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1

Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.  

PubMed

Abstract Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports. PMID:24993935

Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

2015-03-01

2

Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training  

PubMed Central

The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

2013-01-01

3

Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.  

PubMed

The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

2013-12-01

4

Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that ... groin area. It most o en occurs during sports that require sudden changes of direction or intense ...

5

Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

2014-01-01

6

Individual Self-Determination and Relationship Satisfaction of Athletes in Dyadic Sports: Examining the Moderating Role of Dyadic Self-Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to explore a multilayered hierarchical model of motivation in which the role of self-determination at the dyadic level is expected to moderate the relationship between individual self-determination and both cohesion and relationship quality of athletes in dyadic sports. The sample consisted of 66 athletes from 3 different sports: badminton, figure skating, and synchronized

Patrick Gaudreau; Marie-Claude Fecteau; Stéphane Perreault

2010-01-01

7

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

8

Sports Specialization in Young Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

2013-01-01

9

Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics  

PubMed Central

To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated. The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues. The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully. Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours. When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

2015-01-01

10

Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.  

PubMed

To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key pointsA research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated.The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues.The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully.Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours.When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

2015-03-01

11

Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia  

PubMed Central

Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

Larson, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

12

Athlete Eligibility Requirements and Legal Protection of Sports Participation Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares and examines the existing legal frameworks governing athletic eligibility rules and dispute resolution processes for Olympic, professional, college, and high school sports from both private law and public law perspectives. At all levels of sports competition, monolithic sports leagues and governing bodies establish eligibility requirements and conditions that must be satisfied for an individual to participate in

Matthew J. Mitten; Timothy Davis

2008-01-01

13

Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

1991-06-01

14

Appendix 9-P Department of Intercollegiate Athletics and Department of Recreational Sports  

E-print Network

Appendix 9-P Department of Intercollegiate Athletics and Department of Recreational Sports to meet a sport obligation. 2. Generally, any requests from an individual in a sport which practices the Athletic Department or Recreational Sport program does not assure approval of a request. The Parking

Swaddle, John

15

Sport Fans' Impressions of Gay Male Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings

Jamonn Campbell; Denise Cothren; Ross Rogers; Lindsay Kistler; Anne Osowski; Nathan Greenauer; Christian End

2011-01-01

16

Echocardiographic parameters in athletes of different sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M- mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in

Tomas Venckunas; Arimantas Lionikas; Jolanta E. Marcinkeviciene; Rasa Raugaliene; Aleksandras Alekrinskis; Arvydas Stasiulis

17

Athletes' Hours Renew Debate over College Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past year, members of Congress have poked around the well-fed belly of intercollegiate athletics, questioning whether college sports deserves its tax-exempt status. Myles Brand, the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has led the countercharge against the government, repeatedly defending the educational value…

Wolverton, Brad

2008-01-01

18

Benefits of sports participation for executive function in disabled athletes.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of sports activity on physically-disabled individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Visual go/no-go discriminative and simple response tasks were used. Participants included 17 disabled athletes, 9 from open-skill (wheelchair basketball) and eight from closed-skill (swimming) sports, and 18 healthy non-athletes. Reaction times of the disabled athletes were slower than those of healthy non-athletes on both tasks (7% and 13% difference, respectively). Intra-individual variations in reaction times, switch cost, and number of false alarms, were higher in the swimmers, but comparable to healthy non-athletes, in the basketball group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) early components P1, N1, and P2 had longer latencies in the disabled athletes. The late P3 component had longer latency and smaller amplitude in the disabled athletes only in the discriminative response task. The N2 component, which reflected inhibition/execution processing in the discriminative response task, was delayed and reduced in the swimmer group, but was comparable to healthy subjects in the basketball group. Our results show that (1) the ERP components related to perceptual processing, and late components related to executive processing, were impaired in disabled subjects; and (2) open-skill sports such as basketball may partially compensate for executive control impairment by fostering the stability of motor responses and favoring response flexibility. PMID:20925480

Di Russo, Francesco; Bultrini, Alessandro; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Polidori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Spinelli, Donatella

2010-12-01

19

Benefits of Sports Participation for Executive Function in Disabled Athletes  

PubMed Central

Abstract We investigated the effect of sports activity on physically-disabled individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Visual go/no-go discriminative and simple response tasks were used. Participants included 17 disabled athletes, 9 from open-skill (wheelchair basketball) and eight from closed-skill (swimming) sports, and 18 healthy non-athletes. Reaction times of the disabled athletes were slower than those of healthy non-athletes on both tasks (7% and 13% difference, respectively). Intra-individual variations in reaction times, switch cost, and number of false alarms, were higher in the swimmers, but comparable to healthy non-athletes, in the basketball group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) early components P1, N1, and P2 had longer latencies in the disabled athletes. The late P3 component had longer latency and smaller amplitude in the disabled athletes only in the discriminative response task. The N2 component, which reflected inhibition/execution processing in the discriminative response task, was delayed and reduced in the swimmer group, but was comparable to healthy subjects in the basketball group. Our results show that (1) the ERP components related to perceptual processing, and late components related to executive processing, were impaired in disabled subjects; and (2) open-skill sports such as basketball may partially compensate for executive control impairment by fostering the stability of motor responses and favoring response flexibility. PMID:20925480

Bultrini, Alessandro; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Polidori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Spinelli, Donatella

2010-01-01

20

Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…

Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

2012-01-01

21

Prevalence of Sexual Harassment among Norwegian Female Elite Athletes Inrelation to Sport Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is often assumed that the prevalence of sexual harassment is different indifferent sports, the assumption has not been empirically tested. This study considers whether the experience of sexual harassment varies by sport. The female elite athletes (N = 553) in the study participated in 56 different sport disciplines. These were grouped as: 1) team or individual sports; 2)

Kari Fasting; Celia Brackenridge; Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

2004-01-01

22

The Athlete’s Perception of Coaches’ Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ± 1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches’ Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach’s behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to “a post-training session interest in the athlete” as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated “leniency and favoring” less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed “excessive criticism” as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches’ “authoritarianism and distance” less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001). PMID:24511359

Siekanska, Ma?gorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

2013-01-01

23

[Sports and athletes deserve doping hunting].  

PubMed

This article reviews the evidence-based ergogenic potential adverse effects of the most common products in use by recreational and elite athletes today. This is an aggressively marketed and controversial area of sports medicine wordwide. It is therefore important for the scientific societies, clinicians, dieticians sports federations to be well versed in the more popular supplements and drugs in order to have an important role in information and prevention attitudes that can lead to health risks or addictions! PMID:23971326

Gremion, G; Saugy, M

2013-07-17

24

What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?  

PubMed Central

Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

2013-01-01

25

Perceptions of Sport Retirement by Current Student-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the…

Leffler, Brandy Sue

2012-01-01

26

Sports or Athletics: A North American Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the 15th Annual Canadian American Seminar, the purpose of which was to explore the widening gulf between sports and athletics, and to examine and predict trends in the U.S. and Canada. The seminar presentations are divided into six sessions, plus the Frank Boland Memorial Lecture delivered by Jesse Owens. Each session includes…

Murray, J. Alex, Ed.

27

Sports Fans, Athletes' Salaries, and Economic Rent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fans in the United States are increasingly distressed by the fact that spectator sports, one of their favorite recreational activities, are just another commercial enterprise. They attribute this state of affairs to the greed of professional athletes, a charge they often make without any understanding of the concept of economic rent, a major component of the salaries received by

Rodney J. Morrison

1996-01-01

28

Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate symptoms and neurocognitive recovery patterns after sports-related concussion in high school and college athletes. Study design College athletes (n = 371) and high school athletes (n = 183) underwent baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals who received a concussion during athletic competition (n = 54) underwent serial neuropsychologic evaluation after injury and were compared with

Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

2003-01-01

29

The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these. PMID:24367777

Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

30

Double play : athletes' use of sport video games to enhance athletic performance  

E-print Network

A design feature of contemporary sport video games allows elite athletes to play as themselves in life-like representations of actual sporting events. The relation between playing sport video games and actual physical ...

Silberman, Lauren (Lauren Beth)

2010-01-01

31

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETES WITH SPORT CONCUSSION  

PubMed Central

Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary. The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals. Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22893863

McQueen-Borden, Emily; Bell, Roberta A.; Barr, Thomas; Juengling, Jenifer

2012-01-01

32

Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes  

PubMed Central

Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

2014-01-01

33

Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports.  

PubMed

The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined. PMID:20528446

Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

2010-01-01

34

Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting,

STEPHEN J. BULL

1999-01-01

35

Athletes with Visual Impairments: Attributes and Sports Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of athlete members of the United States Association of Blind Athletes (n=159) assessed factors affecting sport participation and sport attitudes. Those who received physical education in junior high school or high school were more likely to participate in school or college sports than were those who did not. (Contains references.)…

Ponchillia, Paul E.; Strause, Brad; Ponchillia, Susan V.

2002-01-01

36

Sport orientation model for wheelchair basketball athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the validity of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Competitiveness: 13 items, Win Orientation: 6 items, and Goal Orientation: 6 items) in a sample of 195 wheelchair basketball athletes from the USA. Following evidence for sample-specific validity, the measurement model that underlies the questionnaire was examined. A short-form with 15 items for three factors of Competitiveness (7 items), Win Orientation (5 items) and Goal Orientation (3 items) fit the data (X2/df ratio=2.21, NNFI=.892, CFI=.991, RCFI=.935, SRMR=.058, RMSEA=.071). To evaluate the findings further, we cross-validated the short-form by sex. Structural equation modeling indicated there were similar measurement properties and factor structures for the men and women, indicating similar conceptualization of sport orientations. Meaningful comparisons across sex may be undertaken, since both men and women who are wheelchair basketball athletes perceive the three short-form SOQ factors similarly. PMID:16158694

Skordilis, E K; Stavrou, N A

2005-06-01

37

Sports-Related Knee Injuries in Female Athletes: What Gives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dugan SA: Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: What gives? Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:122-130. Knee injuries occur commonly in sports, limiting field and practice time and performance level. Although injury etiology relates primarily to sports specific activity, female athletes are at higher risk of knee injury than their male coun- terparts in jumping and cutting sports. Particular pain

Sheila A. Dugan

2005-01-01

38

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS  

E-print Network

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS 2010-2011 We may call it a sports option, but it when the Aggies took down #1 North Carolina. And it doesn't impact just a few of our sportsAGGIE (9924443) tickets.12manfoundation.com mysportspass.tamu.edu Sports Options & Registration Texas

Behmer, Spencer T.

39

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS  

E-print Network

TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS 2011-2012 We may call it a sports option, but it't impact just a few of our sports. The 12th Man is feared at all our venues. From Tennis to Volleyball 778412800 9798452311 or 88899AGGIE (9924443) tickets.12manfoundation.com mysportspass.tamu.edu Sports

Behmer, Spencer T.

40

Role of the sport psychologist in treating injured athletes: A survey of sports medicine providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports medicine physicians were surveyed regarding the role of the sport psychologist in treating injured athletes. Physicians' perceptions of the frequency of psychological problems in conjunction with athletic injuries and the appropriateness of referring injured athletes with various behavioral concerns were assessed. Information on physicians' past psychological referral behavior and satisfaction with such referrals was obtained. Results indicated that the

Britton W. Brewer; Judy L. Van Raalte; Darwyn E. Linder

1991-01-01

41

Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?  

PubMed Central

Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge over their opponents. PMID:23672331

Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

2013-01-01

42

High School and College Athletes' Attitudes Toward Sport Psychology Consulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore attitudes about sport psychology consulting of high school and college athletes living in the United States. The Sport Psychology Attitudes–Revised form (SPA-R; Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, & Page, 2002) was administered to 362 high school and 431 college athletes. A 2 (Gender) × 2 (Age Group: High School and College) × 2

Scott B. Martin

2005-01-01

43

Sport-Type Differences in Alcohol Use Among Intercollegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has found that (a) intercollegiate athletes are especially “at-risk” for excessive alcohol consumption (e.g., Nelson & Wechsler, 2001), and (b) sport-type differences exist among college athletes in terms of yearly drinking prevalence rates (National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2001). No studies, however, have examined sport-type differences on more specific measures of alcohol consumption (e.g., drinks per week), or examined

Matthew P. Martens; Jack C. Watson II; Niels C. Beck

2006-01-01

44

What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?  

PubMed

Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond requirements during long events. Across the sparse literature on competition hydration practices in other sports, there are examples of planned and/or ad hoc opportunities to consume fluid, where enhanced access to drinks may allow situations at least close to ad libitum drinking. However, this situation is not universal and, again, the complex array of factors that influence the opportunity to drink during an event is also often beyond the athletes' control. Additionally, some competition formats result in athletes commencing the event with a body fluid deficit because of their failure to rehydrate from a previous bout of training/competition or weight-making strategies. Finally, since fluids consumed during exercise may also be a source of other ingredients (e.g., carbohydrate, electrolytes, or caffeine) or characteristics (e.g., temperature) that can increase palatability or performance, there may be both desirable volumes and patterns of intake that are independent of hydration concerns or thirst, as well as benefits from undertaking a "paced" fluid plan. Further studies of real-life hydration practices in sports including information on motives for drinking or not, along with intervention studies that simulate the actual nature of real-life sport, are needed before conclusions can be made about ideal drinking strategies for sports. Different interpretations may be needed for elite competitors and recreational participants. PMID:23529286

Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

2013-07-01

45

Improving Athletes’ Perspectives of Sport Psychology ConsultationA Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes’ Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete’s experiences in sports, and the

B. Donohue; Y. Dickens; K. Lancer; T. Covassin; A. Hash; A. Miller; J. Genet

2004-01-01

46

Irish Athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to replicate previous research examining attitudes to sport psychology consultation conducted in the US, Germany and the UK, and New Zealand. The study employed the Sport Psychology Attitudes-Revised (SPA-R) questionnaire in order to examine the attitudes elite Irish athletes (N = 240) hold toward sport psychology, and also to compare these attitudes with those

David Lavallee; Des Jennings; Ailsa G. Anderson; Scott B. Martin

2005-01-01

47

Epidemiology of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes in 20 Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions.Purpose: To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: Using

Mallika Marar; Natalie M. McIlvain; Sarah K. Fields; R. Dawn Comstock

2012-01-01

48

Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.  

PubMed

Muscular exercise results in an increased production of free radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, developing evidence implicates cytotoxins as an underlying etiology of exercise-induced stimuli in muscle redox status, which could result in muscle fatigue and/or injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants) work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. This study examined the effects of acute physical exercise on the enzymatic antioxidant systems of different athletes and comparison was made to the mechanism of action of three main antioxidant enzymes in the blood. Handball players (n = 6), water-polo players (n = 20), hockey players (n = 22), basketball players (n = 24), and a sedentary control group (n = 10 female and n = 9 male) served as the subjects of this study. The athletes were divided into two groups according to the observed changes of activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. The antioxidant enzyme systems were characterized by catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and measured by spectrophotometry. An important finding in the present investigation is that when the activities of SOD increased, the activities of GPX and CAT increased also and this finding related to the physical status of interval-trained athletes. Positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities was observed (r = 0.38 females, r = 0.56 males; p < 0.05). We have observed that the changes in the primary antioxidant enzyme systems of athletes are sport specific, and different from control subjects. Presumably, with interval-trained athletes, hydrogen-peroxide is significantly eliminated by glutathione-peroxidase. From these results it can be concluded that the blood redox status should be taken into consideration when establishing a fitness level for individual athletes. PMID:16475056

Dékány, M; Nemeskéri, V; Györe, I; Harbula, I; Malomsoki, J; Pucsok, J

2006-02-01

49

Athletes' career transition out of sport: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies on athletes' career transition out of sport from 1968 until the end of 2010. A total of 126 studies were evaluated and reported in three sections: sample characteristics, research designs and correlates of athletes' career transition adjustment. Samples ranged from 1 to 1617. Investigators examined a wide

Sunghee Park; David Lavallee; David Tod

2012-01-01

50

College Sports Inc.: The Athletic Department vs. the University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Big-time intercollegiate athletics has become College Sports Inc., a huge entertainment conglomerate with operating methods and objectives totally separate from, and often opposed to, the educational aims of the schools housing its franchises. This article dispels prevailing myths and seeks a new role definition for intercollegiate athletics

Sperber, Murray

1990-01-01

51

Profile of Community College Athletes in Selected Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 60% of all community colleges field athletic teams with over 72,000 students participating in these sports. That represents approximately 11% of all community college male students (5% of female students). Additionally, community colleges invest nearly $50 million dollars annually in financial aid to student athletes. With such a strong…

Kissinger, Daniel B.; Miller, Michael T.

2007-01-01

52

Athletic injuries: Comparison by age, sport, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries treated at the University of Rochester Section of Sports Medicine over a 7 year period were surveyed. Patients were drawn from professional, intercollegiate (Division 111), high school, intramural, and unorganized athletics at the University and the surrounding com munity. Data on injury diagnosis was available for 4,551 cases, with data on age, gender, and sport of injury available for

Kenneth E. DeHaven; David M. Lintner

1986-01-01

53

High school athletes’ perspectives on character development through sport participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative methodologies and little is known concerning athletes’ experiences and perceptions

Martin Camiré; Pierre Trudel

2010-01-01

54

American Indian Collegiate Athletes: Accessing Education through Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few activities have the power to bring people together as sports; victory is contagious, defeat unifies, and the concept of a team can create common goals and unbreakable bonds among teammates, communities, and even an entire nation. In a sense, sport has the power to change lives. The lessons that athletics can teach-preparation, competitiveness,…

Ali-Christie, Alisse

2013-01-01

55

The Athlete's Perception of Coaches' Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level.  

PubMed

The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ± 1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches' Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach's behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to "a post-training session interest in the athlete" as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated "leniency and favoring" less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed "excessive criticism" as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches' "authoritarianism and distance" less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001). PMID:24511359

Siekanska, Ma?gorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

2013-12-18

56

How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

Gee, Chris J.

2010-01-01

57

MEDICAL SPORTS INJURIES IN THE YOUTH ATHLETE: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT  

PubMed Central

As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi?factorial process encompassing pre?participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions. PMID:22530197

Molony Jr, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

58

Pre-participation and follow-up screening of athletes for endurance sport.  

PubMed

Physical activity increases life expectancy and sport is a priori not harmful. Exhausted sporting activity (e.g. endurance running, triathlon, cycling or competitive sport) can lead under individual conditions to negative cardiac remodelling (pathological enlargement/function of cardiac cavities/structures) or in worst case to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). This individually disposition can be genetically determined or behaviourally/environmentally acquired. Overall competitive young male athletes suffer five-fold higher than non-competitive athletes from sudden death and athletes aged over 30 bear a potential for arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation or a 20-fold higher possibility for SCD as female athletes. Patients with diabetes, coronary disease, obesity or hypertension require different special managements. Screening of cardiorespiratory health for sport activities has a lot of faces. Basically there is a need for indicated examinations or possible preventive measures inside or outside of pre-competition screening. The costs of screening compared to expenditure of whole effort for sporting activities are acceptable or even negligible, but of course dependent on national/regional settings. The various causes and possibilities of screening will be discussed in this article as basic suggestion for an open discussion beyond national borders and settings. PMID:25883700

Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman; Littwitz, Henning; Horlitz, Marc

2015-06-01

59

Pre-Participation and Follow-Up Screening of Athletes for Endurance Sport  

PubMed Central

Physical activity increases life expectancy and sport is a priori not harmful. Exhausted sporting activity (e.g. endurance running, triathlon, cycling or competitive sport) can lead under individual conditions to negative cardiac remodelling (pathological enlargement/function of cardiac cavities/structures) or in worst case to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). This individually disposition can be genetically determined or behaviourally/environmentally acquired. Overall competitive young male athletes suffer five-fold higher than non-competitive athletes from sudden death and athletes aged over 30 bear a potential for arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation or a 20-fold higher possibility for SCD as female athletes. Patients with diabetes, coronary disease, obesity or hypertension require different special managements. Screening of cardiorespiratory health for sport activities has a lot of faces. Basically there is a need for indicated examinations or possible preventive measures inside or outside of pre-competition screening. The costs of screening compared to expenditure of whole effort for sporting activities are acceptable or even negligible, but of course dependent on national/regional settings. The various causes and possibilities of screening will be discussed in this article as basic suggestion for an open discussion beyond national borders and settings.

Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman; Littwitz, Henning; Horlitz, Marc

2015-01-01

60

Sports Nutrition Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists  

PubMed Central

Context: Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. Objective: To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. Patients and Other Participants: The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Results: Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program should be integrated for ATs and SCSs. This integrative approach is beneficial for the continuity of care, as both categories of professionals might be developing and integrating preventive or rehabilitative programs for athletes. PMID:22488287

Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Pritchett, Kelly L.; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M.; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

2012-01-01

61

Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives- Sports related concussion is common in children and adults. However,age-related differences have never been studied. In this study we evaluate post-concussion recovery patterns between high school and college athletes. Study Design-371 college and 183 high school athletes underwent,baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals sustaining a concussion during athletic competition,underwent,serial neuropsychological evaluation following injury. Main outcome measures

Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

62

Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.  

PubMed

Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period. PMID:24748461

Barnes, Matthew J

2014-07-01

63

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Management of Sport Concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with best-practice guidelines for the management of sport-related concussions. Background: An estimated 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the United States as a result of sport and physical activity. Athletic trainers are commonly the first medical providers available onsite to identify and evaluate these injuries. Recommendations: The recommendations for concussion management provided here are based on the most current research and divided into sections on education and prevention, documentation and legal aspects, evaluation and return to play, and other considerations. PMID:24601910

Broglio, Steven P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Kutcher, Jeffrey; Palm, Michael; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

2014-01-01

64

Sport Scholarship programme Athletics at Birmingham  

E-print Network

, strength and conditioning and sports medicine support at the University. 5571©UniversityofBirmingham2011 and a personalised strength and conditioning programme n Sports medicine support including musculoskeletal screening

Heinke, Dietmar

65

Osteoarthritis in Young, Active, and Athletic Individuals  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825

Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A

2014-01-01

66

Consequences of sexual harassment in sport for female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and\\/or characteristics and\\/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in

Kari Fasting; Celia Brackenridge; Kristin Walseth

2002-01-01

67

Perspectives of Women College Athletes on Sport and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sport access for females has greatly improved, certain behaviors continue to be considered more or less appropriate\\u000a for females depending upon how compatible they are with biologically or socially constructed female characteristics. However,\\u000a young women who have grown up playing sports and continue participation at the college level have constructed meanings about\\u000a being a young woman and an athlete.

Sally R. Ross; Kimberly J. Shinew

2008-01-01

68

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have equivalent credentials and be the commonly used term. All weight management and exercise protocols used to achieve these goals should be safe and based on the most current evidence. Athletes, clients, parents, and coaches should be educated on how to determine safe weight and body composition so that athletes and clients more safely achieve competitive weights that will meet sport and activity requirements while also allowing them to meet their energy and nutritional needs for optimal health and performance. PMID:21669104

Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

2011-01-01

69

Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other…

Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

2007-01-01

70

Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9–50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts. PMID:17205239

Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F.; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H. Michael

2007-01-01

71

Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.  

PubMed

The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Much of the available information on this subject has been collected from sedentary subjects or low-level competitors, often without well matched controls. Other issues requiring clearer definition include the duration of fasting, the local environment, the timing of observations, and changes in training, diet and sleep patterns. Sleep may be shortened or made good with daytime naps. Circadian rhythms of temperature, metabolism, hormonal secretions and physical performance may be disrupted and incidental activities curtailed. Disturbances of psychomotor performance include daytime sleepiness, impaired vigilance and slower reactions. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Sedentary individuals sometimes exploit Ramadan to reduce body fat stores. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Protein intake must allow for gluconeogenesis, and provide quality protein ingested around training times. Blood sugar levels are likely to fall over a long and active day, even if morning glycogen reserves are maximized. Metabolism of fat should be encouraged, beginning prior to Ramadan; inclusion of fat in the pre-dawn meal also slows gastric emptying. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat, but the immediate deficit can usually be made good at night. Some studies show an initial fluid depletion, with recovery as Ramadan continues, possibly reflecting changes in urine and sweat production. Top athletes can maintain training throughout Ramadan, although coaches sometimes reduce demands through a pre-competitive tapering of effort. Late night or early morning training requires negotiation with players who are not observing Ramadan, and dietary adjustments to maintain optimal plasma amino acid levels when training. Performance of repeated anaerobic exercise is impaired, but aerobic power and muscular strength show little change during Ramadan. Ratings of fatigue are increased, and vigilance and reaction times are impaired, particularly during the afternoon. Medical issues during Ramadan are few. Athletes with diabetes mellitus should seek a medical exemption from fasting, and prescribed drug schedules should be carefully maintained. There is no major increase of injury rates, but competitors may have difficulty in producing urine for doping controls. Logical measures to minimize the effects of Ramadan include the optimization of mood state, maintenance of training, minimization of sleep loss, appropriate adjustments of diet, and the monitoring of competitors for chronic dehydration. Future research should concentrate on the changes observed in top athletes, particularly women, with data collected in the late afternoon after a known period of fasting in a well defined environment. It will be important to ensure that the lifestyle of those studied has been optimized. Implications of chronic dehydration for doping control also merit further investigation. Current data suggest that the impact of Ramadan upon athletic performance is small relative to the precision of test procedures, although it may be sufficient to cause a loss of medals. Negative effects vary widely with the type of sport, the season when fasting is observed, the local culture and the discipline exercised by the athlete. PMID:23888431

Shephard, Roy J

2013-12-01

72

Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.  

PubMed

Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

2014-02-14

73

Computerised cognitive assessment of athletes with sports related head injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional and amateur participants in many sports are at risk of brain injury caused by impact with other players or objects. In many cases, mild cognitive deficits may persist after the common neurological signs of brain injury have passed. In recent years, the athlete's cognitive status after concussion has been measured with conventional “paper and pencil” neuropsychological tests. However, such

A Collie; D Darby; P Maruff

2001-01-01

74

Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous\\u000a study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical\\u000a concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine\\u000a athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients

Christoph J. Siepe; Karsten Wiechert; Mohamed F. Khattab; Andreas Korge; H. Michael Mayer

2007-01-01

75

Sport orientation and athletic identity of Greek wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine sport orientation and athletic identity of Greek wheelchair basketball players. The sample consisted of 50 male wheelchair basketball players all coming from different teams participating at the Greek National Championship. Thirty-three (n = 33) participants had acquired disabilities, and 17 (n = 17) participants had congenital disabilities. The years of training of the participants ranged from 1 to 22 years. All subjects completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, with factors of competitiveness, goal orientation, and win orientation, and the Athletic Orientation Questionnaire which assesses personal identity, social identity, exclusivity, and negative effect. The study indicated satisfactory internal consistency for the questionnaires' factors. Furthermore, players with congenital disabilities appeared more win-oriented and focused on specific goals and with stronger self-perception of their athletic role compared to players with acquired disabilities. PMID:20178288

Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Perkos, Stefanos; Harbalis, Thomas; Koltsidas, Evaggelos

2009-12-01

76

A case of early sports specialization in an adolescent athlete.  

PubMed

Early sport specialization (ESS) refers to intense year round training in a specific sport with the exclusion of other sports at a young age. This approach to training is heavily debated and there are claims both in support and against ESS. ESS is considered to be more common in the modern day youth athlete and could be a source of overuse injuries and burnout. This case describes a 16 year old elite level baseball pitcher who engaged in high volume, intense training at a young age which lead to several significant throwing related injuries. The case highlights the historical context of ESS, the potential risk and benefits as well as the evidence for its effectiveness. It is important for health care professionals to be informed on the topic of ESS in order to educate athletes, parents, coaches and organizations of the potential risks and benefits. PMID:25550662

Ferguson, Brad; Stern, Paula J

2014-12-01

77

A case of early sports specialization in an adolescent athlete  

PubMed Central

Early sport specialization (ESS) refers to intense year round training in a specific sport with the exclusion of other sports at a young age. This approach to training is heavily debated and there are claims both in support and against ESS. ESS is considered to be more common in the modern day youth athlete and could be a source of overuse injuries and burnout. This case describes a 16 year old elite level baseball pitcher who engaged in high volume, intense training at a young age which lead to several significant throwing related injuries. The case highlights the historical context of ESS, the potential risk and benefits as well as the evidence for its effectiveness. It is important for health care professionals to be informed on the topic of ESS in order to educate athletes, parents, coaches and organizations of the potential risks and benefits. PMID:25550662

Ferguson, Brad; Stern, Paula J.

2014-01-01

78

Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.  

PubMed

Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595

Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

2013-06-01

79

Beliefs about the causes of success in sports and susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes.  

PubMed

The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individual sports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use. PMID:24016156

Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

2014-01-01

80

Women Athletes' Personal Responses to Sexual Harassment in Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past two decades. It is especially important for sport psychology consultants to understand this issue because they have professional opportunities to influence both individual and organizational responses to it. This article uses interview data from an investigation of sexual harassment in sport to examine the

Kari Fasting; Celia Brackenridge; Kristin Walseth

2007-01-01

81

Goal Orientations and Empowerment of Individuals with a Disability in the Sport Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between ego and task goal orientations on various dimensions of empowerment with athletes with a disability. Empowerment is defined as a process by which individuals gain mastery and control over their own lives. Participants were 396 athletes in Norwegian Sports clubs, 211 with a disability of various types and

Marit Sørensen; Glyn C. Roberts

82

The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving…

Harada, Coreen M.; Siperstein, Gary N.

2009-01-01

83

Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…

Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

2004-01-01

84

ESC study group of sports cardiology position paper on adverse cardiovascular effects of doping in athletes.  

PubMed

The use of doping substances and methods is extensive not only among elite athletes, but also among amateur and recreational athletes. Many types of drugs are used by athletes to enhance performance, to reduce anxiety, to increase muscle mass, to reduce weight or to mask the use of other drugs during testing. However, the abuse of doping substances and methods has been associated with the occurrence of numerous health side-effects. The adverse effects depend on the type of the consumed drug, as well as the amount and duration of intake and the sensitivity of the body, since there is a large inter-individual variability in responses to a drug. Usually the doses used in sports are much higher than those used for therapeutic purposes and the use of several drugs in combination is frequent, leading to higher risk of side-effects. Among biomedical side-effects of doping, the cardiovascular ones are the most deleterious. Myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, thrombosis, arrythmogenesis, heart failure and sudden cardiac death have been noted following drug abuse. This paper reviews the literature on the adverse cardiovascular effects after abuse of prohibited substances and methods in athletes, aiming to inform physicians, trainers and athletes and to discourage individuals from using drugs during sports. PMID:17001206

Deligiannis, Asterios; Björnstad, Hans; Carre, Francois; Heidbüchel, Hein; Kouidi, Evangelia; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M; Pigozzi, Fabio; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Vanhees, Luc

2006-10-01

85

Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

2013-01-01

86

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining  

E-print Network

Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining real sports marketing and communications experience. A marketing or business background and weekends (Schedule will vary, approx 3-10 hours per week) Passion for sports Cheerful, outgoing

Barthelat, Francois

87

Sports Coaching and Athletic Performance is a 20 credit-hour  

E-print Network

Sports Coaching and Athletic Performance is a 20 credit-hour program that prepares students for careers in the coaching profession, sports leadership, and athletic performance, and has no prerequisites by NASPE (National Association for Sport and Physical Education) and the NCACE (National Council

Fork, Richard

88

How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of “faster, higher, and stronger.” In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given sport, and help athletes interact with the environment more effectively.

Li Li

2012-01-01

89

Male and Female Athletes' and Nonathletes' Expectations about Sport Psychology Consulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore expectations of athletes and nonathletes about sport psychology consulting. Tinsley's (1982) Expectations About Coun-seling-Brief form was revised using sport psychology terms. The revised instrument, Expectations About Sport Psychology Consulting (EASPC) questionnaire, was administered to 111 athletes (64 male and 47 female) and 166 nonathletes (72 male and 94 female) attending an NCAA

Scott B. Martin; Allen Akers; Allen W. Jackson; Craig A. Wrisberg; Lynne Nelson; P. Jason Leslie; Larson Leidig

2001-01-01

90

Differences between male and female college lean sport athletes, nonlean sport athletes, and nonathletes on behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relative frequency of behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders in collegiate athletes and nonathletes. Participants were 230 male and 250 female nonathletes. and 187 male and 113 female varsity athletes. The male and female athletes were classified separately as either in a lean sport (i.e., where weight or appearance was central to success) or a

Trent A. Petrie

1996-01-01

91

Sports-related genitourinary trauma in the male athlete.  

PubMed

Genitourinary trauma is infrequent with regard to sports-related injuries and is frequently overlooked in the acute setting because other life-threatening or serious injuries take precedence. Once the patient has been stabilized, the radiologist plays a key role in the diagnosis of genitourinary trauma. The most commonly injured genitourinary organ is the kidney followed by the bladder and the urethra. Therefore, one should be familiar with imaging signs of genitourinary trauma in the athletic patient in order for these patients to be triaged appropriately. This article is a review of the spectrum of genitourinary trauma caused by sports-related injuries. PMID:25323027

Nicola, Refky; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Raptis, Costa; Siegel, Cary

2015-04-01

92

African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: a qualitative and visual elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item inventory utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively examine seven different domains which influence perceptions

C. Keith Harrison; Suzanne Malia Lawrence

2003-01-01

93

The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

2015-02-17

94

Jersey number detection in sports video for athlete identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athlete identification is important for sport video content analysis since users often care about the video clips with their preferred athletes. In this paper, we propose a method for athlete identification by combing the segmentation, tracking and recognition procedures into a coarse-to-fine scheme for jersey number (digital characters on sport shirt) detection. Firstly, image segmentation is employed to separate the jersey number regions with its background. And size/pipe-like attributes of digital characters are used to filter out candidates. Then, a K-NN (K nearest neighbor) classifier is employed to classify a candidate into a digit in "0-9" or negative. In the recognition procedure, we use the Zernike moment features, which are invariant to rotation and scale for digital shape recognition. Synthetic training samples with different fonts are used to represent the pattern of digital characters with non-rigid deformation. Once a character candidate is detected, a SSD (smallest square distance)-based tracking procedure is started. The recognition procedure is performed every several frames in the tracking process. After tracking tens of frames, the overall recognition results are combined to determine if a candidate is a true jersey number or not by a voting procedure. Experiments on several types of sports video shows encouraging result.

Ye, Qixiang; Huang, Qingming; Jiang, Shuqiang; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wen

2005-07-01

95

Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

2013-01-01

96

Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n = 263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

2014-01-01

97

Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

1983-01-01

98

Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

2011-01-01

99

Management Careers in Professional Sport and College/University Athletics: Results of a Survey Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the needs of management positions and obtained evaluations of sport management programs by management personnel from different sport program perspectives, i.e., professional sport and college/university athletics. Results of survey identified: (1) specific similarities and differences in the criteria for both hiring sport

Beitel, Patricia A.; And Others

100

The GH-IGF-I response to typical field sports practices in adolescent athletes: a summary.  

PubMed

The present study compares previous reports on the effect of "real-life" typical field individual (i.e., cross-country running and wrestling--representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (i.e., volleyball and water polo-representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH?IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations. PMID:25372377

Eliakim, Alon; Cooper, Dan M; Nemet, Dan

2014-11-01

101

Kinanthropometric attributes of young male combat sports athletes.  

PubMed

Although there are enough studies concerning the kinanthropometric attributes of players of sports such as football, basketball, or volleyball in Turkey, there are not enough studies on the same for combat sports. Hence, our aim is to assess the kinanthropometric attributes of different combat sports like karate, taekwondo, judo and kickboxing. The present study included 48 national level male athletes from four different combat sports (age, 20.3 (3.19) years; number of years playing the sport, 8.33 (4.59); height, 174.3 (7.15) cm; weight, 67.35 (10.55 kg). Skinfold thickness was measured with a skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd., UK), and Yuhazs formula was used to calculate the body fat percentage. Somatotype assessment was carried out with a computer program (Sweat Technology Trial Version, South Australia). Width measurements were obtained with a slide caliper (HLT-100, Holtain Ltd.), and girth measurements were obtained with a non-flexible tape measure. The data obtained were analyzed with the computer program SPSS 17.0 in terms of the SD. The findings were as follows: body mass index (BMI), 22.00 (2.66) kg/m2; body fat percentage, 12.20% (3.07%); endomorphic component, 2.9 (1.30); mesomorphic component, 4.25 (1.30); and ectomorphic component, 3.10 (1.30). The cormic index was 51.99% (1.88%); Monourier index, 92.39% (4.47%); Acromio-iliac index, 60.87% (6.61%); Martine index, 6.29% (0.70%); Biacromial index, 22.58% (0.99%); and hip index, 13.91% (0.86%). The mesomorphic component was found to be dominant in our study. Although BMIs were found to be normal, body fat percentages were low. According to body proportions, the athletes who participated in this study had wide shoulders, narrow hips, and medium-sized trunks. PMID:24611359

Catikkas, Fatih; Kurt, Cem; Atalag, Ozan

2013-12-01

102

Sexual Harassment in SportPerceptions and Experiences of American Female Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment at institutions of higher learning is not a new phenomenon, but discussions of this problem in the sporting arena and in related research are still scarce. Most studies have focused on student-instructor relationships, while few analyses have analysed coach-athlete relationships. This study examines American female college athletes' experiences with, and emotional responses to, sexual harassment in sport by

Karin A. E. Volkwein; Frauke I. Schnell; Dennis Sherwood; Anne Livezey

1997-01-01

103

Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

2011-01-01

104

A comparison of bone mineral densities among female athletes in impact loading and active loading sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMD) of collegiate female athletes who compete in impact loading sports; volleyball players (N = 8) and gymnasts (N = 13), to a group of athletes who participate in an active loading sport; swimmers (N = 7), and a group of controls (N = 17). All of the volleyball,

P. C. Fehling; L. Alekel; J. Clasey; A. Rector; R. J. Stillman

1995-01-01

105

Anaerobic power characteristics of elite athletes in national level team-sport games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to acquire current anthropometric and physiological profiling of elite athletes and to examine differences in the characteristics. Methods: Three hundred and sixteen male, team-sport athletes were evaluated for anaerobic performance using the Wingate anaerobic test. Results: MANOVA procedures indicated significant differences in height among players of the sports. Pearson correlations indicated strong correlations

Michael Kalinski; Henrick Norkowski; Matthew Kerner; Wlodzimierz Tkaczuk

2002-01-01

106

Tracing the origins of athlete development models in sport: a citation path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of the sport psychology literature have identified a number of models of athlete development in sport (Alfermann & Stambulova, 2007; Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2001). However, minimal research has investigated the origins of knowledge from which each model was developed. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the influential texts responsible for providing the basis of athlete development

Mark W. Bruner; Karl Erickson; Kimberley McFadden; Jean Côté

2009-01-01

107

Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

2013-01-01

108

Comparison of sport achievement orientation between wheelchair and able-bodied basketball athletes.  

PubMed

Differences in sport achievement orientations between 31 recreational wheelchair and 76 able-bodied basketball athletes were tested. Athletes from the New England region completed the three subscales of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation). Wheelchair athletes responded higher on the Competitiveness and Goal Orientation subscales. In discriminative function analysis competitiveness scores were the only significant discriminator between the two groups. PMID:11883565

Skordilis, E K; Koutsouki, D; Asonitou, K; Evans, E; Jensen, B

2002-02-01

109

Public Attitude Survey of Canada on School/Amateur Sports, Amateur and Professional Athletics, and the Effect of T.V. Sports/Athletics Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a public attitude survey of a quota sample of approximately 4,000 age 18 and older Canadians, in which respondents were asked to express their opinion on who should own and operate professional athletics, national and international amateur athletics, and school/amateur sport. Attitude was also assessed on what…

Moriarty, Dick; Leduc, Larry

110

Toward a multidimensional model of athletes' commitment to coach-athlete relationships and interdependent sport teams: a substantive-methodological synergy.  

PubMed

Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport. PMID:24501144

Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

2014-02-01

111

ATHLETICS AND RECREATION Think Tank Session 2: High Performance Sport PLEASE NOTE, the following notes from the meeting  

E-print Network

coaches and players to sign an anti-violence code, include sports medicine bagsATHLETICS AND RECREATION Think Tank Session 2: High Performance Sport a. Assessment and analysis b. Building a sporting culture/brand c. Student support

Pulfrey, David L.

112

Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

2013-01-01

113

Athletes and the arts--the role of sports medicine in the performing arts.  

PubMed

Performing artists are athletes. Like athletes, performing artists practice and/or perform most days with little off season, play through pain, "compete" in challenging environments, and risk career-threatening injury. Athletes and the Arts is a multiorganizational initiative linking the sport athlete and musician/performing artist communities. Performing artists of all ages and genre are an underserved population related to medical coverage, care, injury prevention, performance enhancement, and wellness. Sports medicine professionals are a valuable resource for filling this gap by applying existing knowledge of treating sport athletes (nutrition, injury prevention) while gaining a better understanding of performers' unique needs (hearing loss, focal dystonia) and environment. These applications can occur in the clinical setting and through developing organizational policies. By better understanding the needs of the performing arts population and applying existing concepts and knowledge, sports medicine professionals can expand their impact to a new patient base that desperately needs support. PMID:24225525

Dick, Randall W; Berning, Jacqueline R; Dawson, William; Ginsburg, Richard D; Miller, Clay; Shybut, George T

2013-01-01

114

Principles of Liability for Athletic Trainers: Managing Sport-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide an overview of the general legal principles of negligence for sports medicine professionals and apply these principles to situations involving athletes with head injury. Data Sources: Case law dating back to 1976 and recent studies of sport-related concussion. Summary: One of the most difficult problems facing athletic trainers and team physicians is the recognition and treatment of sport-related concussion. Providing medical clearance for sports participation and treatment of athletic injuries involves legal as well as medical issues. The threat of lawsuits exists for the sports medicine professional, whether the athlete is allowed to play or not. In general, established medical malpractice principles govern claims by athletes for injury or death caused by improper treatment by health care providers. The elements of negligence are examined, as well as the primary defenses an athletic trainer would use in court and risk management techniques to avoid litigation. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers may protect themselves from liability by including standardized cognitive or postural stability testing in preparticipation examinations, using objective tests rather than subjective judgement to evaluate athletes who have sport-related concussion, working closely with physicians, and keeping excellent records. PMID:12937503

2001-01-01

115

Athletes confessions: The sports biography as an interaction ritual.  

PubMed

Commercialization of emotions is not a new phenomenon but in Denmark there is a new general trend to tell and sell personal stories in the media. Personal deprivation and crises are also major topics in sports media. This paper focuses on sports biographies as a book genre that is reviving in popularity. The paper approaches the topic through the biographies of one Danish athlete: the former professional cyclist, Jesper Skibby, who writes about his doping disclosure and shares his personal dilemmas as a former elite sportsman. The thematic text analysis orientates around social interactions, emotions, and personality constructions. Inspired by microsociology with a Durkheimian flavor of Goffman and Hochschild, themes including "face work," "interaction rituals," and "emotions management" are discussed. The analysis claims that sharing personal information in the media is not only a means of confession and reclaiming status but is also business and management - on an intimate level. Telling the story of the corrosion of a sporting character has become a hot issue, an entertainment, and not least a commercial commitment. PMID:24673745

Thing, L F; Ronglan, L T

2015-04-01

116

MR spectroscopic evidence of brain injury in the non-diagnosed collision sport athlete.  

PubMed

With growing evidence of long-term neurological damage in individuals enduring repetitive head trauma, it is critical to detect lower-level damage accumulation for the early diagnosis of injury in at-risk populations. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic scans of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex were collected from high school American (gridiron) football athletes, prior to and during their competition seasons. Although no concussions were diagnosed, significant metabolic deviations from baseline and non-collision sport controls were revealed. Overall the findings indicate underlying biochemical changes, consequential to repetitive hits, which have previously gone unnoticed due to a lack of traditional neurological symptoms. PMID:25144258

Poole, Victoria N; Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Breedlove, Evan L; Breedlove, Katherine M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Dydak, Ulrike

2014-01-01

117

Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.  

PubMed

Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT indoors to further enhance individual and team performances. PMID:24263650

Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

2014-02-01

118

Playing to Win: American Sports & Athletes on Stamps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Postal Museum has profiled a wide swath of American life on stamps over the years, and this latest online exhibit from their busy minds looks at American sports and athletes on stamps. The collection was created by Alexander Haimann, and it features dozens of unique and compelling stamps, including the 3-cent stamp issued to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the creation of baseball by Abner Doubleday in Cooperstown, New York. Each page of the site has a different thematic focus, including "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" (featuring notable ballparks) and "American Boxing: From Dempsey to Marciano". There is complete information for each stamp, including material on when the stamp was issued. Also, visitors can zoom in and out on each stamp to look for creative details.

119

Development of an anaerobic capacity test for field sport athletes.  

PubMed

Maximally accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) has been argued to be currently the best non-invasive method for estimating anaerobic capacity (Medbø et al., 1988, Ramsbottom et al., 1997). An easy to administer field test that could accurately predict MAOD, would be of great use to many field sport athletes and coaches. Fifteen male rugby union players undertook MAOD testing (99.4 +/- 16.9ml x kg(-1)) on a treadmill using a modification of procedure 3 as described by Medbø et al. (1988). All subjects also performed a 300m Shuttle Run Test (66.7 +/- 2.2s), run over a 20m distance. Analysis of the MAOD and 300m Shuttle Run Test time relationship revealed a significant correlation of r = -0.69 [p<0.01). Furthermore, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that when subjects were split into 'good' and 'poor' groups based on 300m Shuttle Run Test times, the times distinguished between 'good' and 'poor' MAOD values (P<0.05). The findings of the present study support the validity of the 300m Shuttle Run Test as a useful estimate of anaerobic capacity in football athletes. Unexplained variance could be due to speed and agility factors associated with the 300m Shuttle Run Test. Methodological issues pertaining to the accurate assessment of MAOD are also discussed. PMID:14609144

Moore, A; Murphy, A

2003-09-01

120

Relative Total Body Fat And Skinfold Patterning In Filipino National Combat Sport Athletes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females) and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females). In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender) ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275). The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001). Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66) had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001). Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements. Key Points The purpose of the present investigation was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. The results seem to suggest that there was no difference between combat sports in fatness. Skinfold patterning was more in line with what was reported in the literature with the males recording lower extremity fat. PMID:24357974

Pieter, Willy; Bercades, Luigi T.; Kim, Gun Do

2006-01-01

121

Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes’ Coping with Interpersonal Stressors in Sport: More Similarities than Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in the types of coping strategies adolescent athletes use to manage sport-related interpersonal stress. To explain gender coping differences, the dispositional and situational gender coping hypotheses were explored (Tamres, Janicki, & Helgenson, 2002). Adolescent athletes from Western Canada (N = 524) completed measures of stress appraisal and coping-strategy use in response to a self-selected interpersonal

Sharleen D. Hoar; Peter R. E. Crocker; Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen

2010-01-01

122

Substance Use among College Athletes: A Comparison Based on Sport/Team Affiliation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard…

Ford, Jason A.

2007-01-01

123

Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.  

PubMed

While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences. PMID:25189187

Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

2015-06-01

124

Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced.MethodsMultivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations.ResultsA representative sample of 13% of the

Karine Schaal; Muriel Tafflet; Hala Nassif; Valérie Thibault; Capucine Pichard; Mathieu Alcotte; Thibaut Guillet; Nour El Helou; Geoffroy Berthelot; Serge Simon; Jean-François Toussaint; Monica Uddin

2011-01-01

125

Italian cardiological guidelines for sports eligibility in athletes with heart disease: part 1.  

PubMed

In Italy the existence of a law on health protection of competitive sports since 1982 has favored the creation and the revision of these cardiological guidelines (called COCIS), which have reached their fourth edition (1989-2009). The present article is the second English version, which has summarized the larger version in Italian. The experience of the experts consulted in the course of these past 20 years has facilitated the application and the compatibility of issues related to clinical cardiology to the sports medicine field. Such prolonged experience has allowed the clinical cardiologist to acquire knowledge of the applied physiology of exercise and, on the other hand, has improved the ability of sports physicians in cardiological diagnostics. All this work has produced these guidelines related to the judgment of eligibility for competitive sports in the individual clinical situations and in the different cardiovascular abnormalities and/or heart disease. Numerous arguments are debated, such as interpretation of the athlete's ECG, the utility of a preparticipation screening, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and other particular issues. PMID:23615077

Biffi, Alessandro; Delise, Pietro; Zeppilli, Paolo; Giada, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio; Penco, Maria; Casasco, Maurizio; Colonna, Pierluigi; D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Andrea, Luigi; Gazale, Giovanni; Inama, Giuseppe; Spataro, Antonio; Villella, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo; Pirelli, Salvatore; Romano, Vincenzo; Cristiano, Antonio; Bettini, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano; Furlanello, Francesco; Corrado, Domenico

2013-07-01

126

Italian cardiological guidelines for sports eligibility in athletes with heart disease: part 2.  

PubMed

In Italy the existence of a law on health protection of competitive sports since 1982 has favored the creation and the revision of these cardiological guidelines (called COCIS), which have reached their fourth edition (1989-2009). The present article is the second English version, which has summarized the larger version in Italian. The experience of the experts consulted in the course of these past 20 years has facilitated the application and the compatibility of issues related to clinical cardiology to the sports medicine field. Such prolonged experience has allowed the clinical cardiologist to acquire knowledge of the applied physiology of exercise and, on the other hand, has improved the ability of sports physicians in cardiological diagnostics. All this work has produced these guidelines related to the judgment of eligibility for competitive sports in the individual clinical situations and in the different cardiovascular abnormalities and/or heart disease. Numerous arguments are debated, such as interpretation of the athlete's ECG, the utility of a preparticipation screening, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and other particular issues. PMID:23625056

Biffi, Alessandro; Delise, Pietro; Zeppilli, Paolo; Giada, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio; Penco, Maria; Casasco, Maurizio; Colonna, Pierluigi; D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Andrea, Luigi; Gazale, Giovanni; Inama, Giuseppe; Spataro, Antonio; Villella, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo; Pirelli, Salvatore; Romano, Vincenzo; Cristiano, Antonio; Bettini, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano; Furlanello, Francesco; Corrado, Domenico

2013-07-01

127

Special Athletic Opportunities for Individuals with Handicapping Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report contains 12 author contributed chapters concerned with special athletic opportunities for individuals with handicapping conditions. The monograph begins with a detailed treatment of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 followed by descriptions of athletic programs developed by various groups. Remaining chapters are concerned…

Winnick, Joseph P., Ed.; Short, Francis X., Ed.

128

Effect of sports activity on bone mineral density in wheelchair athletes.  

PubMed

The present study carried out a measurement of body composition and a nutrition survey, targeting 28 male wheelchair athletes and comparing them with 25 male physically able healthy athletes as the controls. The DXA method was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD), percentage of body fat (% body fat), and lean body mass (LBM). Possible factors affecting the BMD of the wheelchair athletes with spinal injuries were analyzed including age, body part, type of sport, area of injury, length of injury, and the length of time it took before restarting sports activity after injury. BMD in the arms, body trunk, legs, and entire body was measured. There were no significant differences in the BMD of the wheelchair athletes by age group (from 20 to 29, from 30 to 39, and 40 years and older), by sports (basketball, track and field, and tennis), and by area of injury (high and low paraplegia). BMD in the legs (r = -0.549, P < 0.01), body trunk (r = -0.414, P < 0.05), and entire body (r = -0.452, P < 0.05) of the wheelchair athletes was negatively correlated with the period since injury; however, no such a relationship was observed in the arms. In addition, the multiple regression analysis for BMD of each body region showed that the earlier the wheelchair athletes restarted sports after injury, the higher values the BMD of legs (r = -0.467, P < 0.05), body trunk (r = -0.469, P < 0.05), and entire body (r = -0.488, P < 0.05), independent of age and sports. The leg BMD of the wheelchair athletes was lower than that of the physically able athletes, with a BMD 76.5% of the controls. The present study suggests that restarting sports activity in a timely manner after treatment and rehabilitation for the injury is useful in preventing loss of BMD in wheelchair athletes and ultimately improving their quality of life. PMID:18095071

Miyahara, Kimiko; Wang, Da-Hong; Mori, Keiko; Takahashi, Kayo; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takigawa, Tomoko; Takaki, Jiro; Ogino, Keiki

2008-01-01

129

Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

2011-01-01

130

Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi-sport athletes. PMID:24622506

Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

2014-01-01

131

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing Sudden Death in Sports  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care. PMID:22488236

Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.

2012-01-01

132

Working memory capacity among collegiate student athletes: Effects of sport-related head contacts, concussions, and working memory demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Design: Ambidirectional cohort study. Setting: Athletics department at an American university. Participants: Student athletes competing

Lester B. Mayers; Thomas S. Redick; Sheila H. Chiffriller; Ashley N. Simone; Keith R. Terraforte

2011-01-01

133

How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

Li, Li

2012-01-01

134

Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

1976-01-01

135

Brain Function Decline in Healthy Retired Athletes who Sustained their Last Sports Concussion in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of sports concussions on cognitive and motor function may persist up to a few years post-injury. The present study sought to investigate the effects of having sustained a sports concussion more than 30 years prior to testing on cognitive and motor functions. Nineteen healthy former athletes, in late adulthood (mean age =

Louis De Beaumont; H Théoret; David Mongeon; Julie Messier; Suzanne Leclerc; Sebastien Tremblay; Dave Ellemberg; Maryse Lassonde

2009-01-01

136

Gender, age, and sport differences in relative age effects among US Masters swimming and track and field athletes.  

PubMed

A relative age effect has been identified in Masters sports (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007). Since gender, age, and type of sport have been found to influence the relative age effect in youth sports (Musch & Grondin, 2001), we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes. Using archived data between 1996 and 2006, frequency of participation entries and record-setting performances at the US Masters championships were examined as a function of an individual's constituent year within any 5-year age category. Study 1 investigated the frequency of Master athletes who participated; Study 2 examined the frequency of performance records that were set across constituent years within an age category, while accounting for the distribution of participation frequencies. Results showed that a participation-related relative age effect in Masters sports is stronger for males, that it becomes progressively stronger with each successive decade of life, and that it does not differ across track and field and swimming. In addition, a performance-related relative age effect in Masters sport seems to be stronger for swimming than track and field, but it does not differ across gender and decades of life. PMID:19967587

Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Starkes, Janet L; Weir, Patricia L; Grove, J Robert

2009-12-01

137

Superstitions of Canadian Intercollegiate Athletes: an Inter-Sport Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belief structures categorized as superstitions were investigated among members of six selected Intercollegiate athletic teams enrolled at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada during the 1971-72 aca demic year. A mailed questionnaire was employed as the survey instru ment and distributed to 174 athletes chosen by systematic random sampling from lists supplied by the Department of Athletics. The over

C. Jane Gregory; Brian M. Petrie

1975-01-01

138

Development of the 2012 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians position statement on concussion in athletics  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the development of the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians (ACBSP) Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics regarding the management of concussion in sport and to offer suggestions to qualifying doctors of chiropractic (DCs) to make return-to-play decisions and clarify common concepts pertaining to evaluating and managing concussion in sport. Methods A literature review of position statements from sports medicine organizations was performed. The authors reviewed each statement for content. Key issues in the management of concussion in sport were identified with special consideration to concussion management by DCs. A position statement on the management of concussion in sport was drafted by the authors and submitted to the Board of Directors of the ACBSP for review. The Board of Directors called for minor revision; and after all revisions were made, the document was resubmitted. The Board of Directors of the ACBSP accepted the document for publication and presentation. The document was presented and disseminated to certificants by the ACBSP at the 2011 Chiropractic Sports Sciences Symposium. Results The 2012 ACBSP Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics was accepted by the ACBSP Board of Directors. Conclusion The Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics has been accepted by the ACBSP. This document offers guidance on the management of concussion in sport and provides qualifying DCs information to make return-to-play decisions. PMID:24396329

Moreau, William J.; Nabhan, Dustin C.

2013-01-01

139

Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports: A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing. PMID:23533655

Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

2013-01-01

140

Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

2014-01-01

141

Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

2014-05-01

142

No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

2011-01-01

143

Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

2008-01-01

144

Comparison of sport achievement orientation of male wheelchair basketball athletes with congenital and acquired disabilities.  

PubMed

The study was designed to examine the sport achievement orientations of male wheelchair basketball athletes who differed by onset of experienced disability (congenital and acquired). The full Sport Orientation Questionnaire was administered to 166 U.S. national athletes. Athletes with congenital disabilities had higher mean scores than their peers with acquired disabilities on the three subscales of the full form and on the extraction items as a short form (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). Multivariate analysis of variance yielded no significant differences between groups. Significant differences on Competitiveness and Goal Orientation, with a higher mean were found for the group with congenital disabilities than for the group with acquired disabilities. The results are discussed in relation to the literature, nature of wheelchair basketball, and application of the test to such athletes. PMID:17326496

Skordilis, E K; Skafida, F A; Chrysagis, N; Nikitaras, N

2006-12-01

145

Effective nutrition support programs for college athletes.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of the Husky Sport Nutrition Program at the University of Washington. This program is a component of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Total Student-Athlete Program, an NCAA-sponsored CHAMPS/Life Skills Program that provides life skills assistance to student-athletes. Successful integration of a sport nutrition program requires an understanding of the athletic culture, physiological milestones, and life stressors faced by college athletes. The sport nutritionist functions as an educator, counselor, and administrator. Team presentations and individual nutrition counseling provide athletes with accurate information on healthy eating behaviors for optimal performance. For women's sports, a multidisciplinary team including the sport nutritionist, team physician, clinical psychologist, and athletic trainer work to prevent and treat eating disorders. Case studies are presented illustrating the breadth of nutrition-related issues faced by a sport nutritionist working with college athletes. PMID:9738137

Vinci, D M

1998-09-01

146

The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.  

PubMed

Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. PMID:22609334

Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

2012-10-01

147

Epidemiology of sports injuries on collegiate athletes at a single center  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of sports injuries in college athletes from the same institution from 1993 to 2013. METHODS: Athletes from 13 modalities were interviewed about the presence and type of injury, type of treatment and time of withdrawal, based on the questionnaire "Injury Surveillance System" (ISS). Data were analyzed with graphs and tables of injury prevalence by gender, age, site of injury and modality. We also analyzed the average time of withdrawal of athletes, returning to sports practice and new lesions. RESULTS: It was observed that 49.91% of the athletes showed some type of injury, with similar incidence between genders; the most frequent injuries were the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the ankle sprain; the average withdrawal time was 11 weeks. ACL was the injury with greater impact on college sports career, especially given the time of withdrawal. CONCLUSION: The most frequent injury, ACL, occurred most frequently in indoor sports such as handball and volleyball and had the highest number of cases treated with surgery and a longer average withdrawal time. More studies are needed to create a larger database in order to schedule preventive measures for amateur athletes. Level IV of Evidence, Epidemiological Study. PMID:25538479

Rosa, Bruno Berbert; Asperti, André Marangoni; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

2014-01-01

148

Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an end, which is gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, models of doping should include and anti-doping policies should consider attitudes or orientations toward the specific target end, in addition to the attitude toward the 'tool' itself. Objectives The aim of this study was to empirically test doping related dispositions and attitudes of competitive athletes with the view of informing anti-doping policy developments and deterrence methods. To this end, the paper focused on the individual element of the drug availability – athlete's personality – situation triangle. Methods Data were collected by questionnaires containing a battery of psychological tests among competitive US male college athletes (n = 199). Outcome measures included sport orientation (win and goal orientation and competitiveness), doping attitude, beliefs and self-reported past or current use of doping. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures. Results Whilst the doping model showed satisfactory fit, the results suggested that athletes' win and goal orientation and competitiveness do not play a statistically significant role in doping behaviour, but win orientation has an effect on doping attitude. The SEM analysis provided empirical evidence that sport orientation and doping behaviour is not directly related. Conclusion The considerable proportion of doping behaviour unexplained by the model suggests that other factors play an influential role in athletes' decisions regarding prohibited methods. Future research, followed by policy development, should incorporate these factors to capture the complexity of the doping phenomenon and to identify points for effective anti-doping interventions. Sport governing bodies and anti-doping organisations need to recognise that using performance enhancements may be more of a rational, outcome optimizing behaviour than deviance and consider offering acceptable alternative performance-enhancing methods to doping. PMID:17996097

2007-01-01

149

Comparison of sport achievement orientation of male professional, amateur, and wheelchair basketball athletes.  

PubMed

To examine the differences in sport achievement orientation among 35 professional, 36 amateur, and 35 wheelchair basketball athletes, these men completed three subscales of Competitiveness, Win orientation, and Goal orientation of the 25-item Sport Orientation Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among groups. Win orientation was the factor, through discriminant function analysis, that significantly separated the athletes into the three groups. The highest win score was obtained by the professional, followed by the amateur and wheelchair groups. Replication study is necessary to confirm the present findings. PMID:14620236

Skordilis, E K; Gavriilidis, A; Charitou, S; Asonitou, K

2003-10-01

150

The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female

Haleh Dadgostar; Mohammad Razi; Ashraf Aleyasin; Talia Alenabi; Saeideh Dahaghin

2009-01-01

151

Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

Gaines, Stacey A.

2012-01-01

152

Coping with sports injuries: an examination of the adolescent athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight injured adolescent athletes completed questionnaires over 3 months after injury to assess psychosocial outcomes. Depressive symptoms decreased over time, and the lack of positive stress and high athletic identity were associated with early depressive symptoms after accounting for injury severity. Increased social support was associated with lower initial depressive symptoms.

Janeen C Manuel; Jeffrey S Shilt; Walton W Curl; Jeffrey A Smith; Robert H Durant; Laura Lester; Sara H Sinal

2002-01-01

153

CAFFEINE USE IN SPORTS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ATHLETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ergogenic effects of caffeine on athletic performance have been shown in many studies, and its broad range of metabolic, hormonal, and physiologic effects has been recorded, as this review of the literature shows. However, few caffeine studies have been published to include cognitive and physiologic considerations for the athlete. The following practical recom- mendations consider the global effects of

BULENT SOKMEN; L AWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG; W ILLIAM J. KRAEMER; J. CASA; JOAO C. DIAS; D ANIEL A. JUDELSON; CARL M. MARESH

154

Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2013-01-01

155

Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as…

Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

2001-01-01

156

The Paralympic Movement: using sports to promote health, disability rights, and social integration for athletes with disabilities.  

PubMed

Competitive sports for people with disabilities has grown rapidly over the past several decades, and opportunities for participation are increasingly available throughout the spectrum from developmental to elite. The Paralympic Games, seen as the pinnacle sporting event that represents the broader Paralympic Movement, has provided a platform to showcase the abilities of people with disabilities while also serving as a catalyst for disability rights through ensuring integration, equality of opportunity, and accessibility of the built environment. Concurrently, media coverage of the Paralympic Games has led to an increased awareness of opportunities for sport participation for individuals with disabilities and, with it, the adjustment of norms regarding expectations for exercise as a component of preventive health. In addition, there is evidence of the power of sports to stimulate confidence, self-efficacy, and a self-perceived high quality of life for individuals with disabilities above and beyond the basic benefits to cardiometabolic fitness. When taken together, the promotion of health, disability rights, and social integration through sports has the power to transform the lives of those who participate and to further stimulate the expansion of opportunities available to the next generation of athletes with disabilities. PMID:23174549

Blauwet, Cheri; Willick, Stuart E

2012-11-01

157

Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

2015-01-01

158

Sport participation influences perceptions of mate characteristics.  

PubMed

Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception. PMID:22833850

Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael

2012-01-01

159

Gender, age, and sport differences in relative age effects among US Masters swimming and track and field athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relative age effect has been identified in Masters sports (Medic, Starkes, & Young, 2007). Since gender, age, and type of sport have been found to influence the relative age effect in youth sports (Musch & Grondin, 2001), we examined how these three variables influenced possible relative age effects among Masters swimmers and track and field athletes. Using archived data

Nikola Medic; Bradley W. Young; Janet L. Starkes; Patricia L. Weir; J. Robert Grove

2009-01-01

160

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

161

Risk Analysis of Athlete Transfer in Professional Sport: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athlete-club conflict risk factors in professional sports are identified through literature review and Delphi method, allowing for the probability of risks. Through sensitivity analysis, the degree of impact of transfer risks, from high to low, are risk of benefit interests, risk of transfer institution, risk of misbehavior, risk of transfer fees, risk of property, risk of labor contract, risk between

Li Wang; Yaqin Yang

2011-01-01

162

Aggressive Surgical Treatment and Early Return to Sports in Athletes With Grade III Syndesmosis Sprains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Grade III syndesmosis sprains are usually treated with internal fixation. Limited information is available on early weightbearing and early return to activity after operative treatment for grade III syndesmosis sprains.Hypothesis: Treatment of grade III syndesmosis sprains in intercollegiate athletes with internal fixation, early range of motion, and early weightbearing can lead to rapid return to sport with minimal complications

Dean C. Taylor; Joachim J. Tenuta; John M. Uhorchak; Robert A. Arciero

2007-01-01

163

Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray

A. Heinonen; P. Oja; P. Kannus; H. Sievanen; H. Haapasalo; A. Mänttäri; I. Vuori

1995-01-01

164

The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

2007-01-01

165

Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

2010-01-01

166

Intersectionality, Critical Race Theory, and American Sporting Oppression: Examining Black and Gay Male Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and

Eric Anderson; Mark McCormack

2010-01-01

167

The Parent-Coach/Child-Athlete Relationship in Youth Sport: Cordial, Contentious, or Conundrum?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and…

Weiss, Maureen R.; Fretwell, Susan D.

2005-01-01

168

The MetaSkills Model of Sports Counseling: Helping Athletes Achieve Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MetaSkills model of sports counseling evolved from use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Ericksonian communicator patterns with athletes. The theoretical perspectives of human behavior upon which the model is based are explored. Overall counseling process and its parts are described. (Author/DF)

Mackenzie, Marlin M.

1984-01-01

169

Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational

Kielan Yarrow; John W. Krakauer; Peter Brown

2009-01-01

170

Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

2014-01-01

171

Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

2014-08-01

172

Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete  

PubMed Central

The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

2003-01-01

173

Nurturing sport expertise: factors influencing the development of elite athlete.  

PubMed

The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

2003-03-01

174

Health in Elite Sports from a Salutogenetic Perspective: Athletes' Sense of Coherence  

PubMed Central

Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and elite sport. PMID:25014085

Mayer, Jochen; Thiel, Ansgar

2014-01-01

175

Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete  

MedlinePLUS

... pinch injury, but the term stinger is most descriptive of the symptoms that the athlete experiences including ... common cause of back pain in the adult population, disc injury is relatively uncommon in the young ...

176

Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches.  

PubMed

Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key PointsAlthough most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition.The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmersThe data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming.We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among younger coaches, while among athletes,younger swimmers should be targeted. PMID:24421736

Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

2013-01-01

177

Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches  

PubMed Central

Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key Points Although most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition. The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmers The data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among younger coaches, while among athletes,younger swimmers should be targeted PMID:24421736

Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

2013-01-01

178

A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.  

PubMed

There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

2015-03-01

179

A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes  

PubMed Central

There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

2014-01-01

180

Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.  

PubMed

In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:24444205

Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

2014-01-01

181

AccesSports: A Model for Adapting Mainstream Sports Activities for Individuals with Visual Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AccesSports Model allows professionals with basic knowledge of visual impairments and mainstream sports to analyze any sports activity and design adaptations needed for targets or goals, boundaries, and rules to enable individuals with visual impairments to participate. Suggestions for modifying baseball, table tennis, swim racing, wrestling,…

Ponchilla, Paul E.

1995-01-01

182

Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

183

Human Capital, Sport Performance, and Salary Determination of Professional Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to the high availability of data, professional sport represents a unique laboratory in order to test labour market theories and predictions. In par- ticular, one of the most important propositions concerns the role that hu- man capital plays in shaping the life-cycle earnings patterns of workers. To the extent that sport can be considered as a type of human

Roberto Antonietti

2006-01-01

184

High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

2010-01-01

185

Social Problems in Athletics; Essays in the Sociology of Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical…

Landers, Daniel M., Ed.

186

Women, Sports, and Science: Do Female Athletes Have an Advantage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes data from a longitudinal study of high school youth to suggest that involvement in sports often has a strong and positive association with young womens' success in high school science. Associates participation in cheerleading with negative results. Summarizes both the functionalist and conflict theories regarding the purpose of sports.…

Hanson, Sandra L.; Kraus, Rebecca S.

1998-01-01

187

Goal Discrepancy in African American Male Student-Athletes' Unrealistic Expectations for Careers in Professional Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether African American male college student-athletes unrealistically focus their career goals on professional athletics to the detriment of their academic pursuits. The study considered the professional athleticaspirations of 702 AfricanAmerican male student-athletesfrom42 NCAA Division I universities using the concept of goal discrepancy to identify individuals whose professional athletic aspirations were inconsistent with their current status asfirst

Robert M. Sellers; Gabriel P. Kuperminc

1997-01-01

188

Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.  

PubMed

Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4±10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9±3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and team-mates second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood, however gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement. PMID:25387042

Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

2014-11-11

189

School nurses' familiarity and perceptions of academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained several questions pertaining to concussion management and academic accommodations. There were significant differences regarding personal experience as well as familiarity of academic accommodations (p < .001) between school nurses who work at a school that employs an athletic trainer and school nurses who work at a school that does not employ an athletic trainer. There were significant weak positive relationships between years of experience and familiarity with academic accommodations (r = .210, p < .001), 504 plans (r = .243, p < .001), and individualized education plans (r = .205, p < .001). School nurses employed at a single school were significantly more familiar with academic accommodations (p = .027) and 504 plans (p = .001) than school nurses employed at multiple schools. Health care professionals should collaborate to effectively manage a concussed patient and should consider academic accommodations to ensure whole-person health care. PMID:25015367

Weber, Michelle L; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

2015-04-01

190

Goal perspectives and sport participation motivation of Special Olympians and typically developing athletes.  

PubMed

Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (<15, 15-17, 18-20, >20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. PMID:23643768

Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon

2013-07-01

191

Altitude exposure in sports: the Athlete Biological Passport standpoint.  

PubMed

The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is principally founded on monitoring an athlete's biological variables over time, to identify abnormal biases on a longitudinal basis. Several factors are known to influence the results of these markers. However, the manner in which the altitude factor is taken into account still needs to be standardized. Causal relationships between haematological variables should be correctly integrated into ABP software. In particular, modifications of haematological parameters during and after exposure to different altitudes/hypoxic protocols need to be properly included within detection models. PMID:24115763

Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Lippi, Giuseppe

2014-03-01

192

The influence of sport goggles on visual target detection in female intercollegiate athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sport goggles on visual target detection in female intercollegiate athletes. Participants were randomly divided into three groups that varied in goggle use (G) or no goggle use (NG) over a total of three 1-min trials during a visual target detection task. The NG-NG-NG group did not wear goggles for any of the trials, whereas the NG-G-NG group wore goggles for the second trial only, and the G-NG-G group wore goggles for the first and third trials. The task consisted of illuminated targets arranged in five concentric rings from central to peripheral visual angles. The effects of sport goggles on response time to detect targets were most evident in the peripheral rings. Those who did not wear sport goggles showed improved performance from the first to second trials. This improvement was impaired, however, in those who wore sport goggles. Moreover, there was a reversal of the performance improvements achieved without goggles in those who wore goggles on the third trial. Together, these findings suggest the sport goggles not only impaired the expected initial performance but also impaired visual target detection after performance improvements were seen. These findings suggest sport goggles may impair detection of peripheral visual stimuli in athletes. PMID:25537065

Kauffman, Danielle C; Clark, Joseph F; Smith, J Carson

2015-06-01

193

An investigation of how university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists experience ethical issues.  

PubMed

Study Design Qualitative study using interpretive description methodology. Objectives The purpose of this study was to better understand how ethical issues are experienced by university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists. Background In clinical practice, sports teams are associated with a range of ethical issues. Issues commonly reported in the literature include confidentiality, return-to-play decisions, conflicts of interest, advertising, doping, and use of local anesthetic. To date, there has been limited examination of how athletic therapists and physical therapists involved with sports teams experience these ethical issues, and limited exploration of how these ethical issues, when encountered, are shaped by therapists' professional roles and responsibilities. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 athletic or physical therapists working with sports teams in 5 Canadian provinces. The data were analyzed inductively, using a recursive approach and constant comparative techniques. Results Four key themes were developed relating to the participants' experiences of ethical issues: establishing and maintaining professional boundaries, striving for respectful and effective collaboration, seeking answers to ethical concerns, and living with the repercussions of challenging decisions. Conclusion While many ethical issues reported by participants resemble those faced by sports medicine physicians, they are experienced in distinctive ways, due to differences in professional roles and identities. Issues concerning professional boundaries were also more prominent for the study participants than the literature has reported them to be for sports medicine physicians. Effective communication and enhanced collaboration appear to be key elements in managing these ethical challenges. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(3):198-206. Epub 27 Jan 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5390. PMID:25627154

Riendeau, Catherine; Parent-Houle, Valérie; Lebel-Gabriel, Marie Eve; Gauvin, Patrick; Liu, Le Yu; Pearson, Isabelle; Hunt, Matthew R

2015-03-01

194

Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

195

Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes  

PubMed Central

Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. PMID:24379720

Merkel, Donna L

2013-01-01

196

Effect of head impacts on diffusivity measures in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season affects white matter diffusion measures in collegiate contact sport athletes. Methods: A prospective cohort study at a Division I NCAA athletic program of 80 nonconcussed varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 79 non–contact sport athletes. Assessment occurred preseason and shortly after the season with diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive measures. Results: There was a significant (p = 0.011) athlete-group difference for mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum. Postseason fractional anisotropy (FA) differed (p = 0.001) in the amygdala (0.238 vs 0.233). Measures of head impact exposure correlated with white matter diffusivity measures in several brain regions, including the corpus callosum, amygdala, cerebellar white matter, hippocampus, and thalamus. The magnitude of change in corpus callosum MD postseason was associated with poorer performance on a measure of verbal learning and memory. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between head impact exposure, white matter diffusion measures, and cognition over the course of a single season, even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, in a cohort of college athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent. PMID:24336143

Ford, James C.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur; Greenwald, Richard M.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Bolander, Richard P.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Turco, John H.; Raman, Rema; Jain, Sonia

2014-01-01

197

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad.  

PubMed

The female athlete triad (Triad) refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. With proper nutrition, these same relationships promote robust health. Athletes are distributed along a spectrum between health and disease, and those at the pathological end may not exhibit all these clinical conditions simultaneously. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability appears to be the factor that impairs reproductive and skeletal health in the Triad, and it may be inadvertent, intentional, or psychopathological. Most effects appear to occur below an energy availability of 30 kcal.kg(-1) of fat-free mass per day. Restrictive eating behaviors practiced by girls and women in sports or physical activities that emphasize leanness are of special concern. For prevention and early intervention, education of athletes, parents, coaches, trainers, judges, and administrators is a priority. Athletes should be assessed for the Triad at the preparticipation physical and/or annual health screening exam, and whenever an athlete presents with any of the Triad's clinical conditions. Sport administrators should also consider rule changes to discourage unhealthy weight loss practices. A multidisciplinary treatment team should include a physician or other health-care professional, a registered dietitian, and, for athletes with eating disorders, a mental health practitioner. Additional valuable team members may include a certified athletic trainer, an exercise physiologist, and the athlete's coach, parents and other family members. The first aim of treatment for any Triad component is to increase energy availability by increasing energy intake and/or reducing exercise energy expenditure. Nutrition counseling and monitoring are sufficient interventions for many athletes, but eating disorders warrant psychotherapy. Athletes with eating disorders should be required to meet established criteria to continue exercising, and their training and competition may need to be modified. No pharmacological agent adequately restores bone loss or corrects metabolic abnormalities that impair health and performance in athletes with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. PMID:17909417

Nattiv, Aurelia; Loucks, Anne B; Manore, Melinda M; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Warren, Michelle P

2007-10-01

198

Effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest on haematological, physiological, and performance parameters in multi-sport athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 weeks of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest was able to elicit changes that would benefit multi-sport athletes. Twenty-two multi-sport athletes of mixed ability were exposed to either a normobaric hypoxic gas (intermittent hypoxic training group) or a placebo gas containing normal room air (placebo group). The participants breathed the

Michael John Hamlin; John Hellemans

2007-01-01

199

The Relationship between Gender, Type of Sport, Body Dissatisfaction, Self Esteem and Disordered Eating Behaviors in Division I Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether gender, type of sport (lean v. non-lean), body dissatisfaction and self esteem were associated with disordered eating behaviors in Division I college athletes. More female than male athletes displayed disordered eating behaviors; approximately one-quarter of the population was at risk for a clinically diagnosable eating disorder. The results also revealed that females in non-lean sports

BreeAnn Milligan; Mary Pritchard

2006-01-01

200

Participation in Sports for the Athlete with the Marfan Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Marfan syndrome was first described in 1896 by Dr. Antoine Marfan, a French pediatrician [1, 2]. He described a young\\u000a girl who manifested the classic musculoskeletal findings. This syndrome along with its propensity for aortic dilatation has\\u000a been recognized across the world as one of the causes of sudden death in high-profile athletes receiving considerable media\\u000a attention [3]. The

Marla Mendelson

201

Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Neuropsychological testing is a valuable tool in concussion diagnosis and management. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological testing program, consists of eight cognitive tasks and a 21-item symptom inventory. Method: ImPACT was used to examine the cognitive performance of 104 concussed athletes at baseline, 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury. Dependent measures included composite scores from the ImPACT computerized test battery,

Michael P. McClincy; Mark R. Lovell; Jamie Pardini; Michael W. Collins; Molly K. Spore

2006-01-01

202

Need Satisfaction, Well-Being, and Perceived Return-to-Sport Outcomes Among Injured Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether components of psychological well-being (i.e., positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and vitality) mediated the relationship between self-determination theory (SDT) basic needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and perceived return-to-sport outcomes. Competitive athletes (n = 204) from Australia, Canada, and the United States completed an injury need satisfaction scale, psychological well-being inventories, and

Leslie Podlog; Marc Lochbaum; Tara Stevens

2010-01-01

203

Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.  

PubMed

Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. PMID:24372621

Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

2015-02-01

204

RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC SPORTS INJURIES IN THE SKELETALLY IMMATURE ATHLETE  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, participation in organized youth sports has risen to include over 35 million contestants.1 The rise in participation has brought about an associated increase in both traumatic and overuse injuries in the youth athlete, which refers to both children and adolescents within a general age range of seven to 17. Exposure rates alone do not account for the increase in injuries. Societal pressures to perform at high levels affect both coaches and athletes and lead to inappropriate levels of training intensity, frequency, and duration. In this environment high physiologic stresses are applied to the immature skeleton of the youth athlete causing injury. Typically, since bone is the weakest link in the incomplete ossified skeleton, the majority of traumatic injuries result in fractures that occur both at mid?shaft and at the growth centers of bone. The following clinical commentary describes the common traumatic sports injuries that occur in youth athletes, as well as those which require rapid identification and care in order to prevent long term sequelae. PMID:23316432

Molony, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

205

Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.  

PubMed

The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. PMID:20840565

Birrer, D; Morgan, G

2010-10-01

206

Restricting sports activity in reducing the rate of varicocele and related infertility parameters in athletes  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the cessation of sports training in young athletes reduces the prevalence of varicocele. Material and methods 1,013 young males were divided into three age-matched groups based on their sport activity. The first group consisted of 305 athletically active boys in basketball, volleyball, handball, or football; the second of 44 active water-polo players, and the third of 664 sport-inactive controls. All participants had been initially examined for the presence of varicocele, and positive ones were submitted to orchidometry and seminal fluid analysis. Those with varicocele were then asked to cease all sport activity for the following six months, and the reassessing was performed. Results The results showed a significantly higher percentage of varicocele present in the first group than in the control group (p < 0.49), while the percentage of young males diagnosed with varicocele in the second proved to be even lower than that of the control group (9.09% vs. 12.35%). After the 6-month period of cessation and abstention from all sporting activity, every parameter of the seminal fluid analysis improved in the first group, wherein statistical significance for both sperm concentration (p < 0.001) and sperm motility (p < 0.023) was found. The testicular volume was found not to have increased significantly in either group (p > 0.05). Conclusions The study shows that sport-associated varicocele has a positive prognosis when diagnosed early and upon the cessation of sports training. PMID:25861305

Radunovic, Miroslav; Pajovic, Bogdan

2015-01-01

207

"I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…

Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

2008-01-01

208

From Diving Boards to Pole Vaults: Gendered Athlete Portrayals in the “Big Four” Sports at the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 70 prime-time hours of host and reporter commentary in NBC's 2004 Athens Summer Olympic telecast was undertaken to determine if announcer commentary in the sports of gymnastics, track and field, swimming, and diving each contained gender biases. Results indicated that gymnastics was the most gender-marked of the four major Olympic sports, with men and women athletes being covered

Andrew C. Billings

2007-01-01

209

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use as a Complicating Factor in the Female Athlete Triad: Behavioral Implications for Sport Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, recognizing a ubiquitous pattern of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis among young women participating in competitive sports, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) initiated a dialogue about the Female Athlete Triad. Since then, members of ACSM and other professional societies have offered theoretical models for reducing problem behaviors, but few have conceptualized how the use of anabolic-androgenic

Bryan E. Denham; Katherine W. Hawkins; Karyn Ogata Jones; Andrew C. Billings

2007-01-01

210

Sports Medicine and Injuries in the Athletic Woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general trend toward increased participation of females in sports and physical activity across the lifespan. While\\u000a women were banned from the first modern Olympic games in 1896, they comprised 35.1% of the participants in 1996. There were\\u000a a few early pioneers, including Olympic champions Charlotte Cooper and Mildred “Babe” Didrikson, but World War II probably\\u000a had a

Tanya J. Hagen; Freddie H. Fu

211

More of the same? Comment on "An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: a practitioner approach".  

PubMed

Gulbin and colleagues (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sports Sciences) present a new sport and athlete development framework that evolved from empirical observations from working with the Australian Institute of Sport. The FTEM (Foundations, Talent, Elite, Mastery) framework is proposed to integrate general and specialised phases of development for participants within the active lifestyle, sport participation and sport excellence pathways. A number of issues concerning the FTEM framework are presented. We also propose the need to move beyond prescriptive models of talent identification and development towards a consideration of features of best practice and process markers of development together with robust guidelines about the implementation of these in applied practice. PMID:24289191

MacNamara, Aine; Collins, Dave

2014-01-01

212

Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports.  

PubMed

In light of the World Anti Doping Agency's 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research' by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

Camporesi, Silvia; McNamee, Michael J

2014-01-01

213

Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports  

PubMed Central

In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

2014-01-01

214

University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Athlete Pre-Participation Health History, 2012-2013  

E-print Network

at 434-243-9669 or hand deliver to the General Medicine reception desk. The NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Fact Sheet is attached to this form. Sickle cell testing is strongly recommended for all athletes. If after reading this information you wish to decline the test, please bring the attached sickle cell waiver form

Acton, Scott

215

Reaction time and anticipatory skill of athletes in open and closed skill-dominated sport.  

PubMed

In sports, reaction time and anticipatory skill are critical aspects of perceptual abilities. To date, no study has compared reaction time and anticipatory skill of athletes from open and closed skill-dominated sport. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether a difference exists in sensory-cognitive skills between these two different sport domains. Eleven volleyball players and 11 sprinters participated in this experiment. Reaction time and anticipatory skill of both groups were recorded by a custom-made software called SART (speed anticipation and reaction time test). This software consists of six sensory-cognitive tests that evaluate visual choice reaction time, visual complex choice reaction time, auditory choice reaction time, auditory complex choice reaction time, and anticipatory skill of the high speed and low speed of the ball. For each variable, an independent t-test was performed. Results suggested that sprinters were better in both auditory reaction times (P<0.001 for both tests) and volleyball players were better in both anticipatory skill tests (P = 0.007 and P = 0.04 for anticipatory skill of the high speed and low speed of the ball, respectively). However, no significant differences were found in both visual choice reaction time tests (P > 0.05 for both visual reaction time tests). It is concluded that athletes have greater sensory-cognitive skills related to their specific sport domain either open or closed. PMID:24050458

Nuri, Leila; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Ghotbi, Nastaran; Attarbashi Moghadam, Behrouz

2013-01-01

216

Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.  

PubMed

Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513

Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

2013-05-01

217

Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.  

PubMed

Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. PMID:24033718

Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

2014-12-01

218

Natural selection for genetic variants in sport: the role of Y chromosome genes in elite female athletes with 46,XY DSD.  

PubMed

At present, it is widely assumed that hyperandrogenism in female athletes confers an unfair competitive advantage. This view is perpetuated in current regulations governing eligibility of female athletes with hyperandrogenism to compete, which identify testosterone levels in the male range as the critical factor. Detailed evidence is presented here for the first time that genes for stature (and possibly other genes) on the Y chromosome are responsible for the increased frequency of 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD) among elite female athletes identified by eligibility tests. In many cases, androgens are non-functional or, alternatively, absent and therefore testosterone cannot be responsible for their athletic success. Genetic variation has a major role in the selection of individuals for training and success in competition; however, this variation is not grounds for determining who should compete in athletic events. There is no convincing evidence to support the view that hyperandrogenism is associated with performance advantage in female athletes. Current time-consuming regulations may lead to the unwelcome resurgence of innuendo in the media and coercion of female athletes into accepting gonadectomy and other treatments to which they might otherwise not have been subjected. These regulations should be withdrawn on the grounds that they are not supported scientifically, are discriminatory towards women and place some female athletes at risk of unnecessary and potentially harmful investigations. Improved understanding about genetic factors that lead to selection in sport should offer reassurance that women with hyperandrogenism possess no physical attribute relevant to athletic performance that is neither attainable, nor present in other women. PMID:25160863

Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Bavington, L Dawn

2014-12-01

219

Role of Sports in the Development of an Individual and Role of Psychology in Sports*  

PubMed Central

Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few.

Ghildiyal, Rakesh

2015-01-01

220

Age-predicted vs. measured maximal heart rate in young team sport athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Although maximal heart rate (HR)max is used widely to assess exercise intensity in sport training and particularly in various team sports, there are limited data with regards to the use of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in sport populations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured-HRmax with three prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220-age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208-0.7×age and Nikolaidis-HRmax = 223-1.44×age) in young team sport athletes. Materials and Methods: Athletes of soccer, futsal, basketball and water polo, classified into three age groups (u-12, 9?12 years, n = 50; u-15, 12?15 years, n = 40; u-18, 15?18 years, n = 57), all members of competitive clubs, voluntarily performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test) to assess HRmax. Results: Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax, while Tanaka-HRmax underestimated it (P < 0.001). However, this trend was not consistent when examining each group separately; measured-HRmax was similar with Tanaka-HRmax in u-12 and u-15, while it was similar with Nikolaidis-HRmax in u-18. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to validate two widely used and one recently developed prediction equations in a large sample of young athletes, indicating the need for specific equation in different age groups. Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers should prefer Tanaka-HRmax when desiring to avoid overtraining, while Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax should be their choice in order to ensure adequate exercise intensity. PMID:25114367

Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

2014-01-01

221

Multimodal assessment of primary motor cortex integrity following sport concussion in asymptomatic athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies have shown, in asymptomatic concussed athletes, metabolic disruption in the primary motor cortex (M1) and abnormal intracortical inhibition lasting for more than six months. The present study aims to assess if these neurochemical and neurophysiological alterations are persistent and linked to M1 cortical thickness. Methods Sixteen active football players who sustained their last concussion, on average, three years prior to testing and 14 active football players who never sustained a concussion were recruited for a single session of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Measures of M1 and whole brain cortical thickness were acquired, and 1H-MRS data were acquired from left M1 using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Cortical silent period (CSP) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) were measured with TMS applied over left M1. Results No significant group differences were observed for metabolic concentrations, TMS measures, and cortical thickness. However, whereas GABA and glutamate levels, and GABA levels and M1 mean thickness were positively correlated in control athletes, these relationships were absent in concussed athletes. Conclusion These data suggest the general absence of neurophysiologic, neurometabolic and neuroanatomical disruptions in M1 three years following the last concussive event. However, correlational analyses suggest the presence of a slight metabolic imbalance between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the primary motor cortex of concussed athletes. Significance The present study highlights the importance of multimodal assesments of the impacts of sport concussions. PMID:24462505

Tremblay, Sara; Beaulé, Vincent; Proulx, Sébastien; Tremblay, Sébastien; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Doyon, Julien; Lassonde, Maryse; Théoret, Hugo

2015-01-01

222

Total haemoglobin mass, blood volume and morphological indices among athletes from different sport disciplines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Haemoglobin is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. This study's objective was to assess total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), as well as blood volume and morphological indices in athletes training different sports disciplines. Material and methods This study was conducted on 176 endurance and non-endurance athletes (males and females). tHb-mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and red cell volume (RCV) were determined by optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood count (RBC) were also determined. Results In endurance sports, gender regardless, no significant differences in relative mean values of tHb-mass (12.8–13.1 g/kg – males; 10.4–10.6 g/kg – females), BV (90.8–94.0 ml/kg – males; 82.7–86.9 ml/kg – females), RCV (36.6–38.0 ml/kg – males; 31.1–31.5 ml/kg – females) or of PV in males (54.2–56.4 ml/kg) were observed. The above indices’ relative values, gender regardless, were significantly lower in judo (11.2 ±0.7 g/kg, 81.8 ±5.9 ml/kg, 48.6 ±4.5 ml/kg and 33.1 ±2.0 ml/kg – males; 9.3 ±0.7 g/kg, 74.3 ±5.6 ml/kg, 46.4 ±4.0 ml/kg and 27.9 ±2.1 ml/kg – females) compared to endurance sports (p < 0.001). No substantial differences were observed in morphological blood indices in males, whereas this differentiation was found between certain sports in female athletes. Conclusions The lack of differences in tHb-mass, BV, PV and RCV in endurance sports and presence of this differentiation between various sports shows that the types of training might affect levels of mentioned indices. Measurements of tHb-mass and BV parameters prove Hb, Hct and RBC to have limited value for haematological status evaluations. PMID:24273557

Sitkowski, Dariusz; Orysiak, Joanna; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Szygula, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

223

Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.  

PubMed

Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. PMID:24738561

Evans, M B; Eys, M A

2015-02-01

224

Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.  

PubMed

The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

2012-08-01

225

The Relationship of Symptoms and Neurocognitive Performance to Perceived Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion Among Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes’ self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to

Natalie K. Sandel; Mark R. Lovell; Nathan E. Kegel; Michael W. Collins; Anthony P. Kontos

2012-01-01

226

A survey of Fellows in the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences (Canada): their intervention practices and intended therapeutic outcomes when treating athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compile baseline data regarding the treatment practices and therapeutic outcomes that fellows of the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences Canada (CCSS(C)) strive for when treating athletes. Design Cross-sectional self-report mail out survey of CCSS(C) fellows. Participants Current registered fellows of the CCSS(C) as determined by the College at the time of survey distribution. Results The majority of questioned fellows believe that they can cause direct and specific improvements in an athlete’s sport performance. The most commonly utilized therapeutic intervention was spinal joint manipulation/mobilization. The most anticipated outcomes following the treatment of athletes with the goal of affecting athletic performance were “changing or improving aberrant body mechanics,” “restoring or improving aberrant muscle function,” and “improving joint function or reducing joint dysfunction.” Conclusion The majority of respondent fellows of the CCSS(C) believe their therapy to be effective in enhancing an athlete’s sport performance. PMID:21120021

Miners, Andrew L.; deGraauw, Christopher

2010-01-01

227

African American Football Athletes' Perspectives on Institutional Integrity in College Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in…

Singer, John N.

2009-01-01

228

Examination of the psychometric properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire - 2 in a sample of female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook two studies to determine the validity and reliability of the revised Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2). In Study 1, 201 female athletes (mean age 16.4 years) were administered the initial version of the PMCSQ-2 and a measure of reported tension and pressure experienced in sport. Exploratory principal component analysis suggested that the PMCSQ-2 contained two higher-order

Maria Newton; Joan L. Duda; Zenong Yin

2000-01-01

229

Preventing ACL injuries in team-sport athletes: a systematic review of training interventions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria and were independently rated by two reviewers using the McMaster Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group scale. Consensus scores ranged from 3 to 8 out of 10. Seven out of nine studies demonstrated that training interventions have a preventive effect on ACLI. Collectively, the studies indicate there is moderate evidence to support the use of multifaceted training interventions, which consisted of stretching, proprioception, strength, plyometric and agility drills with additional verbal and/or visual feedback on proper landing technique to decrease the rate of ACLIs in team sport female athletes, while the paucity of data preclude any conclusions for male athletes. PMID:22742077

Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

2012-07-01

230

Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.  

PubMed

The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

2013-12-01

231

Applying self-compassion in sport: an intervention with women athletes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a self-compassion intervention on negative cognitive states and self-compassion in varsity women athletes. Athletes who self-identified as being self-critical were randomly assigned to a self-compassion intervention (n = 29) or attention control group (n = 22). The self-compassion intervention consisted of a psychoeducation session and writing components completed over a 7-day period. Measures of self-compassion, state self-criticism, state rumination, and concern over mistakes were collected pretreatment, at 1 week posttreatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. A mixed factorial MANOVA with follow-up post hoc tests demonstrated moderate-to-strong effects for the intervention at posttest and follow-up (Wilks's ? = .566, F (8, 42) = 4.03, p < .01, ?2 = .43). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-compassion intervention in managing self-criticism, rumination, and concern over mistakes. Fostering self-compassionate mind frames is a potential coping resource for women athletes dealing with negative events in sport. PMID:24197719

Mosewich, Amber D; Crocker P, R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Delongis, Anita

2013-10-01

232

Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes  

PubMed Central

The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200–2500?m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

2013-01-01

233

Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines  

PubMed Central

Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0±23.0 vs. 68.5±30.8 and 80.72±29.1 ?mol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8±35.6 ?mol/L), wrestlers (342±36.2 ?mol/L) and basketball players (347.95±31.3 ?mol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1±667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1±391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

Hadžovi? - Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjani?, Samra; Hadžimuratovi?, Adnan; Meki?, Amel

2014-01-01

234

Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines.  

PubMed

Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 ± 23.0 vs. 68.5 ± 30.8 and 80.72 ± 29.1 ?mol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 ± 35.6 ?mol/L), wrestlers (342.5 ± 36.2 ?mol/L) and basketball players (347.95 ± 31.3 ?mol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 ± 667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1 ± 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

Hadžovi?-Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjani?, Samra; Hadžimuratovi?, Adnan; Meki?, Amel

2014-05-01

235

Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.  

PubMed

The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

2009-03-01

236

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

237

Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

2011-01-01

238

Contemporary Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics--An Annotated Bibliography and Proposed Course Outline: "Contemporary Issues in Collegiate Sports."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although sport has reached the pinnacle of success, there remain serious questions regarding the role it plays in education. An annotated bibliography of athletics and a course outline are presented with topics including: history, amateurism, violence, injuries,and the mass media. (MLW)

Jones, Edward L.

1986-01-01

239

Can a Sport Organization Monitor Its Employees' and Athletes' Use of Social Media?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Pietrylo v. Hillstone Restaurant Group," the plaintiff filed a wrongful-discharge claim against his employer after he was fired for content he had posted about the employer on a social media web site. This article discusses the implications of the court's decision on athletes in the sport industry.

Han, Peter; Dodds, Mark A.

2013-01-01

240

Dynamics of Some Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dynamics of some common sports, such as race walking, running, cycling, jumping, and throwing, are presented. Rough estimates of the relevant physical quantities required for these individual sports are discussed. General mathematical formulas are derived which can be used for judging the performance of any athlete. (Author/KR)

Rana, N. C.

1991-01-01

241

Sport Biomechanist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

Sullivan, Megan

2005-01-01

242

Smena: Case Study of a Soviet Sport School for Elite Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes "Smena," a Specialist Children's and Young People's Sport School of Olympic Reserves, located in Leningrad, which trains elite young soccer players. Information is given on: (1) the facilities of the school; (2) the schools' long-range individual and team goals; (3) instructional methods and hours; (4) the responsibilities of…

Jefferies, Stephen C.

243

Participation in leanness sports but not training volume is associated with menstrual dysfunction: a national survey of 1276 elite athletes and controls  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the total population of Norwegian elite female athletes and national representative controls in the same age group. Methods: A detailed questionnaire that included questions on training and/or physical activity patterns, menstrual, dietary, and weight history, oral contraceptive use, and eating disorder inventory subtests was administered to all elite female athletes representing the country at the junior or senior level (aged 13–39 years, n = 938) and national representative controls in the same age group (n = 900). After exclusion, a total of 669 athletes (88.3%) and 607 controls (70.2%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. Results: Age at menarche was significantly (p<0.001) later in athletes (13.4 (1.4) years) than in controls (13.0 (1.3) years), and differed among sport groups. A higher percentage of athletes (7.3%) than controls (2.0%) reported a history of primary amenorrhoea (p<0.001). A similar percentage of athletes (16.5%) and controls (15.2%) reported present menstrual dysfunction, but a higher percentage of athletes competing in leanness sports reported present menstrual dysfunction (24.8%) than athletes competing in non-leanness sports (13.1%) (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.05). Conclusions: These novel data include virtually all eligible elite athletes, and thus substantially extend previous studies. Age at menarche occurred later and the prevalence of primary amenorrhoea was higher in elite athletes than in controls. A higher percentage of athletes competing in sports that emphasise thinness and/or a specific weight reported present menstrual dysfunction than athletes competing in sports focusing less on such factors and controls. On the basis of a comparison with a previous study, the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction was lower in 2003 than in 1993. PMID:15728691

Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

2005-01-01

244

Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an

Andrea Petróczi

2007-01-01

245

Monitoring of immunological parameters in adolescent basketball athletes during and after a sports season.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to monitor the immunological and hormonal responses and the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms in adolescent basketball athletes during the different stages of a sports season. Anthropometric measures, biochemical analyses (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, testosterone and cortisol), neuromuscular evaluations (standing vertical jumping ability, agility and estimated VO2max) and leukocyte counts were performed at four moments: 72 h before the season (-72 h); before the season (Pre-season); after six weeks, at the end of the preparatory period (Preparatory); and after 20 weeks, at the end of the competitive period (Competitive). Also, the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms was collected weekly during all stages of the season. There were significant increases in monocytes, cortisol, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein at the Competitive moment as compared to the Pre-season. In addition, interleukin-10 decreased at the Competitive moment as compared to the Pre-season. Occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms demonstrated increases (38%) during the competitive period as compared to the preparatory. These results suggest that periods of training and competition could increase the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms in adolescent athletes and this may be due to the unwanted effects of an inflammatory process in response to the excessive stress of training and competition. PMID:24479737

Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Rodrigues, Ariel; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Bonganha, Valéria; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

2014-01-01

246

Ephedra and Its Application to Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The ma huang herb, otherwise known as ephedra, has gained widespread popularity as an ergogenic supplement. With the sympathomimetic alkaloid ephedrine as its primary active ingredient, ma huang is marketed to reduce fatigue; increase strength, power, and speed; decrease reaction time; and improve body composition. Although numerous side effects have been associated with the use of ma huang, its popularity in athletes continues to grow. This review provides rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang and compares and contrasts those claims with data from scientifically controlled investigations. Data Sources: MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1970 to 2000 using the key words ma huang, ephedra, and ephedrine in combination with humans, exercise, performance, and side effects. Data Synthesis: Ephedrine has been used alone or in combination with other drugs as an effective weight-loss agent. The weight loss has been attributed to thermogenic and lipolytic effects which, in combination with the central nervous system stimulating effects, have also resulted in its use as an ergogenic aid. Most of the scientific data, however, do not support manufacturers' ergogenic claims, and numerous side effects have been associated with ephedrine use. Thus, the safety and efficacy of ma huang as an ergogenic supplement must be questioned. Conclusions/Recommendations: It appears that the risks associated with the use of ma huang far outweigh any possible ergogenic benefits. Thus, it is extremely important that athletic trainers educate athletes on these issues so they can continue to perform at an optimum level in a safe and healthy manner. PMID:16558668

2001-01-01

247

Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different.  

PubMed

Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training. PMID:25834650

Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; ??o?lu-Alkaç, Ümmühan

2015-04-01

248

Effect of ischemic preconditioning on repeated sprint ability in team sport athletes.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a trained population affected repeated sprint performance. A secondary aim was to assess responses according to gender. Sixteen (nine females and seven males) well trained team sport athletes took part in a randomised crossover study design. Participants underwent an IPC and placebo treatment involving three periods of 5 min occlusion applied unilaterally (3 × 5 min occlusion to each leg) at either 220 mmHg or 50 mmHg. Each period of occlusion was followed by 5 min reperfusion. Following treatment 5 × 6 s maximal effort sprints were undertaken on a cycle ergometer against 7.5% body mass, each interspersed by 24 s recovery. Measured parameters included peak power, total power, percentage decrement, post-exercise blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion. Nor within subject main effect for IPC was observed, neither was there an interaction effect with gender. Effect sizes were trivial (ES < 0.2) with the exception of a moderate (ES < 1.2) change in post-exercise blood lactate in the female cohort (1.6 ± 0.4 mmol(-1) lower following IPC). Results suggest no benefit to team sport players in utilising IPC as a means of enhancing repeated sprint performance. A lower blood lactate response in female participants following IPC may suggest improved blood flow through vasodilation. PMID:25517761

Gibson, Neil; Mahony, Ben; Tracey, Claire; Fawkner, Samantha; Murray, Andrew

2015-06-01

249

The role of coaches of wheelchair rugby in the development of athletes with a spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheelchair rugby allows individuals living with quadriplegia to compete in an elite-level sport. It is currently one of the fastest-growing disability sports in the world and is the only full contact sport played by athletes with a disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal experiences of wheelchair rugby coaches in the development of their athletes who

Holly Tawse; Gordon A. Bloom; Catherine M. Sabiston; Greg Reid

2012-01-01

250

Leadership Ability and Achieving Styles among Student-Athletes at a NCAA-II University in the Northeast United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined student-athletes' self-reported leadership ability and achieving styles. It analyzed leadership ability and achieving style preferences as they related to gender, class status, ethnicity, and sport classification: individual-sport vs. team-sport athletes. A paper and pencil survey consisting of a composite variable of six…

Nigro, Mary Theresa

2012-01-01

251

Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.  

PubMed

Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

2014-11-01

252

Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose and the thirst mechanism, and decrease the risk of dehydration or hyponatremia. Athletes will not need vitamin and mineral supplements if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, supplements may be required by athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume high-carbohydrate diets with low micronutrient density. Nutritional ergogenic aids should be used with caution, and only after careful evaluation of the product for safety, efficacy, potency, and whether or not it is a banned or illegal substance. Nutrition advice, by a qualified nutrition expert, should only be provided after carefully reviewing the athlete's health, diet, supplement and drug use, and energy requirements. PMID:11145214

2000-12-01

253

Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose and the thirst mechanism, and decrease the risk of dehydration or hyponatremia. Athletes will not need vitamin and mineral supplements if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, supplements may be required by athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume high-carbohydrate diets with low micronutrient density. Nutritional ergogenic aids should be used with caution, and only after careful evaluation of the product for safety, efficacy, potency, and whether or not it is a banned or illegal substance. Nutrition advice, by a qualified nutrition expert, should only be provided after carefully reviewing the athlete's health, diet, supplement and drug use, and energy requirements. PMID:11128862

2000-12-01

254

The general practitioner as sports physician.  

PubMed Central

General practitioners must become more knowledgeable about sports medicine in order both to treat the injured athlete and to provide better rehabilitative treatment and advice on fitness and exercise to other patients. Close involvement with young amateur athletes also helps to keep the older physician "in tune" with the younger generation. Finances remain a major problem for amateur sporting events and sports medicine groups, as well as for the individual physician volunteering his time. PMID:902211

Timpson, R. J.

1977-01-01

255

Determining the college sports information director's management role and potential to be promoted to the position of director of intercollegiate athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency with which college sports information directors (SIDs) are promoted to athletics director (AD) positions. Results reveal some reasons why SIDs, the primary communications officer in the athletics department, may or may not be considered as qualified candidates for AD jobs. This study illustrates that current ADs predominately come from the

Gil R Swalls

2004-01-01

256

A cross sectional study of 100 athletes with jumper's knee managed conservatively and surgically. The Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Jumper's knee causes significant morbidity in athletes of all standards. However, there are few reference data on the clinical course of this condition in a large number of patients, and the aim of this study was to rectify this. METHODS: A retrospective study of the course of jumper's knee in 100 athletes who presented to a sports medicine clinic

J L Cook; K M Khan; P R Harcourt; M Grant; D A Young; S F Bonar

1997-01-01

257

3D Pre-vs. Post-Season Comparisons of Surface and Relative Pose of the Corpus Callosum in Contact Sport Athletes  

E-print Network

, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA 1 Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses

Wang, Yalin

258

Eating disorders among high performance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

1993-01-01

259

MUSCULAR OXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS DISCUSSION ON THE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE ATHLETES WITH SPORTS-RELATED-AMENORRHEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group), and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group). One

Takahiro Sas; Koichi Sairyo; Naoyuki Yoshida; Makoto Ishikawa

260

The Relationships among Goal Orientation,Athletics' Coachability,and Sources of Sport-Confidence of Male Basketball Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to observe the relationships between goal orientation,athletics'coachability, and sources of sporting confidence for female basketball players. One hundred and thirty night male basketball players who competed in final eight division-1 high school basketball league in the 2004 academic year were recruited as participants. Their average age was 17.12±1.25 years. Participants were asked to complete

Chien-Te Ho; Chih-Ling Su

261

Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.  

PubMed

It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the thirst mechanism, and decrease the risk of dehydration or hyponatremia. Athletes will not need vitamin-and-mineral supplements if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, supplements may be required by athletes who restrict energy intake, have severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume high-carbohydrate diets with low micronutrient density. Nutritional ergogenic aids should be used with caution, and only after careful evaluation of the product for safety, for efficacy, for potency, and to determine whether or not it is a banned or illegal substance. Nutrition advice, by a qualified nutrition expert, should be provided only after the athlete's health, diet, supplement and drug use, and energy requirements have been carefully reviewed. PMID:11551367

2000-01-01

262

Initiation Rites and Athletics: A National Survey of NCAA Sports Teams. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alfred University conducted a national survey of college athletes, coaches, and staff members at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions early in 1999 to determine the extent of hazing and initiation rites. A national random sample of 10,000 athletes was taken from a composite list of all athletes from 224 NCAA institutions…

Alfred Univ., NY.

263

Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

2015-01-01

264

Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

265

The Athletics Plan for the Eighties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawaii's Interscholastic Athletics program involves 38 high schools in a voluntary program designed to develop athletically talented students and to foster student and community identity with the schools. Although the ten-year old program offering sixteen team and individual sports has been successful, several issues remain unresolved in the areas…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

266

Athletics and Social Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains papers dealing with such topics as the coach-athlete relationship, effects of sports on character, the athlete's role in social action, and the integrity of the athletic spectacle and its financing. (MB)

Crase, Darrell; And Others

1972-01-01

267

Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: Skiing, figure skating and gymnastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary ‘cutoff’ date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little

Joseph Baker; Christina Janning; Harmonie Wong; Stephen Cobley; Jörg Schorer

2012-01-01

268

Sports medicine and ethics.  

PubMed

Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

2013-01-01

269

High-Risk Drinking Characteristics in Collegiate Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors aimed to further describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. Participants: There were 720 participants from Divisions I, II, and III who participated in either a team sport or an individual sport. Methods: The authors measured…

Brenner, James; Swanik, Kathleen

2007-01-01

270

Local versus global optimal sports techniques in a group of athletes.  

PubMed

Various optimization algorithms have been used to achieve optimal control of sports movements. Nevertheless, no local or global optimization algorithm could be the most effective for solving all optimal control problems. This study aims at comparing local and global optimal solutions in a multistart gradient-based optimization by considering actual repetitive performances of a group of athletes performing a transition move on the uneven bars. Twenty-four trials by eight national-level female gymnasts were recorded using a motion capture system, and then multistart sequential quadratic programming optimizations were performed to obtain global optimal, local optimal and suboptimal solutions. The multistart approach combined with a gradient-based algorithm did not often find the local solution to be the best and proposed several other solutions including global optimal and suboptimal techniques. The qualitative change between actual and optimal techniques provided three directions for training: to increase hip flexion-abduction, to transfer leg and arm angular momentum to the trunk and to straighten hand path to the bar. PMID:24156618

Huchez, Aurore; Haering, Diane; Holvoët, Patrice; Barbier, Franck; Begon, Mickael

2015-01-01

271

Mechanical analysis of the acute effects of a heavy resistance exercise warm-up on agility performance in court-sport athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of heavy resistance exercise on agility performance in court-sport athletes. Five men (age: 20.6 ± 1.9 years; body mass: 79.36 ± 11.74 kg; body height: 1.93 ± 0.09 m) and five women (age 21.2 ± 2.7 years; body mass: 65.8 ± 10.18 kg; body height 1.77 ± 0.08 m) volunteered to participate in the present study. All subjects were NCAA Division II athletes who currently participated in tennis or basketball and all had previous resistance training experience of at least one year. In a counterbalanced design, agility performance during a 10 m shuttle test was assessed following either a dynamic warm-up (DW) or heavy resistance warm-up (HRW) protocol. The HRW protocol consisted of three sets of squats at 50, 60, and 90% of 1-RM. Agility performance was captured using an eight camera motion analysis system and the mechanical variables of stride length, stride frequency, stance time, flight time, average ground reaction force, as well as agility time were recorded. No significant differences were reported for the HRW and DW protocols for any of the mechanical variables (p>0.05), although there was a trend towards the HRW protocol producing faster agility times compared to the control protocol (p = 0.074). Based on the trend towards a significant effect, as well as individual results it is possible that HRW protocols could be used as an acute method to improve agility performance in some court-sport athletes. PMID:24511350

Sole, Christopher J; Moir, Gavin L; Davis, Shala E; Witmer, Chad A

2013-12-18

272

INTRAMURALSFall Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 registration fee required  

E-print Network

INTRAMURALSFall Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 are forfeited). 3 week season with up to 2 games per week. Sport Registration Dates Season Dates Co-Ed Softball Tournaments* 1 to 4 days of tournament style competition. NO forfeit fee required. Sport Registration Dates

Maxwell, Bruce D.

273

INTRAMURALSSummer Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 registration fee required  

E-print Network

INTRAMURALSSummer Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 are forfeited). Sport Registration Dates Season Dates Flag Football (Men's & Women's & Co-Ed) May 5 - May 17 May the team manager via email or text message. Recreational Sports & Fitness 120 Marga Hosaeus Fitness Center

Maxwell, Bruce D.

274

INTRAMURALSSpring Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 registration fee required  

E-print Network

INTRAMURALSSpring Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 are forfeited). 3 week season with up to 2 games per week. Sport Registration Dates Season Dates Basketball (Men of tournament style competition. NO forfeit fee required. Sport Registration Dates Tournament Dates Racquetball

Lawrence, Rick L.

275

Emotional Intelligence, Body Image and Disordered Eating Attitudes in Combat Sport Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible differences in body image, emotional intelligence, anx- iety levels and disordered eating attitudes in a group of Taekwondo (TKD) and Judo athletes and non-athletes. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. A total of 60 subjects were recruited: 20 were national and international TKD and Judo athletes and

Vassiliki Costarelli; Dimitra Stamou

2009-01-01

276

Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

2012-01-01

277

The Complex Clinical Issues Involved in an Athlete’s Decision to Retire from Collision Sport Due to Multiple Concussions: A Case Study of a Professional Athlete  

PubMed Central

The issue of retirement from athletic participation due to repetitive concussive injuries remains controversial. The complexity of providing recommendations to elite athletes is highlighted by the prospect that offering inappropriate advice may foreseeably lead to engagement in a medico-legal challenge. Currently no evidenced-based, scientifically validated guidelines for forming the basis of such a decision exist. The current paper discusses the complexities of this challenge in addition to presenting a case study of a professional athlete. A number of central issues to consider when discussing athlete retirement revolve around the player’s medical and concussion histories, the current clinical profile, the athlete’s long-term life goals, and understanding of the potential long-term risks. Ensuring that thorough investigations of all possible differential diagnosis, that may explain the presenting symptoms, are conducted is also essential. Discussion pertaining to recommendations for guiding the clinical approach to the retirement issue for athletes with a history of multiple concussions is presented. PMID:24098296

Gardner, Andrew

2013-01-01

278

Working in Competitive Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work with competitive athletes is rewarding and challenging. Understanding the unique aspects of the elite sport environment can enhance psychological consultation. This paper begins with several case examples, then background characteristics common to many athletes are described, e.g., early involvement in sport participation, reliance on sport specific behavioral norms. It is suggested that paying particular attention to athletes' sport history,

Judy L. Van Raalte

1998-01-01

279

Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

2008-01-01

280

Quantification of physiological, movement, and technical outputs during a novel small-sided game in young team sport athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended. PMID:23254547

Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

2013-10-01

281

Understanding how organized youth sport maybe harming individual players within the family unit: a literature review.  

PubMed

Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little to date has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of papers on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. Ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

Bean, Corliss N; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

2014-01-01

282

Selected Cutaneous Disorders in Athletes  

PubMed Central

The author discusses selected cutaneous diseases seen in the athlete. These diseases may be caused by interaction with the elements, the playing surface, other athletes, or the clothing or equipment worn during sport. All of these dermatological conditions are relatively common, but the physically active individual can suffer from these maladies and their complications more often than the inactive person. The emphasis in caring for the participant is on prevention, early recognition and practical aspects of management of cutaneous diseases. PMID:21264034

Walker, James D.

1988-01-01

283

The Certified Athletic Trainer: Is Your School System Missing a Key Player?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An athletic trainer (ATC) who is certified by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) is an allied health professional with specific expertise in prevention, recognition, and care of injuries to athletes. Such individuals are college-degreed specialists in sports medicine who practice under the direction of a physician. ATCs perform six…

Campbell, Dan; Winterstein, Andrew P.

284

The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training. PMID:22476167

Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

2013-02-01

285

Effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest on haematological, physiological, and performance parameters in multi-sport athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 weeks of intermittent normobaric hypoxic exposure at rest was able to elicit changes that would benefit multi-sport athletes. Twenty-two multi-sport athletes of mixed ability were exposed to either a normobaric hypoxic gas (intermittent hypoxic training group) or a placebo gas containing normal room air (placebo group). The participants breathed the gas mixtures in 5-min intervals interspersed with 5-min recovery periods of normal room air for a total of 90 min per day, 5 days per week, over a 3-week period. The oxygen in the hypoxic gas decreased from 13% in week 1 to 10% by week 3. The training and placebo groups underwent a total of four performance tests, including a familiarization and baseline trial before the intervention, followed by trials at 2 and 17 days after the intervention. Time to complete the 3-km run decreased by 1.7%[95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.6 - 3.9%] 2 days after, and by 2.3% (CI = 0.25 - 4.4%) 17 days after, the last hypoxic episode in the training relative to the placebo group. Substantial changes in the training relative to the placebo group also included increased reticulocyte count 2 days (23.5%; CI =-1.9 to 44.9%) and 12 days (14.6%; CI = -7.1 to 36.4%) post-exposure. The effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 3-km performance found in this study is likely to be beneficial, which suggests non-elite multi-sport athletes should expect such training to enhance performance. PMID:17365530

Hamlin, Michael John; Hellemans, John

2007-02-15

286

Social Capital and College Sport: In Search of the Bridging Potential of Intercollegiate Athletics  

E-print Network

enhancement of crumbling communities in today’s society. Sport has been linked to community development (Chalip, 2006) and community ownership and engagement (Jarvie, 2003), and recent research alluded to the potential of sport to enhance social capital... for social capital capacity, the institution of sport in society has shown overall to be weakly embedded and positioned in society, where members of sports groups are found to be less embedded into civic life and other social environments when compared...

Clopton, Aaron Walter

2011-01-01

287

Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports

Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

2008-01-01

288

Direct Injury to the Axillary Nerve in Athletes Playing Contact Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed long-term followup (31 to 276 months) of 11 contact athletes who had sustained isolated in juries to their axillary nerves during athletic competi tion. There were no known shoulder dislocations. Elec tromyographs were taken of 10 patients, and all patients had confirmation of clinically defined injuries that were confined to their axillary nerves. Nine injuries were sustained while

Gary S. Perlmutter; Robert D. Leffert; Bertram Zarins

1997-01-01

289

Passion in Sport: On the Quality of the Coach-Athlete Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adap- tive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N

Marc-André K. Lafrenière; Sophia Jowett; Robert J. Vallerand; Eric G. Donahue; Ross Lorimer

2008-01-01

290

Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

2009-01-01

291

Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

Filsinger, Lora C.

2012-01-01

292

Anterior capsulolabral reconstruction of the shoulder in athletes in overhand sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

From April 1, 1985, through June 30, 1987, 25 skilled athletes with shoulder pain secondary to anterior gle nohumeral instability that had failed to improve with conservative therapy had an anterior capsulolabral re construction. All but one athlete completed a formal rehabilitation program with an average followup of 39 months. The results at followup were rated excellent in 68%, good

Frank W. Jobe; Charles E. Giangarra; Ronald S. Kvitne; Ronald E. Glousman

1991-01-01

293

The myth of the team captain as principal leader: extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams.  

PubMed

Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field. PMID:24660668

Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

2014-01-01

294

The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.  

PubMed

This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes. PMID:24914773

Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

2014-01-01

295

The World T.E.A.M. Sports Face of America Character Education Curriculum Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Exceptional Athlete Matters (World T.E.A.M.) Sports (WTS) brings individuals together to undertake unique athletic events throughout the world to encourage, promote, and develop opportunities in sports for people, with and without disabilities. This classroom program on character education provides teachers with lesson plans on three themes…

2002

296

Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes’ attitudes  

PubMed Central

Background Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes’ intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes’ attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Method Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. Results As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (?2?=?.11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r?=?.50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r?=?.36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (r tt ?=?.66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. Conclusions The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available “open source”. The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:24479865

2014-01-01

297

A Review of Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Professional Sports and Their Spread to Amateur Athletics, Adolescents, and Other At-Risk Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 30 years, we have been involved in the establishment of a number of national and international sports drug testing programs, the review of positive tests, and the medical treatment of substance-abusing athletes. It was expected that with educational programs, testing, and supportive medical treatment this substance-abusing behavior that could lead to deadly addictive disorders would decrease. Unfortunately,

David M. Martin; David A. Baron; Mark S. Gold

2006-01-01

298

A Research on Identifying the Need for Distance Education for National Athletes Who Study in School of Physical Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured…

Bozkus, Taner

2014-01-01

299

Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.  

PubMed

This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect. PMID:24251749

Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

2013-01-01

300

Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators  

PubMed Central

Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, ? 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, ? 2 = .013), relativism ( P < .001, ? 2 = .050), and ethical decision-making scores ( P < .001, ? 2 = .027). Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis indicated that educators possessed lower idealism scores (36.90 ± 5.70) and relativism scores (29.92 ± 4.86) and higher ethical decision-making scores (82.98 ± 7.62) than did students. Conclusions: Our findings do not support changes in athletic training ethics education practices to address sex-specific needs. However, when opportunities occur for students to reason using different ethical perspectives, educators should be aware of their students' and their own moral philosophies in order to optimally facilitate professional growth. PMID:18345347

Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

2008-01-01

301

It Takes a Team! Making Sports Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Athletes and Coaches. An Education Kit for Athletes, Coaches, and Athletic Directors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational kit focuses on the safe education of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. It includes four sections that examine: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., why it is important to address homophobia in sport, educator responsibilities, and who this educational kit is for); (2) "The Core Program: Video and Discussion"…

Griffin, Pat; Perrotti, Jeff; Priest, Laurie; Muska, Mike

302

Femoroacetabular impingement in 45 professional athletes: associated pathologies and return to sport following arthroscopic decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) occurs when an osseous abnormality of the proximal femur (cam) or acetabulum (pincer) triggers\\u000a damage to the acetabular labrum and articular cartilage in the hip. Although the precise etiology of FAI is not well understood,\\u000a both types of FAI are common in athletes presenting with hip pain, loss of range-of-motion, and disability in athletics. An\\u000a open surgical

Marc Philippon; Mara Schenker; Karen Briggs; David Kuppersmith

2007-01-01

303

Prevalence of Jumper's Knee Among Elite Athletes From Different Sports A Cross-sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of jumper's knee across different sports has not been examined, and it is not known if there is a gender difference. Data from surgical case series indicate that there may be a high prevalence in sports with high speed and power demands. Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of jumper's knee in

Øystein B. Lian; Lars Engebretsen; Roald Bahr

304

Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

2011-01-01

305

Sports fractures.  

PubMed Central

Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level of function. These qualities make them good surgical candidates. Although closed treatment methods are appropriate for most sports fractures, an aggressive approach to more complicated fractures employing current techniques may optimize their subsequent performance. PMID:7719781

DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

1994-01-01

306

Collegiate Athletics Highlights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,…

St. John, Eric

1999-01-01

307

Sports Medicine and Ethics  

PubMed Central

Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club’s best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision-making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete’s decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete’s long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P.; Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.; McKinney, Ross E.

2014-01-01

308

Trait and State Anxiety in Israeli Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined trait anxiety in three groups of Israeli physical education students (N-251) competitors in individual sports, in team sports, and noncompetitors. The measure was the Spielberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene Trait Anxiety Scale (1970). Additionally, two groups of competitive athletes were compared on State Anxiety as measured by the Spielberger…

Tenenbaum, Gershon; Milgram, Roberta M.

1978-01-01

309

Intravenous Fluid Use in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Results: Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. Conclusion: The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency–governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes. PMID:23016105

Givan, Gordon V.; Diehl, Jason J.

2012-01-01

310

Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes  

SciTech Connect

The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

1980-01-01

311

Studying Wind Chill Index as a Climatic Index Effective on the Health of Athletes and Tourists Interested in Winter Sports  

PubMed Central

Purpose Estimating wind chill index as one of the indexes effective in body comfort, specifically for athletes and tourists interested in winter sports. Methods Meteorology data including temperature and the percentage of relative humidity of 6 synoptic stations of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiyrai province, Iran from 1990 to 2007 were extracted from Iranian Meteorology Site. In order to calculate the values of wind chill, the innovative formula of NOAA Meteorology Services Center [T (WC)= 35.74+0.6215T-35.75V+0.4275TV] was used. Results After analyzing wind in all stations, it became evident that the great percentage of wind calm related to fall, and spring had the most wind distortions. In studying the mean temperature during this studying period, Koohrang station with mean of 9.8°C was identified as the coldest station and Lordegan with a mean of 17°C represented the warmest station of the region observed. According to degrees derived from wind chill index, Koohrang station in January with a mean of ?28.75 was known as the coldest and roughest station. Conclusion Among the studied stations, Koohrang had the most intensive degrees of wind chill occurrence and Lordegan had the calmest conditions. Therefore, athletes and tourists should use warmer clothes and covers in cold seasons in Koohrang in comparison with other studied regions, in order to protect themselves from the negative effects of sudden cold and occurrence of intense wind chills. PMID:22375198

Roshan, Gholamreza; Mirkatouli, Gafar; Shakoor, Ali; Mohammad-Nejad, Vahid

2010-01-01

312

Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

2011-01-01

313

Positive Transitions for Student Athletes: Life Skills for Transitions in Sport, College & Career.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides concrete information and step-by-step exercises to help student athletes succeed in college and make a successful transition to the world beyond college. The book is divided into 14 units containing some or all the following elements: goals; reading materials accompanying review questions; exercises; a unit recap; unit review…

Meeker, Darin J.; Stankovich, Christopher E.; Kays, Todd M.

314

Prevalence of sudden cardiac death during competitive sports activities in Minnesota High School athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be

Barry J Maron; Thomas E Gohman; Dorothee Aeppli

1998-01-01

315

Nutrition and athletic performance  

MedlinePLUS

... Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American ...

316

MIT INTRAMURAL SPORTS HANDBOOK INTRAMURAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

. Zesiger Sports and Fitness Center Administrative offices, cardiovascular equipment, free weight areaMIT INTRAMURAL SPORTS HANDBOOK INTRAMURAL OFFICE Zesiger Sports and Fitness Center 2nd Floor Committee C. Sport Managers Council (Athletics Chairpersons) Sport Captains III. Affiliations A. Definition

Reuter, Martin

317

Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)

Pooley, John C.

1989-01-01

318

Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports. Report to Congressional Addressees. GAO-07-535  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, the roles of women as both students and athletes have changed in higher education, with female enrollment surpassing male enrollment, and female athletic participation showing gains as well. These changes have generated public interest in whether women participate in athletics at comparable levels to men and whether men's…

Scott, George A.

2007-01-01

319

The female athlete triad.  

PubMed

The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation. PMID:15283616

Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A

2004-08-01

320

The Quantitative Analysis on the Individual Characteristics of Urban Residents and Their Sport Consumption Motivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the questionnaire, mathematical statistics and entropy measurement methods, the quantitative relationship between the individual characteristics urban residents and their sports consumption motivation are studied. The results show that the most main sports consumption motivation of urban residents is fitness motivation and social motivation. Urban residents of different gender, age, education and income levels are different in regulating psychological motivation, rational consumption motivation and seeking common motivation.

Xianliang, Lei; Hongying, Yu

321

The Effect of Course Length on Individual Medley Swimming Performance in National and International Athletes  

PubMed Central

Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000–2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000–2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000–2011. PMID:25414752

Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

2014-01-01

322

Transitioning to an Athletic Subjectivity: First-Semester Experiences at a Corporate (Sporting) University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of…

Clift, Bryan C.; Mower, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

323

Peer Leadership in Sport: Links with Friendship, Peer Acceptance, Psychological Characteristics, and Athletic Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend the work of Glenn and Horn (1993) by examining relationships between peer leadership in sport and social, psychological, and ability characteristics. The sample consisted of 71 female and 67 male high-school soccer players and their coaches. Players completed questionnaires measuring social (peer acceptance and friendship quality) and psychological (perceived competence,

Molly M. Moran; Maureen R. Weiss

2006-01-01

324

An elite endurance athlete's recovery from underperformance aided by a multidisciplinary sport science support team  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overload training resulting in an overreached state is common in elite sports, and if undetected can develop into an overtraining syndrome. This risk is accentuated by the lack of reliable measures of overreaching. Coaches and scientists therefore have to use a combination of tests in the monitoring process. This article presents a case study of the recovery from underperformance of

Henrik Gustafsson; Hans-Christer Holmberg; Peter Hassmén

2008-01-01

325

The Symbolic Boundary of Sports: Middle School Athletic Culture and Mexican Immigrant Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author presents an analysis of the hidden curriculum of school sports in mediating the achievement of Mexican immigrant girls in middle schools in the southwestern United States. Using Bourdieu's theory of taste, the author shows how symbolic boundaries expressed by students and teachers legitimize cultural practices that…

Meador, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

326

The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport

Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

327

Athletics, Society, and History: An Undergraduate Course in the History of American Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that, during the past generation, a new social history that concerns itself with the lives of ordinary people has changed history research and teaching. Describes an eight-unit college course in the history of United States sports. Includes a selected bibliography of books for students and teachers. (CFR)

Simons, William

1995-01-01

328

Preventing ACL Injuries in Team-Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review of Training Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the

Marko D. Stojanovic; Sergej M. Ostojic

2012-01-01

329

3D pre- versus post-season comparisons of surface and relative pose of the corpus callosum in contact sport athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing[1]. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sport athlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.

Lao, Yi; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wilkins, Bryce; Hwang, Darryl; Tsao, Sinchai; Wang, Yalin; Law, Meng; Leporé, Natasha

2014-03-01

330

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

331

Understanding How Organized Youth Sport May Be Harming Individual Players within the Family Unit: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little thus far has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. A model is proposed to explain under which circumstances sport leads to positive versus negative outcomes, ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

Bean, Corliss N.; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

2014-01-01

332

Gender role conflict, gender-typed characteristics, self-concepts, and sport socialization in female athletes and nonathletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender role conflict, masculinity, femininity, physical appearance self-concept, athletic competence self-concept, body image self-concept, and athletic participation by parents among female athletes and nonathletes were examined in 76 female athletes and 69 female nonathletes (N= 145). Similar to previous research, results indicated no significant differences in the gender role conflict of female athletes and nonathletes. Results also indicated that, as

Jessica L. Miller; Gary D. Levy

1996-01-01

333

Children in Competitive Sport  

PubMed Central

When children participate in organized sports, promising athletes can suffer major injuries that can result in long-term sequelae and eventual discontinuation of competitive sporting activities. The family physician can help to assess and predict the performance and participation of the immature athlete, and to encourage the child athlete's protection from serious physical or psychological injury. Imagesp414-a PMID:21228990

Harder, James A.

1991-01-01

334

Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

Suggs, Welch

2001-01-01

335

POSTING 14-30 ATHLETIC THERAPIST  

E-print Network

to fill a 3 month contract position as Athletic Therapist. The Bishop's University Sports Medicine (BUSM exam with CATA; Show a passion for Athletic Therapy and its role in the Sports Medicine spectrum

336

CLUB SPORTS INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPANT REGISTRATION-DEPARTMENT RISK STATEMENT The following statement is to be read carefully by individuals who are enrolled in and/or participating in activities supervised by the staff of the  

E-print Network

CLUB SPORTS INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPANT REGISTRATION- DEPARTMENT RISK STATEMENT The following statement or a Student Association chartered sports club. Certain activities require minimum levels of fitness, ability

Suzuki, Masatsugu

337

Sports behaviour among HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals in a Berlin cohort.  

PubMed

Physical activity has been recommended based on beneficial effects described in HIV-infected patients. However, such guidelines do not take into account actual sport behaviours and general attitudes towards physical activity. To evaluate actual sport activity and attitudes towards sport in HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals we conducted an anonymous questionnaire investigating the prevalence, as well as possible changes, in sports engagement and the overall attitude to physical activity. A total of 283 patients of a general care facility specialized in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Berlin, Germany, participated; 124 were HIV infected and 159 were non-infected, mostly men who have sex with men (MSM) (88%), with a median age of 35 years. The HIV-infected participants had a median CD4+ count of 554 cells/µL and 48.8% of them were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of survey. The proportion of patients actually performing physical activity was significantly lower (P = 0.028) within the HIV-infected group (61.3%) than within the non-infected group (74.2%). This difference remained significant after accounting for possible confounders such as age, gender, injecting drug use and sexual preferences. Previously reported sport activity prevalence was similar in both groups on leaving school. From our data we could not identify an association between the time of HIV diagnosis and changes in sports activity. In conclusion, fewer HIV-infected individuals report physical activity than non-infected individuals. Sociodemographic studies to evaluate potential differences in sports behaviour are required in order to inform exercise guidelines for HIV-infected patients. PMID:22362683

Stein, L; Hechler, D; Jessen, A B; Neumann, K; Jessen, H; Beneke, R

2012-01-01

338

Proper nutrition can prevent negative health outcomes in young female athletes  

E-print Network

athlete should maximize sport References Academy of Eating Disorders.described eating disorders. Slender or lean female athletesAthlete Triad syndrome. These interrelated conditions (eating disorders,

Barrack, Michelle T; Van Loan, Marta D

2011-01-01

339

Where, when, and Why Young Athletes Use Imagery: An Examination of Developmental Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate young athletes' imagery use from a developmental perspective. The participants were 110 male and female athletes competing in both team and individual sports. They represented four different age cohorts (i.e., 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 years). Sixteen focus groups, two for each age category and…

Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.; Hall, Craig R.; Fishburne, Graham J.; Strachan, Leisha

2007-01-01

340

A Life History Analysis of a Male Athlete with an Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory investigation, employing the life history method, was conducted with a male athlete with an eating disorder. The focus of the life history is Mike (pseudonym), an individual with a strong athletic identity, who developed bulimia amidst aspirations to be an elite sports performer. Interviews were structured around the life course, beginning with early childhood memories and ultimately reaching

Anthony Papathomas; David Lavallee

2006-01-01

341

Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.  

PubMed

The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing more relevant than laboratory testing. However, given that many tests, such as the multistage fitness test and the Yo-Yo intermittent test, have originally been developed for AB games players, the assumption that these can also be used for wheelchair athletes may be erroneous. With the array of AB aerobic and anaerobic field tests available, it is difficult to ascertain which ones may be best suited for wheelchair athletes. Therefore, new, wheelchair sport-specific tests have been proposed and validated. Careful selection of tests to enable coaches to distinguish between disability classifications, wheelchair proficiency and actual performance improvements is paramount as this will not only enhance the value of field-based testing, but also help with the development of meaningful normative data. PMID:23329608

Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

2013-02-01

342

Women in Athletic Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

2005-01-01

343

Sudden cardiac death in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In 1982, a nationwide program of preparticipation screening of all individuals embarking in competitive sports activity was\\u000a launched in Italy. The screening protocol includes athlete’s personal and family history, physical examination, and twelve-lead\\u000a electrocardiogram (ECG) as first-line examination; additional tests such as echocardiography or exercise testing are requested\\u000a only for subjects who have positive findings at the initial evaluation.

Domenico Corrado; Federico Migliore; Michela Bevilacqua; Cristina Basso; Gaetano Thiene

2009-01-01

344

Lesson 47: Sports [michezo  

E-print Network

Lesson 47: Sports Sports [michezo] A). Sports besiboli [baseball] domino [dominoes] hoki / kibemasa sataranji bao nage [rugby] [golf] [circus] [drill] [athletics / any sports] [tug of war] [judo cha mazoezi [gym] mchezo / michezo [game/sport] kufanya mazoezi [to do a work out] uwanja wa michezo

345

Controversies in College Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of intercollegiate athletics is examined. Focus is on four major outside interventions and four major issues: The economics of collegiate sports; unethical practices in recruiting and on-campus treatment of athletes; equal opportunity for women in sports, and the relationship of collegiate sports to higher education. (JMD)

Hanford, George H.

1979-01-01

346

Catastrophic injuries among young athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While very rare, catastrophic injuries in youth sports have a major impact on athletes and their families when they do occur. This article reviews and summarises the sparse research on direct catastrophic injuries in youth sports, a direct catastrophic sports injury being defined as a sport injury that resulted from participation in the skills of the sport, and resulted in

E D Zemper

2010-01-01

347

Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism  

PubMed Central

The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

2011-01-01

348

[Rehabilitation after sports injuries. Current concepts and data].  

PubMed

Sports injuries and their treatment have become increasingly more important in recent years due to the leisure behaviour of our society. Besides the aspects of acute care and medical treatment there often remains the question of optimal rehabilitative care and return to sports. Overall, the correct early planning of rehabilitation has a great influence on the prognosis of sports injuries and the date of resumption of sporting activities. One of the key aspects to consider is the phase-dependent course of rehabilitation with appropriate therapy focus. A multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary, phase-dependent, individual treatment plan that also complies with the biopsychosocial background of the athlete must be created for this purpose. Increasingly relevant is also the sport psychological support during all phases of rehabilitation, including the use of cognitive behavioral therapy. Before an athlete returns to sports and competition, objectified sport-specific criteria must be met. PMID:25672636

Schmitt-Sody, M; Valle, C

2015-02-01

349

Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

1993-01-01

350

The athlete biological passport: ticket to a fair Commonwealth Games.  

PubMed

In summer 2014, the world watched as Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and athletes pushed the boundaries of human performance. Sport has developed into a multi-billion pound industry leading to the development of a 'win at any cost' mentality in some individuals. The abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has developed into a sophisticated arms race between those unfairly enhancing performance and those wishing to preserve the dignity of sport and the health of the competitors. The challenge for the Commonwealth games organising committee was to ensure that competition remained fair and that athletes were kept safe. The athlete biological passport is a system implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency directed towards enhancing the identification of those athletes accountable for the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. This article exemplifies which drugs are currently being exploited and how the athlete biological passport has evolved to improve their detection. PMID:25187193

Bucknall, Vittoria; Rehman, Haroon; Bassindale, Thomas; Clement, Rhys Ge

2014-08-01

351

Crime and Athletes: New Racial Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes subtle forms of racism in U.S. sport, suggesting that current interpretations of sport allow Whites to view athletes in ways that reinforce black stereotypes. A recent dangerous stereotype is that playing sports makes athletes violence-prone. Many college athletes come from high risk environments and need campus support in dealing with this…

Lapchick, Richard E.

2000-01-01

352

Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non?athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non?athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was to introduce reference intervals for CK in athletes. Method CK was assayed in serum samples from 483 male athletes and 245 female athletes, aged 7–44. Samples had been obtained throughout the training and competition period. For comparison, CK was also assayed in a smaller number of non?athletes. Reference intervals (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) were calculated by the non?parametric method. Results The reference intervals were 82–1083?U/L (37°C) in male and 47–513?U/L in female athletes. The upper reference limits were twice the limits reported for moderately active non?athletes in the literature or calculated in the non?athletes in this study. The upper limits were up to six times higher than the limits reported for inactive individuals in the literature. When reference intervals were calculated specifically in male football (soccer) players and swimmers, a threefold difference in the upper reference limit was found (1492 vs 523?U/L, respectively), probably resulting from the different training and competition demands of the two sports. Conclusion Sport training and competition have profound effects on the reference intervals for serum CK. Introducing sport?specific reference intervals may help to avoid misinterpretation of high values and to optimise training. PMID:17526622

Mougios, Vassilis

2007-01-01

353

Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

2010-01-01

354

Chapel Hill Professors Fear That Abuses in Big-Time Sports Upset University's Traditional Athletics-Academics Balance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of serious problems in the athletics program, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's faculty council is investigating the role of intercollegiate athletics on campus, examining athletics department finances and procedures and its relationships with outside support groups. (MSE)

Oberlander, Susan

1988-01-01

355

A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation. PMID:22093018

Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P

2013-06-01

356

Department of Sport and Exercise SPORTS CENTRE  

E-print Network

Department of Sport and Exercise SPORTS CENTRE MEMBERSHIP 2014-15 For access to Athletic Union club charge of £3.70 on each visit for use of Sports Centre facilities outside of AU Club session times be made in cash or with a debit/credit card, in person at Sports Centre Reception. We regret we

Brierley, Andrew

357

Reliability and Validity of a 20-s Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test in Team Sport Male Athletes  

PubMed Central

The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20) versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30) could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg) who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for peak power output (PPO) (ICC?=?0.98 and 0.95) and mean power output (MPO) (ICC 0.98 and 0.90) did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin) and fatigue index (FI) were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76). Standard errors of the means (SEM) for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were “marginal,” with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R?=?0.97), with POmin and FI considerable lower (R?=?0.71 and 0.41 respectively). Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30. PMID:25474744

Attia, Ahmed; Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Gaddour, Abdelmajid; Neji, Zied; Shephard, Roy J.; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

2014-01-01

358

Self-reported Hostile Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between athletic participation and off-field hostile aggression, Buss and Perry's (1992) Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was completed by two groups of 86 university athletes in either contact or no contact sports and two control groups of 86 non-athletes who were matched to the athletes in physical size. In general, bigger participants scored higher on hostile aggression and

Patrice Lemieux; Stuart J. McKelvie; Dale Stout

2002-01-01

359

Nutrition assessment of athletes: a model for integrating nutrition and physical performance indicators.  

PubMed

Athletes, like all people, have special nutritional needs based on their age, lifestyle, health status, level of physical activity, physical conditioning, and type of sport. The diets of many athletes are inadequate due to overly restrictive eating habits, nutrition misinformation, dietary fads, and/or obsession with weight and food. There is a growing need for sports nutrition counseling and education to help athletes improve their eating habits. However, before attempting to develop intervention strategies, sports nutritionists should assess the metabolic changes that take place during exercise and how these changes affect nutrition status. In addition, it is important to consider how psychosocial factors may influence an athlete's eating habits and his/her ability to make positive changes. A two-pronged model is introduced that can be used as a guide for the practitioner in interpreting relevant data and integrating physiological and psychological considerations for the design of individualized nutrition care plans for athletes. PMID:1844995

Storlie, J

1991-06-01

360

University and College Counselors as Athletic Team Consultants: Using a Structural Family Therapy Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individual athlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide…

Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela

2009-01-01

361

Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

2008-01-01

362

Eating Disorders in the Male Athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

female athletes, and therefore in danger of being missed. The high-risk sports fall into the same categories as with females: aesthetic sports, sports in which low body fat is advantageous, such as cross-country and marathon running, and sports in which there is a need to 'make weight', including wrestling and horse racing. Athletic involvement may foster the development of an

Antonia Baum

2006-01-01

363

Endurance Sport and “Cardiac Injury”: A Prospective Study of Recreational Ironman Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. Methods: 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female) were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Results: Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg), maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7%) and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC%) showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%). Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002–1.052, p = 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04–1.47, p = 0.019). Conclusions: Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume. PMID:25192145

Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

2014-01-01

364

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

365

The Economics of Intercollegiate Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) exploit student athletes? Should athletes be paid? Does Title IX unfairly discriminate against men's sports? Are the salaries of head coaches excessive? Why is there so much cheating in college sports? Should the sports department be subsidized by the university? Why do universities place so much emphasis on athletics?\\u000aThe above are just

Randy R. Grant; John Leadley; Zenon Zygmont

2008-01-01

366

Osteochondroses in athletes.  

PubMed Central

Osteochondroses are disorders of primary and secondary growth centres, or lesions at the apophyseal or epiphyseal growth areas of bones. Although there are many types of osteochondroses, the history, clinical symptoms and findings as well as radiological findings are typical. Physical exercise is one of the factors that provokes symptoms. In a series of 185 osteochondroses in active young athletes, there were 18 different disorders. The commonest were Osgood-Schlatter's disease, Sever's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyles, various other patellar osteochondroses and Scheuermann's disease. Most of the athletes were from individual events; track and field sports (53.5%), cross-country skiing (8.1%), gymnastics (3.2%) and power events (2.7%). Of the team sports soccer produced the most (20.0%). The treatment was conservative in 84.3% and operative in 15.7%. The duration of symptoms in these athletes persisted in about 43% for less than one year and in 57% for more. The late changes of osteodhondroses do not cause serious risks for a normal life, if the treatment is active and the follow-up efficient. Images p161-a p161-b Fig. 2 Fig. 3 C Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 p168-a PMID:7139227

Orava, S.; Virtanen, K.

1982-01-01

367

A closer look at the FTEM framework. Response to "More of the same? Comment on 'An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: a practitioner approach'".  

PubMed

The Foundations, Talent, Elite and Mastery (FTEM) framework was designed through the lens of a world leading high-performance sport agency to assist sporting stakeholders operationalise and research their whole of sport development pathways (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sport Sciences, 31, 1319-1331). In response to the commentary by MacNamara and Collins (2013) (Journal of Sports Sciences, doi:10.1080/02640414.2013. 855805), it was possible to document many inaccurate, false and misleading statements based on inattentive reading of the original article. We reinforce that: FTEM is a holistic framework of sport and athlete development and not a surrogate for a talent identification ( TID) model; bio-psycho-social components of development are liberally embedded throughout the FTEM framework; and the combined research and applied insights of development practitioners provide strong ecological validity for the consideration of stakeholders looking to explore applied approaches to athlete pathway management. PMID:24289172

Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R

2014-01-01

368

Leisure, Stress, and Coping: The Sport Participation of Collegiate Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has indicated that there is a relationship between stress and participation in leisure (Caltabiano, 1995; Chalip, Thomas, & Voyle, 1992; Reich & Zautra, 1981; Strauss-Blasche, Ekmekcioglu, & Marktl, 2002; Warner-Smith & Brown, 2002; Wheeler & Frank, 1988). It has been suggested that leisure buffers or mediates stress, thereby enhancing individual health and well-being, because of the self-determination and social

Aimee Kimball; Valeria J. Freysinger

2003-01-01

369

Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation  

PubMed Central

Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

2015-01-01

370

COMPARISON OF NORMALIZED MAXIMUM AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SUMO WRESTLERS TO ATHLETES IN COMBAT AND OTHER SPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared \\

Matthew D. Beekley; Takashi Abe; Masakatsu Kondo; Taishi Midorikawa; Taro Yamauchi

371

Media Coverage of the Post Title IX Female Athlete: A Feminist Analysis of Sport, Gender, and Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Introduction Sport is one of the most important institutions in American culture. This certainly is demonstrated by the vast resources spent on sport-related enter- prises. With respect to discretionary spending alone, billions of dollars are spent annually on the sale of licensed sport products (e.g., baseball caps). In 1992, retail sales of all licensed sport merchandise totaled $ 12.2

Mary Jo Kane

1996-01-01

372

Extremity trauma: field management of sports injuries.  

PubMed

Traumatic injuries to the extremities are common in athletic competitions. The practitioner providing coverage of sporting events must be prepared to diagnose and provide initial treatment of these injuries. A thorough history and physical examination should result in a provisional diagnosis. Many injuries will require subsequent radiographs or orthopedic consultation. Limb threatening emergencies are rare but must be promptly recognized and referred to a hospital. Early treatment can protect athletes from further injury and may hasten their return to competition. Some athletes with extremity trauma can return to the contest, but this decision must be made on an individual basis. PMID:25283054

Wascher, Daniel C; Bulthuis, Luke

2014-12-01

373

Sports Medicine: Concussions in Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 10% of head and spinal cord injuries are due to sports-related activities. As the popularity of sports increases so does the incidence of sports-related injuries. In recent years, concussion has received significant media attention as high-profile athletes have come forward to share their experiences and long-term struggles with this specific type of traumatic brain injury. Public health initiatives

Roya Saffary; Lawrence S. Chin; Robert C. Cantu

2012-01-01

374

Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

Kent, Richard

2012-01-01

375

A systematic review of college student-athlete drinking: Prevalence rates, sport-related factors, and interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use among college students has become a considerable public health problem. Among this group, intercollegiate athletes are at a particularly high risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resulting negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of our review was to systematically examine three main issues related to alcohol consumption among intercollegiate athletes: (a) the prevalence rates and alcohol consumption patterns of

Matthew P. Martens; Kristen Dams-O'Connor; Niels C. Beck

2006-01-01

376

Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist, and the Stroop task. Based on a brief self-report concussion history survey, male and female athletes who participated in ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, and\\/or soccer were assigned to one of

Chad Killam; Robin L. Cautin; Anthony C. Santucci

2005-01-01

377

Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…

Archer, David Eric

2010-01-01

378

Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.  

PubMed

This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine professional a unique perspective into the care of patients who are athletes and elite performers. PMID:16952750

Carr, Christopher M

2006-08-01

379

A PHASED REHABILITATION PROTOCOL FOR ATHLETES WITH LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION  

PubMed Central

Conservative non-surgical management of a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc (HLD) in athletes is a complex task due to the dramatic forces imparted on the spine during sport participation. The demands placed upon the athlete during rehabilitation and return to sport are unique not only from a sport specific perspective, but also regarding return to the sport strength and conditioning programs utilized for sport preparation. Many prescriptions fail to address postural and motor control faults specific to athletic development, which may prevent full return to sport after suffering a HLD or predispose the athlete to future exacerbations of a HLD. Strength exercises involving squatting, deadlifting, and Olympic power lifts are large components of the typical athlete's conditioning program, therefore some progressions are provided to address potential underlying problems in the athlete's technique that may have contributed to their HLD in the first place. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to propose a framework for rehabilitation that is built around the phases of healing of the disc. Phase I: Non-Rotational/Non-Flexion Phase (Acute Inflammatory Phase), Phase II: Counter rotation/Flexion Phase (Repair Phase), Phase III: Rotational Phase/Power development (Remodeling Phase), and Phase IV: Full return to sport. This clinical commentary provides a theoretical basis for these phases based on available literature as well as reviewing many popular current practice trends in the management of an HLD. The authors recognize the limits of any general exercise rehabilitation recommendation with regard to return to sport, as well as any general strength and conditioning program. It is vital that an individual assessment and prescription is made for every athlete which reviews and addresses movement in all planes of motion under all necessary extrinsic and intrinsic demands to that athlete. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175134

VanGelder, Leonard H.; Vaughn, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

380

The University of Utah Sport Clubs Program COACH/INSTRUCTOR AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

that Clubs are first and foremost student organizations, therefore, it is important that management participants in the development of their individual athletic skills Help the above named Sport Club develop representing the University COMPENSATION: The above named Sports Club will/will not pay the coach any

Simons, Jack

381

Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

2011-01-01

382

Participation in college sports and protection from sexual victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some sport sociologists have argued that sport is a male?dominated institution and sexist culture in which female athletes experience various forms of discrimination, including sexual victimization from coaches and male athletes. Previous research does indicate that female athletes suffer higher rates of sexual victimization from authority figures in sport than their non?athletic counterparts in education and the workplace, although many

Kari Fasting; Celia H. Brackenridge; Kathleen E. Miller; Don Sabo

2008-01-01

383

Lumbar spine surgery in athletes:: outcomes and return-to-play criteria.  

PubMed

Surgical treatment of lumbar spine conditions in athletes can produce excellent outcomes. Professional and competitive athletes participating in both noncontact and contact sports can return to their preinjury level of performance and have successful careers after lumbar discectomy for LDH. NFL players, especially offensive and defensive linemen, may experience greater improvement with lumbar discectomy than nonoperative treatment. Athletes who undergo direct pars repair for spondylolysis or grade I spondylolisthesis may be able to return to sports but their participation level may vary. Athletes and military personnel who undergo lumbar TDR are capable of returning to rigorous activities, including contact and extreme sports and unrestricted full-service military duty. Distal fusion level may be an independent negative predictor of successful RTP after posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There is great variability in published RTP criteria, which are based primarily on authors’ opinions and experience. Athletes must demonstrate resolution of preoperative symptoms, full range of motion, and successful completion of a structured rehabilitation program before returning to play. Physicians must ultimately base their decision to release an athlete back to sport on each individual’s condition and on the chosen sport. PMID:22657997

Li, Ying; Hresko, M Timothy

2012-07-01

384

Nerve Injuries in Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

Collins, Kathryn; And Others

1988-01-01

385

Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.  

PubMed

Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

2015-03-01

386

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ATHLETIC TRAINING (Suggested 4 Year Plan)  

E-print Network

Introduction to Sports Medicine 3 HPRED 0110 Practicum in Athletic Training 3 ENG 0101 English Composition I 3: Sports Medicine 3 HPRED 1420 Rehab. Mgmt. & Administration 3 HPRED 1481 Clinical in Athletic Training VI

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

387

Perceptions of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Study of NCAA Men's Sport Coaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among organizational justice components, overall job satisfaction, and organizational commitment within the intercollegiate athletics setting. Perceptions of three organizational justice components (procedural, distributive, and interactional), overall job satisfaction, and…

Thorn, Dustin

2010-01-01

388

Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

Galicinao, Brianne M.

2011-01-01

389

?-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.  

PubMed

?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

Bellinger, Phillip M

2014-06-01

390

Athletic Identity of Community College Student Athletes: Issues for Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…

Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

391

Loyalty: Why Is It so Problematic in Athletics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a…

Stoll, Sharon Kay

2012-01-01

392

McGill Athletics seeks Production Crew! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining  

E-print Network

-by-play and colour commentary. The production crew will work on-site doing video coverage of games on game day sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining communications experience. A communications background! The Production Crew will stream varsity home games on SSN Canada's online network (see http

Barthelat, Francois

393

"Emerging" Sports for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Collegiate Athletic Association has recently introduced nine new sports to intercollegiate athletics: team handball, archery, badminton, bowling, crew, ice hockey, squash, synchronized swimming, and water polo. The initiative is intended to encourage colleges to create more athletic opportunities for women. It sets scholarship limits…

Blum, Debra E.

1994-01-01

394

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 genotyping in Japanese athletes and evaluation of the current sports drug testing for detecting testosterone misuse.  

PubMed

Ethnicity has been found to influence urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratios among athletes. Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is the most active enzyme in testosterone glucuronidation. UGT2B17 polymorphism analysis is rarely performed in Japanese athletes, and the influence of testosterone administration on steroid profiles and carbon isotope ratios, according to gene polymorphisms, in Asians remains unknown. The prevalence of UGT2B17 genotypes and urinary androgenic steroid profiles, classified according to UGT2B17 genotypes, was investigated in Japanese athletes (255 male and 256 female). Testosterone enanthate (100 mg) was administered intramuscularly to Japanese female volunteers (del/del: n = 6, del/ins: n = 3, ins/ins: n = 1). The distribution rates of the UGT2B17 del/del genotype in Japanese male and female athletes were 74.5% and 60.2%, respectively. The ins/ins genotype was detected in only three male (1.2%) and seven female (2.7%) athletes. The prevalence of the UGT2B17 deletion genotype was extremely high in Japanese athletes. The T/E ratio in the del/del group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. After testosterone was administered to female volunteers, the T/E ratios for the del/del individuals failed to reach the positivity criterion of 4. By contrast, in all of the del/del subjects, the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis successfully fulfilled the positivity criterion. The overall result has demonstrated the limited effectiveness of population-based T/E ratios in screening tests for testosterone use. Subject-based steroid profiling with UGT2B17 genotyping will be an effective strategy for detecting testosterone misuse. PMID:22887913

Okano, Masato; Ueda, Toshihiko; Nishitani, Yasunori; Kano, Hiroko; Ikekita, Ayako; Kageyama, Shinji

2013-03-01

395

A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals  

PubMed Central

Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ? .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ? .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ? .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than GEN, particularly in emotional functioning. These findings further support the notion that ATH constitutes a unique population that requires its own set of normative values for self-reported, patient-rated outcome instruments. PMID:23672388

Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

2013-01-01

396

SPORTS DECK FOWLER ATHLETICS  

E-print Network

ADDRESS: STUDENT DISABILITY SERVICES SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY 5500 CAMPANILE DRIVE SAN DIEGO, CA 92182 OF TRAVEL DISABLED ACCESS NOT ADVISED EXCEEDS 5% GRADE DISABLED PARKING SDSU INFORMATION SDSU PARKING PICK-4740 (619) 594-6473 (619) 594-4315 (FAX) (619) 594-2929 (TDD/TTY) SDSU SDS DISABLED PARKING DISABLED ACCESS

Gallo, Linda C.

397

The Female Athlete Triad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

2004-01-01

398

Finances and College Athletics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…

Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd

2009-01-01

399

Athletes' leg pains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes,

S. Orava; J. Puranen

1979-01-01

400

Nonlinear Pedagogy: An Effective Approach to Cater for Individual Differences in Learning a Sports Skill  

PubMed Central

Learning a sports skill is a complex process in which practitioners are challenged to cater for individual differences. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach for learning a sports skill. Twenty-four 10-year-old females participated in a 4-week intervention involving either a Nonlinear Pedagogy (i.e.,manipulation of task constraints including equipment and rules) or a Linear Pedagogy (i.e., prescriptive, repetitive drills) approach to learn a tennis forehand stroke. Performance accuracy scores, movement criterion scores and kinematic data were measured during pre-intervention, post-intervention and retention tests. While both groups showed improvements in performance accuracy scores over time, the Nonlinear Pedagogy group displayed a greater number of movement clusters at post-test indicating the presence of degeneracy (i.e., many ways to achieve the same outcome). The results suggest that degeneracy is effective for learning a sports skill facilitated by a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach. These findings challenge the common misconception that there must be only one ideal movement solution for a task and thus have implications for coaches and educators when designing instructions for skill acquisition. PMID:25140822

Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Komar, John; Tan, Clara Wee Keat; Button, Chris

2014-01-01

401

Issues in the female athlete.  

PubMed

Effective treatment of the female athlete begins with an understanding of the anatomic and physiologic differences between males and females and the epidemiology of injury patterns in athletic women. However, the female athlete has a variety of special concerns that the sports medicine physician should be familiar with. PMID:7609959

Beim, G; Stone, D A

1995-07-01

402

Spinal injuries in sports.  

PubMed

Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:19084763

Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

2009-02-01

403

Spinal injuries in sports.  

PubMed

Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:18295084

Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

2008-02-01

404

A Comparative Canadian-American Study on the Effect of Television Athletics and Organized Sport on Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of Canadian and American children in terms of television viewing of sports, preference for professional or amateur sport models, and proportion of violent to nonviolent television viewing. The written opinionnaire items used in the research determined: 1) demographic information on…

McMillan, Paul; Moriarty, Dick

405

Talent identification and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes.  

PubMed

The start of a new Olympic cycle offers a fresh chance for individuals and nations to excel at the highest level in sport. Most countries attempt to develop systematic structures to identify gifted athletes and to promote their development in a certain sport. However, forecasting years in advance the next generation of sporting experts and stimulating their development remains problematic. In this article, we discuss issues related to the identification and preparation of Olympic athletes. We provide field-based data suggesting that an earlier onset and a higher volume of discipline-specific training and competition, and an extended involvement in institutional talent promotion programmes, during adolescence need not necessarily be associated with greater success in senior international elite sport. Next, we consider some of the promising methods that have been (recently) presented in the literature and applied in the field. Finally, implications for talent identification and promotion and directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:19787538

Vaeyens, Roel; Güllich, Arne; Warr, Chelsea R; Philippaerts, Renaat

2009-11-01

406

First ray disorders in athletes.  

PubMed

Athletes who participate in contact sports (American football, soccer, rugby) or who are involved in high-impact sports (dancing, running, gymnastics) are susceptible to first ray forefoot injuries. Common first ray disorders in athletes include hallux rigidus, turf toe, sand toe, sesamoid disorders, and fractures. First ray disorders in athletes frequently are treated by nonoperative methods including relative rest, ice, elevation, activity modification, shoe modification, and insoles. PMID:19680112

Nihal, Aneel; Trepman, Elly; Nag, David

2009-09-01

407

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

2013-01-01

408

Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.  

PubMed

Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport. PMID:25537139

Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

2015-05-01

409

Revenue Producing Athletes: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated bibliography on revenue producing sports is presented, with attention to: Proposition 48, exploitation of athletes, legal proceedings, research related to athletes and academic performance, psychological characteristics of athletes, and counseling programs for athletes. Introductions to each of the six topics are included. The section…

Ervin, Leroy; And Others

410

The Female Athlete Triad: Are Elite Athletes at Increased Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

KLUNGLAND TORSTVEIT, M., and J. SUNDGOT-BORGEN. The Female Athlete Triad: Are Elite Athletes at Increased Risk? Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 184-193, 2005. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the percentage of elite athletes and controls at risk of the female athlete triad. Methods: A detailed questionnaire, which included questions regarding training and\\/or

MONICA KLUNGLAND TORSTVEIT; JORUNN SUNDGOT-BORGEN

2005-01-01

411

Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

Delany, James E.

1997-01-01

412

The young female athlete.  

PubMed

It is important that girls and young women participate in sports and develop skills that promote lifelong athletic participation, because of the psychological, sociologic, and physiologic benefits associated with exercise. When an athlete begins intensive, competitive exercise training at a young age, or when the preoccupation with thinness supersedes a desire to be healthy, potential morbidity results. Lack of information and the strong desire to win contribute to this problem. There is relatively little known about the long-term physical and psychological effects of early intensive athletic training and the female athlete triad on the young female athlete. In addition to the need for further research in these areas, there is a need for education of physicians, coaches, trainers, athletes, and parents. The preparticipation physical examination is an excellent opportunity for the physician to screen for the triad disorders and educate athletes and parents on healthy nutrition, normal menstrual function, and the benefits of exercise. PMID:7553928

Van de Loo, D A; Johnson, M D

1995-07-01

413

Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

Maud, Peter J.

414

Sport and Sexuality: Athletic Participation by Sexual Minority and Sexual Majority Adolescents in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are contradictory expectations regarding the relationship between sport and sexuality, one suggesting less sports participation\\u000a for sexual minority males and more for sexual minority females, with the other hypothesizes no participation differences by\\u000a sexuality for either males or females. I used the nationally representative Add Health Survey of middle and high school students\\u000a in the U.S. to assess the

John F. Zipp

2011-01-01

415

Alcohol Use, Sexual Activity, and Perceived Risk in High School Athletes and Non-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe current study examined one’s sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes’ more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes.

Reagan R. Wetherill; Kim Fromme

2007-01-01

416

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

2014-01-01

417

Injuries to athletes with disabilities: identifying injury patterns.  

PubMed

Participation in sport activities for people with disabilities continues to gain in popularity. With participation in sports, there is an inherent risk of injury. A review of current sport epidemiological studies was used and we concluded that injury patterns for this population are similar to those for athletes without disabilities. Injury data from Paralympic competitions dating back to 1976 indicate that most elite athletes with disabilities seek medical care for illness and musculo-skeletal injuries. However, there are very limited injury data regarding Winter Paralympic events or skiing injuries. For those athletes who participate in Summer Paralympic events, abrasions, strains, sprains and contusions are more common than fractures and dislocations. However, location of injuries appears to be disability and sport dependent. Lower extremity injuries are more common in ambulatory athletes (visually impaired, amputee, cerebral palsy) and upper extremity injuries are more frequent in athletes who use a wheelchair. While it appears that the majority of the injuries occurring in this population are minor in nature, inconsistencies in the definition of injury in the literature make this conclusion tenuous. When injuries are expressed as time lost in participation, 52% of injuries resulted in 7 days lost or less, 29% in 8 to 21 days lost and 19% in greater than 22 days lost. The only prospective study addressing injury rates of athletes with disabilities in a manner consistent with other sport epidemiological studies found an injury rate of 9.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). This injury rate is less than American football (10.1 to 15/1000 AE) and soccer (9.8/1000 AE), and greater than basketball (7.0/1000 AE). It is unclear whether comparative statistics such as these take into consideration the number of illness and injury episodes that resulted from the disability. Further complicating epidemiological studies for athletes with disabilities is the definition of the population and samples of convenience which are frequently used. These samples are often not representative of the multiplicity of disability conditions, levels of competition and range of sport activities available. Prospective studies comparing athletes to sedentary control individuals to measure differences in injury rates, type and frequency between and within disability groups, sports and levels of competition are desperately needed to further the knowledge of injury trends and develop and establish accurate injury prevention programmes. PMID:10966152

Ferrara, M S; Peterson, C L

2000-08-01

418

Towards an Interest-Convergence in the Education of African-American Football Student Athletes in Major College Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to advance Derrick Bell's (1992b) interest-convergence principle as an analytical lens for understanding the complex role of race in the educational experiences of African-American football student athletes. Currently, there is a scarcity of educational research that employs a critical theoretical perspective on race…

Donnor, Jamel K.

2005-01-01

419

African-American Male Student-Athletes in Division I Collegiate Sports: Expectations and Aspirations for Undergraduate Degree Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive qualitative case study explored undergraduate degree attainment by African American males in football and basketball at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Southwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants at the institution to uncover experiences that helped or…

Kelly, Seanan

2012-01-01

420

Sports Facility Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…

Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

421

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during fluid, and urine formation will stop. H--SportsNutrition 176 #12;How much should I drink right after

422

Violence in Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing violence in sports is deplored, and a warning is issued on an apparent trend toward antisocial behavior. Contact sports such as hockey and football are cited as typically engendering aggression among athletes, but spectator sports (boxing, car racing, basketball, and baseball) are also singled out as eliciting increasing violence on the…

Cooper, Donald L.

423

Sports Medicine: A Functional Definition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)

Kegerreis, Sam

1981-01-01

424

Sport injury profiles, training and rehabilitation issues in American sports.  

PubMed

The injury profiles and possibilities for the sport-specific injuries associated with the major American youth sports have been reviewed in this article. Guideline concepts for physicans, athletes, and their families are noted. Weight-training general concepts are suggested for the younger athlete. Strong consideration should be given to include cheerleading as a sport to promote safety and reduce cheerleading-related injuries. A special appendix section updates current information on the popular sport of roller-blading. PMID:12296531

Luckstead, Eugene F; Satran, Andrew L; Patel, Dilip R

2002-08-01

425

Talent development in adolescent team sports: a review.  

PubMed

Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport. PMID:20308701

Burgess, Darren J; Naughton, Geraldine A

2010-03-01

426

Judging Cheaters: Is Substance Misuse Viewed Similarly in the Athletic and Academic Domains?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines how individuals judge others who use performance-enhancing drugs in two different domains—the athletic domain and the academic domain. Approximately 1,200 males in their freshman year of college completed a questionnaire that included two scenarios. One scenario described an athlete who misused anabolic steroids to help him succeed at a sporting event. The other described a college

Tonya Dodge; Kevin J. Williams; Miesha Marzell; Rob Turrisi

2012-01-01

427

Towards an interest?convergence in the education of African?American football student athletes in major college sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to advance Derrick Bell’s (1992b) interest?convergence principle as an analytical lens for understanding the complex role of race in the educational experiences of African?American football student athletes. Currently, there is a scarcity of educational research that employs a critical theoretical perspective on race to address the education of African?American students in general, and student

Jamel K. Donnor

2005-01-01

428

Defeated Athletes, Abusive Mates?Examining Perceptions of Professional Athletes Who Batter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Judgments about athletes and nonathletes who batter were systematically analyzed in a multivariate design. Participants read scenarios about athletes who batter in which the severity of the assault, the type of sport played, the racial status of the athlete, and the relationship of the victim to the athlete were systematically varied. Judgments about males who commit similar assaults but who

KELLINA M. CRAIG

2000-01-01

429

MIT Intramural Handbook INTRAMURAL SPORTS  

E-print Network

MIT Intramural Handbook - 1 - MIT INTRAMURAL SPORTS HANDBOOK INTRAMURAL OFFICE Zesiger Sports-253-7947 Director of Athletics ­ Julie Soreiro Coordinator of Intramural Sports ­ Cheryl Silva Administrative, Eduardo A Member Of The National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association Last Update: November 25, 2010

Polz, Martin

430

Sports, Recreation, & Leisure Sample Occupations  

E-print Network

Sports, Recreation, & Leisure Sample Occupations Academic Advisor/Athletes Agent, Business/Aerobics Instructor Gaming/Sports Book Writer Golf Course Superintendent Guide Gymnastics/Tumbling Director Health Recreation Leader Recreation Manager Scout Soccer Player Special Education Teacher Sports Agent Sports

Ronquist, Fredrik

431

Using Role Models to Help Celebrate Paralympic Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A role model is a person or challenge that inspires an individual to go beyond what is expected of him or her and to reach a specific goal. Role models can exemplify motivation, passion, and a genuine love of their life's work. All students need role models, and Paralympic sport athletes can be just that, especially for students with disabilities.…

Mastro, James; Ahrens, Christopher; Statton, Nathan

2012-01-01

432

Scapular Strength in Presence of Scapular Winging and Tipping in Female Athletes Who Participate in Overhead Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine if scapular stabilizer weakness and instability is a plausible explanation for excessive winging and\\/or tipping of the scapula in females who participate in overhead sports. Instability may be an early sign of weakness that can contribute to shoulder injury. Literature regarding causes of scapular winging and tipping pertaining to weak scapular stabilizer

Rachelle Ewy; Sarah Hudson; Carrie Miller; Andrea Rhoads

433

We Can Be Athletic and Feminine, but Do We Want To? Challenging Hegemonic Femininity in Women's Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consequences of nonconformity to hegemonic femininity in sport often include sexist and heterosexist discrimination. This leads many sportswomen to emphasize feminine characteristics to avoid prejudice and discrimination. Females perceived as too feminine are sexualized and trivialized, leaving women to carefully balance athleticism with hegemonic…

Krane, Vikki

2001-01-01

434

Training Recommendations for Junior Tennis Athletes Recommended minimum training for tennis players who play tennis as a basic sport activity  

E-print Network

who play tennis as a basic sport activity: - Organized practice drills 1-2 times per week. - A couple: - Organized practice drills 2-4 times per week. - Blocks of private or semi-private lessons sometime during A competition level which challenges you to reach the next level. #12;Junior players are evaluated for drill

Ginzel, Matthew

435

The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study  

PubMed Central

Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

2011-01-01

436

Degenerative disease of the cervical spine and its relationship to athletes.  

PubMed

Each sport presents with unique risk factors and different mechanisms of injury, and therefore extrapolation of the data from one sport to another makes comparison difficult. The current evidence exploring the relationship of athletes and degenerative changes of the cervical spine leaves much to be debated, and future prospective longitudinal studies will be needed to clarify our understanding further. Such research will help structure clinical recommendations and improve sports safety and the care of athletes of all ages. Currently, there is evidence to suggest that participation in collision sports is implicated in premature degeneration of the cervical spine. There is some evidence to suggest that the same is true with noncollision sports and activities that result in direct and indirect repetitive loads to the cervical spine over time. The risk factors have yet to be clearly identified. The natural history and sequelae of premature degeneration have yet to be elucidated. Cervical spondylosis also appears to increase the severity, but not the frequency, of irreversible neurologic injury during collision sport participation. Prudence dictates that we not ignore the present evidence suggesting a link between neuropraxia and cervical stenosis. Proper screening for cervical stenosis in patients with transient neuropraxia with subsequent cessation of participation in collision sports if severe stenosis is present is suggested. There is no consensus for RTP guidelines in the setting of transient neurologic injuries in the athlete when severe degeneration is present, and each case must be considered individually with regard to the sport involved. PMID:22657999

Triantafillou, Konstantinos M; Lauerman, William; Kalantar, S Babak

2012-07-01

437

Intercollegiate Sports: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (June 19, 1991--Overview; July 25, 1991--Academics and Athletics; September 12, 1991--Historically Black Colleges and Universities).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection and Competitiveness of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce met on three occasions to hear testimony on intercollegiate sports and in particular on proposed legislation to regulate college sports, to assure due process in investigations of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA),…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

438

the Campbell Sports Center join the campbell legacy  

E-print Network

the Campbell Sports Center join the campbell legacy the columbia campaign for athletics: achieving excellence #12;the Campbell Sports Center transforming columbia athletics Through The Columbia Campaign transformation is the construction of The Campbell Sports Center at the Baker Athletics Complex, named in honor

Qian, Ning

439

Flying sports assistant: external visual imagery representation for sports training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience emerging from past experiences. In sports psychology, mental imagery is used to improve athletes' cognition and motivation. Eminent athletes often create their mental imagery as if they themselves are the external observers; such ability plays an important role in sport training and performance. Mental image visualization refers to the representation of external vision containing

Keita Higuchi; Tetsuro Shimada; Jun Rekimoto

2011-01-01

440

Doping in sports.  

PubMed

Regardless of one's stance on the topic, drugs are an important issue in sports. Sports pages in newspapers around the globe routinely report on athletes at every level ofcompetition using performance enhancing substances to gain an unfair advantage over their competitors. The level of sophistication in beating drug testing, and developing "next-generation" agents continues to raise. The relative paucity of well designed research has been an additional factor impeding attempts to adequately address the problem. Very limited funds are currently available to conduct the necessary research. Without credible data, athletes are more vulnerable to the claims made by those benefiting from the sales of these compounds. Many younger fans and those dreaming of a similar future admire highly successful professional athletes. A strong, consistent statement admonishing drug use is needed. Actions speak louder than words. Every time a successful athlete is caught using PE drugs, every effort to diminish drug use is negatively impacted. The "win at all cost" and "second place is the first loser" mentality needs to be continually challenged by words and actions in youth sports at every level of competition. Finally, the war on drugs in sports needs to be a coordinated, well organized international undertaking as sports play an important role in virtually every culture. If we are to maintain the integrity of competition and protect the health of the athletes, we must dramatically increase our efforts to eliminate performance enhancing drugs as an acceptable option for any athlete. Sports science professionals and sports psychiatrists need to work with coaches, trainers, athletes, and national governing bodies to educating athletes on the effects of performance enhancing drug use. To achieve this important goal everyone involved in sports needs to be knowledgeable on the negative impact this has on all aspects of organized sports. It is a difficult challenge, but one that must be addressed. PMID:22218235

Baron, D A; Foley, T

2009-10-01

441

Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.  

PubMed

Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model. PMID:24197720

Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

2013-10-01

442

Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket  

E-print Network

Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

Mukherjee, Satyam

2012-01-01

443

An investigation into the architecture of the vastus medialis oblique muscle in athletic and sedentary individuals: An in vivo ultrasound study.  

PubMed

There is thought to be a relationship between the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), a condition that has a high prevalence in young athletic individuals. Following a suggestion that there may be a link between the architecture of the VMO and an individual's activity level, the aim of this study was to determine any differences in two measurable parameters of the VMO between two populations with widely differing activity levels. The parameters measured were VMO fiber angle and insertion ratio, which is the proportion of the medial patellar border with VMO fibers inserting onto it (%). Eighty-two knees from 26 athletic volunteers and 15 sedentary volunteers (aged 20-28 years) were assessed using ultrasound. Activity level was defined using the Tegner scoring system. The mean VMO angle (°) for the athletic group was significantly higher than for the sedentary group at 67.8° and 53.6°, respectively. There was no significant difference in insertion ratio between the athletic group, 43.0%, and the sedentary group, 39.5%. This study found that greater VMO fiber angles were seen in individuals with higher activity levels, exerting a stronger medial stabilizing force on the patella. This has important implications for the treatment of PFPS, particularly in athletic patients, which frequently focus on VMO strengthening exercises. Clin. Anat. 28:262-268, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25244030

Benjafield, A J; Killingback, A; Robertson, C J; Adds, P J

2015-03-01

444

Low Score for Collegiate Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report of Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society finds that National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college and university sports departments are not hiring appropriate numbers of minorities and women, especially in such positions as athletic directors and coaches. In contrast, minorities are…

Hernandez, Sandra

1999-01-01

445

Energy and nutrient status of amenorrheic athletes participating in a diet and exercise training intervention program.  

PubMed

Chronic energy deficit is one of the strongest factors contributors to exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction. In such cases, macro- and micronutrient intakes may also be low. This study presents the results of a diet and exercise training intervention program. designed to reverse athletic amenorrhea, on improving energy balance and nutritional status in 4 amenorrheic athletes. The 20-week program provided a daily sport nutrition supplement and 1 day of rest/week. The program increased protein intakes for the 3 athletes with a protein deficit to within the recommended levels for active individuals. Micronutrient intakes increased, as did serum concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin. These results indicate that some amenorrheic athletes have poor nutritional status due to restricted EIs and poor food selections. A sport nutrition supplement may improve energy balance and nutritional status in active amenorrheic women. PMID:10200061

Kopp-Woodroffe, S A; Manore, M M; Dueck, C A; Skinner, J S; Matt, K S

1999-03-01

446

Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology.  

PubMed

Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival. PMID:21672932

Borjesson, Mats; S