has been attributed to thermogenic and lipolytic effects which, in combination with the central nervous system stimulating effects, have also resulted in its use as an ergogenic aid. Most of the scientific data, however, do not support manufacturers' ergogenic claims, and numerous side effects have been associated with ephedrine use. Thus, the safety and efficacy of ma huang as an ergogenic supplement must be questioned. Conclusions/Recommendations: It appears that the risks associated with the use of ma huang far outweigh any possible ergogenic benefits. Thus, it is extremely important that athletic trainers educate athletes on these issues so they can continue to perform at an optimum level in a safe and healthy manner.

2001-01-01

351

Understanding Consumer Support: Extending the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to Examine Individual Differences among Women's Professional Sport Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study used the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to further our understanding of how motivation can be characterised as individual difference factors among sport consumers. The SII was augmented through qualitative feedback involving four focus groups, a pilot test (n = 80) and later validated on a sample of season ticket holders and single-game attendees (n = 623) of

Daniel C. Funk; Lynn L. Ridinger; Anita M. Moorman

2003-01-01

352

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 55, No. 38, September 29, 2006. Sports-Related Injuries Among High School Athletes, United States, 2005-06 School Year.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Sports-Related Injuries Among High School Athletes - United States, 2005-06 School Year; Chikungunya Fever Diagnosed Among International Travelers - United States, 2005-2006; Importance of Culture Confirmation of Shiga Toxin producing Escherichi...

2006-01-01

353

Nutritional status of top team-sport athletes according to body fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make an assessment of energy and nutrients intake of elite female athletes and identify potential differences according to body fat (BF). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The sample consists of 69 top female athletes, members of the Greek Olympic National Teams of Volleyball (14 athletes), Basketball (16 athletes), Handball (17 athletes) and Football (22

Sousana K. Papadopoulou; Sophia D. Papadopoulou

2010-01-01

354

Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an

Andrea Petróczi

2007-01-01

355

Representative Baseline Values on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) in Adolescent Athletes Vary by Gender, Grade, and Concussion History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To improve and standardize the sideline evaluation of sports-related concussion, the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) was developed. This tool assesses concussion-related signs and symptoms, cognition, balance, and coordination. This newly published assessment tool has not established representative baseline data on adolescent athletes.Hypothesis: Representative baseline SCAT2 scores in adolescent athletes will differ by gender, grade in school, and

Tamara C. Valovich McLeod; R. Curtis Bay; Kenneth C. Lam; Anikar Chhabra

2012-01-01

356

Individuality or Cultural Reproduction?Adolescents’ Sport Participation in Norway: Alternative versus Conventional Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian Government initiated the Sports City Program (SCP) in 1992 in an attempt to encourage inactive segments of the urban population to become more active. The program was implemented by the Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports and is designed to provide sporting activities for those who are not involved in conventional sports. Through a survey in one

Eivind åsrum Skille

2005-01-01

357

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose and the thirst mechanism, and decrease the risk of dehydration or hyponatremia. Athletes will not need vitamin and mineral supplements if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, supplements may be required by athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume high-carbohydrate diets with low micronutrient density. Nutritional ergogenic aids should be used with caution, and only after careful evaluation of the product for safety, efficacy, potency, and whether or not it is a banned or illegal substance. Nutrition advice, by a qualified nutrition expert, should only be provided after carefully reviewing the athlete's health, diet, supplement and drug use, and energy requirements. PMID:11145214

2000-12-01

358

Anger and perceived legitimacy of aggression in male Hong Kong Chinese athletes: Effects of type of sport and level of competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProblemThe vast majority of research examining the interplay between aggressive emotions, beliefs, behaviors, cognitions, and situational contingencies in competitive athletes has focused on Western populations and only select sports (e.g., ice hockey). Research involving Eastern, particularly Chinese, athletes is surprisingly sparse given the sheer size of these populations. Thus, this study examines the aggressive emotions, beliefs, behaviors, and cognitions, of

J. P. Maxwell; A. J. Visek; E. Moores

2009-01-01

359

Breakup of the Soviet State and Disintegration of the Renowned Sport System. The Future of Athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles examine athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The first discusses the disintegration of the Soviet sport system following the Soviet Union's breakup. The second examines the future of CIS athletics which, it is claimed, may never again reach the stature achieved by the Soviet Union. (SM)

Zibberman, Victor; Andersen, Donald R.

1994-01-01

360

Through the Hoop: How Sports Participation Displaces Media Use and Is Related to Body Self-Esteem in Competitive Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study analyzed competitive adolescent female athletes' use of entertainment media and sports participation and looked for possible predictors of more positive body self-esteem, an affective trait that could be present in women who have eating disorder tendencies. In this survey of 80 8-18 female athletes, overall body self-esteem was found to be quite high, but athletes in specific

Kimberly Bissell; Katharine Birchall

2008-01-01

361

Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.  

PubMed

Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required. PMID:19290678

Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

2009-01-01

362

ACTN3 genotype screen for athletic performance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention concerns novel methods of selecting or matching a sport or sporting event to an individual (e.g. a sprint/power sport or an endurance sport) and predicting athletic performance, the methods involving assessing ACTN3 genotype. In alternative embodiments, training regimens may be optimally designed for athletes by assessing the ACTN3 genotypes. Certain embodiments concern combining the assessment of the ACTN3 genotype with other known fitness-related genes to better assess the athletic potential of an individual. In addition, the genotypic analysis of the ACTN3 gene may be combined with physiological tests, physical measurements and/or psychological assessments to more optimally design a training regimen for an individual athlete.

2009-11-10

363

The Relationships Among Three Components of Perceived Risk of Injury, Previous Injuries and Gender in Contact Sport Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships among three components of perceived risk of injury: (a) probability of injury, (b) worry\\/concern of being injured, and (c) confidence in avoiding injury. Participants were 434 athletes from 3 contact sports (hockey, soccer, and football). Correlations between the components showed a positive relationship between worry\\/concern and probability of injury, and negative relationships between worry\\/concern and

Sandra E. Short; Jennifer Reuter; Jerel Brandt; Martin W. Short; Anthony P. Kontos

364

Peer influence on young athletes’ need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePrevious studies have shown that peer-created motivational climate greatly influences youth athletes’ motivation and other adaptive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of persistence in sport that incorporates perceived peer motivational climate from achievement goal theory [Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press] and basic psychological needs

Helen Jõesaar; Vello Hein; Martin S. Hagger

2011-01-01

365

Technology to improve sports performance in wheelchair sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport and recreation are cornerstones of how we define ourselves as human beings and the competitive spirit is just as prominent in individuals with disabilities as it is in their able-bodied counterparts. Wheelchair sports were initially developed following WWII as a rehabilitation tool to care for the young men and women injured during the war. Today athletes with disabilities are

Justin Z. Laferrier; Ian Rice; Jon Pearlman; Michelle L. Sporner; Rosi Cooper; Tanya Liu; Rory A. Cooper

2012-01-01

366

Nutrition information sources of female athletes at a girls’ sports club in Kuwait: An exploratory study of sources, usefulness, accessibility, and obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the nutrition information sources used by female athletes in the Girls Sports Club in the State of Kuwait. A survey method using a questionnaire was employed. The questionnaire was distributed by coaches of each sport team. All of the players, who are trained and officially registered to compete nationally, were requested to

Abdullnaser T. Abdullah; Yaser Mal-Allah

2011-01-01

367

"Inside the Bubble": A Look at the Experiences of Student-Athletes in Revenue-Producing Sports during College and beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This phenomenological study sought to address the overarching research questions: What are the costs and benefits of participation in Division I college sports? How does participation in Division I college sports prepare student-athletes for life after college? A qualitative methodology was selected to provide richer data than that which could be…

Menke, Donna J.

2010-01-01

368

Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.  

PubMed

It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the thirst mechanism, and decrease the risk of dehydration or hyponatremia. Athletes will not need vitamin-and-mineral supplements if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, supplements may be required by athletes who restrict energy intake, have severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume high-carbohydrate diets with low micronutrient density. Nutritional ergogenic aids should be used with caution, and only after careful evaluation of the product for safety, for efficacy, for potency, and to determine whether or not it is a banned or illegal substance. Nutrition advice, by a qualified nutrition expert, should be provided only after the athlete's health, diet, supplement and drug use, and energy requirements have been carefully reviewed. PMID:11551367

2000-01-01

369

Sports medicine and ethics.  

PubMed

Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

2013-10-01

370

Eating disorders among high performance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

1993-01-01

371

Sudden death in athletes.  

PubMed

HCM, as well as coronary and myocardial structural abnormalities, is the most common pathology leading to SCD in young athletes. Furthermore, SCD from fatal arrhythmia seems to be the most common mechanism of death. In this population, however, data are insufficient to support either invasive or noninvasive approaches to clarify risk stratification for SCD. Because of the large population, variants of normal found within the athletic population, and the rarity of the disease, screening for individuals at risk is neither practical nor cost-effective. Not all athletes with HCM are at the same risk for SCD; a thorough history and physical examination should alert the health professional to potential risk factors. Efforts are under way to stratify athletes at risk for SCD to determine who can participate in competitive sports and who should not. However, until research can accurately define variables of hemodynamic and electrical instability that permit reliable identification of athletes with HCM who are at risk for SCD, the recommendation is to disqualify athletes with confirmed HCM from moderate- to high-intensity competitive sports. This recommendation includes athletes with or without symptoms or left ventricular outflow obstruction. Due to the decreased risk of SCD in older athletes, individual judgment of eligibility may be used. Athletes thought to have had myocarditis should be withdrawn from all competitive sports for a convalescent period of approximately 6 months, with thorough cardiac assessment and testing performed before returning to training. Athletes with atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmia must be screened for structural abnormality, heart response during exercise, and the frequency and duration of the arrhythmia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7787919

Futterman, L G; Lemberg, L

1995-05-01

372

Effects of different resistance training volumes on strength and power in team sport athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different volume of resistance training (RT) on maximum strength and average power in college team sport athletes with no previous RT experience. Thirty-two subjects (20 men and 12 women, age = 23.1 ± 1.57 years) were randomly divided into 4 groups: low volume (LV; n = 8), 1 set per exercise and 3 sets per muscle group; moderate volume (MV; n = 8), 2 sets per exercise and 6 sets per muscle group; high volume (HV; n = 8), 3 sets per exercise and 9 sets per muscle group; and a non-RT control group (n = 8). The 3 intervention groups were trained for 6 weeks thrice weekly after a nonperiodized RT program differentiated only by the volume. Before (T1) and after training (T2), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal average power (AP) produced on the bench press (BP), upright row (UR), and squat (SQ) were assessed by progressive resistance tests. One repetition maximum-BP and 1RM-UR increased significantly in the 3 interventions groups (p < 0.05), whereas only the HV group significantly improved 1RM-SQ (p < 0.01). The MV and HV groups increased AP-BP (p < 0.05), whereas only the LV group improved AP-SQ (p < 0.01). Moderate effect sizes (ES; >0.20 < 0.60) were observed for the 1RM-BP and 1RM-UR in the 3 training groups. High-volume group showed the larger ES for 1RM-BP (0.45), 1RM-UR (0.60), and 1RM-SQ (0.47), whereas the LV produced the higher ES for SQ-AP (0.53). During the initial adaptation period, a HV RT program seems to be a better strategy for improving strength, whereas during the season, an LV RT could be a reasonable option for maintaining strength and enhancing lower-body AP in team sport athletes. PMID:23044934

Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Perez-Bibao, Txomin; Kang, Jie; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Triplett, N T

2013-07-01

373

Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport.  

PubMed

Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which functional training advises can be made. Thus, more than a review in the traditional context this review should be viewed upon as an attempt to bring sports-physiologists and coaches or others working directly with the athletes together for a mutual discussion on how recently acquired physiological knowledge are put into practise. PMID:20840560

Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

2010-10-01

374

Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and\\u000a stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes\\u000a in contact sports.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n?=?10), ice hockey (n?=?10), bandy (n?=?10) and female floor-ball

Hannu Paajanen; Heikki Hermunen; Jari Karonen

2011-01-01

375

Anatomic Perspective of the Female Athlete: An Approach to Musculoskeletal Profiling of Women in Sports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Women's sports did not begin to grow and gain public recognition until the early 1970's. Since then, the number of women participating in intercollegiate sports has doubled and the number of girls participating in interscholastic sports programs has incre...

C. Bauman J. J. Knapik B. H. Jones J. M. Harris L. K. Vaughn

1982-01-01

376

Working in Competitive Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work with competitive athletes is rewarding and challenging. Understanding the unique aspects of the elite sport environment can enhance psychological consultation. This paper begins with several case examples, then background characteristics common to many athletes are described, e.g., early involvement in sport participation, reliance on sport specific behavioral norms. It is suggested that paying particular attention to athletes' sport history,

Judy L. Van Raalte

1998-01-01

377

Incidence, clinical course, and predictors of prolonged recovery time following sport-related concussion in high school and college athletes.  

PubMed

Sport-related concussion (SRC) is typically followed by clinical recovery within days, but reports of prolonged symptoms are common. We investigated the incidence of prolonged recovery in a large cohort (n = 18,531) of athlete seasons over a 10-year period. A total of 570 athletes with concussion (3.1%) and 166 controls who underwent pre-injury baseline assessments of symptoms, neurocognitive functioning and balance were re-assessed immediately, 3 hr, and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 days after concussion. Concussed athletes were stratified into typical (within 7 days) or prolonged (> 7 days) recovery groups based on symptom recovery time. Ten percent of athletes (n = 57) had a prolonged symptom recovery, which was also associated with lengthier recovery on neurocognitive testing (p < .001). At 45-90 days post-injury, the prolonged recovery group reported elevated symptoms, without deficits on cognitive or balance testing. Prolonged recovery was associated with unconsciousness [odds ratio (OR), 4.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.12-8.15], posttraumatic amnesia (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28), and more severe acute symptoms (p < .0001). These results suggest that a small percentage of athletes may experience symptoms and functional impairments beyond the typical window of recovery after SRC, and that prolonged recovery is associated with acute indicators of more severe injury. PMID:23058235

McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Randolph, Christopher; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Marshall, Stephen W; Powell, Matthew R; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Wang, Yanzhi; Kelly, James P

2012-10-12

378

Performance analysis in sport: Contributions from a joint analysis of athletes' experience and biomechanical indicators.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of combining two types of analysis to investigate sports performance with the aim of optimizing it. These two types of analysis correspond to two levels of athletes' activity: (a) their experiences during performance and (b) the biomechanical characteristics of their movements. Rowing served as an illustration, and the activity of one female crew member was studied during a race. Three types of data were collected: (a) audiovisual data recorded during the race; (b) verbalization data obtained in interviews conducted afterward; and (c) biomechanical data. The courses of experience of the two rowers during the race were reconstructed on the basis of the audiovisual and verbalization data. This paper presents a detailed analysis of a single phenomenon of the race experienced by one of the rowers. According to the coaches, it reflected a dysfunction in crew coordination. The aim of this analysis was to identify the biomechanical characteristics of the rowers' movements that might explain it. The results showed that the phenomenon could be explained principally by an amplitude differential between the two rowers' strokes. On this basis, the coaches defined new training objectives to remedy the dysfunction in crew coordination. PMID:22150999

Sève, C; Nordez, A; Poizat, G; Saury, J

2011-12-12

379

BodySense: an evaluation of a positive body image intervention on sport climate for female athletes.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of the seven clubs were randomized to receive the 3-month intervention program (IG) aimed at increasing awareness and positive climate change of body image pressures for athletes in their clubs. Three clubs were randomized to the control group (CG). A total of 62 female gymnasts (IG n = 31; CG n = 31) completed self-report questionnaires examining perceptions of pressure to be thin within their sports clubs, self-efficacy over dieting pressures, awareness and internalization of societal pressure to be thin, body esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviours before and following the intervention. A total of 32 mothers (IG n = 24; CG n = 8) completed measures examining their perceptions of their daughter's pressure to be thin, awareness and internalization of societal pressures to be thin, daughter's self-efficacy over dieting pressures, in addition to mothers' beliefs regarding thinness and success for women in society, before and following the intervention. The findings revealed that participation in the BodySense program resulted in athletes perceiving a reduction in pressure from their sports clubs to be thin, though no changes were found in body esteem, the EAT, or the SATAQ. No significant change was observed over time on mothers' measures. The role of climate change for prevention of eating disorders in athletes is discussed. PMID:18568921

Buchholz, Annick; Mack, Heidi; McVey, Gail; Feder, Stephen; Barrowman, Nicholas

380

Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

381

Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

382

Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors.  

PubMed

Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ethical matters, common to other areas of medicine. However they also raised problems unique to sports medicine. Some of these ethical difficulties arise out of the place of the sports doctor within the hierarchy of sport. Yet others arise out of the special relationship between sports doctors and individual players/athletes. This study raises some important questions regarding the governance of healthcare in sport, and what support and guidance is available to sports doctors. As medical and scientific intervention in sport escalates, there is a risk that demands for enhanced performance may compromise the health of the athlete, and the role the sports doctor plays remains a critical question. PMID:15681672

Anderson, L C; Gerrard, D F

2005-02-01

383

Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors  

PubMed Central

Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ethical matters, common to other areas of medicine. However they also raised problems unique to sports medicine. Some of these ethical difficulties arise out of the place of the sports doctor within the hierarchy of sport. Yet others arise out of the special relationship between sports doctors and individual players/athletes. This study raises some important questions regarding the governance of healthcare in sport, and what support and guidance is available to sports doctors. As medical and scientific intervention in sport escalates, there is a risk that demands for enhanced performance may compromise the health of the athlete, and the role the sports doctor plays remains a critical question.

Anderson, L; Gerrard, D

2005-01-01

384

Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports.  

PubMed

The present study examined the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist, and the Stroop task. Based on a brief self-report concussion history survey, male and female athletes who participated in ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, and/or soccer were assigned to one of three concussion-history conditions: Non-concussed, Non-recent concussed (i.e., more than 2 years since last concussion), or Recent concussed (i.e., 2 years or less since last concussion). A fourth group of subjects consisting of non-concussed/non-athletes served in the control condition. Group differences emerged on the RBANS when immediate memory, delayed memory, and total scores were analyzed. Specifically, recent concussed athletes and, surprisingly, non-concussed athletes scored lower than control subjects in the two memory domains, whereas all three athlete groups had lower total RBANS scores than those of control subjects. Moreover, recent concussed athletes not only had lower immediate memory scores than control subjects, but also were impaired relative to non-recent concussed athlete subjects in this memory domain. No group differences were detected on the Stroop task or on the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist. Interestingly, however, the severity of the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist scores for the two athlete-concussed groups, taken in aggregate, correlated negatively with RBANS scores for attention (r = -.65) and delayed memory (r = -.61), and with the total RBANS score (r = -.59). In recent concussed athletes, lower delayed memory scores correlated with more severe Postconcussion Symptom Checklist scores (r = -.90), while more severe/higher number of concussions correlated with increased processing speed on the Stroop interference task (r = .90). These findings indicate that recent head injury produces alterations in neuropsychological function, especially that of memory, that resolve with time. More provocatively, the data also suggest that participation in contact sports may produce sub-clinical cognitive impairments in the absence of a diagnosable concussion presumably resulting from the cumulative consequences produced by multiple mild head trauma. PMID:15939185

Killam, Chad; Cautin, Robin L; Santucci, Anthony C

2005-07-01

385

Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

2008-01-01

386

Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

2008-01-01

387

ESPN's "SportsCenter": Socialization of America's Athletes, Coaches and Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined what values, attitudes, and behaviors are conveyed through televised sports news programming that would be expected in both sport and the world of work. The study involved viewing 102 editions of ESPN's "SportsCenter," a sports news program, and recording comments made by program anchors, news journalists, players, coaches,…

Aicinena, Steven

388

Sports in extreme conditions: the impact of exercise in cold temperatures on asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are frequently reported among elite athletes of outdoor endurance winter sports, particularly in cross-country and biathlon skiers. The pathogenesis of EIA is related to water loss and heat-loss through the increased respiration during exercise, leading to mediator release, airways inflammation and increased parasympathetic nervous activity in the airways, causing bronchial constriction and BHR. In the competing elite athlete this is presently considered to be due to the frequently repeated increased ventilation during training and competitions in combination with the repeated environmental exposure to cold air in outdoor winter sports. It is important that athletes at risk of asthma and BHR are monitored through regular medical control with assessment of lung function and BHR, and when BHR or asthma is diagnosed, optimal controlling treatment through anti-inflammatory treatment by inhaled steroids should be started and relieving treatment (inhaled ipratropium bromide and inhaled ?2-agonists) should be used to relieve bronchial constriction if present. PMID:22906782

Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

2012-09-01

389

Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

2012-01-01

390

Emotional Intelligence, Body Image and Disordered Eating Attitudes in Combat Sport Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible differences in body image, emotional intelligence, anx- iety levels and disordered eating attitudes in a group of Taekwondo (TKD) and Judo athletes and non-athletes. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. A total of 60 subjects were recruited: 20 were national and international TKD and Judo athletes and

Vassiliki Costarelli; Dimitra Stamou

2009-01-01

391

From early to adult sport success: Analysing athletes' progression in national squads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some prospective studies have shown that many successful young athletes do not maintain the same level of success when they reach adulthood, there is still a lack of information regarding athletes who started their international involvement at early ages. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the international pathway of male and female athletes in different

André Barreiros; Jean Côté; António Manuel Fonseca

2012-01-01

392

Quantification of physiological, movement, and technical outputs during a novel small-sided game in young team sport athletes.  

PubMed

Harrison, CB, Gill, ND, Kinugasa, T, and Kilding, AE. Quantification of physiological, movement, and technical outputs during a novel small-sided game in young team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(10): 2861-2868, 2013-The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended. PMID:23254547

Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

2013-10-01

393

Clinical outcome and return to sport after the surgical treatment of spondylolysis in young athletes.  

PubMed

We studied prospectively 22 young athletes who had undergone surgical treatment for lumbar spondylolysis. There were 15 men and seven women with a mean age of 20.2 years (15 to 34). Of these, 13 were professional footballers, four professional cricketers, three hockey players, one a tennis player and one a golfer. Preoperative assessment included plain radiography, single positron-emission CT, planar bone scanning and reverse-gantry CT. In all patients the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and in 19 the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scores were determined preoperatively, and both were measured again after two years in all patients. Three patients had a Scott's fusion and 19 a Buck's fusion. The mean duration of back pain before surgery was 9.4 months (6 to 36). The mean size of the defect as determined by CT was 3.5 mm (1 to 8) and the mean preoperative and postoperative ODIs were 39.5 (SD 8.7) and 10.7 (SD 12.9), respectively. The mean scores for the physical component of the SF-36 improved from 27.1 (SD 5.1) to 47.8 (SD 7.7). The mean scores for the mental health component of the SF-36 improved from 39.0 (SD 3.9) to 55.4 (SD 6.3) with p < 0.001. After rehabilitation for a mean of seven months (4 to 10) 18 patients (82%) returned to their previous sporting activity. PMID:12678361

Debnath, U K; Freeman, B J C; Gregory, P; de la Harpe, D; Kerslake, R W; Webb, J K

2003-03-01

394

Supporting Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hillary Commission is the public funding agency that encourages New Zealanders to participate and achieve in sport, fitness and leisure. We support around 100 national sport organisations and the 17 regional sports trusts, encourage more people to be more active more often, help athletes compete at top levels, and improve the way sport and physical activity services are delivered.

Colleen Dryden

395

The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training. PMID:22476167

Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

2013-02-01

396

Nutrition for the young athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletics is a popular sport among young people. To maintain health and optimize growth and athletic performance, young athletes need to consume an appropriate diet. Unfortunately, the dietary intake of many young athletes follows population trends rather than public health or sports nutrition recommendations. To optimize performance in some disciplines, young athletes may strive to achieve a lower body weight

Flavia Meyer; Helen OConnor; Susan M. Shirreffs

2007-01-01

397

Concussion in Sports  

PubMed Central

Context: The vast differences between individual athletes makes identifying and evaluating sports-related concussion one of the most complex and perplexing injuries faced by medical personnel. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature supporting the use of a multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation on the sideline of the athletic field. Information was drawn from a PubMed search (MEDLINE) for the terms sport concussion for the most recent and relevant literature. Conclusions: By using a standardized clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of concussion-related symptoms, mental status, and postural control, the medical professional becomes well equipped to make an informed diagnosis.

Broglio, Steven P.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

2009-01-01

398

Comparison of muscle buffer capacity and repeated-sprint ability of untrained, endurance-trained and team-sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the muscle buffer capacity (?m) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport\\u000a athletes (n=7), endurance trained (n=6) or untrained but physically active (n=8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine\\u000a $$ {\\\\text{\\\\ifmmode\\\\expandafter\\\\dot\\\\else\\\\expandafter\\\\.\\\\fi{V}O}}_{{{\\\\text{2peak}}}} $$ followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5×6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken

David Bishop; Stephen Hill-Haas; Brian Dawson; Carmel Goodman

2006-01-01

399

Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.  

PubMed

As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents. PMID:21378489

Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

2011-02-01

400

The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.  

PubMed

The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females. PMID:21989094

Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

2011-06-01

401

A Survey of Team Physicians on the Participation Status of Hemophilic Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Athletics  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine if team physicians would allow individuals with hemophilia A to participate in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics and what factors influence their decisions. An additional purpose was to determine if individuals with hemophilia A are presently participating in Division I athletics. Design and Setting: The data were collected with a mail survey designed by the researchers. Subjects: 66 Division I team physicians. Measurements: The questions in the survey were considered important in understanding the history of team physicians with hemophilic athletes, the self-established standard that team physicians would follow in the future with regard to athletic participation by hemophilic players, and the team physicians' reasoning for their standards. Results: Of the 231 surveys sent, 72 were returned and 66 were analyzed. Sixteen hemophilic players were reported to have participated in Division I athletics. Several team physicians allowed hemophilic athletes to participate under many circumstances. As the severity of hemophilia A and risk of injury due to sport type (noncontact, contact, or collision) increased, the number of team physicians allowing participation decreased. Also, it was reported that hemophilic athletes were currently participating in sports. Conclusions: Athletes with hemophilia are currently participating in Division I athletics, but they have special needs regarding their conditions. Prevention and management plans have been devised to expedite the care of these athletes.

Hoffmann, Sandra J.; Ritenour, Donna M.

2003-01-01

402

Children's Perceptions of Male and Female Athletes as Presented in Sports Illustrated for Kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite gains made by Title IX in the past 36 years, including increased female participation in high school and collegiate sport, there is evidence that gender equity in sport is not fully achieved. Researchers target the media because they tend to shape social values and disseminate information to the masses (Kane, 1978, in Fink & Kensicki, 2002). As sports become

Brittany Perotti

2009-01-01

403

Are sports medicine journals relevant and applicable to practitioners and athletes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the evidence base of sports medicine research and assess how relevant and applicable it is to everyday practice.Methods: Original research articles, short reports, and case reports published in four major sport and exercise medicine journals were studied and classified according to the main topic of study and type of subjects used.Results: The most common topic was sports

C Bleakley; D MacAuley; S McDonough

2004-01-01

404

Does the face reveal athletic flair? Positions in team sports and facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athleticism is sexually attractive, indicating that it may serve as a sign of heritable fitness. We hypothesized that just as some sports may more honestly signal fitness than other sports, some positions within team sports may more honestly signal fitness than other positions, because success in such positions depends more strongly on traits associated with heritable fitness (e.g., agility, spontaneity,

Justin H. Park; Abraham P. Buunk; Martijn B. Wieling

2007-01-01

405

Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports

Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

2008-01-01

406

Transitioning to an athletic subjectivity: first-semester experiences at a corporate (sporting) university  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of a corporatized Division-I University. As sport has become increasingly corporatized, low-profile sports

Bryan C. Clift; Ronald L. Mower

2011-01-01

407

Sleep duration and quality in elite athletes measured using wristwatch actigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is known to be an important component of recovery from training, yet little is known about the quality and quantity of sleep achieved by elite athletes. The aim of the present study was to quantify sleep in elite athletes using wristwatch actigraphy. Individual nights of sleep from a cohort of Olympic athletes (n = 47) from various sports were analysed and

Jonathan Leeder; Mark Glaister; Kathleen Pizzoferro; Jean Dawson; Charles Pedlar

2012-01-01

408

Immunoassays for the measurement of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3, and ICTP as indirect biomarkers of recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. Values in selected population of athletes.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) -2 and -3 and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) have been proposed, among others, as indirect biomarkers of the recombinant human growth hormone misuse in sport. An extended intra- and inter-laboratory validation of commercially available immunoassays for biomarkers detection was performed. ELISA assays for total IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 (IGF-II/ELISA1: DSLabs, IGFBP-2/ELISA2: Biosource, and IGFBP-3/ELISA3: BioSource) and an EIA assay for ICTP (ICTP/EIA: Orion Diagnostica) were evaluated. The inter- and intra-laboratory precision values were acceptable for all evaluated assays (maximum imprecision of 30% and 66% were found only for the lowest quality control samples of IGF-II and IGFBP-3). Correct accuracy was obtained for all inter-laboratory immunoassays and for IGFBP-2 intra-laboratory immunoassay. The range of concentrations found in serum samples under investigation was always covered by the calibration curves of the studied immunoassays. However, 11% and 15% of the samples felt below the estimated LOQ for IGF-II and ICTP, respectively, in the zone where lower precision was obtained. Although the majority of evaluated assays showed an overall reliability not always suitable for antidoping control analysis, relatively high concordances between laboratory results were obtained for all assays. Evaluated immunoassays were used to measure serum concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and -3 and ICTP in elite athletes of various sport disciplines at different moments of the training season; in recreational athletes at baseline conditions and finally in sedentary individuals. Serum IGF-II was statistically higher both in recreational and elite athletes compared to sedentary individuals. Elite athletes showed lower IGFBP-2 and higher IGFBP-3 concentration with respect to recreational athletes and sedentary people. Among elite athletes, serum IGFBP-3 (synchronized swimming), and ICTP (rhythmic gymnastics) concentrations were sport-dependent. Over the training season, within athlete variability was observed for IGFBP-2 in case of taekwondo and IGFBP-2 and -3 in case of weightlifting. Variations due to those aspects should be taken in careful consideration in the hypothesis of setting reference concentration ranges for doping detection. PMID:18617352

Abellan, Rosario; Ventura, Rosa; Palmi, Ilaria; di Carlo, Simonetta; Bacosi, Antonella; Bellver, Montse; Olive, Ramon; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pacifici, Roberta; Segura, Jordi; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pichini, Simona

2008-06-07

409

Relation Between Sport and Spatial Imagery: Comparison of Three Groups of Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that sport may be considered a spatial activity and that engaging in spatial activities increases the capacity of an individual to implement mental imagery. Moreover, mental rotation calls upon motor processes that are heavily involved in sporting activities. For these reasons, the authors hypothesized that athletes ought to perform mental rotation tasks better than nonathletes. Also, athletes

Sylvie Ozel; Jacques Larue; Corinne Molinaro

2004-01-01

410

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study on the White Matter Skeleton in Individuals with Sports-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recognizing and managing the effects of cerebral concussion is very challenging, given the discrete symptomatology. Most individuals with sports-related concussion will not score below 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but will present with rapid onset of short-lived neurological impairment, demonstrating no structural changes on traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. The return-to-play decision is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been primarily based on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. We assessed white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity in varsity level college athletes with sports-related concussion without loss of consciousness, who experienced protracted symptoms for at least 1 month after injury. Evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the WM skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed a large cluster of significantly increased MD for concussed subjects in several WM fiber tracts in the left hemisphere, including parts of the inferior/superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and posterior thalamic and acoustic radiations. Qualitative comparison of average FA and MD suggests that with increasing level of injury severity (ranging from sports-related concussion to severe traumatic brain injury), MD might be more sensitive at detecting mild injury, whereas FA captures more severe injuries. In conclusion, the TBSS analysis used to evaluate diffuse axonal injury of the WM skeleton seems sensitive enough to detect structural changes in sports-related concussion.

Cubon, Valerie A.; Putukian, Margot; Boyer, Cynthia

2011-01-01

411

A diffusion tensor imaging study on the white matter skeleton in individuals with sports-related concussion.  

PubMed

Recognizing and managing the effects of cerebral concussion is very challenging, given the discrete symptomatology. Most individuals with sports-related concussion will not score below 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but will present with rapid onset of short-lived neurological impairment, demonstrating no structural changes on traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. The return-to-play decision is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been primarily based on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. We assessed white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity in varsity level college athletes with sports-related concussion without loss of consciousness, who experienced protracted symptoms for at least 1 month after injury. Evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the WM skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed a large cluster of significantly increased MD for concussed subjects in several WM fiber tracts in the left hemisphere, including parts of the inferior/superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and posterior thalamic and acoustic radiations. Qualitative comparison of average FA and MD suggests that with increasing level of injury severity (ranging from sports-related concussion to severe traumatic brain injury), MD might be more sensitive at detecting mild injury, whereas FA captures more severe injuries. In conclusion, the TBSS analysis used to evaluate diffuse axonal injury of the WM skeleton seems sensitive enough to detect structural changes in sports-related concussion. PMID:21083414

Cubon, Valerie A; Putukian, Margot; Boyer, Cynthia; Dettwiler, Annegret

2011-01-27

412

Principles of Sports Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To measure if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles.The objectives of this study were to determine if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles and to identify athletes’ resources for nutrition information. Questionnaires were distributed to 40 athletes at a state university. Seventeen completed surveys were returned and included members from

L. D. Tartamella; D. S. Kemler

1996-01-01

413

School Nurses Vis-a-Vis Athletic Trainers in Secondary School Sports Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews past and present views of the working relationship between a school's nurse and athletic trainer and discusses the author's own study which revealed that, compared to trainers, school nurses possess insufficient knowledge to assume adequate injury management. Offers a sample job description for a head athletic trainer. (WD)|

Carey, Richard J.

1981-01-01

414

Passion in Sport: On the Quality of the Coach-Athlete Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adap- tive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N

Marc-André K. Lafrenière; Sophia Jowett; Robert J. Vallerand; Eric G. Donahue; Ross Lorimer

2008-01-01

415

Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

2009-01-01

416

Asthma and increased bronchial responsiveness in elite athletes: Atopy and sport event as risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma has been found in cross-country skiers. There is limited evidence that asthma and bronchial responsiveness would be common also in athletes with summer events. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate occurrence of and risk factors for increased bronchial responsiveness and asthma in elite athletes with summer events and to

Ilkka J. Helenius; Heikki O. Tikkanen; Seppo Sarna; Tari Haahtela

1998-01-01

417

Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement

V. G. Laties; B. Weiss

1980-01-01

418

Prevention of sudden cardiac death: return to sport considerations in athletes with identified cardiovascular abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young

M S Link

2009-01-01

419

Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More Like Males?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about the average number of times each week they performed specific

Susan M. Muller; Teena R. Gorrow; Sidney R. Schneider

2009-01-01

420

Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

Filsinger, Lora C.

2012-01-01

421

Anterior capsulolabral reconstruction of the shoulder in athletes in overhand sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

From April 1, 1985, through June 30, 1987, 25 skilled athletes with shoulder pain secondary to anterior gle nohumeral instability that had failed to improve with conservative therapy had an anterior capsulolabral re construction. All but one athlete completed a formal rehabilitation program with an average followup of 39 months. The results at followup were rated excellent in 68%, good

Frank W. Jobe; Charles E. Giangarra; Ronald S. Kvitne; Ronald E. Glousman

1991-01-01

422

Effects of a Motivational Climate Intervention for Coaches on Young Athletes' Sport Performance Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes' cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear

Ronald E. Smith; Frank L. Smoll; Sean P. Cumming

2007-01-01

423

Physical Education, Recreation and Sports for Individuals with Hearing Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed in the third of seven related documents are resources and research on physical education, recreation, and sports for hearing impaired persons. An annotated list of resources is supplied for each of the following topics: integration of the hearing impaired into regular physical education and recreation programs, physical education and…

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

424

Passion in sport: on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.  

PubMed

Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N=157), revealed that HP positively predicts a high-quality coach-athlete relationship, whereas OP was largely unrelated to such relationships. Study 2 was conducted with coaches (N=106) and showed that only HP positively predicted the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Furthermore, these effects were fully mediated by positive emotions. Finally, the quality of the coach-athlete relationship positively predicted coaches' subjective well-being. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion. PMID:18971511

Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Jowett, Sophia; Vallerand, Robert J; Gonahue, Eric G; Lorimer, Ross

2008-10-01

425

Gait Patterns Differ Between ACL-Reconstructed Athletes Who Pass Return-to-Sport Criteria and Those Who Fail  

PubMed Central

Background The current standard of practice for an athlete to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is varied. Attempt to return to activity is typically advised 6 months after surgery, but functional performance deficits and gait abnormalities are often still evident and may have important implications on future function. Hypothesis When comparing the involved and uninvolved limbs, patients who failed return-to-sport (RTS) criteria would demonstrate (1) smaller peak knee angles, extensor moments, and peak power absorption at the knee of the involved limb and (2) larger peak hip angles, extensor moments, and peak power generation of the involved limb. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A total of 42 patients completed functional and biomechanical gait assessment 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Functional testing involved an isometric quadriceps strength test, 4 single-legged hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to measure sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of the hip and knee. A mixed-model analysis of variance and post hoc t tests were used to compare the limb symmetry of those who passed and those who did not pass RTS criteria. Minimal clinically important differences were calculated from healthy gait data and used to further define meaningful limb asymmetries. Results Twenty of the 42 (48%) patients passed RTS criteria 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Patients who did not pass the criteria demonstrated statistically significant differences between limbs on all kinematic and kinetic variables at the knee (P ? .027). Clinically meaningful asymmetries at the hip were also identified in this group. Only kinetic asymmetries at the knee were identified in the patients who passed RTS criteria. Conclusion Athletes who demonstrate superior functional performance 6 months after ACL reconstruction may have fewer abnormal and asymmetrical gait behaviors than their poorer performing counterparts. Patients who did not pass RTS criteria not only demonstrated larger kinematic and kinetic asymmetries between limbs but also appeared to use a gait strategy more closely aligned with athletes early after ACL rupture. Clinical Relevance Poor performance on a battery of functional performance measures may be related to the presence of movement asymmetries in athletes after ACL reconstruction. Objective RTS criteria have the potential to provide information to clinicians who determine when these athletes return to activity, and may aid in the prescription of targeted rehabilitation to address underlying movement asymmetry.

Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Logerstedt, David; Gardinier, Emily S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2013-01-01

426

Athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this investigation were to determine if increasing the bending stiffness of sprint shoes increases sprinting performance and to determine whether simple anthropometric factors can be used to predict shoe bending stiffness for optimal performance. Thirty?four athletes were tested using four different shoe conditions — a standard condition consisting of their currently used footwear and three conditions where

Darren Stefanyshyn; Ciro Fusco

2004-01-01

427

The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

2013-01-01

428

Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): II. A Direct Test and Expansion of the Sport Commitment Model With Elite Amateur Sportsmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the voices of the New Zealand All Blacks, a world-class rugby team, the data reported in this article further test and expand the Sport Commitment Model (Model), and examine its external validity, cross-culturally and to elite level athletes, using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (SCIM) (Scanlan, Russell, Wilson, & Scanlan, 2003). At the time of the interviews, the All

Tara K. Scanlan; David G. Russell; Kristin P. Beals; Larry A. Scanlan

429

The Registry of Italian Twin Athletes (RITA): Background, design, and procedures,and twin data analysis on sport participation—An application to twin swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the nature and characteristics of sport participation and of the factors underlying human performance and adaptation to physical exercise, this study involved (a) the establishment of a specialized twin registry, (b) a questionnaire study, and (c) testing sessions of top level athletes. The general design and procedures of the project are described.

Paolo Parisi; Benedetta Casini; Valter Di Salvo; Fabio Pigozzi; Monica Pittaluga; Giovanna Prinzi; Vassilis Klissouras

2001-01-01

430

Health Care Delivery in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A structural framework is provided for a responsive athletic injury control program, the Health Supervision Loop in Sport. The use of certified athletic trainers is recommended to lessen the risk of sport-related injuries. (FG)

Clarke, Kenneth S.

1982-01-01

431

Health Care Delivery in Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A structural framework is provided for a responsive athletic injury control program, the Health Supervision Loop in Sport. The use of certified athletic trainers is recommended to lessen the risk of sport-related injuries. (FG)|

Clarke, Kenneth S.

1982-01-01

432

Communication in Greek sports sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is one of the most important functions of management. Coaches of team and individual sports should know how to communicate successfully with athletes and assistants in order to maximize individual and team performance. A lack of communication means problems in coordination, cohesion and cooperation among the group. The coach, acting like the transmitter, should find the most appropriate ways

Athanasios Laios; Nikos Theodorakis

2001-01-01

433

Meet Me at the Crossroads: African American Athletic and Racial Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How individuals define themselves has considerable implications within the realms of sport. Considering the large proportion of African Americans participating in high profile college sports, matters of identity likely become quite relevant. This article addresses issues related to athletic and racial identity contextualized in the sport domain.…

Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

2011-01-01

434

Development of sport courage scale.  

PubMed

While theory and practice of sport have much to say about fear, stress and anxiety, they have little to say about courage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a Sport Courage Scale. Data were collected from two groups of male and female athletes aged from 13 to 22 in different individual and team sports. The first set of data (N = 380) was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, and the second set of data (N = 388) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Analyses revealed a 5-factor structure of Sport Courage Scale that supported factorial validity and reliability of scale scores. These factors were labelled: "Determination", "Mastery", "Assertiveness", "Venturesome", and "Self-Sacrifice Behaviour". Finally, evidence of test-retest reliability of scale scores was supported based on responses from 75 athletes. However, more research is needed to further improve the Sport Courage Scale. PMID:23487444

Konter, Erkut; Ng, Johan

2012-07-04

435

Psychosocial determinants of young athletes' continued participation over time.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the differences in psychosocial and motivational variables between persistent and dropout youth athletes and between groups with different years in training. Team and individual youth athletes completed questionnaires measuring autonomy support from parents and coaches, peer motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and sport motivation. The results showed that athletes who dropped out perceived significantly less competence, relatedness, and autonomy need satisfaction, and they perceived less autonomy support from parents and were less intrinsically motivated than persistent athletes. Youth athletes with up to one year in training reported significantly lower effort and intra-team conflict with peers, relatedness need satisfaction, and external motivation than athletes with 1 to 3 years and >3 years in training. Findings extend knowledge of the psychosocial determinants of sport continuation behaviour among young athletes. PMID:21987909

Jõesaar, Helen; Hein, Vello

2011-08-01

436

Can Regular Sports Participation Slow the Aging Process? Data on Masters Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study investigating the effects of age and sports participation on functional loss. Data on 756 adults who underwent maximal exercise testing during the 1985 World Masters Games indicate even moderate sports participation may enhance functional capacity. Older people may maintain independence in later life by increasing physical…

Kavanagh, Terence; Shephard, Roy J.

1990-01-01

437

Common Lower Limb Sports-related Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sports injuries in children and adolescent present a unique challenge to the physician. They are often seen for clinical conditions unique to their age group. This paper highlights the epidemiological aspect of sports-related overuse injuries in this age group. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study reviewed all the paediatric patients diagnosed with overuses injuries during a 5 years and

James Hui

2008-01-01

438

Sportsmanship in Young Athletes: The Role of Competitiveness, Motivational Orientation, and Perceived Purposes of Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate measures of competitiveness, motivational orientation, and perceived purposes of participation as predictors of sportsmanship in a sample of 319 young participants in sports. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that intrinsic reasons for sports participation, such as enhanced self-esteem and task mastery, predicted higher levels on multiple dimensions of sportsmanship, above and beyond the

Todd A. Ryska

2003-01-01

439

Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

2011-01-01

440

Prevalence of Jumper's Knee Among Elite Athletes From Different Sports A Cross-sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of jumper's knee across different sports has not been examined, and it is not known if there is a gender difference. Data from surgical case series indicate that there may be a high prevalence in sports with high speed and power demands. Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of jumper's knee in

Øystein B. Lian; Lars Engebretsen; Roald Bahr

441

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This

DAVID R. BRILL

1983-01-01

442

Effect of sports activity on bone mineral density in wheelchair athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study carried out a measurement of body composition and a nutrition survey, targeting 28 male wheelchair athletes\\u000a and comparing them with 25 male physically able healthy athletes as the controls. The DXA method was used to measure bone\\u000a mineral density (BMD), percentage of body fat (% body fat), and lean body mass (LBM). Possible factors affecting the BMD

Kimiko Miyahara; Da-Hong Wang; Keiko Mori; Kayo Takahashi; Nobuyuki Miyatake; Bing-Ling Wang; Tomoko Takigawa; Jiro Takaki; Keiki Ogino

2008-01-01

443

Sport activity and cigarette smoking among young and adult athletes from the northeastern part of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between November 1985 and October 1986, attitudes and habits towards smoking were investigated among young and adult amateur athletes of the province of Pordenone, in the northeastern part of Italy. Seventy-five percent of the athletes had never smoked and 21% were current smokers. Compared with the general population, smokers were 1\\/3 fewer among males and 1\\/5 more among females; a

D. Serraino; C. Fachin; O. Feltrin; S. Franceschi

1988-01-01

444

Social Networks in Sport: Parental Infl uence on the Coach-Athlete Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to explore the nature of infl uences that parents exert on the quality of the dyadic coach-athlete relationship. A conceptual model was proposed as a guiding framework for the study. The proposed model incorporates Sprecher, Felmlee, Orbuch, and Willets? (2002) notion of social networks and Jowett and Cockerill?s (2002) conceptualization of coach-athlete relationships. Fifteen participants from fi

Sophia Jowett; Melina Timson-Katchis

2005-01-01

445

Female and Male Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport and Higher Education: A Visual Elicitation and Qualitative Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The termination of a collegiate athletic career is inevitable for all student athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore student athletes' perceptions of the athletic career transition process. One-hundred-and-forty-three (n = 143) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II student athletes were administered the Life…

Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

2004-01-01

446

Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators  

PubMed Central

Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, ? 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, ? 2 = .013), relativism ( P < .001, ? 2 = .050), and ethical decision-making scores ( P < .001, ? 2 = .027). Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis indicated that educators possessed lower idealism scores (36.90 ± 5.70) and relativism scores (29.92 ± 4.86) and higher ethical decision-making scores (82.98 ± 7.62) than did students. Conclusions: Our findings do not support changes in athletic training ethics education practices to address sex-specific needs. However, when opportunities occur for students to reason using different ethical perspectives, educators should be aware of their students' and their own moral philosophies in order to optimally facilitate professional growth.

Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

2008-01-01

447

Genetic testing of athletes.  

PubMed

This chapter addresses the potential use of genetic tests to predict performance and/or risk of exercise-related injury or illness. Various people may wish to conduct a sport-related genetic test on themselves, or on another person, for a variety of reasons. For example, an individual may seek personal genetic information to assist with choosing their own sporting participation or career. A sports coach may wish to test young team members to assist in selection for a professional career or to individualise training. A physician may want to predict risk of injury or illness in an athlete and advise regarding selection or preventative measures. An insurance company may seek to estimate risk of career-threatening injury or illness to an athlete based partly on genetic information. Despite the commercial availability of some genetic tests today, the evidence currently available suggests that few of these or similar scenarios are scientifically justified - the genetic tests available at the moment are simply not powerful enough to inform important decisions in sport. Furthermore, there are many challenging ethical issues to be addressed regarding genetic testing of athletes. The imposition of genetic tests on individuals by third parties, and particularly the imposition of genetic tests on young people, is potentially susceptible to abuse. There should be considerable further debate regarding these issues so that the tests already available, and the more powerful ones that are likely to emerge as knowledge and genetic technology improve, are only used in acceptable ways. PMID:19696515

Williams, Alun G; Wackerhage, Henning

2009-08-17

448

Self-monitoring, and individual expectation of performance-norms in sport teams.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-monitoring and individuals' expectation of performance-norms, the attitudes shared among team members about how high a performance the group should achieve in team sports. A secondary purpose was to assess whether the relationship between self-monitoring and individual expectation of performance-norms would be moderated by the type of group selected. Analysis suggests that for an elite sport team there is no difference between the performance-norm for the team and individuals' expectations in terms of self-monitoring. For recreational sport teams, however, those high on self-monitoring had higher individual expectations of performance-norms than the low self-monitors. PMID:10710761

Kim, M S

1999-12-01

449

Young Athletes' Motivational Profiles  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years) completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a “self-determined profile ”characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a “non-self-determined profile”, characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a “low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile ”which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the “self-determined profile ”and the “non-self-determined profile ”in dispositional flow. The “self-determined profile ”was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The “non-self-determined profile ”was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week. Key pointsThe “self-determined profile ”was characterized by high task orientation, high task-involving climate perception and was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week.The “non-self-determined profile ”was characterized by high ego orientation, high ego-involving climate perception and was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training two or three days a week.Both profiles revealed a moderate tendency toward dispositional flow, with no significant differences between the two profiles.The “low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile ”had low scores on all of the variables in the study.

Murcia, Juan Antonio Moreno; Gimeno, Eduardo Cervello; Coll, David Gonzalez-Cutre

2007-01-01

450

Catheter ablation in competitive athletes: indication.  

PubMed

Some supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT), particularly if paroxysmal and/or related to Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), may in some cases endanger an athlete's professional career due to hemodynamic consequences during athletic activity, which in some instances may be life-threatening. One must also take into account that in Italy the law makes antiarrhythmic drug treatment (AAD) incompatible with sport eligibility. For these reasons, the utilization of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in athletes has different indications as opposed to the normal population, since the primary goal is "the eligibility of the athlete." In our study, we discuss the criteria for indication of RFA in athletes with SVT on the basis of the data obtained from our population of athletes, studied over a 20-year period, from 1974 to the 31st of December 1993. These athletes were evaluated for arrhythmic events, utilizing a standardized cardioarrhythmological protocol: 1,325 athletes (1,125 men, 200 women, mean age 20.7 years). One subgroup included 380 athletes with WPW (28.7%), 22 athletes with aborted sudden death (1.6%), 6 of whom had WPW, 13 athletes with sudden death (0.98%), and 2 of whom had WPW. Another subgroup was formed by 116 top level elite professional athletes (TLA) (mean age 22.9 years), of which 10 of 116 (8.6%) had WPW and 12 of 116 (10.3%) had paroxysmal SVT. The most important indications for RFA in athletes are represented by: WPW asymptomatic at risk, symptomatic during athletic activity, and/or requiring AAD treatment: paroxysmal junctional reentrant tachycardia: when this condition is disabling and related to exercise and therefore compromising an athlete's performance and sports career. Paroxysmal junctional reentrant tachycardia is easily reproduced via transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) during exercise (bicycle ergometer), common in athletes but normally the recurrences are concentrated only during the period in which the athlete is engaged in sport. Rare indications for RFA are focal or reentry, permanent SVT, and particularly junctional reentrant tachycardia. For each individual athlete, we have to consider the possible side-effects of RFA, the possible recurrences with psychobiological traumatic consequences, the effective recovery period, and the natural history of the tachyarrhythmias, which frequently disappear after interruption of the sports career. PMID:10159775

Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Inama, G; Fernando, F

1995-12-01

451

Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: Implications for sport training monitoring.  

PubMed

The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-? and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1? concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes. PMID:23916597

Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

2013-07-31

452

Review of MRI technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia".  

PubMed

The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality. PMID:21893391

Mullens, Frank E; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C

2011-09-03

453

Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)|

Pooley, John C.

1989-01-01

454

The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire on health problems: a new approach to prospective monitoring of illness and injury in elite athletes.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the illness and injury patterns of athletes preparing for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Among the possible explanations for the current lack of knowledge are the methodological challenges faced in conducting prospective studies of large, heterogeneous groups of athletes, particularly when overuse injuries and illnesses are of concern. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new surveillance method that is capable of recording all types of health problems and to use it to study the illness and injury patterns of Norwegian athletes preparing for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. METHODS: A total of 142