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Sample records for individual sport athletes

  1. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  2. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  3. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy, L; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The current web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N=1, 275) transitioning to college. Peak Blood Alcohol Concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in individual sports compared to other groups. Athletes competing in both team and individual sports reported greater lifetime tobacco use and combined alcohol/tobacco use compared to individual or team sports alone. Preventive strategies targeting HS athletes in general and those participating in team sports in particular may be useful in minimizing future alcohol use and related problems. PMID:25400492

  4. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) Page ( 1 ) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that occurs in ... groin area. It most o en occurs during sports that require sudden changes of direction or intense ...

  5. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  6. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N=1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in

  7. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  8. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A

    2015-01-01

    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25544717

  9. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  10. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the

  12. Sport nutrition for young athletes

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Laura K

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is an important part of sport performance for young athletes, in addition to allowing for optimal growth and development. Macronutrients, micronutrients and fluids in the proper amounts are essential to provide energy for growth and activity. To optimize performance, young athletes need to learn what, when and how to eat and drink before, during and after activity. PMID:24421690

  13. Differences in Television Sports Reporting of Men's and Women's Athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuggle, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. Results indicated: both programs devoted only about 5% of their air time to women's sports; story placement and on-camera comments indicated an emphasis on men's athletics; and stories about women involved individual competition, with almost no

  14. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated. The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues. The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully. Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours. When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

  15. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  16. An Analysis of Individual Stretching Programs of Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate individual stretching programs of intercollegiate athletes, 238 athletes (164 male, 74 female) in ten sports were surveyed about their stretching practices. Almost all of the athletes stretched, but to varying degrees. Muscle groups stretched by the fewest athletes were the adductors, plantar flexors, hips, and neck. (Author/MT)

  17. Why Young Athletes Sign Up for Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zach; Strasser, Joe; McKenzie, Isaac; Stoll, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students participate in sports because of several reasons. A coach may effectively guide his team if he knows what motivates each player. In this article, the authors investigate the reasons why athletes sign up for sports. They designed a questionnaire with open-ended and close-ended questions which focuses on how students perceived sports, why

  18. Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Austin Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…

  19. Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Austin Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and

  20. Intra-individual variation of GH-dependent markers in athletes: comparison of population based and individual thresholds for detection of GH abuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Kniess, Astrid; Ziegler, Eckart; Thieme, Detlef; Mller, R Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The GH-2000 discriminant functions, using insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), enabled the detection of growth hormone (GH) doping despite the broad inter-individual normal range of both peptides. The sensitivity of the discriminant function-based methodology may perhaps be further increased in future by applying individual athlete profiles. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the intra-individual variability of IGF-I, PIIINP and the GH-2000 scores in athletes. For this purpose a total of eight blood samples were taken from each of fifty male and female elite athletes over a period of up to 18 months. The IGF-I and PIIINP levels, we found, lay predominantly within the reference range for elite athletes. The intra-individual variability for IGF-I ranged between 6 and 26%, while that for PIIINP ranged between 6 and 33%. The intra-individual variations of both parameters were higher in female than in male subjects and were found to be mostly moderate. We found that the intra-individual variations of the GH-2000 test scores, expressed as CV, ranged from 4 to 36% and were in most of the subjects markedly smaller than the inter-individual variation. Individual cut-offs for the GH-2000 scores would be lower than population based ones in most of the cases. PMID:23850935

  1. Athletes' Hours Renew Debate over College Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past year, members of Congress have poked around the well-fed belly of intercollegiate athletics, questioning whether college sports deserves its tax-exempt status. Myles Brand, the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has led the countercharge against the government, repeatedly defending the educational value

  2. Athletes' Hours Renew Debate over College Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past year, members of Congress have poked around the well-fed belly of intercollegiate athletics, questioning whether college sports deserves its tax-exempt status. Myles Brand, the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has led the countercharge against the government, repeatedly defending the educational value…

  3. Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…

  4. Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,

  5. The Athletes Perception of Coaches Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level

    PubMed Central

    Siekanska, Ma?gorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 1.48 years of age; 8.35 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coachs behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to a post-training session interest in the athlete as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated leniency and favoring less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed excessive criticism as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches authoritarianism and distance less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001). PMID:24511359

  6. Sport participation by physically and cognitively challenged young athletes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Greydanus, Donald E

    2010-06-01

    Many physically and cognitively challenged athletes participate in organized and recreational sports. Health benefits of sport participation by athletes with disabilities have been well recognized. A careful preparticipation evaluation and proper classification of athletes ensures safe sports participation by athletes with disabilities. Some conditions in these athletes, such as problems with thermoregulation, autonomic control, neurogenic bladder and bowel, latex allergy, and many associated and secondary complications deserve special consideration. This article reviews common medical issues that relate to sport participation by athletes with physical and cognitive disabilities. PMID:20538157

  7. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  8. Perceptions of Sport Retirement by Current Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Brandy Sue

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the

  9. Perceptions of Sport Retirement by Current Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Brandy Sue

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the…

  10. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dadgostar, Haleh; Razi, Mohammad; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Alenabi, Talia; Dahaghin, Saeideh

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate) returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5). Seventy one (9.0%) individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5%) had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85), weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82), endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84), late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51), and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69). Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature that the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea is high in athletes. Furthermore, we provided the first report on the prevalence of PCOS in female athletes with amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. Athletes would be greatly benefited by greater general awareness about the complications of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea. To increase awareness of exercise-associated menstrual cycle irregularities, it is necessary to design complete and comprehensive education programs for female athletes, their parents, their coaches, and the relevant authorities. PMID:19642982

  11. The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these. PMID:24367777

  12. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research. PMID:19769413

  13. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETES WITH SPORT CONCUSSION

    PubMed Central

    McQueen-Borden, Emily; Bell, Roberta A.; Barr, Thomas; Juengling, Jenifer

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary. The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals. Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22893863

  14. Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined. PMID:20528446

  15. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  16. The Acute Management of Sport Concussion in Pediatric Athletes.

    PubMed

    Resch, Jacob E; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2015-10-01

    During the past two decades the focus on sport concussion has increased significantly. Young athletes represent the most vulnerable population to sustain a sport concussion yet receive the least amount of attention. Specifically, young athletes who sustain a sport concussion can go unrecognized and continue to participate in sport putting them at an increased risk for a more significant injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and management of sport concussion. In addition, this review provides considerations for health care professionals in regard to clinical measures and follow-up strategies during the acute phase following concussion in young concussed athletes following injury. PMID:25834282

  17. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge over their opponents. PMID:23672331

  18. [Anorexia athletica's place in female sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Afflelou, S

    2009-01-01

    This work analyzes the links between eating disorders and intensive exercise training and tries to define the anorexia athletica's place in this context. Through a review of the literature, we examined the arguments favoring the hypothesis of a "princeps" disorder, which would orientate girls towards some sports, and the arguments, which emphasize the capacity of some sports to lead to the apparition of these eating disorders. The description of a clinical case allows the evocation of the complexity of this relationship showing that intensive exercise training may be a facilitatory factor as well as a limitatory factor of the severity of the anorexia nervosa. In this situation, it seems interesting to use the anorexia athletica's concept to improve coach and doctor's vigilance around the young female athlete. Lastly, we propose to replace the concept of sport by "exercise practice" where the intensity, the sport "centration", the weight stress became risk factors and to define populations at risk (adolescents, females). Based on these data, prevention actions should be started in populations particularly exposed. PMID:19097766

  19. Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement: athletes at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Cheng, Ivy; Sporer, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Many sports incorporate training at altitude as a key component of their athlete training plan. Furthermore, many sports are required to compete at high altitude venues. Exercise at high altitude provides unique challenges to the athlete and to the sport medicine clinician working with these athletes. These challenges include altitude illness, alterations in training intensity and performance, nutritional and hydration difficulties, and challenges related to the austerity of the environment. Furthermore, many of the strategies that are typically utilized by visitors to altitude may have implications from an anti-doping point of view.This position statement was commissioned and approved by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine. The purpose of this statement was to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to assist clinicians with the preparation and management of athletes and individuals travelling to altitude for both competition and training. PMID:24569430

  20. The relationship between coaching behaviours and sport anxiety in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, J; Ct, J; Hawes, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous research has identified the relationship between athlete sport anxiety and various sport outcomes (e.g., performance and dropout). For the majority of athletes involved in sport, the coach is an influential element of the competitive experience. Two hundred and twenty-eight athletes from 15 sports, completed the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). The predictive ability of athletes' perceived frequency of seven coaching behaviours (physical training, mental preparation, goal setting, technical skills, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport) on four forms of sport anxiety (total anxiety, somatic anxiety, concentration disruption and worry) was examined. Results indicate that negative personal rapport was a significant predictor of all measured forms of sport anxiety while competition strategies was a significant predictor for total anxiety, concentration disruption, and worry. Other behaviours were not significant. The findings suggest that negative rapport between coach and athlete is an important contributor to athlete anxiety. In addition, behaviours that the coach demonstrates relative to competition can be influential in reducing athlete anxiety. PMID:11104303

  1. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?

    PubMed

    Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

    2013-07-01

    Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond requirements during long events. Across the sparse literature on competition hydration practices in other sports, there are examples of planned and/or ad hoc opportunities to consume fluid, where enhanced access to drinks may allow situations at least close to ad libitum drinking. However, this situation is not universal and, again, the complex array of factors that influence the opportunity to drink during an event is also often beyond the athletes' control. Additionally, some competition formats result in athletes commencing the event with a body fluid deficit because of their failure to rehydrate from a previous bout of training/competition or weight-making strategies. Finally, since fluids consumed during exercise may also be a source of other ingredients (e.g., carbohydrate, electrolytes, or caffeine) or characteristics (e.g., temperature) that can increase palatability or performance, there may be both desirable volumes and patterns of intake that are independent of hydration concerns or thirst, as well as benefits from undertaking a "paced" fluid plan. Further studies of real-life hydration practices in sports including information on motives for drinking or not, along with intervention studies that simulate the actual nature of real-life sport, are needed before conclusions can be made about ideal drinking strategies for sports. Different interpretations may be needed for elite competitors and recreational participants. PMID:23529286

  2. Youth Sports/Athletic Programs--Local or National Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick

    The author (1) explains a system analysis approach developed by the Sports Institute for Research through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) for working with government, business, and service organizations in sport-related areas; (2) examines the distinction between professional athletics and amateur sport; (3) discusses conflict resolution by…

  3. Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who participate in sports. Though injuries that cause back pain are not the most common cause of injury ... sprains are the most common injuries that cause back pain in the young athlete. They can be caused ...

  4. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. PMID:24422719

  5. College Sports Inc.: The Athletic Department vs. the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperber, Murray

    1990-01-01

    Big-time intercollegiate athletics has become College Sports Inc., a huge entertainment conglomerate with operating methods and objectives totally separate from, and often opposed to, the educational aims of the schools housing its franchises. This article dispels prevailing myths and seeks a new role definition for intercollegiate athletics

  6. The differential depiction of female athletes in judged and non-judged sport magazines.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Gray, James J

    2006-12-01

    Sports magazines portrayal of female athletes over the past ten years, in terms of body size, age, and race was examined. Using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), estimated body size was obtained for cover models on a set of judged and non-judged sport magazines. The frequency with which the full bodies of models were depicted on the covers of these magazines was also investigated. Cover models on judged sport magazines were rated as significantly thinner than cover models on non-judged sport magazines. Judged sport magazines also displayed a higher number of full-body images than non-judged sport magazines. These findings suggest that individuals who read judged sport magazines are more likely to be exposed to thin media images than those reading non-judged sport magazines. PMID:18089240

  7. Sports hernia and femoroacetabular impingement in athletes: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Munegato, Daniele; Bigoni, Marco; Gridavilla, Giulia; Olmi, Stefano; Cesana, Giovanni; Zatti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between sports hernias and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in athletes. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Google Scholar databases were electronically searched for articles relating to sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, groin pain, long-standing adductor-related groin pain, Gilmore groin, adductor pain syndrome, and FAI. The initial search identified 196 studies, of which only articles reporting on the association of sports hernia and FAI or laparoscopic treatment of sports hernia were selected for systematic review. Finally, 24 studies were reviewed to evaluate the prevalence of FAI in cases of sports hernia and examine treatment outcomes and evidence for a common underlying pathogenic mechanism. RESULTS: FAI has been reported in as few as 12% to as high as 94% of patients with sports hernias, athletic pubalgia or adductor-related groin pain. Cam-type impingement is proposed to lead to increased symphyseal motion with overload on the surrounding extra-articular structures and muscle, which can result in the development of sports hernia and athletic pubalgia. Laparoscopic repair of sports hernias, via either the transabdominal preperitoneal or extraperitoneal approach, has a high success rate and earlier recovery of full sports activity compared to open surgery or conservative treatment. For patients with FAI and sports hernia, the surgical management of both pathologies is more effective than sports pubalgia treatment or hip arthroscopy alone (89% vs 33% of cases). As sports hernias and FAI are typically treated by general and orthopedic surgeons, respectively, a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and treatment is recommended for optimal treatment of patients with these injuries. CONCLUSION: The restriction in range of motion due to FAI likely contributes to sports hernias; therefore, surgical treatment of both pathologies represents an optimal therapy. PMID:26380829

  8. American Indian Collegiate Athletes: Accessing Education through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Christie, Alisse

    2013-01-01

    Few activities have the power to bring people together as sports; victory is contagious, defeat unifies, and the concept of a team can create common goals and unbreakable bonds among teammates, communities, and even an entire nation. In a sense, sport has the power to change lives. The lessons that athletics can teach-preparation, competitiveness,…

  9. American Indian Collegiate Athletes: Accessing Education through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Christie, Alisse

    2013-01-01

    Few activities have the power to bring people together as sports; victory is contagious, defeat unifies, and the concept of a team can create common goals and unbreakable bonds among teammates, communities, and even an entire nation. In a sense, sport has the power to change lives. The lessons that athletics can teach-preparation, competitiveness,

  10. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. PMID:20601743

  11. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a

  12. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  13. The Athlete's Perception of Coaches' Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level.

    PubMed

    Siekanska, Ma?gorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-12-18

    The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 1.48 years of age; 8.35 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches' Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach's behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to "a post-training session interest in the athlete" as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated "leniency and favoring" less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed "excessive criticism" as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches' "authoritarianism and distance" less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001). PMID:24511359

  14. Gender Differences in the Sport Socialization Process of High School Varsity Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.

    This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was

  15. MEDICAL SPORTS INJURIES IN THE YOUTH ATHLETE: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Molony Jr, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi?factorial process encompassing pre?participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions. PMID:22530197

  16. Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131) completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001) with a mean compliance of 84 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 40 % and 8 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly. Key pointsAthletes perceive ASRM and the factors influencing implementation differently. Therefore, to encourage compliance, it is important to tailor implementation strategies to the athlete and their sport context to increase appeal and minimize unappealing factors.Athletes using an ASRM on their own accord typically favor a measure which meets their needs and interests, with minimal burden.Athletes using an ASRM under the direction and support of their coach or sports program typically favor feedback and a positive social environment. PMID:26664269

  17. Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131) completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001) with a mean compliance of 84 ± 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly. Key points Athletes perceive ASRM and the factors influencing implementation differently. Therefore, to encourage compliance, it is important to tailor implementation strategies to the athlete and their sport context to increase appeal and minimize unappealing factors. Athletes using an ASRM on their own accord typically favor a measure which meets their needs and interests, with minimal burden. Athletes using an ASRM under the direction and support of their coach or sports program typically favor feedback and a positive social environment. PMID:26664269

  18. Pre-Participation and Follow-Up Screening of Athletes for Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman; Littwitz, Henning; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity increases life expectancy and sport is a priori not harmful. Exhausted sporting activity (e.g. endurance running, triathlon, cycling or competitive sport) can lead under individual conditions to negative cardiac remodelling (pathological enlargement/function of cardiac cavities/structures) or in worst case to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). This individually disposition can be genetically determined or behaviourally/environmentally acquired. Overall competitive young male athletes suffer five-fold higher than non-competitive athletes from sudden death and athletes aged over 30 bear a potential for arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation or a 20-fold higher possibility for SCD as female athletes. Patients with diabetes, coronary disease, obesity or hypertension require different special managements. Screening of cardiorespiratory health for sport activities has a lot of faces. Basically there is a need for indicated examinations or possible preventive measures inside or outside of pre-competition screening. The costs of screening compared to expenditure of whole effort for sporting activities are acceptable or even negligible, but of course dependent on national/regional settings. The various causes and possibilities of screening will be discussed in this article as basic suggestion for an open discussion beyond national borders and settings. PMID:25883700

  19. Sports Nutrition Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Pritchett, Kelly L.; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M.; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. Objective: To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. Patients and Other Participants: The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Results: Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program should be integrated for ATs and SCSs. This integrative approach is beneficial for the continuity of care, as both categories of professionals might be developing and integrating preventive or rehabilitative programs for athletes. PMID:22488287

  20. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, Franois; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Management of Sport Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Kutcher, Jeffrey; Palm, Michael; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with best-practice guidelines for the management of sport-related concussions. Background: An estimated 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the United States as a result of sport and physical activity. Athletic trainers are commonly the first medical providers available onsite to identify and evaluate these injuries. Recommendations: The recommendations for concussion management provided here are based on the most current research and divided into sections on education and prevention, documentation and legal aspects, evaluation and return to play, and other considerations. PMID:24601910

  2. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  3. Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other

  4. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 ± 4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001). In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001). Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001), the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001). Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes. PMID:26785960

  5. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have equivalent credentials and be the commonly used term. All weight management and exercise protocols used to achieve these goals should be safe and based on the most current evidence. Athletes, clients, parents, and coaches should be educated on how to determine safe weight and body composition so that athletes and clients more safely achieve competitive weights that will meet sport and activity requirements while also allowing them to meet their energy and nutritional needs for optimal health and performance. PMID:21669104

  6. Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Much of the available information on this subject has been collected from sedentary subjects or low-level competitors, often without well matched controls. Other issues requiring clearer definition include the duration of fasting, the local environment, the timing of observations, and changes in training, diet and sleep patterns. Sleep may be shortened or made good with daytime naps. Circadian rhythms of temperature, metabolism, hormonal secretions and physical performance may be disrupted and incidental activities curtailed. Disturbances of psychomotor performance include daytime sleepiness, impaired vigilance and slower reactions. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Sedentary individuals sometimes exploit Ramadan to reduce body fat stores. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Protein intake must allow for gluconeogenesis, and provide quality protein ingested around training times. Blood sugar levels are likely to fall over a long and active day, even if morning glycogen reserves are maximized. Metabolism of fat should be encouraged, beginning prior to Ramadan; inclusion of fat in the pre-dawn meal also slows gastric emptying. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat, but the immediate deficit can usually be made good at night. Some studies show an initial fluid depletion, with recovery as Ramadan continues, possibly reflecting changes in urine and sweat production. Top athletes can maintain training throughout Ramadan, although coaches sometimes reduce demands through a pre-competitive tapering of effort. Late night or early morning training requires negotiation with players who are not observing Ramadan, and dietary adjustments to maintain optimal plasma amino acid levels when training. Performance of repeated anaerobic exercise is impaired, but aerobic power and muscular strength show little change during Ramadan. Ratings of fatigue are increased, and vigilance and reaction times are impaired, particularly during the afternoon. Medical issues during Ramadan are few. Athletes with diabetes mellitus should seek a medical exemption from fasting, and prescribed drug schedules should be carefully maintained. There is no major increase of injury rates, but competitors may have difficulty in producing urine for doping controls. Logical measures to minimize the effects of Ramadan include the optimization of mood state, maintenance of training, minimization of sleep loss, appropriate adjustments of diet, and the monitoring of competitors for chronic dehydration. Future research should concentrate on the changes observed in top athletes, particularly women, with data collected in the late afternoon after a known period of fasting in a well defined environment. It will be important to ensure that the lifestyle of those studied has been optimized. Implications of chronic dehydration for doping control also merit further investigation. Current data suggest that the impact of Ramadan upon athletic performance is small relative to the precision of test procedures, although it may be sufficient to cause a loss of medals. Negative effects vary widely with the type of sport, the season when fasting is observed, the local culture and the discipline exercised by the athlete. PMID:23888431

  7. Validation of the student athletes motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-01-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes motivation towards athletic and academic achievement. PMID:26331138

  8. Validation of the student athletes' motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-08-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement. PMID:26331138

  9. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

  10. A case of early sports specialization in an adolescent athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brad; Stern, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    Early sport specialization (ESS) refers to intense year round training in a specific sport with the exclusion of other sports at a young age. This approach to training is heavily debated and there are claims both in support and against ESS. ESS is considered to be more common in the modern day youth athlete and could be a source of overuse injuries and burnout. This case describes a 16 year old elite level baseball pitcher who engaged in high volume, intense training at a young age which lead to several significant throwing related injuries. The case highlights the historical context of ESS, the potential risk and benefits as well as the evidence for its effectiveness. It is important for health care professionals to be informed on the topic of ESS in order to educate athletes, parents, coaches and organizations of the potential risks and benefits. PMID:25550662

  11. A case of early sports specialization in an adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brad; Stern, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    Early sport specialization (ESS) refers to intense year round training in a specific sport with the exclusion of other sports at a young age. This approach to training is heavily debated and there are claims both in support and against ESS. ESS is considered to be more common in the modern day youth athlete and could be a source of overuse injuries and burnout. This case describes a 16 year old elite level baseball pitcher who engaged in high volume, intense training at a young age which lead to several significant throwing related injuries. The case highlights the historical context of ESS, the potential risk and benefits as well as the evidence for its effectiveness. It is important for health care professionals to be informed on the topic of ESS in order to educate athletes, parents, coaches and organizations of the potential risks and benefits. PMID:25550662

  12. [Sports injuries, sports damages and diseases of world class athletes practicing modern pentathlon].

    PubMed

    Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pitsch, W; Kirn-Jnemann, U; Engel, C; Kohn, D; Regitz, T

    2003-03-01

    108 world class athletes (54 males, 54 females) practicing modern pentathlon had been interviewed about their individual training and competition efforts as well as their sports related injuries, damages and diseases in the last world cup season using a standardized empirical questionnaire. The mean training extent was about 25 hours per week, the mean number of national and international competitions athletes made was 9, especially concerning swimming and running. Mean number of health threatening incidents of each athlete had been 2 with 41% diseases such as otitis and pharyngitis, 23% injuries such as contusions and distortions and 33% damages such as tendinitis, periostitis and strains. Head and neck involvement were more frequent than those of pelvis and the lower extremities. Training efforts were the most frequent reasons for health threatening events (84%), especially concerning diseases and damages, whereas most of the injuries happened during competitions (p<.01). Most of the injuries happened practicing horse riding during competitions (9%). Running was the most frequent reason for damages, whereas horse riding is the leading cause for injuries, furthermore damages and injuries are typical for fencing. Swimming is often associated with diseases. In contrary shooting did not show typically affiliated health threatening events. The incidence of health threatening incidents concerning world class athletes practicing modern pentathlon is quite low. Especially running and swimming combined with a high training extent empirically predisposed to suffer from damages and diseases. Horse riding with a quite low training extent and fencing show a higher incidence of injuries. From the training-methodological point of view the training extent should not be too extended. Due to a high number of diseases it may be profitable to be in attendance of an inner medicine physician. PMID:12690554

  13. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

  14. Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

    2014-04-22

    In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. PMID:24530682

  15. Effect of different sports on body cell mass in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, A; Melchiorri, G; Brozzi, M; Di Marco, A; Volpe, S L; Garofano, P; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the impact of various sports on body cell mass (BCM). Ninety-eight male subjects, 17-33 years of age, participated in the study. The sample included athletes from three professional Italian football (soccer) teams, representing three different divisions (A, n=16; B, n=14; and C, n=18), judo athletes (J, n=10), and water polo athletes (W, n=14) who all competed at the national level. Twenty-six age-matched individuals served as the control group (CG). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), and BCM were assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). There were no significant differences in body weight and FFM among the groups. A and B were significantly taller than J and CG. B had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) than CG, while C had a significantly lower BMI than J and CG. CG had a significantly greater FM and %BF than A, B, and C. C had a significantly lower BCM than Aand B. CG had a significantly lower BCM than A, B, J, and W. In conclusion, differences in BCM exist among athletes of different sports, and among athletes within the same sport who compete at different levels. PMID:14618450

  16. Reporting doping in sport: national level athletes' perceptions of their role in doping prevention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S H; Long, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper qualitatively explores national level athletes' willingness to report doping in sport. Following ethical approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine national level athletes from rugby league (n?=?5) and track and field athletics (n?=?4). Thematic analysis established the main themes within the data. Contextual differences existed around the role that athletes perceived they would play if they became aware of doping. Specifically, track and field athletes would adopt the role of a whistle-blower and report individuals who were doping in their sport. In comparison, the rugby league players highlighted a moral dilemma. Despite disagreeing with their teammates' actions, the players would adhere to a code of silence and refrain from reporting doping. Taking these findings into account, prevention programs might focus on changing broader group and community norms around doping. In doing so, community members' receptivity to prevention messages may increase. Moreover, developing skills to intervene (e.g., speaking out against social norms that support doping behavior) or increasing awareness of reporting lines could enhance community responsibility for doping prevention. In sum, the findings highlight the need to consider the context of sport and emphasize that a one-size-fits-all approach to anti-doping is problematic. PMID:24673128

  17. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595

  18. The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harada, Coreen M.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving

  19. Sports Psychology and the Collegiate Athlete: One Size Does Not Fit All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas L.

    1993-01-01

    Reacts to four previous articles on sport psychology and counseling psychology. Commends articles but questions lack of any significant reference to minority athlete, considering that articles focused on college athletics, that football and basketball are instrumental to college sport, and that participation of African-American athletes is

  20. Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

    2004-01-01

    Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…

  1. Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

    2004-01-01

    Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of

  2. Relationships of Institutional and Athletic Program Characteristics to AIAW Divisional Declarations and Number of Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Marilyn E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the institutional and athletic characteristics that had the greatest relationship to divisional declarations in selected sports in women's athletic programs and the number of sports offered in women's athletic programs. Institutions were grouped according to similar characteristics, e.g., enrollment,

  3. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  4. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May

  5. Exercise and sports in cardiac patients and athletes at risk: Balance between benefit and harm.

    PubMed

    Maisch, B

    2015-05-01

    Physical training has a well-established role in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Moderate exercise has been shown to be beneficial in chronic stable heart failure. Competitive sports, however, is contraindicated in most forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in myocarditis, in pericarditis, and in right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. In most European countries, the recommendations of medical societies or public bodies state that these diseases have to be ruled out by prescreening before an individual can take up competitive sports. But the intensity and quality of this health check vary considerably from country to country, from the type of sports activity, and from the individuals who want to participate in sports. Prescreening on an individual basis should also be considered for leisure sports, particularly in people who decide to start training in middle age after years of physical inactivity to regain physical fitness. In leisure sports the initiative for a medical check-up lies primarily in the hands of the "healthy" individual. If she or he plans to participate in extreme forms of endurance sports with excessive training periods such as a marathon or ultramarathon and competitive cycling or rowing, they should be aware that high-intensity endurance sports can lead to structural alterations of the heart muscle even in healthy individuals. Physical exercise in patients with heart disease should be accompanied by regular medical check-ups. Most rehabilitation programs in Europe perform physical activity and training schedules according to current guidelines. Little is known about athletes who are physically handicapped and participate in competitive sports or the Paralympics, and even less is known about individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in local, regional, international competitions or the Special Olympics or just in leisure sport activities. PMID:25822293

  6. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2015-11-01

    Weight management for athletes and active individuals is unique because of their high daily energy expenditure; thus, the emphasis is usually placed on changing the diet side of the energy balance equation. When dieting for weight loss, active individuals also want to preserve lean tissue, which means that energy restriction cannot be too severe or lean tissue is lost. First, this brief review addresses the issues of weight management in athletes and active individuals and factors to consider when determining a weight-loss goal. Second, the concept of dynamic energy balance is reviewed, including two mathematical models developed to improve weight-loss predictions based on changes in diet and exercise. These models are now available on the Internet. Finally, dietary strategies for weight loss/maintenance that can be successfully used with active individuals are given. Emphasis is placed on teaching the benefits of consuming a low-ED diet (e.g., high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food to increase satiety while reducing energy intake. Health professionals and sport dietitians need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals. PMID:26553496

  7. Public health recommendations for athletes attending sporting events.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patricia; Gustafson, Réka

    2011-01-01

    Public health planning in advance of the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games included an assessment of potential public health risks for athletes attending the Games and mitigation activities to reduce those risks, including provision of vaccination recommendations to athletes. Physicians providing care to athletes who will attend large sporting events at home or abroad should consider their need for routine and additional vaccinations well in advance of the event to permit completion of vaccination schedules, ensure development of immunity, and avoid adverse vaccine reactions in the final stages of athlete training. Specific vaccinations recommended will vary depending on the location of the event and time of year it is scheduled. Other simple prevention measures for athletes include hand washing recommendations, avoiding high-risk foods, practicing safe sex, and taking simple precautions to reduce the risk of injuries. No major public health problems occurred during the 2010 Winter Games, but a measles outbreak began in Vancouver coincident in time with the Games; no known cases occurred among participating athletes. PMID:21200174

  8. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

  9. [Lipid and lipoprotein levels in athletes in different sports disciplines].

    PubMed

    Cardoso Saldaña, G C; Hernández de León, S; Zamora González, J; Posadas Romero, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term high level physical exertion on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Ninety-one young athletes, 70 men and 21 women, who practiced sports such as running, swimming, rowing, boxing and soccer, were studied. The control group included 101 healthy subjects, 77 men and 24 women, with sedentary life style. The mean plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.04), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.04) and the atherogenic index (p = 0.01) were lower, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.005) significantly higher in male athletes than in controls. Mean plasma lipids and lipoproteins concentrations were not significantly different in sportswomen when compared with their controls. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C levels, were lower in male and female athletes of the five sport disciplines than in sedentary controls; however, only hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.05) and the atherogenic index (p < 0.01) were statistically different. These results, consistent with data previously published, show that low plasma levels of TG and high levels of HDL-C characterizes the athletes who practice an aerobic physical activity; additionally, in male athletes we found that long-term exercise appears to reduce LDL-C plasma levels. This latter finding agree with most, but not all, studies in the literature. We conclude that athletes have a lipid profile that may be protective against the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:7575022

  10. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  11. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  12. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

  13. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n = 263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

  14. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended. PMID:25855365

  15. Management Careers in Professional Sport and College/University Athletics: Results of a Survey Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitel, Patricia A.; And Others

    This study assessed the needs of management positions and obtained evaluations of sport management programs by management personnel from different sport program perspectives, i.e., professional sport and college/university athletics. Results of survey identified: (1) specific similarities and differences in the criteria for both hiring sport

  16. Keeping Your Head in the Game: Sport-Specific Imagery and Anxiety Among Injured Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Monsma, Eva; Mensch, James; Farroll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. Objective: To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Design: Observational design. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Results: Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Conclusions: Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic anxiety before return to practice. Image content recommendations should encompass the cognitive and motivational functions of imagery, and the practitioner should assess if any image used by the athlete is debilitative. PMID:19593424

  17. Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A.

    This chapter includes all cases involving student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. However, no case law is discussed that pertains to physical education instruction or intramural

  18. Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; White, Janet M.

    This chapter--new to the "Yearbook"--discusses all court cases reported in 1986 that involved student athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, interscholastic sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels. It does not, however, include case

  19. Kinanthropometric attributes of young male combat sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Catikkas, Fatih; Kurt, Cem; Atalag, Ozan

    2013-12-01

    Although there are enough studies concerning the kinanthropometric attributes of players of sports such as football, basketball, or volleyball in Turkey, there are not enough studies on the same for combat sports. Hence, our aim is to assess the kinanthropometric attributes of different combat sports like karate, taekwondo, judo and kickboxing. The present study included 48 national level male athletes from four different combat sports (age, 20.3 (3.19) years; number of years playing the sport, 8.33 (4.59); height, 174.3 (7.15) cm; weight, 67.35 (10.55 kg). Skinfold thickness was measured with a skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd., UK), and Yuhazs formula was used to calculate the body fat percentage. Somatotype assessment was carried out with a computer program (Sweat Technology Trial Version, South Australia). Width measurements were obtained with a slide caliper (HLT-100, Holtain Ltd.), and girth measurements were obtained with a non-flexible tape measure. The data obtained were analyzed with the computer program SPSS 17.0 in terms of the SD. The findings were as follows: body mass index (BMI), 22.00 (2.66) kg/m2; body fat percentage, 12.20% (3.07%); endomorphic component, 2.9 (1.30); mesomorphic component, 4.25 (1.30); and ectomorphic component, 3.10 (1.30). The cormic index was 51.99% (1.88%); Monourier index, 92.39% (4.47%); Acromio-iliac index, 60.87% (6.61%); Martine index, 6.29% (0.70%); Biacromial index, 22.58% (0.99%); and hip index, 13.91% (0.86%). The mesomorphic component was found to be dominant in our study. Although BMIs were found to be normal, body fat percentages were low. According to body proportions, the athletes who participated in this study had wide shoulders, narrow hips, and medium-sized trunks. PMID:24611359

  20. The GH-IGF-I response to typical field sports practices in adolescent athletes: a summary.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Alon; Cooper, Dan M; Nemet, Dan

    2014-11-01

    The present study compares previous reports on the effect of "real-life" typical field individual (i.e., cross-country running and wrestling--representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (i.e., volleyball and water polo-representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH?IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations. PMID:25372377

  1. Student Athlete Success: Impact of Sport Participation on Student Engagement among NAIA and NCAA Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a great quantity of research on student engagement and its impact on learning and retention, limited research exists on the impact of sport participation on student athlete engagement; an even smaller amount of research exists on the impact of sport participation among different athletic divisions (NCAA Division I, NCAA Division

  2. Great (by God) Athletes: West Virginians in Sports Talk about Environment and Destiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Former West Virginia athletes reminisce about participating in sports and growing up in rural Appalachia and how these experiences influenced their future. These athletes were taught the values of strict fairness and consistent discipline, which were crucial to team success and prepared them for life after sports. (LP)

  3. The Sport Commitment Model: An Investigation of Structural Relationships with Thai Youth Athlete Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among

  4. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  5. The Sport Commitment Model: An Investigation of Structural Relationships with Thai Youth Athlete Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…

  6. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were

  7. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than among biathletes. Reduced serum level of one antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but sometimes, conversely, their decline (vitamin A) to a level corresponding to the physiological needs. The revealed vitamin B2 deficiency may very likely indicate a lack of other B group vitamins. In this connection it is necessary to draw attention to the need to eliminate the existing vitamin deficiency, and not to focus exclusively on antioxidant vitamins. The most reasonable and at the same time a safe way to restore the lack of vitamins in the diet of most athletes is consistently including in the diet of athletes vitamin and mineral supplements and/or fortified foods, containing a complete set of all or at least most of vitamins, and in doses that are not excessive and are adequate to maintain optimum vitamin status. PMID:24741956

  8. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea level, the 'live high-train low' model of altitude training can help athletes in endurance events to maximize performance. PMID:19837773

  9. Interrelationships between Expressive Individualism and Other Achievement Goal Orientations among African and European American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the construct of expressive individualism and its relationship to other goal perspectives established in sport literature. European and African American high school athletes completed surveys. Results indicate that personal expression relates to task orientation for African Americans, whereas for European Americans it relates to ego…

  10. Frequency and predictability of sports injuries in intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Meeuwisse, W H; Fowler, P J

    1988-03-01

    This study analyzes injury frequency and predictability in 712 intercollegiate athletes in 24 different male and female sports over the 1984-85 season. The injury rate was 38% for males and 32% for females, with the males suffering more acute injuries. While the men's hockey team had the highest player injury rate, the football team had the greatest absolute number of injuries. Overall, the anatomic location with the highest injury rate was the knee, while sprains were the most common type of injury. Further elaboration of these results are provided in graphic form. By comparing injury occurrence to past history and preparticipation physical findings, this study assesses the predictability of injury. With one exception, no significant relationship was found. It would appear that the preseason exam may play a role in identification, rather than prediction of sports injuries. PMID:3359359

  11. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals

  12. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  13. Athletic Trainers Management Practices and Referral Patterns for Adolescent Athletes After Sport-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richelle M.; Welch, Cailee E.; Weber, Michelle L.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Athletic trainers (ATs) play an important role in the evaluation, management, and referral of student-athletes after sport-related concussion. Understanding factors that influence ATs patient care decisions is important to ensure best practices are followed. Purpose: To identify ATs current concussion management practices and referral patterns for adolescent student-athletes after sport-related concussion as well as the factors associated with those practices. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: A total of 851 participants from a convenience sample of 3286 ATs employed in the secondary school setting (25.9% response rate) completed the Athletic Trainers Beliefs, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-AT) survey. The BAKPAC-AT consists of several questions to assess ATs concussion management, referral practices, and established relationships with other health care professionals. Results: The majority of ATs had a written concussion policy (82.4%, n = 701) and standing orders approved by their directing physician (67.3%, n = 573); 75.1% (n = 639) of ATs conduct baseline testing, with the majority using computerized neurocognitive tests (71.2%, n = 606). Follow-up concussion testing was employed by 81.8% (n = 696). Years of certification (P = 0.049) and type of secondary school (P = 0.033) predicted ATs use of baseline testing. Nearly half of the respondents (48.8%, n = 415) refer 100% of concussion cases to a physician. The most influential factors that lead to a referral were state law (40.3%, n = 343), personal preference (34.7%, n = 295), and school district policy (24.8%, n = 211). Conclusion: Of the ATs surveyed, most were engaged in baseline and follow-up testing, primarily with neurocognitive tests. Most ATs refer patients to physicians after concussion. While state regulation and personal preference were primary factors influencing referral decisions, it is unclear at what point of care the referral occurs. PMID:25177421

  14. Public Attitude Survey of Canada on School/Amateur Sports, Amateur and Professional Athletics, and the Effect of T.V. Sports/Athletics Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Leduc, Larry

    This article presents the results of a public attitude survey of a quota sample of approximately 4,000 age 18 and older Canadians, in which respondents were asked to express their opinion on who should own and operate professional athletics, national and international amateur athletics, and school/amateur sport. Attitude was also assessed on what

  15. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  16. Handling of medical knowledge in sport: Athletes' medical opinions, information seeking behaviours and knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar

    2016-02-01

    Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (nmale = 69, nfemale = 41; meanage = 24.28 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758

  17. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median?=?3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median?=?1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P?=?0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports. PMID:23662691

  18. Sports and Exercise in Athletes with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Craig; Day, Sharlene M; Saberi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease and one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Current guidelines restrict the participation of patients with HCM in competitive sports, limiting the health benefits of exercise. However, many individuals with HCM have safely participated in sports, with a low incidence of SCD. Improved stratification of patients and desired activity may allow most individuals with HCM to engage in physical activity safely. Therefore, physicians should create an individualized approach in guiding each patient with HCM eager to enjoy the benefits of physical activity in a safe manner. PMID:26100424

  19. Toward a multidimensional model of athletes' commitment to coach-athlete relationships and interdependent sport teams: a substantive-methodological synergy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

    2014-02-01

    Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport. PMID:24501144

  20. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes. PMID:25756787

  1. Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both

  2. Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

  3. Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolum, Janet

    This updated second edition provides comprehensive and current information on women in sports, detailing the history, biography, bibliography, and statistics of female professional and amateur athletes. The book is divided into 4 parts with 6 chapters. Part 1, History of Women's Sports, presents: (1) Women in American Sports and (2) Women in the

  4. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not needed if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume unbalanced diets with low micronutrient density may require supplements. Because regulations specific to nutritional ergogenic aids are poorly enforced, they should be used with caution and only after careful product evaluation for safety, efficacy, potency, and legality. A qualified sports dietitian and, in particular, the Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics in the United States, should provide individualized nutrition direction and advice after a comprehensive nutrition assessment. PMID:19225360

  5. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model

    PubMed Central

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-01-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child’s well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  6. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-07-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child's well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  7. Athletes confessions: the sports biography as an interaction ritual.

    PubMed

    Thing, L F; Ronglan, L T

    2015-04-01

    Commercialization of emotions is not a new phenomenon but in Denmark there is a new general trend to tell and sell personal stories in the media. Personal deprivation and crises are also major topics in sports media. This paper focuses on sports biographies as a book genre that is reviving in popularity. The paper approaches the topic through the biographies of one Danish athlete: the former professional cyclist, Jesper Skibby, who writes about his doping disclosure and shares his personal dilemmas as a former elite sportsman. The thematic text analysis orientates around social interactions, emotions, and personality constructions. Inspired by microsociology with a Durkheimian flavor of Goffman and Hochschild, themes including "face work," "interaction rituals," and "emotions management" are discussed. The analysis claims that sharing personal information in the media is not only a means of confession and reclaiming status but is also business and management - on an intimate level. Telling the story of the corrosion of a sporting character has become a hot issue, an entertainment, and not least a commercial commitment. PMID:24673745

  8. Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences.

    PubMed

    Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID. PMID:26181469

  9. MR spectroscopic evidence of brain injury in the non-diagnosed collision sport athlete.

    PubMed

    Poole, Victoria N; Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Breedlove, Evan L; Breedlove, Katherine M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Dydak, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    With growing evidence of long-term neurological damage in individuals enduring repetitive head trauma, it is critical to detect lower-level damage accumulation for the early diagnosis of injury in at-risk populations. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic scans of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex were collected from high school American (gridiron) football athletes, prior to and during their competition seasons. Although no concussions were diagnosed, significant metabolic deviations from baseline and non-collision sport controls were revealed. Overall the findings indicate underlying biochemical changes, consequential to repetitive hits, which have previously gone unnoticed due to a lack of traditional neurological symptoms. PMID:25144258

  10. Role of Sport Medicine Professionals in Addressing Psychosocial Aspects of Sport-Injury Rehabilitation: Professional Athletes' Views

    PubMed Central

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V.; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. Objective: To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design Qualitative study. Setting: Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Patients or Other Participants: Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Results: Athletes in our study viewed injuries as “part and parcel” of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. Conclusions: The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities. PMID:25243737

  11. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    PubMed

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT indoors to further enhance individual and team performances. PMID:24263650

  12. Sport and training influence bone and body composition in women collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Carbuhn, Aaron F; Fernandez, Tara E; Bragg, Amy F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2010-07-01

    This is a novel descriptive study to characterize off-season, preseason, and postseason bone and body composition measures in women collegiate athletes. From 2006 through 2008, 67 women collegiate athletes from 5 sports, softball (n = 17), basketball (n = 10), volleyball (n = 7), swimming (n = 16), and track jumpers and sprinters (n = 17) were scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 seasonal periods: (a) off-season = before preseason training, (b) preseason = after preseason training, and (c) postseason = after competitive season. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed for total body mass, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD), arm BMD, leg BMD, pelvis BMD, and spine BMD. Data were analyzed between sports using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc follow-ups, and within each sport using repeated-measures ANOVA and LSD; alpha < 0.05. Significant off-season to preseason or postseason changes in %BF, LM, and BMD within each sport were as follows, respectively: softball, -7, +4, +1%; basketball, -11, +4, +1%; volleyball, unchanged, unchanged, +2%; swimming, unchanged, +2.5%, unchanged; track jumpers and sprinters, -7, +3.5, +1%. Comparisons among athletes in each sport showed bone measurements of swimmers averaged 4-19% lower than that of athletes in any other sport, whereas for track jumpers and sprinters, %BF and FM averaged 36 and 43% lower compared with other sports at all seasonal periods. Values for athletes playing basketball and volleyball were most similar, whereas softball athletes' values fell between all other athletes. These data serve as sport-specific reference values for comparisons at in-season and off-season training periods among women collegiate athletes in various sports. PMID:20453684

  13. Gender Role Conflict, Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Concepts, and Sport Socialization in Female Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jessica L.; Levy, Gary D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares gender role conflict in 145 female athletes and nonathletes; issues of masculinity, femininity, and self-concept; and influence due to parent's previous sports participation. Athletes, overall, had more positive self-concepts and had athletically inclined parents. Both participants' body image self-concept and parental sports

  14. REVIEW OF SPORTS PERFORMANCE RESEARCH WITH YOUTH, COLLEGIATE, AND ELITE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Luiselli, James K; Woods, Kathryn E; Reed, Derek D

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research. PMID:22219554

  15. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  16. Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. Results The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p < 0.0001; p = 0.04), with no differences between the volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p < 0.001; p = 0.006). However in both sports groups there weren’t any gender differences in either part of the test (p = 0.18; p = 0.056). Conclusions These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence. PMID:24447526

  17. Comprehensive Sports Medicine Treatment of an Athlete Who Runs Cross-Country and is Iron Deficient

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Linda; Rutt, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Optimal athletic performance may be dependent upon an athlete maintaining adequate iron levels through the consumption of dietary forms of iron and subsequent metabolism. Endurance athletes, especially female distance runners, have been identified as being at risk for developing iron deficiency. While iron deficiency is treatable, early diagnosis may be delayed if an adequate medical history and evaluation is not conducted. Objective To describe the evaluation, diagnosis, and comprehensive sports medicine treatment of a collegiate cross-country athlete with a medical diagnosis of iron deficiency with anemia and sports-related musculoskeletal pain. Case Description A 21-year-old female collegiate cross-country athlete experienced a decline in her running performance beginning her freshman year of school. She continued to experience degradation in sports performance despite medical intervention. Two-and-a-half years after initially seeking medical attention she was diagnosed with iron deficiency with anemia by a primary care medical doctor. Additionally, the subject required rehabilitation due to the onset of sports-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Outcomes Comprehensive treatment for this patient consisted of iron supplementation, therapeutic exercises, manual therapy, and modalities. The athlete was able to compete during her entire cross-country season and earn All-American status at the Division-III level. Discussion Sports medicine professionals must consider iron deficiency as a possible differential diagnosis when evaluating endurance athletes. Subtle signs of iron deficiency may, unfortunately, be overlooked ultimately delaying treatment. PMID:21509116

  18. [Sports and adolescence: the effect of competitive athletics on menstrual function].

    PubMed

    Trivelli, M R; Biglia, C; Castagno, A; Chiara, G

    1995-04-01

    A group of 381 girls, 12 up to 19-years-old, engaging in competitive sports (athletics, basketball, dancing, gymnastics, swimming, ski-ing, tennis, volley-ball) was examined. Age at menarche and menstrual characteristics were correlated with the body weight, the competitive practice start age, the kind of the sport and the amount of training hours/week. Collected data were compared with the ones from a pool of 387 girls of equivalent mean age, not playing any sport. Delay of menarche and larger frequency of menstrual disorders, found among athletes, turned out to be directly proportional to the amount of time devoted to training and to the kind of performed sports. Irregular cycles are more frequent in athletes having a normal or lower body weight and do not normalise proceeding in sporting activities. PMID:7644094

  19. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    PubMed

    Brdi, Mrk; Kteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Brdos, Gyrgy; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences. PMID:25189187

  20. Substance Use among College Athletes: A Comparison Based on Sport/Team Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard…

  1. Substance Use among College Athletes: A Comparison Based on Sport/Team Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard

  2. Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolum, Janet

    This book highlights the stories of 60 of this century's female athletes who pioneered, participated in, or continue to compete in women's sports. Following forewords by Billie Jean King, Anita DeFrantz, and Deborah Slaner Anderson, the volume contains biography, history, an annotated bibliography, and statistics on women athletes from the late…

  3. Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolum, Janet

    This book highlights the stories of 60 of this century's female athletes who pioneered, participated in, or continue to compete in women's sports. Following forewords by Billie Jean King, Anita DeFrantz, and Deborah Slaner Anderson, the volume contains biography, history, an annotated bibliography, and statistics on women athletes from the late

  4. Italian cardiological guidelines for sports eligibility in athletes with heart disease: part 2.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandro; Delise, Pietro; Zeppilli, Paolo; Giada, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio; Penco, Maria; Casasco, Maurizio; Colonna, Pierluigi; D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Andrea, Luigi; Gazale, Giovanni; Inama, Giuseppe; Spataro, Antonio; Villella, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo; Pirelli, Salvatore; Romano, Vincenzo; Cristiano, Antonio; Bettini, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano; Furlanello, Francesco; Corrado, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    In Italy the existence of a law on health protection of competitive sports since 1982 has favored the creation and the revision of these cardiological guidelines (called COCIS), which have reached their fourth edition (1989-2009). The present article is the second English version, which has summarized the larger version in Italian. The experience of the experts consulted in the course of these past 20 years has facilitated the application and the compatibility of issues related to clinical cardiology to the sports medicine field. Such prolonged experience has allowed the clinical cardiologist to acquire knowledge of the applied physiology of exercise and, on the other hand, has improved the ability of sports physicians in cardiological diagnostics. All this work has produced these guidelines related to the judgment of eligibility for competitive sports in the individual clinical situations and in the different cardiovascular abnormalities and/or heart disease. Numerous arguments are debated, such as interpretation of the athlete's ECG, the utility of a preparticipation screening, arrhythmias, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and other particular issues. PMID:23625056

  5. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valrie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-Franois

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

  6. Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,

  7. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given

  8. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

  9. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing Sudden Death in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care. PMID:22488236

  10. Special Athletic Opportunities for Individuals with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnick, Joseph P., Ed.; Short, Francis X., Ed.

    The report contains 12 author contributed chapters concerned with special athletic opportunities for individuals with handicapping conditions. The monograph begins with a detailed treatment of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 followed by descriptions of athletic programs developed by various groups. Remaining chapters are concerned

  11. Species variety of staphylococcal microflora of the skin in athletes engaged in water sports.

    PubMed

    Zaborova, V A; Arzumanin, V G; Gurevich, K G; Terekhova, M V; Artemyeva, T A; Butovchenko, L M; Shkurnikov, M Yu

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcal flora of the skin was studied in athletes whose professional activity involved training in water. Inoculations were carried out by impressions in selective agar medium (yolk saline agar; YSA) in bacteriological signets. Drug sensitivity was studied by the disk diffusion method modified by Kerby-Bauer using standard disks with antibiotics. The study was carried out in 4 groups of athletes engaged in water sports (athletic and synchronous swimming, modern pentathlon, and water polo). Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of staphylococcal flora in water athletes are presented, MRSA strains are detected, and antibiotic sensitivity of staphylococcal microflora was evaluated. PMID:22485221

  12. Posterior shoulder instability in the athletic population: Variations in assessment, clinical outcomes, and return to sport

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Bradley, James P

    2015-01-01

    Posterior instability of the shoulder is becoming an increasingly recognized shoulder injury in the athletic population. Diagnostic elements, such as etiology, directionality, and degree of instability are essential factors to assess in the unstable athletic shoulder. Concomitant injuries and associated pathologic lesions continue to be a significant challenge in the surgical management of posterior shoulder instability. Return to sport and previous level of play is ultimately the goal for every committed athlete and surgeon, thus subpopulations of athletes should be recognized as distinct entities requiring unique diagnostic, functional outcome measures, and surgical approaches. PMID:26716088

  13. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    Hypohydration - if sufficiently severe - adversely affects athletic performance and poses a risk to health. Strength and power events are generally less affected than endurance events, but performance in team sports that involve repeated intense efforts will be impaired. Mild hypohydration is not harmful, but many athletes begin exercise already hypohydrated. Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and - where opportunities exist - to consume fluid during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. In high-intensity efforts, there is no need, and may be no opportunity, to drink during competition. Most team sports players do not drink enough to match sweat losses, but some drink too much and a few may develop hyponatremia because of excessive fluid intake. Athletes should assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine markers. Short-term changes in hydration can be estimated from the change in body mass. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after exercise. PMID:20840563

  14. Sports Counseling: Enhancing the Development of the Student-Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Judy M.; Lent, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Explores two problems, role conflict and athletic retirement, commonly faced by student athletes. Describes several potentially useful intervention models based on a psychoeducational approach, and suggests some directions for future research in aiding understanding of student-athlete development. (Author/KS)

  15. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  16. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  17. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona; O'Connor, Helen; Denyer, Gareth; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N=414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games. PMID:19827460

  18. Sport nutrition and doping factors in swimming; parallel analysis among athletes and coaches.

    PubMed

    Sajber, Dorica; Rodek, Jelena; Escalante, Yolanda; Oluji?, Dragana; Sekuli?, Damir

    2013-05-01

    The sport nutrition and doping are known to be important issues in sports, but there is evident lack of studies which investigated those issues in swimming, especially with regard to parallel analysis of coaches and athletes. The first aim of this study was to compare knowledge of swimming coaches and their athletes about nutrition and doping. Also, we have identified interrelationships between studied sociodemographic-, sport-; nutrition- and doping-related-factors. The sample of subjects comprised 55 athletes (20.3 +/- 2.2 years of age; 24 females) and 22 coaches (mean age 36.5 +/- 7.8 years; 4 females) from Croatia (98% of respondents). In the first phase of the investigation we have validated specific questionnaires to determine the knowledge of sport nutrition (KSN), and knowledge on doping (KD). The test-retest correlation and percentage of equally responded queries revealed both questionnaires as reliable. The discriminative validity was proven also since coaches scored better than their athletes on both questionnaires. Athletes declared their coaches as the primary sources of knowledge about nutrition and doping. Among coaches, formal and self-education are equally important sources of information about doping and nutrition. The age is negatively, while the formal education is positively correlated to KD and KSN scores among coaches. Consequently, permanent educational programs about nutrition and doping are emphasized, especially among older coaches and younger athletes. PMID:23914506

  19. Relationship between sports drinks and dental erosion in 304 university athletes in Columbus, Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Tanya; Casamassimo, Paul S; Hayes, John R

    2002-01-01

    Acidic soft drinks, including sports drinks, have been implicated in dental erosion with limited supporting data in scarce erosion studies worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in a sample of athletes at a large Midwestern state university in the USA, and to evaluate whether regular consumption of sports drinks was associated with dental erosion. A cross-sectional, observational study was done using a convenience sample of 304 athletes, selected irrespective of sports drinks usage. The Lussi Index was used in a blinded clinical examination to grade the frequency and severity of erosion of all tooth surfaces excluding third molars and incisal surfaces of anterior teeth. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather details on sports drink usage, lifestyle, health problems, dietary and oral health habits. Intraoral color slides were taken of all teeth with erosion. Sports drinks usage was found in 91.8% athletes and the total prevalence of erosion was 36.5%. Nonparametric tests and stepwise regression analysis using history variables showed no association between dental erosion and the use of sports drinks, quantity and frequency of consumption, years of usage and nonsport usage of sports drinks. The most significant predictor of erosion was found to be not belonging to the African race (p < 0.0001). The results of this study reveal no relationship between consumption of sports drinks and dental erosion. PMID:12218278

  20. Character Development. Does Sport Affect Character Development in Athletes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George

    1998-01-01

    Examines the impact of sport on character development, noting that historically British and American schools have valued sports for helping develop social character and citizenship. The paper discusses research on sport as a character builder, suggesting that the effect of sport on character depends on the positive or negative social contextual

  1. Core Muscle Injury/Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia, and Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    PubMed

    Ross, James R; Stone, Rebecca M; Larson, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Core muscle injury/sports hernia/athletic pubalgia is an increasingly recognized source of pain, disability, and time lost from athletics. Groin pain among athletes, however, may be secondary to various etiologies. A thorough history and comprehensive physical examination, coupled with appropriate diagnostic imaging, may improve the diagnostic accuracy for patients who present with core muscular injuries. Outcomes of nonoperative management have not been well delineated, and multiple operative procedures have been discussed with varying return-to-athletic activity rates. In this review, we outline the clinical entity and treatment of core muscle injury and athletic pubalgia. In addition, we describe the relationship between athletic pubalgia and femoroacetabular impingement along with recent studies that have investigated the treatment of these related disorders. PMID:26524557

  2. Sport-specific conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W B; Chandler, T J

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the athlete is to optimize performance. The goal of the sports medicine physician is to minimize injury risk. By preparing the athlete's body for the mechanical and metabolic demands inherent in a particular sport, sport-specific conditioning programs can help achieve both these goals. Periodization of the conditioning program is the ideal framework for keeping the individual athlete's workload as high as possible without overtraining and injury. PMID:8037286

  3. Consequences of single sport specialization in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Mia; Parikh, Shital N; Pandya, Nirav K

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric and adolescent sports participation has increased with a concomitant increase in injuries. Sports have transitioned from recreational to deliberate, structured activities wherein success is determined by achievement of 'elite' status. This has led to specialization in a single sport with intensive, repetitive activity at younger ages causing physical and emotional consequences, particularly true for the growing athlete who is particularly susceptible to injury. Clinicians caring for this population must understand the epidemiology of youth sports specialization, the unique physiology/structure of this age group, and the potential physical and emotional consequences. PMID:25771319

  4. Emotions, immunity and sport: Winner and loser athlete's profile of fighting sport.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Mirko; Fratta, Irene La; Ialenti, Valentina; Patruno, Antonia; Ferrone, Alessio; Franceschelli, Sara; Rizzuto, Alessia; Tatangelo, Raffaella; Campagna, Giovanna; Speranza, Lorenza; Felaco, Mario; Grilli, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have focused on the relationship between hormonal changes and affective states in sporting contexts relating to an agonistic outcome. More recently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been successfully associated with affective state modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether athletes who won or lost show different levels of steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?, or expressions of anger and anxiety during six training fights in seasonal competitions down to the main seasonal competition. In 25 male kick-boxing athletes (ageSD, 28.685.34), anger states (RS score) and anxiety states (AS score) were assessed by STAXI-2 and STAI-Y, respectively. Cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and IL-1? salivary levels were measured by the ELISA method. The saliva samples were taken in the afternoon, 30min prior to the start and 30min from the end of both simulated and official competitions. The results showed that the RS score, T, T/C ratio salivary levels increased during the season, whereas the AS score, C and IL-1? suggested an opposite trend. Close to an official competition, the RS score, T, T/C ratio and IL-1? salivary concentrations were significantly higher, and then decreased during competition. By contrast, the AS score and C levels significantly increased throughout the official competition. In addition, significant differences were found for hormones and IL-1? concentrations as well as psychometric assessment close to the outcome of an official match. Athletes who lost showed an higher AS score and C level, while those who won were characterized by an higher level during the pre-competition RS score, T, T/C ratio, and IL-1?. Note that these factors were positively and significantly correlated at the pre-official competition time, while in a linear regression analysis, IL-1?, T and T/C ratio concentrations explained 43% of the variance in the RS score observed at the same time (adjusted R(2)=0.43, ANOVA P<.05). Our data suggest that the beginning of an agonistic event could trigger emotional responses which correspond to different biological processes instead that of a simulated fight. In particular, IL-1? could be a potential new biological marker of anger and the combined measurement of these factors may be a useful way of understanding athletes' change in relation to their performance. PMID:25712259

  5. The role of autonomic function on sport performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krassioukov, Andrei; West, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Devastating paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal cardiovascular control present significant hemodynamic challenges to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially during exercise. In general, resting arterial pressure after SCI is lower than with able-bodied individuals and is commonly associated with persistent orthostatic intolerance along with transient episodes of life-threatening hypertension, known as "autonomic dysreflexia." During exercise, the loss of central and reflexive cardiovascular control attenuates maximal heart rate and impairs blood pressure regulation and blood redistribution, which ultimately reduces venous return, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Thermoregulation also is severely compromised in high-lesion SCI, a problem that is compounded when competing in hot and humid conditions. There is some evidence that enhancing venous return via lower body positive pressure or abdominal binding improves exercise performance, as do cooling strategies. Athletes with SCI also have been documented to self-induce autonomic dysreflexia before competition with a view of increasing blood pressure and improving their performance, a technique known as "boosting." For health safety reasons, boosting is officially banned by the International Paralympics Committee. This article addresses the complex issue of how the autonomic nervous system affects sports performance in athletes with SCI, with a specific focus on the potential debilitating effects of deranged cardiovascular control. PMID:25134753

  6. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and

  7. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

  8. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular

  9. Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Toms; Martnez-Lpez, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Prez M; Martnez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

  10. Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports: A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing. PMID:23533655

  11. Injury and Treatment Characteristics of Sport-Specific Injuries Sustained in Interscholastic Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Snyder Valier, Alison R.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Hypothesis: Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or condition during the study years. Injury (sport, body part, diagnosis via ICD-9 codes) and treatment (type, amount, and duration of care) characteristics were grouped by sport and reported using summary statistics. Results: Most injuries and treatments occurred in football, girls’ soccer, basketball, volleyball, and track and field. Sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, and thigh/hip/groin and concussion were the most commonly documented injuries across sports. The injury pattern for boys’ wrestling differed from other sports and included sprain or strain of the elbow and neck and general medical skin conditions. The most frequently reported service was athletic training evaluation/reevaluation treatment, followed by hot/cold pack, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy techniques, electrical stimulation, and strapping of lower extremity joints. Most sports required 4 to 5 services per injury. With the exception of boys’ soccer and girls’ softball, duration of care ranged from 10 to 14 days. Girls’ soccer and girls’ and boys’ track and field reported the longest durations of care. Conclusion: Injury and treatment characteristics are generally comparable across sports, suggesting that secondary school athletic trainers may diagnose and treat similar injuries regardless of sport. Clinical Relevance: Subtle sport trends, including skin conditions associated with boys’ wrestling and longer duration of care for girls’ soccer, are important to note when discussing appropriate medical coverage and care. PMID:25553215

  12. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyk, E; Trjer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kovts, T; Gyre, I; Tth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes. PMID:26690037

  13. Sports pairs: insights on athletic talent; research reviews: twins with leukemia; parents and twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2007-06-01

    Twin research exploring genetic and environmental influences on athletic interests and talents is reviewed. Illustrative examples of twin athletes representing a variety of sports activities are presented. This is followed by an overview of twin studies offering critical insights into the onset and progress of leukemia. In the last section, timely events involving twins and parents of twins will be described--each case provides a new look at an old question. PMID:17564512

  14. Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Bartolomé J.; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  15. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekstrm, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. PMID:22609334

  16. Epidemiology of sports injuries on collegiate athletes at a single center

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruno Berbert; Asperti, Andr Marangoni; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of sports injuries in college athletes from the same institution from 1993 to 2013. METHODS: Athletes from 13 modalities were interviewed about the presence and type of injury, type of treatment and time of withdrawal, based on the questionnaire "Injury Surveillance System" (ISS). Data were analyzed with graphs and tables of injury prevalence by gender, age, site of injury and modality. We also analyzed the average time of withdrawal of athletes, returning to sports practice and new lesions. RESULTS: It was observed that 49.91% of the athletes showed some type of injury, with similar incidence between genders; the most frequent injuries were the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the ankle sprain; the average withdrawal time was 11 weeks. ACL was the injury with greater impact on college sports career, especially given the time of withdrawal. CONCLUSION: The most frequent injury, ACL, occurred most frequently in indoor sports such as handball and volleyball and had the highest number of cases treated with surgery and a longer average withdrawal time. More studies are needed to create a larger database in order to schedule preventive measures for amateur athletes. Level IV of Evidence, Epidemiological Study. PMID:25538479

  17. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  18. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has

  19. Influence of sports participation on bone health in the young athlete: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Fredericson, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Peak bone mass is attained during the second and third decades of life. Sports participation during the years that peak bone mass is being acquired may lead to adaptive changes that improve bone architecture through increased density and enhanced geometric properties. A review of the literature evaluating sports participation in young athletes, ages 10-30 years, revealed that sports that involve high-impact loading (eg, gymnastics, hurdling, judo, karate, volleyball, and other jumping sports) or odd-impact loading (eg, soccer, basketball, racquet games, step-aerobics, and speed skating) are associated with higher bone mineral composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and enhanced bone geometry in anatomic regions specific to the loading patterns of each sport. Repetitive low-impact sports (such as distance running) are associated with favorable changes in bone geometry. Nonimpact sports such as swimming, water polo, and cycling are not associated with improvements in bone mineral composition or BMD, and swimming may negatively influence hip geometry. Participating in sports during early puberty may enhance bone mass. Continued participation in sports appears to maintain the full benefits of increased peak bone mass, although former athletes who do not maintain participation in sports may retain some benefits of increased BMD. Long-term elite male cycling was reported to negatively influence bone health, and female adolescent distance running was associated with suppressed bone mineral accrual; confounding factors associated with participation in endurance sports may have contributed to those findings. In summary, young men and women who participate in sports that involve high-impact or odd-impact loading exhibit the greatest associated gains in bone health. Participation in nonimpact sports, such as swimming and cycling, is not associated with an improvement in bone health. PMID:21944303

  20. Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an end, which is gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, models of doping should include and anti-doping policies should consider attitudes or orientations toward the specific target end, in addition to the attitude toward the 'tool' itself. Objectives The aim of this study was to empirically test doping related dispositions and attitudes of competitive athletes with the view of informing anti-doping policy developments and deterrence methods. To this end, the paper focused on the individual element of the drug availability – athlete's personality – situation triangle. Methods Data were collected by questionnaires containing a battery of psychological tests among competitive US male college athletes (n = 199). Outcome measures included sport orientation (win and goal orientation and competitiveness), doping attitude, beliefs and self-reported past or current use of doping. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures. Results Whilst the doping model showed satisfactory fit, the results suggested that athletes' win and goal orientation and competitiveness do not play a statistically significant role in doping behaviour, but win orientation has an effect on doping attitude. The SEM analysis provided empirical evidence that sport orientation and doping behaviour is not directly related. Conclusion The considerable proportion of doping behaviour unexplained by the model suggests that other factors play an influential role in athletes' decisions regarding prohibited methods. Future research, followed by policy development, should incorporate these factors to capture the complexity of the doping phenomenon and to identify points for effective anti-doping interventions. Sport governing bodies and anti-doping organisations need to recognise that using performance enhancements may be more of a rational, outcome optimizing behaviour than deviance and consider offering acceptable alternative performance-enhancing methods to doping. PMID:17996097

  1. Body composition in taller individuals using DXA: A validation study for athletic and non-athletic populations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Gobbo, Lus A; Matias, Catarina N; Petroski, Edio L; Gonalves, Ezequiel M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Minderico, Claudia S; Sardinha, Lus B; Silva, Analiza M

    2013-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) cannot be used to evaluate participants taller than the scan area. We aimed to analyse the accuracy of bone mineral content, fat mass, and lean mass assessed with DXA whole-body scan and from the sum of two scans (head and trunk plus limbs). Participants were 31 athletes (13 males and 18 females) and 65 non-athletes (34 males and 31 females), that fit within the DXA scan area. Three scans were performed using a Hologic Explorer-W fan-beam densitometer: a whole-body scan used as the reference; a head scan; and a trunk and limbs scan. The sum of the head scan and the trunk and limbs scan was used as the alternative procedure. Multiple regression and agreement analysis were performed. Non-significant differences between methods were observed for fat mass (0.06 kg) and lean mass (-0.07 kg) while bone mineral content from the alternative procedure differed from the reference scan (0.009 kg). The alternative procedure explained > 99% of the variance in the reference scan and low limits of agreement were observed. Precision analysis indicated low pure errors and the higher coefficients of variation were found for fat mass (whole-body: 3.70%; subtotal: 4.05%). The method proposed is a valid and simple solution to be used in individuals taller than the DXA scan area, including athletes engaged in sports recognised for including very tall competitors. PMID:23092580

  2. Sports-Related Concussion in Helmeted vs. Unhelmeted Athletes: Who Fares Worse?

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, S L; Lee, Y M; Odom, M J; Forbes, J A; Solomon, G S; Sills, A K

    2015-05-01

    In the management of sports-related concussion, little is known about the effect of wearing or not wearing a helmet (i.?e., helmet status) on the acute outcomes of concussed athletes. We endeavored to assess acute neurocognitive and symptom changes after SRC in helmeted vs. unhelmeted athletes. In a retrospective study, 1?025 athletes from 2 regional databases sustained a SRC. Athletes were matched by age, gender, number of prior concussions, and days to post-concussion test, yielding a final cohort of 138 athletes. For each group of 69, differences in post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores were compared using group mean differences as well as reliable change index (RCI) scores set at the 80% confidence interval. With gender, prior concussions, and days to post-concussion test similar in each group, using group mean change scores and RCI methodology, we found no significant differences between the helmeted and unhelmeted groups in 4 neurocognitive tests and one total symptom score. In a cohort of carefully matched athletes from 2 regional concussion centers, helmet status was unrelated to neurocognitive scores and total symptoms in athletes after suffering a SRC. These findings suggest that acute outcomes in helmeted vs. unhelmeted sports are quite similar. PMID:25664998

  3. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  4. Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as

  5. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density amongadolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.10.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

  6. The Paralympic Movement: using sports to promote health, disability rights, and social integration for athletes with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Willick, Stuart E

    2012-11-01

    Competitive sports for people with disabilities has grown rapidly over the past several decades, and opportunities for participation are increasingly available throughout the spectrum from developmental to elite. The Paralympic Games, seen as the pinnacle sporting event that represents the broader Paralympic Movement, has provided a platform to showcase the abilities of people with disabilities while also serving as a catalyst for disability rights through ensuring integration, equality of opportunity, and accessibility of the built environment. Concurrently, media coverage of the Paralympic Games has led to an increased awareness of opportunities for sport participation for individuals with disabilities and, with it, the adjustment of norms regarding expectations for exercise as a component of preventive health. In addition, there is evidence of the power of sports to stimulate confidence, self-efficacy, and a self-perceived high quality of life for individuals with disabilities above and beyond the basic benefits to cardiometabolic fitness. When taken together, the promotion of health, disability rights, and social integration through sports has the power to transform the lives of those who participate and to further stimulate the expansion of opportunities available to the next generation of athletes with disabilities. PMID:23174549

  7. Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Bill D., Comp.

    These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to

  8. Athletic footwear.

    PubMed

    Smith, L S; Bunch, R

    1986-10-01

    The development of technical athletic footwear is based on two interrelated principles: injury prevention and enhanced performance. Most athletes are interested in and will benefit from shoes that prevent injuries. On the other hand, in many situations, competitive or elite athletes might be willing to accept the increased injury risk if the shoe can enhance performance. For these performance athletes, injury prevention may be a less important consideration. Emphasis can be placed on ultra-lightweight shoes which maximize energy return and do not restrict the desirable motions of the individual sport. Every sport demands a specific shoe. The process of new shoe development is similar to those categories already described: an understanding of the sport's biomechanics; an evaluation of the sport's injury patterns; prototype construction; wear-testing to insure fit, comfort, and playability; and manufacturing. Sports with large numbers of participants get the most attention, but lesser known sports demand the same detailed development. Softball, field hockey, boxing, and wrestling are, to name a few, sports which require specialty footwear. As our understanding improves in each sport, footwear technology and construction will follow. PMID:2946393

  9. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  10. There Was No Golden Age of Sport for African American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Earl

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Harry Edwards' belief about a golden age in sports for African Americans, asserting that the golden age never existed for them. Suggests that Edwards' research does not thoroughly examine the new African American athlete and ignores the issue that the unfulfilled promise of riches and glory requires a larger socioeconomic and

  11. Sports and Athletics: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues in sports and athletics for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The listings are drawn from the National Resource Library of the National Center for Youth with Disabilities, which includes journals, books, and non-published materials. The section on bibliographic

  12. Decision Making in NCAA Athletics: Factors Associated with Adding Sports to Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Sloane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the decision-making factors, priorities and process used when adding sports to NCAA Division I institutions. The media often focuses on gender equity and financial parameters when discussing athletic decision-making, but this study seeks to go beyond speculation and add to intercollegiate…

  13. Ephedra and Its Application To Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang (ephedra), comparing these claims with data from searches of MEDLINE and SPORT Discus from 1970-00 and discussing the use of ephedra in athletic training. Results indicate that there are many serious side effects associated with using ma huang, and they far outweigh any possible…

  14. Decision Making in NCAA Athletics: Factors Associated with Adding Sports to Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Sloane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the decision-making factors, priorities and process used when adding sports to NCAA Division I institutions. The media often focuses on gender equity and financial parameters when discussing athletic decision-making, but this study seeks to go beyond speculation and add to intercollegiate

  15. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.

  16. The Parent-Coach/Child-Athlete Relationship in Youth Sport: Cordial, Contentious, or Conundrum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Fretwell, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and…

  17. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  18. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into

  19. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  20. The MetaSkills Model of Sports Counseling: Helping Athletes Achieve Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Marlin M.

    1984-01-01

    The MetaSkills model of sports counseling evolved from use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Ericksonian communicator patterns with athletes. The theoretical perspectives of human behavior upon which the model is based are explored. Overall counseling process and its parts are described. (Author/DF)

  1. AccesSports: A Model for Adapting Mainstream Sports Activities for Individuals with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchilla, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    The AccesSports Model allows professionals with basic knowledge of visual impairments and mainstream sports to analyze any sports activity and design adaptations needed for targets or goals, boundaries, and rules to enable individuals with visual impairments to participate. Suggestions for modifying baseball, table tennis, swim racing, wrestling,…

  2. Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

  3. Sports, Outdoor Recreation, and Games for Visually and Physically Impaired Individuals: Reference Circular No. 91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This resource guide lists and describes print materials, nonprint materials, and organizations dealing with sports, outdoor recreation, and games for visually and physically impaired individuals. Section I focuses on national organizations that sponsor athletic events on various levels and provide related services for children, youth, and adults

  4. Sports Medicine Docs Offer Safety Tips for Young Athletes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ease back into activity, wear properly fitted safety gear and stay hydrated To use the sharing features ... competitions. Young athletes should wear all recommended protective gear and it should be properly fitted. The doctors ...

  5. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  6. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  7. Health in Elite Sports from a Salutogenetic Perspective: Athletes' Sense of Coherence

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jochen; Thiel, Ansgar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and elite sport. PMID:25014085

  8. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  9. FLUID BALANCE DURING TRAINING IN ELITE YOUNG ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 y, years of training: 7.7±2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6±0.9 °C and 58±8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 min and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (USG≥1.020 mg/dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pre-training urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, while a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥ 1.020 mg/dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was −1.1±0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  10. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:24444205

  11. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  12. Sport psychiatry: a systematic review of diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Factor, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    Sport psychiatry focuses on diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness in athletes in addition to utilization of psychological approaches to enhance performance. As this field and its research base are relatively new, clinicians often deliver psychiatric care to athletes without a full understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic issues unique to this population. In this systematic review, we discuss published findings relating to psychiatric diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes. There have been several studies looking at the prevalence of some psychiatric disorders in various athlete populations. Eating disorders and substance abuse are the most studied of these disorders and appear to be common problems in athletes. However, to provide informed understanding and treatment, we especially need more research on overtraining syndrome, bipolar disorder, suicidality, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychosis in athletes. Research is needed in the areas of prevalence, risk factors, prognosis and the unique experiences facing athletes with any of these disorders. Additionally, there have not been any large, systematic studies on the use of psychotropic medications in athletes. Small studies suggest that some medications may either be performance enhancing or detrimental to performance, but we need larger studies with rigorous methodology. Higher level athletes suffering from psychiatric symptoms often have reservations about taking medications with unknown performance and safety effects, and methodological issues with the current literature database preclude any definitive conclusions on performance effects of psychiatric medications. We need many more, higher quality studies on the use by athletes of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, stimulants and other ADHD medications, sedative-hypnotics and antipsychotics. Such studies should utilize sensitive performance measures and involve longer term use of psychotropic medications. Furthermore, study subjects should include athletes who actually have the psychiatric disorder for which the medication is proposed, and should include more women. PMID:20942511

  13. Women, Sports, and Science: Do Female Athletes Have an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Kraus, Rebecca S.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes data from a longitudinal study of high school youth to suggest that involvement in sports often has a strong and positive association with young womens' success in high school science. Associates participation in cheerleading with negative results. Summarizes both the functionalist and conflict theories regarding the purpose of sports.

  14. High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

  15. High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative

  16. Social Problems in Athletics; Essays in the Sociology of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M., Ed.

    This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical

  17. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion.

    PubMed

    Romeas, Thomas; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that athletes' domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception (BMP) tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students' non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted) and distance (2 m, 4 m, 16 m). Accuracy and reaction time were measured to assess observers' performance. The results highlighted athletes' superior ability compared to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (accuracy) of distance. More interestingly, experts also displayed greater performance compared to non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (reaction time) of distance. In addition, athletes showed a better performance throughout inverted conditions in the walker (reaction time) and soccer kick (accuracy and reaction time) tasks. This implies that during human BMP, athletes demonstrate an advantage for recognizing body kinematics that goes beyond sport specific actions. PMID:26388828

  18. The management of sport-related concussion: considerations for male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Crutcher, Bryan; Burkhart, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Sport-related concussion continues to be a centerpiece of attention in the field of sports medicine. The benefit to using neurocognitive testing when managing concussion will be documented in this review. In addition to providing critical objective information on the neurocognitive status of the concussed athlete, research data will be provided on the pre- and post-concussion neurocognitive profiles of concussed male and female athletes. Specifically, an overview of research will be presented on the epidemiology of male and female concussion rates, as well as concussion outcomes including symptoms and cognitive function post-injury. Finally, a clinician's perspective on managing sports-related concussion will be presented focusing on three factors regarding sex differences: risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. PMID:24323339

  19. Athletes' opinions of food provision at the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games: the influence of culture and sport.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Sarah J; Pelly, Fiona E

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether athletes' opinion of food provision in the main dining hall of the athletes' village at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games varied according to cultural background, sport, stage of competition, and previous experience at similar events. A previously developed questionnaire was distributed over 3 meal periods to 351 athletes dining in the main dining hall during the course of the games (Sept. 23 to Oct. 4, 2010). Despite the challenges of food provision in a non-Western region, the availability of food and beverage items was rated highly. However, athletes from Western regions tended to rate food-provision qualities lower than athletes from non-Western regions. Most athletes found it easy to find items to meet their nutrition needs; however, requests for sports foods, snacks, and culturally specific items were received. Power/sprint athletes were more critical of the food provision, whereas athletes from aesthetic sports tended to rate it more highly. Athletes farther from competition gave higher ratings for taste, while athletes who had more experience in this type of environment also tended to be more critical of the food provision. Overall daily mean opinion scores for taste and menu variety decreased over the games period. The results of this study can help organizers and caterers ensure that appropriate food and beverage are provided for athletes at major competition events. PMID:23400619

  20. Athlete social support, negative social interactions and psychological health across a competitive sport season.

    PubMed

    DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L

    2014-12-01

    Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes. PMID:25602144

  1. Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help

  2. Goal perspectives and sport participation motivation of Special Olympians and typically developing athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon

    2013-07-01

    Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (<15, 15-17, 18-20, >20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. PMID:23643768

  3. Epilepsy and athletics.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Nathan B; May, Anthony C

    2003-07-01

    It may seem logical to place restrictions on athletes with epilepsy, but there are no studies to suggest that even contact sports exacerbate seizures, and there is ample evidence that exercise reduces seizure frequency and improves well-being. Thus, sports participation should generally be encouraged for epilepsy patients. The risk-benefit analysis for an individual patient is highly dependent on the athletic activity considered; type of seizure, the likelihood that a seizure will occur during the activity, and comorbid conditions. Water sports (scuba diving, swimming, boating), sports performed at heights (piloting, sky diving, climbing, horseback riding), and motor sports require specific considerations. PMID:12852689

  4. School nurses' familiarity and perceptions of academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michelle L; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained several questions pertaining to concussion management and academic accommodations. There were significant differences regarding personal experience as well as familiarity of academic accommodations (p < .001) between school nurses who work at a school that employs an athletic trainer and school nurses who work at a school that does not employ an athletic trainer. There were significant weak positive relationships between years of experience and familiarity with academic accommodations (r = .210, p < .001), 504 plans (r = .243, p < .001), and individualized education plans (r = .205, p < .001). School nurses employed at a single school were significantly more familiar with academic accommodations (p = .027) and 504 plans (p = .001) than school nurses employed at multiple schools. Health care professionals should collaborate to effectively manage a concussed patient and should consider academic accommodations to ensure whole-person health care. PMID:25015367

  5. New Vistas in Competitive Sports for Athletes with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Julian U.

    1982-01-01

    The author considers the implications of P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act regarding sports programs for handicapped students. (SB)

  6. Altitude exposure in sports: the Athlete Biological Passport standpoint.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is principally founded on monitoring an athlete's biological variables over time, to identify abnormal biases on a longitudinal basis. Several factors are known to influence the results of these markers. However, the manner in which the altitude factor is taken into account still needs to be standardized. Causal relationships between haematological variables should be correctly integrated into ABP software. In particular, modifications of haematological parameters during and after exposure to different altitudes/hypoxic protocols need to be properly included within detection models. PMID:24115763

  7. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Donna L

    2013-01-01

    Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. PMID:24379720

  8. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastio Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2)?= 18.50, p =?.001, RMSEA =?.069, GFI?=?.97, AGFI?=?.91, TLI?=?.93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2)?=?.08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2)?=?.07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2)?=?.10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2)?=?.02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2)?=?.01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2)?=?.03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2)?=?.02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. PMID:25963103

  9. Acculturation in elite sport: a thematic analysis of immigrant athletes and coaches.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Robert Joel; McGannon, Kerry R; Battochio, Randy Cesar; Wells, Greg D

    2013-01-01

    To identify key issues concerning the acculturation of immigrant athletes in sport psychology, a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was conducted on focus group interview data from immigrant elite athletes relocated to Canada (n = 13) and coaches working with such athletes (n = 10). Two central themes were identified: (a) navigating two world views which referred to acculturation as a fluid process where athletes navigated between cultural norms of the home community and the host community, and (b) acculturation loads, which referred to whether immigrants and those in the host country shared acculturation (i.e., acculturation as a two-way process) or managed the load with or without support from others (i.e., acculturation as one-directional). Each of these central themes comprised sub-themes, which provided further insight into the experiences of acculturation for immigrant elite athletes. From the project, the authors recommend further research utilising case studies to provide a holistic description of the acculturation process from the vantage of various people within the sport context. PMID:23688005

  10. Injuries Among Italian DanceSport Athletes: A Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Pellicciari, Leonardo; Piscitelli, Daniele; De Vita, Marilena; D'Ingianna, Lucia; Bacciu, Serenella; Perno, Giacomo; Lunetta, Laura; Rosulescu, Eugenia; Cerri, Cesare G; Foti, Calogero

    2016-03-01

    During training and competition, athletic dancers perform complex artistic movements that can lead to stress on the musculoskeletal system, making them subject to high risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, location, and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among dancesport athletes and to identify potential risk factors for injury. This cross-sectional study was performed at several national dancesport meetings in Italy. All 168 dancesport athletes who participated at the meetings were invited to complete a questionnaire related to injuries they may have suffered during the previous year; other information collected included demographic data (age, sex, height, weight), dance participation (discipline, categories), training (training duration, years since starting to dance), and injury (location, etiology). Of the 168 dancers, 153 completed the questionnaire. Of the 102 injuries reported, 73 athletes (47.7%) reported at least 1 injury. The locations of the injuries were the lower limbs (n=75, 73.5%), upper limbs (8, 7.8%), and spine (19, 18.7%). Significant differences were found in the injury location (p<0.01) as well as the nature of the injury (p<0.01). No significant differences were found between injured and non-injured athletes in demographic data, dance participation, and training variables (p>0.05). The results indicate that about half of the dancers reported at least 1 injury, with these being located particularly in the lower limbs and predominantly strain and sprain injuries. To reduce the prevalence of injuries, a prevention program may be indicated, with future research needed to identify appropriate strategies to prevent injuries. PMID:26966959

  11. The effects of visual distracter complexity on auditory evoked p3b in contact sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew J; Harkrider, Ashley W; King, Kristin A

    2014-01-01

    "Classic" P3b auditory oddball paradigms are insensitive to subtle deficits. An auditory oddball paradigm paired with visual distracters was used to compare football players with history of concussion, football players without history of concussion, and non-contact sport athletes. As hypothesized, increasing complexity of, and attention to, visual distracters reduced P3b amplitude. P3b amplitudes from non-contact athletes were larger than those from football players; however, players with and without a history of concussion were not significantly different. An auditory oddball paradigm with simple visual distracter improves sensitivity to cognitive deficits. Subconcussive impacts may contribute to brain damage frequently attributed to concussions. PMID:24571930

  12. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  13. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained

  14. Sports and the Young Athlete: A Family Practice Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Douglas B.

    This document investigates the physical and psychological effects of sport-intensive training for children. The following questions are addressed as a preamble to tentative conclusions: (1) Is such training a hazard to the developing bones of the preadolescent? (2) Are there any special nutritional or thermoregulatory considerations for children

  15. Long-Term Effects of Athletics Meet on the Perceived Competence of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninot, Gregory; Maiano, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided…

  16. Long-Term Effects of Athletics Meet on the Perceived Competence of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninot, Gregory; Maiano, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided

  17. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion

    PubMed Central

    Romeas, Thomas; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that athletes’ domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception (BMP) tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students’ non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted) and distance (2 m, 4 m, 16 m). Accuracy and reaction time were measured to assess observers’ performance. The results highlighted athletes’ superior ability compared to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (accuracy) of distance. More interestingly, experts also displayed greater performance compared to non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (reaction time) of distance. In addition, athletes showed a better performance throughout inverted conditions in the walker (reaction time) and soccer kick (accuracy and reaction time) tasks. This implies that during human BMP, athletes demonstrate an advantage for recognizing body kinematics that goes beyond sport specific actions. PMID:26388828

  18. Health-risk behaviors among high school athletes and preventive services provided during sports physicals

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen E.; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pre-participation exams (PPEs), or sports physicals, present opportunities for health care providers to identify and discuss common adolescent health-risk behaviors. We sought to examine the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among high school athletes, and the proportion of providers who address these behaviors during PPEs. Method We used data from two statewide surveys: a survey of adolescents (n=46,492) and a survey of nurse practitioners and physicians (n=561) for this descriptive study. Results The most prevalent risk behaviors reported by student athletes were: low levels of physical activity (70%), bullying perpetration (41%), and alcohol use (41%). Most providers (?75%) addressed many common risk behaviors during PPEs but fewer addressed bullying, violence, and prescription drug use. Topics discussed differed by provider type and patient population. Discussion Many providers addressed critical threats to adolescent health during PPEs but findings suggest potential disconnects between topics addressed during PPEs and behaviors of athletes. PMID:25043289

  19. Restricting sports activity in reducing the rate of varicocele and related infertility parameters in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Miroslav; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the cessation of sports training in young athletes reduces the prevalence of varicocele. Material and methods 1,013 young males were divided into three age-matched groups based on their sport activity. The first group consisted of 305 athletically active boys in basketball, volleyball, handball, or football; the second of 44 active water-polo players, and the third of 664 sport-inactive controls. All participants had been initially examined for the presence of varicocele, and positive ones were submitted to orchidometry and seminal fluid analysis. Those with varicocele were then asked to cease all sport activity for the following six months, and the reassessing was performed. Results The results showed a significantly higher percentage of varicocele present in the first group than in the control group (p < 0.49), while the percentage of young males diagnosed with varicocele in the second proved to be even lower than that of the control group (9.09% vs. 12.35%). After the 6-month period of cessation and abstention from all sporting activity, every parameter of the seminal fluid analysis improved in the first group, wherein statistical significance for both sperm concentration (p < 0.001) and sperm motility (p < 0.023) was found. The testicular volume was found not to have increased significantly in either group (p > 0.05). Conclusions The study shows that sport-associated varicocele has a positive prognosis when diagnosed early and upon the cessation of sports training. PMID:25861305

  20. RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC SPORTS INJURIES IN THE SKELETALLY IMMATURE ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Molony, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, participation in organized youth sports has risen to include over 35 million contestants.1 The rise in participation has brought about an associated increase in both traumatic and overuse injuries in the youth athlete, which refers to both children and adolescents within a general age range of seven to 17. Exposure rates alone do not account for the increase in injuries. Societal pressures to perform at high levels affect both coaches and athletes and lead to inappropriate levels of training intensity, frequency, and duration. In this environment high physiologic stresses are applied to the immature skeleton of the youth athlete causing injury. Typically, since bone is the weakest link in the incomplete ossified skeleton, the majority of traumatic injuries result in fractures that occur both at mid?shaft and at the growth centers of bone. The following clinical commentary describes the common traumatic sports injuries that occur in youth athletes, as well as those which require rapid identification and care in order to prevent long term sequelae. PMID:23316432

  1. Laboratory Tests Ordered By a Chiropractic Sports Physician on Elite Athletes Over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Dustin C.; Moreau, William J.; Barylski, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss laboratory tests ordered on elite athletes in an interdisciplinary sports medicine clinic by a doctor of chiropractic over 1 calendar year. Methods A retrospective review of laboratory tests ordered during routine clinical practice as standard screening and diagnostic tests from November 1, 2009, to November 1, 2010 was performed. Data were collected during clinical encounters at one sports medicine clinic and entered into a database for analysis. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to describe the tests ordered and the frequency of abnormal findings. Results Five hundred and thirty-nine studies were ordered for diagnostic and routine screenings on 137 athlete patients (86 males, 51 females), representing 49 types of tests. Sample sources included blood, urine, skin lesions, and fecal matter. The most commonly ordered tests were complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, serum ferritin, creatine kinase, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, total cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and lipid panels. There were 217 studies (40%) flagged as abnormal by the reporting laboratory. Conclusion This report provides greater insight into the diverse array of laboratory studies ordered over a 1-year period for diagnosis and screening of elite athletes. A high percentage of the results were flagged as abnormal by the laboratory. These findings show that the unique physiology of the elite athlete must be considered when interpreting laboratory findings in this population. PMID:26257590

  2. Sport modality affects bradycardia level and its mechanisms of control in professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, L F; Perlingeiro, P S; Hachul, D T; Gomes-Santos, I L; Brum, P C; Allison, T G; Negro, C E; De Matos, L D N J

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the influence of sport modalities in resting bradycardia and its mechanisms of control in highly trained athletes. In addition, the relationships between bradycardia mechanisms and cardiac structural adaptations were tested. Professional male athletes (13 runners, 11 cyclists) were evaluated. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at rest on beat-to-beat basis (ECG). Selective pharmacological blockade was performed with atropine and esmolol. Vagal effect, intrinsic heart rate (IHR), parasympathetic (n) and sympathetic (m) modulations, autonomic influence (AI) and autonomic balance (Abal) were calculated. Plasmatic norepinephrine (high-pressure liquid chromatography) and cardiac structural adaptations (echocardiography) were evaluated. Runners presented lower resting HR, higher vagal effect, parasympathetic modulation (n), AI and IHR than cyclists (P<0.05). Abal, sympathetic modulation (m) and norepinephrine level were similar within athletes regardless of modality. The cardiac chambers were also similar between runners and cyclists (P=0.30). However, cyclists displayed higher septum and posterior wall thickness than runners (P=0.04). Further analysis showed a trend towards inverse correlation between IHR with septum wall thickness and posterior wall thickness (P=0.056). Type of sport influences the resting bradycardia level and its mechanisms of control in professional athletes. Resting bradycardia in runners is mainly dependent on an autonomic mechanism. In contrast, a cyclist's resting bradycardia relies on a non-autonomic mechanism probably associated with combined eccentric and concentric hypertrophy. PMID:24886917

  3. "I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX

  4. John Amaechi: changing the way sport reporters examine gay athletes.

    PubMed

    Kian, Edward Ted M; Anderson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, John Amaechi became the first former National Basketball Association (NBA) player to publicly announce he was gay. Former NBA star Tim Hardaway made a series of homophobic remarks a week later. A textual analysis was used to analyze narratives on Amaechi's revelation and/or Hardaway's comments published in 50 international newspapers. Four dominant themes emerged from the data. While most of these themes supported narratives that gay males remain unwelcome in men's team sports, all were challenged consistently, thus, showing the fluidity of hegemonic masculinity and the increasing societal acceptance of gays and gay lifestyles. Moreover, print media writers exhibited little homophobia and frequently called for more acceptance of gays, particularly within sport. PMID:19802757

  5. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080

  6. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports.

    PubMed

    Camporesi, Silvia; McNamee, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency's 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research' by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  7. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agencys 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  8. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosn, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. PMID:24033718

  9. The development and application of an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2010-10-01

    Limited information exists on the training dose-response relationship in elite collision sport athletes. In addition, no study has developed an injury prediction model for collision sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to develop an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes. Ninety-one professional rugby league players participated in this 4-year prospective study. This study was conducted in 2 phases. Firstly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over 2 competitive seasons in elite collision sport athletes. Training load and injury data were modeled using a logistic regression model with a binomial distribution (injury vs. no injury) and logit link function. Secondly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over a further 2 competitive seasons in the same cohort of elite collision sport athletes. An injury prediction model based on planned and actual training loads was developed and implemented to determine if noncontact, soft-tissue injuries could be predicted and therefore prevented in elite collision sport athletes. Players were 50-80% likely to sustain a preseason injury within the training load range of 3,000-5,000 units. These training load 'thresholds' were considerably reduced (1,700-3,000 units) in the late-competition phase of the season. A total of 159 noncontact, soft-tissue injuries were sustained over the latter 2 seasons. The percentage of true positive predictions was 62.3% (n = 121), whereas the total number of false positive and false negative predictions was 20 and 18, respectively. Players that exceeded the training load threshold were 70 times more likely to test positive for noncontact, soft-tissue injury, whereas players that did not exceed the training load threshold were injured 1/10 as often. These findings provide information on the training dose-response relationship and a scientific method of monitoring and regulating training load in elite collision sport athletes. PMID:20847703

  10. Role of Sports in the Development of an Individual and Role of Psychology in Sports*

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few. PMID:25838736

  11. Role of sports in the development of an individual and role of psychology in sports.

    PubMed

    Ghildiyal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few. PMID:25838736

  12. Natural selection for genetic variants in sport: the role of Y chromosome genes in elite female athletes with 46,XY DSD.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Bavington, L Dawn

    2014-12-01

    At present, it is widely assumed that hyperandrogenism in female athletes confers an unfair competitive advantage. This view is perpetuated in current regulations governing eligibility of female athletes with hyperandrogenism to compete, which identify testosterone levels in the male range as the critical factor. Detailed evidence is presented here for the first time that genes for stature (and possibly other genes) on the Y chromosome are responsible for the increased frequency of 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD) among elite female athletes identified by eligibility tests. In many cases, androgens are non-functional or, alternatively, absent and therefore testosterone cannot be responsible for their athletic success. Genetic variation has a major role in the selection of individuals for training and success in competition; however, this variation is not grounds for determining who should compete in athletic events. There is no convincing evidence to support the view that hyperandrogenism is associated with performance advantage in female athletes. Current time-consuming regulations may lead to the unwelcome resurgence of innuendo in the media and coercion of female athletes into accepting gonadectomy and other treatments to which they might otherwise not have been subjected. These regulations should be withdrawn on the grounds that they are not supported scientifically, are discriminatory towards women and place some female athletes at risk of unnecessary and potentially harmful investigations. Improved understanding about genetic factors that lead to selection in sport should offer reassurance that women with hyperandrogenism possess no physical attribute relevant to athletic performance that is neither attainable, nor present in other women. PMID:25160863

  13. Age-predicted vs. measured maximal heart rate in young team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maximal heart rate (HR)max is used widely to assess exercise intensity in sport training and particularly in various team sports, there are limited data with regards to the use of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in sport populations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured-HRmax with three prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220-age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208-0.7age and Nikolaidis-HRmax = 223-1.44age) in young team sport athletes. Materials and Methods: Athletes of soccer, futsal, basketball and water polo, classified into three age groups (u-12, 9?12 years, n = 50; u-15, 12?15 years, n = 40; u-18, 15?18 years, n = 57), all members of competitive clubs, voluntarily performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test) to assess HRmax. Results: Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax, while Tanaka-HRmax underestimated it (P < 0.001). However, this trend was not consistent when examining each group separately; measured-HRmax was similar with Tanaka-HRmax in u-12 and u-15, while it was similar with Nikolaidis-HRmax in u-18. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to validate two widely used and one recently developed prediction equations in a large sample of young athletes, indicating the need for specific equation in different age groups. Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers should prefer Tanaka-HRmax when desiring to avoid overtraining, while Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax should be their choice in order to ensure adequate exercise intensity. PMID:25114367

  14. Disordered eating and menstrual irregularity in high school athletes in lean-build and nonlean-build sports.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pernick, Yael

    2007-08-01

    The authors' purpose was to determine the prevalence and compare associations of disordered eating (DE) and menstrual irregularity (MI) among high school athletes. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and a menstrual-history questionnaire were administered to 423 athletes (15.7 +/- 1.2 y, 61.2 +/- 10.2 kg) categorized as lean build (LB; n = 146) or nonlean build (NLB; n = 277). Among all athletes, 20.0% met the criteria for DE and 20.1% for MI. Although the prevalence of MI was higher in LB (26.7%) than NLB (16.6%) athletes (P = 0.01), no differences were found for DE. For both sport types, oligo/amenorrheic athletes consistently reported higher EDE-Q scores than eumenorrheic athletes (P < 0.05). Athletes with DE were over 2 times as likely (OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.3, 4.2) to report oligo/amenorrhea than athletes without DE. These data establish an association between DE and MI among high school athletes and indicate that LB athletes have more MI but not DE than NLB athletes. PMID:17962711

  15. Total haemoglobin mass, blood volume and morphological indices among athletes from different sport disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Sitkowski, Dariusz; Orysiak, Joanna; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Haemoglobin is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. This study's objective was to assess total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), as well as blood volume and morphological indices in athletes training different sports disciplines. Material and methods This study was conducted on 176 endurance and non-endurance athletes (males and females). tHb-mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and red cell volume (RCV) were determined by optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood count (RBC) were also determined. Results In endurance sports, gender regardless, no significant differences in relative mean values of tHb-mass (12.813.1 g/kg males; 10.410.6 g/kg females), BV (90.894.0 ml/kg males; 82.786.9 ml/kg females), RCV (36.638.0 ml/kg males; 31.131.5 ml/kg females) or of PV in males (54.256.4 ml/kg) were observed. The above indices relative values, gender regardless, were significantly lower in judo (11.2 0.7 g/kg, 81.8 5.9 ml/kg, 48.6 4.5 ml/kg and 33.1 2.0 ml/kg males; 9.3 0.7 g/kg, 74.3 5.6 ml/kg, 46.4 4.0 ml/kg and 27.9 2.1 ml/kg females) compared to endurance sports (p < 0.001). No substantial differences were observed in morphological blood indices in males, whereas this differentiation was found between certain sports in female athletes. Conclusions The lack of differences in tHb-mass, BV, PV and RCV in endurance sports and presence of this differentiation between various sports shows that the types of training might affect levels of mentioned indices. Measurements of tHb-mass and BV parameters prove Hb, Hct and RBC to have limited value for haematological status evaluations. PMID:24273557

  16. The Political Attitudes of Canadian Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Brian M.; Reid, Elizabeth L.

    This study investigated the general hypothesis that the greater the involvement in the athletic subculture as a member of a sport team, the greater the development of conservative political ideologies. The questionnaire, completed by 150 Canadian team and individual sport athletes, was an amalgam of the following units: a) the McClosky Political

  17. The Relationship between Selected Motor Ability Determinants and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescent Athletes from Various Sport.

    PubMed

    Ma?kala, Krzysztof; Michalski, Ryszard; Stodlka, Jacek; Rausavljevi?, Nikola; ?oh, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between speed, lower extremities explosive power, simple, and complex responses in adolescent athletes from various disciplines. Thirty nine athletes of 16.5 years old, N = 13 sprinters and jumpers, N = 13 soccer players, and N = 13 judokas participated in the experiment. Pearson correlations, a one-way ANOVA and an independent t-test for establishing differences between those three groups of athletes was applied. Additionally the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis also was applied. The strong correlation occurred between complex responses and speed; 20 m from standing and 20 m flying start (r = 0.62 and r = 0.65 respectively). In other cases, no strong association was found. The substantial differences between groups occurred in the 20 m run from flying start (t = 5.92) and standing triple jump (t = 4.16). The study indicates that adolescent athletes may need to be assessed differently to a certain extent, including sport specialization. PMID:26434022

  18. Multimodal assessment of primary motor cortex integrity following sport concussion in asymptomatic athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sara; Beaul, Vincent; Proulx, Sbastien; Tremblay, Sbastien; Marja?ska, Ma?gorzata; Doyon, Julien; Lassonde, Maryse; Thoret, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have shown, in asymptomatic concussed athletes, metabolic disruption in the primary motor cortex (M1) and abnormal intracortical inhibition lasting for more than six months. The present study aims to assess if these neurochemical and neurophysiological alterations are persistent and linked to M1 cortical thickness. Methods Sixteen active football players who sustained their last concussion, on average, three years prior to testing and 14 active football players who never sustained a concussion were recruited for a single session of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Measures of M1 and whole brain cortical thickness were acquired, and 1H-MRS data were acquired from left M1 using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Cortical silent period (CSP) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) were measured with TMS applied over left M1. Results No significant group differences were observed for metabolic concentrations, TMS measures, and cortical thickness. However, whereas GABA and glutamate levels, and GABA levels and M1 mean thickness were positively correlated in control athletes, these relationships were absent in concussed athletes. Conclusion These data suggest the general absence of neurophysiologic, neurometabolic and neuroanatomical disruptions in M1 three years following the last concussive event. However, correlational analyses suggest the presence of a slight metabolic imbalance between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the primary motor cortex of concussed athletes. Significance The present study highlights the importance of multimodal assesments of the impacts of sport concussions. PMID:24462505

  19. Athlete's nodules: sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas).

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Eliezri, Y D; Silvers, D N

    1992-08-01

    Sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas) have been referred to as athlete's nodules. Surfers, boxers, marbles players, and football players are some of the athletes in whom these lesions have been observed. The nodules can be found on the dorsal aspect of the feet, knees, or knuckles and can readily be differentiated from other conditions by either clinical history or microscopic features or both. Treatment options include conservative measures or surgical intervention. Recurrent trauma and friction to the involved location are likely causative factors. Although the ultrastructural pathogenesis remains to be established, changes in the molecular metabolism of collagen resulting in enhanced synthesis and/or accumulation of collagen may have a contributory role. PMID:1511619

  20. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    PubMed

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. PMID:24738561

  1. Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

    2012-08-01

    The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

  2. A survey of Fellows in the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences (Canada): their intervention practices and intended therapeutic outcomes when treating athletes

    PubMed Central

    Miners, Andrew L.; deGraauw, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compile baseline data regarding the treatment practices and therapeutic outcomes that fellows of the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences Canada (CCSS(C)) strive for when treating athletes. Design Cross-sectional self-report mail out survey of CCSS(C) fellows. Participants Current registered fellows of the CCSS(C) as determined by the College at the time of survey distribution. Results The majority of questioned fellows believe that they can cause direct and specific improvements in an athletes sport performance. The most commonly utilized therapeutic intervention was spinal joint manipulation/mobilization. The most anticipated outcomes following the treatment of athletes with the goal of affecting athletic performance were changing or improving aberrant body mechanics, restoring or improving aberrant muscle function, and improving joint function or reducing joint dysfunction. Conclusion The majority of respondent fellows of the CCSS(C) believe their therapy to be effective in enhancing an athletes sport performance. PMID:21120021

  3. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC). PMID:25869093

  4. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key points The RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes. During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or acceleration achieved in the final set(s) during sprints in normoxia. A decrease in SpO2 and an increase in [La-] were observed during performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia, compared with normoxia. PMID:26664284

  5. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-12-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La(-)] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 2.5 vs 8.6 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 2.0 vs 97.2 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 6.3 vs 93.8 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 6.3 vs 94.5 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key pointsThe RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes.During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or acceleration achieved in the final set(s) during sprints in normoxia.A decrease in SpO2 and an increase in [La(-)] were observed during performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia, compared with normoxia. PMID:26664284

  6. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Billaut, Franois; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?12002500?m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  7. Analysis of isokinetic muscle strength for sports physiotherapy research in Korean ssireum athletes.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the muscle conditions such as the isokinetic muscle of Korean ssireum athletes. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 25 elite ssireum athletes. We measured body composition and peak torque at an angular speed at 60°/s using an isokinetic muscle strength dynamometer. [Results] The lean body mass of the left upper limb was significantly higher than that of the right upper limb. However, the lean body mass of the left lower limb was significantly lower than that of the right lower limb. The peak torque for left elbow flexion was significantly higher than that for right elbow flexion. Conversely, the peak torque for left elbow extension was significantly lower than that for right elbow extension. Furthermore, the peak torque for the left knee was significantly lower than that for the right knee for both flexion and extension. [Conclusion] The data from this study elucidate in part the muscle conditions of Korean ssireum athletes, which can be used to establish a reference for the scientific study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:26644679

  8. Analysis of isokinetic muscle strength for sports physiotherapy research in Korean ssireum athletes

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the muscle conditions such as the isokinetic muscle of Korean ssireum athletes. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 25 elite ssireum athletes. We measured body composition and peak torque at an angular speed at 60°/s using an isokinetic muscle strength dynamometer. [Results] The lean body mass of the left upper limb was significantly higher than that of the right upper limb. However, the lean body mass of the left lower limb was significantly lower than that of the right lower limb. The peak torque for left elbow flexion was significantly higher than that for right elbow flexion. Conversely, the peak torque for left elbow extension was significantly lower than that for right elbow extension. Furthermore, the peak torque for the left knee was significantly lower than that for the right knee for both flexion and extension. [Conclusion] The data from this study elucidate in part the muscle conditions of Korean ssireum athletes, which can be used to establish a reference for the scientific study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:26644679

  9. Participation in ball sports may represent a prehabilitation strategy to prevent future stress fractures and promote bone health in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam Sebastian; Sainani, Kristin Lynn; Carter Sayres, Lauren; Milgrom, Charles; Fredericson, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation has many benefits for the young athlete, including improved bone health. However, a subset of athletes may attain suboptimal bone health and be at increased risk for stress fractures. This risk is greater for female than for male athletes. In healthy children, high-impact physical activity has been shown to improve bone health during growth and development. We offer our perspective on the importance of promoting high-impact, multidirectional loading activities, including ball sports, as a method of enhancing bone quality and fracture prevention based on collective research. Ball sports have been associated with greater bone mineral density and enhanced bone geometric properties compared with participation in repetitive, low-impact sports such as distance running or nonimpact sports such as swimming. Runners and infantry who participated in ball sports during childhood were at decreased risk of future stress fractures. Gender-specific differences, including the coexistence of female athlete triad, may negate the benefits of previous ball sports on fracture prevention. Ball sports involve multidirectional loading with high ground reaction forces that may result in stiffer and more fracture-resistant bones. Encouraging young athletes to participate in ball sports may optimize bone health in the setting of adequate nutrition and in female athletes, eumenorrhea. Future research to determine timing, frequency, and type of loading activity could result in a primary prevention program for stress fracture injuries and improved life-long bone health. PMID:25499072

  10. Assessment of sport specific and non-specific biological motion perception in soccer athletes shows a fundamental perceptual ability advantage over non-athletes for recognising body kinematics.

    PubMed

    Romeas, Thomas; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    With continuous exposure to situations, events or action patterns, we can achieve superior levels of performance. An effective example that highlights this expertise can be described in athletics (sports). A number of studies report perceptual-cognitive expertise in athletes. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that athletes' domain specific expertise can transfer to everyday tasks such as processing socially realistic multitasking crowd scenes, which involve pedestrians crossing a street or processing complex and dynamic visual scenes. In this study we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-specific biological motion perception tasks. Using a virtual environment (EON IcubeTM), forty one university-level soccer players and nineteen non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted) and distance (2m, 4m, 16m). Correct response (%) and reaction time (s) were measured to assess observers' performance. The two tasks revealed distinct level of performance in both groups (p< 0.001). Response accuracy (p< 0.001) and reaction time (p=0.002 for point-light walker only) varied according to the angle of presentation (task difficulty). Varying difficulty throughout biological motion highlighted athletes' superior ability compare to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball during the point-light soccer kick task (p=0.003 accuracy; p=0.961 reaction time). As expected, athletes performed better throughout the domain-specific task (soccer) but more surprisingly, they also displayed greater performance in accuracy (p=0.002) and reaction time (p=0.057) than non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task. Athletes seemed to demonstrate a general fundamental perceptual-cognitive expertise for biological motion perception. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326192

  11. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing

  12. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

  13. Relationship between running loads and soft-tissue injury in elite team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Ullah, Shahid

    2012-04-01

    Although the potential link between running loads and soft-tissue injury is appealing, the evidence supporting or refuting this relationship in high-performance team sport athletes is nonexistent, with all published studies using subjective measures (e.g., ratings of perceived exertion) to quantify training loads. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of low-intensity (e.g., walking, jogging, total distances) and high-intensity (e.g., high acceleration and velocity efforts, repeated high-intensity exercise bouts) movement activities on lower body soft-tissue injury in elite team sport athletes. Thirty-four elite rugby league players participated in this study. Global positioning system data and the incidence of lower body soft-tissue injuries were monitored in 117 skill training sessions during the preseason and in-season periods. The frailty model (an extension of the Cox proportional regression model for recurrent events) was applied to calculate the relative risk of injury after controlling for all other training data. The risk of injury was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2-6.5) times higher when very high-velocity running (i.e., sprinting) exceeded 9 m per session. Greater distances covered in mild, moderate, and maximum accelerations and low- and very low-intensity movement velocities were associated with a reduced risk of injury. These results demonstrate that greater amounts of very high-velocity running (i.e., sprinting) are associated with an increased risk of lower body soft-tissue injury, whereas distances covered at low and moderate speeds offer a protective effect against soft-tissue injury. From an injury prevention perspective, these findings provide empirical support for restricting the amount of sprinting performed in preparation for elite team sport competition. However, coaches should also consider the consequences of reducing training loads on the development of physical qualities and playing performance. PMID:22323001

  14. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Hadovi? - Duvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjani?, Samra; Hadimuratovi?, Adnan; Meki?, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.023.0 vs. 68.530.8 and 80.7229.1 ?mol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.835.6 ?mol/L), wrestlers (34236.2 ?mol/L) and basketball players (347.9531.3 ?mol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

  15. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Hadovi?-Duvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjani?, Samra; Hadimuratovi?, Adnan; Meki?, Amel

    2014-05-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 23.0 vs. 68.5 30.8 and 80.72 29.1 ?mol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 35.6 ?mol/L), wrestlers (342.5 36.2 ?mol/L) and basketball players (347.95 31.3 ?mol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

  16. Iron status in female athletes participating in team ball-sports.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R

    2010-01-15

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (< 30 ng mL(-1)) and it was lowest in handball players. Higher than normal ferritin levels were seen in 12.5% of the subjects. We saw a significant difference in ferritin levels of basketball and handball players (p = 0.047). We conclude that the intake of calorie and iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values. PMID:20415144

  17. Contemporary Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics--An Annotated Bibliography and Proposed Course Outline: "Contemporary Issues in Collegiate Sports."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Although sport has reached the pinnacle of success, there remain serious questions regarding the role it plays in education. An annotated bibliography of athletics and a course outline are presented with topics including: history, amateurism, violence, injuries,and the mass media. (MLW)

  18. Can a Sport Organization Monitor Its Employees' and Athletes' Use of Social Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Peter; Dodds, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    In "Pietrylo v. Hillstone Restaurant Group," the plaintiff filed a wrongful-discharge claim against his employer after he was fired for content he had posted about the employer on a social media web site. This article discusses the implications of the court's decision on athletes in the sport industry.

  19. Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: assessing the darker side of athletic experience.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-02-01

    Research in self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) has shown that satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs in sport contexts is associated with enhanced engagement, performance, and well-being. This article outlines the initial development of a multidimensional measure designed to assess psychological need thwarting, an under-studied area of conceptual and practical importance. Study 1 generated a pool of items designed to tap the negative experiential state that occurs when athletes perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to be actively undermined. Study 2 tested the factorial structure of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis. The supported model comprised 3 factors, which represented the hypothesized interrelated dimensions of need thwarting. The model was refined and cross-validated using an independent sample in Study 3. Overall, the psychological need thwarting scale (PNTS) demonstrated good content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender, sport type, competitive level, and competitive experience. The conceptualization of psychological need thwarting is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding the use of the PNTS in research pertaining to the darker side of sport participation. PMID:21451172

  20. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions. PMID:25282771

  1. Sport Biomechanist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to

  2. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment modalities and they also play a major role in establishing injury prevention routines. This data provides information that will be useful to both state and federal medical teams in preparing for future games. PMID:20205785

  3. Athletes, yogis and individuals with sedentary lifestyles; do their lung functions differ?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shivesh; Meshram, Sushant; Ramtekkar, Ujjwal

    2007-01-01

    Buffalo health study concluded that pulmonary function is a long-term predictor for overall survival rates. It is essential to be involved in physical activity or sports which help in achieving better lung function. Cross sectional observation study was conducted to determine if yoga and athletic activity (running) are associated with better lung functions as compared to subjects with sedentary lifestyles and how does athletes and yogis differ in lung function. Spirometric parameters were assessed in randomly selected 60 healthy male, non-smoking; non-obese subjects-athletes, yogis and sedentary workers. The groups differed significantly in FEV1 and PEFR. The highest mean FEV1 and PEFR were observed in yogis. Both yogis and athletes had significantly better FEV1 as compared to sedentary workers. Yogis also had significantly better PEFR as compared to sedentary workers and athletes. Yogis and athletes had similar lung functions except for better PEFR amongst yogis. Involvement in daily physical activity or sport preferably yoga can help in achieving better pulmonary function. PMID:17877296

  4. Comparison Of Normalized Maximum Aerobic Capacity And Body Composition Of Sumo Wrestlers To Athletes In Combat And Other Sports

    PubMed Central

    Beekley, Matthew D.; Abe, Takashi; Kondo, Masakatsu; Midorikawa, Taishi; Yamauchi, Taro

    2006-01-01

    Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared aerobic muscle quality, meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (VO2max /SMM), between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05) body mass (mean SD; 117.0 4.9 vs. 56.1 9.8 kg), percent fat (24.0 1.4 vs. 13.3 4.5), fat-free mass (88.9 4.2 vs. 48.4 6.8 kg), predicted SMM (48.2 2.9 vs. 20.6 4.7 kg) and absolute VO2max (3.6 1.3 vs. 2.5 0.7 Lmin-1). Mean VO2max /SMM (mlkg SMM-1min-1) was significantly different (p < 0.05) among aerobic athletes (164.8 18.3), combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 9.3 and 128.6 13.6, respectively), power athletes (96.5 5.3), and sumo wrestlers (71.4 5.3). There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75) between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05). We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest aerobic muscle quality (VO2max /SMM), both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a ceiling at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max. Key Points Sumo wrestlers have a high absolute VO2max compared to untrained controls. However, sumo wrestlers have a low VO2max /kg of skeletal muscle mass compared to other combat sports, other strength/power sports, and untrained controls. The reason for this is unknown, but is probably related to alterations in sumo skeletal muscle compared to other sports. Based on the present and previous data, there appears to be a ceiling at which increases in skeletal muscle mass do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max PMID:24357971

  5. Global positioning system data analysis: velocity ranges and a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dan B; Gabbett, Tim J

    2012-03-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology has improved the speed, accuracy, and ease of time-motion analyses of field sport athletes. The large volume of numerical data generated by GPS technology is usually summarized by reporting the distance traveled and time spent in various locomotor categories (e.g., walking, jogging, and running). There are a variety of definitions used in the literature to represent these categories, which makes it nearly impossible to compare findings among studies. The purpose of this work was to propose standard definitions (velocity ranges) that were determined by an objective analysis of time-motion data. In addition, we discuss the limitations of the existing definition of a sprint and present a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes. Twenty-five GPS data files collected from 5 different sports (men's and women's field hockey, men's and women's soccer, and Australian Rules Football) were analyzed to identify the average velocity distribution. A curve fitting process was then used to determine the optimal placement of 4 Gaussian curves representing the typical locomotor categories. Based on the findings of these analyses, we make recommendations about sport-specific velocity ranges to be used in future time-motion studies of field sport athletes. We also suggest that a sprint be defined as any movement that reaches or exceeds the sprint threshold velocity for at least 1 second and any movement with an acceleration that occurs within the highest 5% of accelerations found in the corresponding velocity range. From a practical perspective, these analyses provide conditioning coaches with information on the high-intensity sprinting demands of field sport athletes, while also providing a novel method of capturing maximal effort, short-duration sprints. PMID:22310509

  6. Acute Effects of Self-Selected Regimen of Rapid Body Mass Loss in Combat Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Timpmann, Saima; pik, Vahur; Psuke, Mati; Medijainen, Luule; Ereline, Jaan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML) on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 1.0 years; mean SD) reduced their body mass by 5.1 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1) and immediately after (Test 2) RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot) performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea). Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rads-1 (218.6 40.9 vs. 234.4 42.2 Nm; p = 0.013) and 3.14 rads-1 (100.3 27.8 vs. 111.7 26.2 Nm; p = 0.008). The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 2326 vs. 7452 3080 J; p = 0.003) as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 29.9 vs. 98.6 36.4 Jkg-1; p = 0.034), respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmoll-1 (p = 0.003). The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 29.1 vs. 67.6 26.5 mmoll-1; p = 0.082). The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes. Key pointsPrevious studies have revealed a negative effect of rapid body mass loss on performance. However, there are some performance characteristics that may not change or even improve.The methods used for inducing rapid body mass loss have been prescribed by researchers and not chosen by the subjects in many previous studies. The duration of tests, which have revealed a negative impact of rapid body mass loss on performance have also been rather long (5-6 min) in previous studies.We assessed the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss on muscle performance and metabolic response to 3-min intermittent intensity exercise in experienced male combat sports athletes.The results suggest that the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration. Hence, the recent changes in the rules of some events (wrestling), including shortening of the duration of a match, have not reduced the likelihood of the occurrence of a negative impact of rapid body mass loss on athletes' performance capacity. PMID:24149451

  7. Smena: Case Study of a Soviet Sport School for Elite Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Stephen C.

    This paper describes "Smena," a Specialist Children's and Young People's Sport School of Olympic Reserves, located in Leningrad, which trains elite young soccer players. Information is given on: (1) the facilities of the school; (2) the schools' long-range individual and team goals; (3) instructional methods and hours; (4) the responsibilities of…

  8. Working Memory Deficits in Dynamic Sport Athletes with a History of Concussion Revealed by A Visual-Auditory Dual-Task Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Anthony; Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Gonzalez, David; Roy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Processing and integrating multiple sensory inputs simultaneously plays a vital role in an athlete's ability to plan and execute appropriate actions in dynamic environments. Previous research has shown that concussions affect an athlete's processing capacity and ability to process multiple sensory inputs simultaneously. Few studies to date have considered the impact of previous concussions on information processing of visual and auditory input. It is important to understand information processing capacity in dynamic sports because athletes must divide their attention between visual and auditory stimuli and hold that information in memory to guide actions. We developed a study to examine processing capacity by using a visuospatial working memory test to exhaust attentional resources. We hypothesize that athletes with a history of concussion will have more difficulty allocating attentional resources to each task and thus, will perform significantly worse on a visual-auditory test. Participants were varsity hockey players (n=28; 15 females) 17 of whom had suffered at least one concussion. They completed 2 tasks: a visual working memory task (Corsi block test [CBT]) and an auditory task (tone discrimination). The computerized CBT was an 8-target serial recall test that involved encoding and recalling the location of targets in the order of presentation. The auditory task involved discriminating high (1000 Hz) and low (375 Hz) tones using a computer mouse. Each task was completed individually and then simultaneously with primary focus on the visual task. The main dependent measure was the auditory task cost associated with the dual-task performance. We found that auditory cost was significantly higher in participants with a history of concussion. These results indicate that athletes with a history of concussion have more difficulty with processing multiple sensory inputs simultaneously. This evidence suggests that a history of concussion may produce long-term effects that make an athlete susceptible to further injury. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326753

  9. Ephedra and Its Application to Sport Performance: Another Concern for the Athletic Trainer?

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The ma huang herb, otherwise known as ephedra, has gained widespread popularity as an ergogenic supplement. With the sympathomimetic alkaloid ephedrine as its primary active ingredient, ma huang is marketed to reduce fatigue; increase strength, power, and speed; decrease reaction time; and improve body composition. Although numerous side effects have been associated with the use of ma huang, its popularity in athletes continues to grow. This review provides rationale for the ergogenic claims regarding ma huang and compares and contrasts those claims with data from scientifically controlled investigations. Data Sources: MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1970 to 2000 using the key words ma huang, ephedra, and ephedrine in combination with humans, exercise, performance, and side effects. Data Synthesis: Ephedrine has been used alone or in combination with other drugs as an effective weight-loss agent. The weight loss has been attributed to thermogenic and lipolytic effects which, in combination with the central nervous system stimulating effects, have also resulted in its use as an ergogenic aid. Most of the scientific data, however, do not support manufacturers' ergogenic claims, and numerous side effects have been associated with ephedrine use. Thus, the safety and efficacy of ma huang as an ergogenic supplement must be questioned. Conclusions/Recommendations: It appears that the risks associated with the use of ma huang far outweigh any possible ergogenic benefits. Thus, it is extremely important that athletic trainers educate athletes on these issues so they can continue to perform at an optimum level in a safe and healthy manner. PMID:16558668

  10. The Institution's Obligations to Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A.; Sheilley, Holly K.

    2008-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that growing commercialization of college sports has made it increasingly difficult for universities to reconcile the gap between college sports and the fundamental mission of higher education. This article considers those individuals who choose to be a student athlete in good faith, and suggests strategies that can be

  11. The aging spine in sports.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Elson, Lauren; Brand, Erik

    2012-07-01

    1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996

  12. Resilience in competitive athletes with spinal cord injury: the role of sport participation.

    PubMed

    Machida, Moe; Irwin, Brandon; Feltz, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Individuals who experience loss of their physical abilities often face the challenges of adapting to a new way of life. Past research has shown that sport participation can assist the physical and psychological adaptation to acquired physical disabilities. The purposes of our study were to examine the following: (a) the resilience process of sport participants with acquired spinal cord injury, and (b) the role of sport participation in the resilience process. We conducted semistructured phenomenological interviews with 12 male quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players. Results show that the development of resilience is a multifactorial process involving pre-existing factors and pre-adversity experiences, disturbance/disturbing emotions, various types and sources of social support, special opportunities and experiences, various behavioral and cognitive coping strategies, motivation to adapt to changes, and learned attributes or gains from the resilience process. We discuss implications for future research and practice. PMID:23771633

  13. Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different.

    PubMed

    Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; İşoğlu-Alkaç, Ümmühan

    2015-04-01

    Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training. PMID:25834650

  14. The National Sports Safety in Secondary Schools Benchmark (N4SB) Study: Defining Athletic Training Practice Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C. Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Parsons, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. Objective: To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Design: ?Descriptive study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 17?558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): ?A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Results: Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. Conclusions: This is the first study to describe secondary school athletic training that reflects national practice trends. To improve the quality of athletic training care and to support and improve current working conditions, the profession must examine how its members practice on a day-to-day basis. PMID:23768120

  15. Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m−2; estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA. PMID:26424923

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Z; Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 8.3 kg; height, 178 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 2 kg m(-2); estimated VO2max, 54.16 3.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180 change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA. PMID:26424923

  18. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C.; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C.; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

  19. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-Franois; Evans, Alan C; Thoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

  20. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains. PMID:26323316

  1. Breakup of the Soviet State and Disintegration of the Renowned Sport System. The Future of Athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibberman, Victor; Andersen, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Two articles examine athletics in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The first discusses the disintegration of the Soviet sport system following the Soviet Union's breakup. The second examines the future of CIS athletics which, it is claimed, may never again reach the stature achieved by the Soviet Union. (SM)

  2. Correlations between Attention, Emotional Distress and Anxiety with Regards to Athletes of 11-15 Years in Perceptual-Motor Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosu, Emilia Florina; Grosu, Vlad Teodor; Monea, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: tests were applied on athletes aged between 11 ± 5 and 15 ± 3. The group of athletes is part of the Romanian Olympic Judo team and ski groups of sports clubs in Gheorgheni (HR), Baia-Sprie (MM), Toplita (HR), Sibiu (SB) and Petrosani (HD). Purpose of Study: through this study, we analyse the correlations between the three…

  3. Leadership Ability and Achieving Styles among Student-Athletes at a NCAA-II University in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Mary Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined student-athletes' self-reported leadership ability and achieving styles. It analyzed leadership ability and achieving style preferences as they related to gender, class status, ethnicity, and sport classification: individual-sport vs. team-sport athletes. A paper and pencil survey consisting of a composite variable of six

  4. Initiation Rites and Athletics: A National Survey of NCAA Sports Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred Univ., NY.

    Alfred University conducted a national survey of college athletes, coaches, and staff members at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions early in 1999 to determine the extent of hazing and initiation rites. A national random sample of 10,000 athletes was taken from a composite list of all athletes from 224 NCAA institutions

  5. Predictors of Academic Success for Male Student-Athletes: A Comparison of Traditional Measures, Noncognitive Variables, and Type of Sport Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Mark D.

    Using data from the 1986-1990 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) dataset, this study examined the effect of college male athletic participation in the sports of football or basketball as compared to participation in other "minor" sports on academic performance as measured by grade point average. Results indicate that the type of…

  6. "Inside the Bubble": A Look at the Experiences of Student-Athletes in Revenue-Producing Sports during College and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menke, Donna J.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study sought to address the overarching research questions: What are the costs and benefits of participation in Division I college sports? How does participation in Division I college sports prepare student-athletes for life after college? A qualitative methodology was selected to provide richer data than that which could be…

  7. Achievement Motivation, Coping Processes, and Sports Participation of Athletes with Physical Handicaps: A Student-Initiated Project. Final Report, July 1, 1985 to September 15, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Sara R.; And Others

    The study examined how the coping behaviors and achievement motivation of 181 athletes (aged 18-66) with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities influence participation in the normalized activity of competitive sport. The project examined the following cognitive aspects of performance: (1) reasons for becoming involved in sports; (2) how the

  8. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26920240

  9. Sports medicine and ethics.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

    2013-01-01

    Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

  10. Increased Compliance With Supervised Rehabilitation Improves Functional Outcome and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fucai; Banerjee, Anirban; Shen, Liang; Krishna, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful return to sport is an important outcome measure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and a reason for patients’ decisions to elect surgery. Rehabilitation programs supervised by physical therapists are routinely prescribed after ACL reconstruction surgery. However, the added advantage of supervised physical therapy after ACL reconstruction is still debatable. Hypothesis: Attending more supervised physical therapy sessions after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in recreational athletes increases their chance of successful return to sport. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The authors analyzed 93 recreational athletes who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. After arthroscopic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, patients were advised to attend 20 supervised physical therapy sessions. Patients’ demographics, surgical details, and outcome measures (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Lysholm scale, and Short Form–36 Health Survey [SF-36]) were recorded presurgery and at 1-year follow-up. Ability to return to sports was documented through patients’ self-report. The attendance at physical therapy by each patient was obtained by examining database records and assessed as fully compliant (>15 sessions), moderately compliant (6-15 sessions), or noncompliant (<6 sessions). Results: Patients in the fully compliant group had significantly greater odds (odds ratio [OR], 18.5; 95% CI, 1.9-184.5; P = .013) of a successful return to sport as compared with the noncompliant group. Patients in the moderately compliant group also had greater odds of returning to sport as compared with the noncompliant group (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-16.6; P = .043). Patients in the fully compliant group had significantly greater scores on the Lysholm (P < .001), KOOS Sports and Recreation subscale (P = .021), KOOS Symptoms subscale (P = .040), and SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) (P = .012) as compared with the noncompliant group. Moderately compliant patients had significantly greater scores on the Lysholm (P = .004), KOOS Sports and Recreation (P = .026), KOOS Symptoms (P = .041), KOOS Quality of Life (P = .022), and SF-36 PCS (P = .004) as compared with noncompliant patients. Conclusion: In recreational athletes, moderate to full compliance with a supervised physical therapy program predicts improved knee function and a greater chance of returning to sport 1 year after ACL reconstruction. PMID:26740958

  11. Life is unfair, and so are racing sports: some athletes can randomly benefit from alerting effects due to inconsistent starting procedures.

    PubMed

    Dalmaijer, Edwin S; Nijenhuis, Beorn G; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Olympics are the world's largest sporting events, attracting billions of viewers worldwide. Important parts are racing sports, such as running, swimming and speed skating. In these sports, athletes compete against each other in different heats to determine who wins the gold, or who is granted a place in the final. Of course, the gold goes to whoever is the most talented and has trained the hardest. Or does it? Here we argue that subtle differences between athletes' starts can bias the competition, and demonstrate this in the results of speed skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics. This bias could be removed by simple alterations to current starting procedures. The proposed change would greatly improve racing sport fairness, which currently suffers from an injustice that disadvantages not only athletes, but entire nations rooting for them. PMID:26579009

  12. Local versus global optimal sports techniques in a group of athletes.

    PubMed

    Huchez, Aurore; Haering, Diane; Holvot, Patrice; Barbier, Franck; Begon, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Various optimization algorithms have been used to achieve optimal control of sports movements. Nevertheless, no local or global optimization algorithm could be the most effective for solving all optimal control problems. This study aims at comparing local and global optimal solutions in a multistart gradient-based optimization by considering actual repetitive performances of a group of athletes performing a transition move on the uneven bars. Twenty-four trials by eight national-level female gymnasts were recorded using a motion capture system, and then multistart sequential quadratic programming optimizations were performed to obtain global optimal, local optimal and suboptimal solutions. The multistart approach combined with a gradient-based algorithm did not often find the local solution to be the best and proposed several other solutions including global optimal and suboptimal techniques. The qualitative change between actual and optimal techniques provided three directions for training: to increase hip flexion-abduction, to transfer leg and arm angular momentum to the trunk and to straighten hand path to the bar. PMID:24156618

  13. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  14. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity

  15. Mechanical analysis of the acute effects of a heavy resistance exercise warm-up on agility performance in court-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Sole, Christopher J; Moir, Gavin L; Davis, Shala E; Witmer, Chad A

    2013-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of heavy resistance exercise on agility performance in court-sport athletes. Five men (age: 20.6 1.9 years; body mass: 79.36 11.74 kg; body height: 1.93 0.09 m) and five women (age 21.2 2.7 years; body mass: 65.8 10.18 kg; body height 1.77 0.08 m) volunteered to participate in the present study. All subjects were NCAA Division II athletes who currently participated in tennis or basketball and all had previous resistance training experience of at least one year. In a counterbalanced design, agility performance during a 10 m shuttle test was assessed following either a dynamic warm-up (DW) or heavy resistance warm-up (HRW) protocol. The HRW protocol consisted of three sets of squats at 50, 60, and 90% of 1-RM. Agility performance was captured using an eight camera motion analysis system and the mechanical variables of stride length, stride frequency, stance time, flight time, average ground reaction force, as well as agility time were recorded. No significant differences were reported for the HRW and DW protocols for any of the mechanical variables (p>0.05), although there was a trend towards the HRW protocol producing faster agility times compared to the control protocol (p = 0.074). Based on the trend towards a significant effect, as well as individual results it is possible that HRW protocols could be used as an acute method to improve agility performance in some court-sport athletes. PMID:24511350

  16. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress

  17. The Athletics Plan for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Hawaii's Interscholastic Athletics program involves 38 high schools in a voluntary program designed to develop athletically talented students and to foster student and community identity with the schools. Although the ten-year old program offering sixteen team and individual sports has been successful, several issues remain unresolved in the areas

  18. Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports.

    PubMed

    Killam, Chad; Cautin, Robin L; Santucci, Anthony C

    2005-07-01

    The present study examined the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist, and the Stroop task. Based on a brief self-report concussion history survey, male and female athletes who participated in ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, and/or soccer were assigned to one of three concussion-history conditions: Non-concussed, Non-recent concussed (i.e., more than 2 years since last concussion), or Recent concussed (i.e., 2 years or less since last concussion). A fourth group of subjects consisting of non-concussed/non-athletes served in the control condition. Group differences emerged on the RBANS when immediate memory, delayed memory, and total scores were analyzed. Specifically, recent concussed athletes and, surprisingly, non-concussed athletes scored lower than control subjects in the two memory domains, whereas all three athlete groups had lower total RBANS scores than those of control subjects. Moreover, recent concussed athletes not only had lower immediate memory scores than control subjects, but also were impaired relative to non-recent concussed athlete subjects in this memory domain. No group differences were detected on the Stroop task or on the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist. Interestingly, however, the severity of the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist scores for the two athlete-concussed groups, taken in aggregate, correlated negatively with RBANS scores for attention (r = -.65) and delayed memory (r = -.61), and with the total RBANS score (r = -.59). In recent concussed athletes, lower delayed memory scores correlated with more severe Postconcussion Symptom Checklist scores (r = -.90), while more severe/higher number of concussions correlated with increased processing speed on the Stroop interference task (r = .90). These findings indicate that recent head injury produces alterations in neuropsychological function, especially that of memory, that resolve with time. More provocatively, the data also suggest that participation in contact sports may produce sub-clinical cognitive impairments in the absence of a diagnosable concussion presumably resulting from the cumulative consequences produced by multiple mild head trauma. PMID:15939185

  19. High-Risk Drinking Characteristics in Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James; Swanik, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to further describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. Participants: There were 720 participants from Divisions I, II, and III who participated in either a team sport or an individual sport. Methods: The authors measured…

  20. High-Risk Drinking Characteristics in Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James; Swanik, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to further describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. Participants: There were 720 participants from Divisions I, II, and III who participated in either a team sport or an individual sport. Methods: The authors measured

  1. Perspectives on Sport Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Jay

    2002-01-01

    For high school athletes, the pressure increases each year to specialize and focus on their best sport, and if they do not, they risk being surpassed by other athletes who have focused on one sport. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of sport specialization and looks at the rising danger of club sports for high school athletes.

  2. Neuroimaging changes in the brain in Contact vs. Non-contact sport athletes using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Yi; Apuzzo, Michael L.J.; Romano, Russ; Liu, Charles; Tsao, Sinchai; Hwang, Darryl; Wilkins, Bryce; Lepore, Natasha; Law, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traumatic brain injury in contact sports has significant impact on short term neurological and neurosurgical function as well as longer term cognitive disability. In this study, we aim to demonstrate that contact sport participants exhibit differences in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) caused by repeated physical impact on the brain. We also aim to determine that impact incurred by the contact sports athletes during the season may result in differences between the pre- and post-season DTI scans. Methods DTI data was collected from 10 contact (mean age 20.4 +- 1.36) and 13 age-matched non-contact (mean age 19.5 +- 1.03) sport male athletes, on a 3T MRI scanner. A single shot echo-planar imaging sequence with b-value of 1000s/mm2 and 25 gradient directions was used. Eight of the athletes were again scanned post-season. The b0 non-diffusion weighted image was averaged 5 times. Voxel-wise 2-sample t-tests were run for all group comparisons, and in each case, the positive false discovery rate (pFDR) was computed to assess the whole map, multiple comparison corrected significance. Results There were significant differences in the FA values in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, parts of the superior and posterior coronal radiate and the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC) as well as smaller clusters in the genu and parts of the body of the CC. In addition, the external capsule also shows some difference between the contact and non-contact athlete brains. Additionally, the pre-season and postseason show differences in these regions, however, the post-season p-values show significance in more areas of the CC. Conclusions There are significant DTI changes in the corpus callosum, the external capsule, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus as well as regions such as the superior/posterior corona radiata when comparing the pre-season contact versus the non-contact controls and also comparing the post-season contact athletes with the controls. There are also difference in the DTI between the post- vs. pre-season scans. PMID:24120614

  3. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general

  4. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  5. Sports Coaches as "Dangerous Individuals"--Practice as Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William George; Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Recent concern surrounding sports coaches' interaction with young people has reflected a fundamental change in the way coaches and others regard the role of sports. In this paper, we consider the identification and definition of the contemporary sports coach (whether acting in a professional or volunteer capacity) as, in Foucault's term, a

  6. Sports Coaches as "Dangerous Individuals"--Practice as Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William George; Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Recent concern surrounding sports coaches' interaction with young people has reflected a fundamental change in the way coaches and others regard the role of sports. In this paper, we consider the identification and definition of the contemporary sports coach (whether acting in a professional or volunteer capacity) as, in Foucault's term, a…

  7. ESPN's "SportsCenter": Socialization of America's Athletes, Coaches and Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aicinena, Steven

    This study examined what values, attitudes, and behaviors are conveyed through televised sports news programming that would be expected in both sport and the world of work. The study involved viewing 102 editions of ESPN's "SportsCenter," a sports news program, and recording comments made by program anchors, news journalists, players, coaches,

  8. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's

  9. Quantification of physiological, movement, and technical outputs during a novel small-sided game in young team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean SD: age, 13.0 0.3 years; height, 157.4 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 4.6 mlkgmin) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 kmh was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended. PMID:23254547

  10. Long-term effects of athletics meet on the perceived competence of individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ninot, Grgory; Maano, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided equally into six groups: (a) segregated basketball, (b) integrated basketball, (c) segregated swimming, (d) integrated swimming, (e) physical education (PE), and (f) sedentary. The experimental treatment was 21 months long; for sport groups, this involved 2h of training each week and 12 competitive meets. We administrated Harter's (Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver: University of Denver) Self-Perception Profile for Children seven times to determine changes in perceived competence, and general self-worth. Results indicated: (a) no changes in perceived social acceptance; (b) significantly lower perceived athletic competence for the integrated groups; (c) significantly lower general self-worth for the basketball groups compared to the PE group. The integrated environment helps adolescents with ID to adopt a more realistic evaluation of their physical competence. PMID:16631348

  11. THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT IN COMBAT SPORTS: AN ANALYSIS OF OLYMPIC JUDO ATHLETES, 1964-2012.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Maicon R; Franchini, Emerson; Lage, Guilherme M; Da Costa, Varley Teoldo; Costa, Israel T; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-08-01

    This study assessed the relative age effect (RAE) in judo athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from 1964 to 2012. The names and birthdates of the Olympic judo athletes were collected from open-access websites. Data from male (n=1,762) and female (n=665) competitors were analyzed separately. Chi-squared tests were performed to investigate REA in medalists, and by weight categories and sexes. When the analyses used semesters to divide the period when the athletes were born, a RAE was found in male heavyweight athletes and male medallists. Thus, in a selected group of judo athletes who had participated at the highest competitive level, RAEs were present in both athletes who won Olympic medals and heavyweight athletes in the male group. PMID:26302193

  12. Understanding how organized youth sport maybe harming individual players within the family unit: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bean, Corliss N; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little to date has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of papers on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. Ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

  13. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain. PMID:25893472

  14. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the athlete: an American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement.

    PubMed

    Putukian, Margot; Kreher, Jeffrey B; Coppel, David B; Glazer, James L; McKeag, Douglas B; White, Russell D

    2011-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important issue for the physician taking care of athletes since ADHD is common in the athletic population, and comorbid issues affect athletes of all ages. The health care provider taking care of athletes should be familiar with making the diagnosis of ADHD, the management of ADHD, and how treatment medications impact exercise and performance. In this statement, the term "Team Physician" is used in reference to all healthcare providers that take care of athletes. These providers should understand the side effects of medications, regulatory issues regarding stimulant medications, and indications for additional testing. This position statement is not intended to be a comprehensive review of ADHD, but rather a directed review of the core issues related to the athlete with ADHD. PMID:21892014

  16. Principles of rehabilitation and return to sports following injury.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Magali

    2015-04-01

    Rehabilitation of an athlete can present its own challenges. Few protocols are available to guide physicians in proper return to sport. Rehabilitation after foot and ankle sport injury can be categorized into 3 different stages but should also be individualized. The focus of this article is to help the treating physician in creating a protocol to safely return an injured athlete back to sport based on current literature and principles. PMID:25804715

  17. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris M; Costello, Joseph T; Glasgow, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Applying ice or other forms of topical cooling is a popular method of treating sports injuries. It is commonplace for athletes to return to competitive activity, shortly or immediately after the application of a cold treatment. In this article, we examine the effect of local tissue cooling on outcomes relating to functional performance and to discuss their relevance to the sporting environment. A computerized literature search, citation tracking and hand search was performed up to April, 2011. Eligible studies were trials involving healthy human participants, describing the effects of cooling on outcomes relating to functional performance. Two reviewers independently assessed the validity of included trials and calculated effect sizes. Thirty five trials met the inclusion criteria; all had a high risk of bias. The mean sample size was 19. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to clinical heterogeneity. The majority of studies used cooling durations > 20 minutes. Strength (peak torque/force) was reported by 25 studies with approximately 75% recording a decrease in strength immediately following cooling. There was evidence from six studies that cooling adversely affected speed, power and agility-based running tasks; two studies found this was negated with a short rewarming period. There was conflicting evidence on the effect of cooling on isolated muscular endurance. A small number of studies found that cooling decreased upper limb dexterity and accuracy. The current evidence base suggests that athletes will probably be at a performance disadvantage if they return to activity immediately after cooling. This is based on cooling for longer than 20 minutes, which may exceed the durations employed in some sporting environments. In addition, some of the reported changes were clinically small and may only be relevant in elite sport. Until better evidence is available, practitioners should use short cooling applications and/or undertake a progressive warm up prior to returning to play. PMID:22121908

  18. Systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury in athletes after sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Papa, Linda; Ramia, Michelle M; Edwards, Damyan; Johnson, Brian D; Slobounov, Semyon M

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining biofluid biomarkers of brain injury for concussion in athletes. Data sources included PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database from 1966 to October 2013. Studies were included if they recruited athletes participating in organized sports who experienced concussion or head injury during a sports-related activity and had brain injury biomarkers measured. Acceptable research designs included experimental, observational, and case-control studies. Review articles, opinion papers, and editorials were excluded. After title and abstract screening of potential articles, full texts were independently reviewed to identify articles that met inclusion criteria. A composite evidentiary table was then constructed and documented the study title, design, population, methods, sample size, outcome measures, and results. The search identified 52 publications, of which 13 were selected and critically reviewed. All of the included studies were prospective and were published either in or after the year 2000. Sports included boxing (six studies), soccer (five studies), running/jogging (two studies), hockey (one study), basketball (one study), cycling (one study), and swimming (one study). The majority of studies (92%) had fewer than 100 patients. Three studies (23%) evaluated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one in both serum and CSF, and 10 (77%) in serum exclusively. There were 11 different biomarkers assessed, including S100?, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, tau, neurofilament light protein, amyloid beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, creatine kinase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein, prolactin, cortisol, and albumin. A handful of biomarkers showed a correlation with number of hits to the head (soccer), acceleration/deceleration forces (jumps, collisions, and falls), postconcussive symptoms, trauma to the body versus the head, and dynamics of different sports. Although there are no validated biomarkers for concussion as yet, there is potential for biomarkers to provide diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring information postinjury. They could also be combined with neuroimaging to assess injury evolution and recovery. PMID:25254425

  19. Individual differences of action orientation for risktaking in sports.

    PubMed

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G

    2004-09-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing Prospective Action Orientation and State Orientation in Success, Failure, and Planning Situations as action-oriented or state-oriented decision makers. The results of the experiment show that action-oriented players shoot faster and more often to the basket and that state-oriented players prefer to pass to a playmaker more often. Four versions of a computational model of decision making, Decision Field Theory, were compared to evaluate whether behavioral differences depend on the focus of attention, the initial preferences, threshold values, or an approach-avoidance interpretation of the task. Different starting preferences explained individual choices and decision times most accurately. Risk taking in basketball shooting behavior can be best explained by different preferences for starting values for risky and safe options caused by different levels of action orientation. PMID:15487295

  20. Competition, Gender and the Sport Experience: An Exploration among College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, sport and physical activity rates of women generally lag behind those of men. One reason for this could be the way that sport cultures typically frame and value competition. This study provides an examination of the meaning and impact of "competition" on the sport participation experiences of men and women. Using

  1. Competition, Gender and the Sport Experience: An Exploration among College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, sport and physical activity rates of women generally lag behind those of men. One reason for this could be the way that sport cultures typically frame and value competition. This study provides an examination of the meaning and impact of "competition" on the sport participation experiences of men and women. Using…

  2. Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports

  3. Selected Cutaneous Disorders in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James D.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses selected cutaneous diseases seen in the athlete. These diseases may be caused by interaction with the elements, the playing surface, other athletes, or the clothing or equipment worn during sport. All of these dermatological conditions are relatively common, but the physically active individual can suffer from these maladies and their complications more often than the inactive person. The emphasis in caring for the participant is on prevention, early recognition and practical aspects of management of cutaneous diseases. PMID:21264034

  4. The Certified Athletic Trainer: Is Your School System Missing a Key Player?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dan; Winterstein, Andrew P.

    An athletic trainer (ATC) who is certified by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) is an allied health professional with specific expertise in prevention, recognition, and care of injuries to athletes. Such individuals are college-degreed specialists in sports medicine who practice under the direction of a physician. ATCs perform six…

  5. Life is unfair, and so are racing sports: some athletes can randomly benefit from alerting effects due to inconsistent starting procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaijer, Edwin S.; Nijenhuis, Beorn G.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Olympics are the world’s largest sporting events, attracting billions of viewers worldwide. Important parts are racing sports, such as running, swimming and speed skating. In these sports, athletes compete against each other in different heats to determine who wins the gold, or who is granted a place in the final. Of course, the gold goes to whoever is the most talented and has trained the hardest. Or does it? Here we argue that subtle differences between athletes’ starts can bias the competition, and demonstrate this in the results of speed skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics. This bias could be removed by simple alterations to current starting procedures. The proposed change would greatly improve racing sport fairness, which currently suffers from an injustice that disadvantages not only athletes, but entire nations rooting for them. PMID:26579009

  6. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  7. Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filsinger, Lora C.

    2012-01-01

    As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic

  8. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about

  9. Gait Patterns Differ Between ACL-Reconstructed Athletes Who Pass Return-to-Sport Criteria and Those Who Fail

    PubMed Central

    Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Logerstedt, David; Gardinier, Emily S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background The current standard of practice for an athlete to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is varied. Attempt to return to activity is typically advised 6 months after surgery, but functional performance deficits and gait abnormalities are often still evident and may have important implications on future function. Hypothesis When comparing the involved and uninvolved limbs, patients who failed return-to-sport (RTS) criteria would demonstrate (1) smaller peak knee angles, extensor moments, and peak power absorption at the knee of the involved limb and (2) larger peak hip angles, extensor moments, and peak power generation of the involved limb. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A total of 42 patients completed functional and biomechanical gait assessment 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Functional testing involved an isometric quadriceps strength test, 4 single-legged hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to measure sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of the hip and knee. A mixed-model analysis of variance and post hoc t tests were used to compare the limb symmetry of those who passed and those who did not pass RTS criteria. Minimal clinically important differences were calculated from healthy gait data and used to further define meaningful limb asymmetries. Results Twenty of the 42 (48%) patients passed RTS criteria 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Patients who did not pass the criteria demonstrated statistically significant differences between limbs on all kinematic and kinetic variables at the knee (P ? .027). Clinically meaningful asymmetries at the hip were also identified in this group. Only kinetic asymmetries at the knee were identified in the patients who passed RTS criteria. Conclusion Athletes who demonstrate superior functional performance 6 months after ACL reconstruction may have fewer abnormal and asymmetrical gait behaviors than their poorer performing counterparts. Patients who did not pass RTS criteria not only demonstrated larger kinematic and kinetic asymmetries between limbs but also appeared to use a gait strategy more closely aligned with athletes early after ACL rupture. Clinical Relevance Poor performance on a battery of functional performance measures may be related to the presence of movement asymmetries in athletes after ACL reconstruction. Objective RTS criteria have the potential to provide information to clinicians who determine when these athletes return to activity, and may aid in the prescription of targeted rehabilitation to address underlying movement asymmetry. PMID:23562809

  10. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes attitudes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Method Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. Results As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (?2?=?.11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r?=?.50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r?=?.36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (r tt ?=?.66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. Conclusions The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available open source. The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:24479865

  11. The World T.E.A.M. Sports Face of America Character Education Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Exceptional Athlete Matters (World T.E.A.M.) Sports (WTS) brings individuals together to undertake unique athletic events throughout the world to encourage, promote, and develop opportunities in sports for people, with and without disabilities. This classroom program on character education provides teachers with lesson plans on three themes

  12. Health Care Delivery in Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kenneth S.

    1982-01-01

    A structural framework is provided for a responsive athletic injury control program, the Health Supervision Loop in Sport. The use of certified athletic trainers is recommended to lessen the risk of sport-related injuries. (FG)

  13. A Research on Identifying the Need for Distance Education for National Athletes Who Study in School of Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkus, Taner

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured…

  14. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  15. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were

  16. Sports and the Handicapped: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Curricular, Intramural, Club and Intercollegiate Athletic Programs in Postsecondary Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Anne Marie Canali

    1978-01-01

    Recent focus on litigation and administrative concerns for the handicapped focus on the right to recreation and participation in sports. Statutory and regulatory requirements, physical education and athletics requirements, enforcement of Section 504 rights, and planning for compliance are discussed. (MLW)

  17. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect. PMID:24251749

  18. The Foundation of Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a coach, this author likes to share some thoughts on children and sports. After 42 years in athletics in all capacities--coach, athletic director, official, parent, athlete, and observer--he can easily say he has seen, heard, or experienced it all. Each experience has helped him gain some insights on youth and interscholastic sports. Parent of

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26917108

  20. Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A.

    This chapter includes all cases, at either the K-12 or higher education level, that deal with student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, and booster organizations. However, no case law is discussed that pertains to physical education instruction. The cases are discussed in the following sections: (1) eligibility; (2)

  1. Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

  2. Can Regular Sports Participation Slow the Aging Process? Data on Masters Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Terence; Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of age and sports participation on functional loss. Data on 756 adults who underwent maximal exercise testing during the 1985 World Masters Games indicate even moderate sports participation may enhance functional capacity. Older people may maintain independence in later life by increasing physical

  3. Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex

  4. Sports Wagering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockey, Donald L., Jr.; King, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses wagering on college athletics and sports wagering by college students and student athletes. Programs implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and other organizations to minimize such behavior are also discussed, and recommendations for practice and research are shared.

  5. A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study on the White Matter Skeleton in Individuals with Sports-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Cubon, Valerie A.; Putukian, Margot; Boyer, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing and managing the effects of cerebral concussion is very challenging, given the discrete symptomatology. Most individuals with sports-related concussion will not score below 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but will present with rapid onset of short-lived neurological impairment, demonstrating no structural changes on traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. The return-to-play decision is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been primarily based on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. We assessed white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity in varsity level college athletes with sports-related concussion without loss of consciousness, who experienced protracted symptoms for at least 1 month after injury. Evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the WM skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed a large cluster of significantly increased MD for concussed subjects in several WM fiber tracts in the left hemisphere, including parts of the inferior/superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and posterior thalamic and acoustic radiations. Qualitative comparison of average FA and MD suggests that with increasing level of injury severity (ranging from sports-related concussion to severe traumatic brain injury), MD might be more sensitive at detecting mild injury, whereas FA captures more severe injuries. In conclusion, the TBSS analysis used to evaluate diffuse axonal injury of the WM skeleton seems sensitive enough to detect structural changes in sports-related concussion. PMID:21083414

  6. Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, η 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, η 2 = .013), relativism ( P < .001, η 2 = .050), and ethical decision-making scores ( P < .001, η 2 = .027). Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis indicated that educators possessed lower idealism scores (36.90 ± 5.70) and relativism scores (29.92 ± 4.86) and higher ethical decision-making scores (82.98 ± 7.62) than did students. Conclusions: Our findings do not support changes in athletic training ethics education practices to address sex-specific needs. However, when opportunities occur for students to reason using different ethical perspectives, educators should be aware of their students' and their own moral philosophies in order to optimally facilitate professional growth. PMID:18345347

  7. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring.

    PubMed

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

    2013-10-01

    The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-? and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1? concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes. PMID:23916597

  8. Collegiate Athletics Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,

  9. Physical Education, Recreation and Sports for Individuals with Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Reviewed in the third of seven related documents are resources and research on physical education, recreation, and sports for hearing impaired persons. An annotated list of resources is supplied for each of the following topics: integration of the hearing impaired into regular physical education and recreation programs, physical education and

  10. Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Tnnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192

  11. Where are the women in women's sports? Predictors of female athletes' interest in a coaching career.

    PubMed

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Participants were 205 predominantly White, heterosexual female student athletes. A path analysis indicated that role models and working hours predicted coaching self-efficacy, which predicted coaching outcome expectations. Additionally, coaching self-efficacy, coaching outcome expectations, and contextual factors predicted coaching interest. Practical implications are discussed as well as suggestions for further research in this relatively unexplored area. PMID:21462691

  12. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  13. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    PubMed

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (? 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (<35 years), SCD is mainly due to congenital/inherited cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we will focus on how to prevent SCD in athletes of all ages, reviewing cardiovascular screening recommendations as well as emergency preparedness and arena safety. PMID:24350833

  14. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.

  15. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  16. Sports Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Study of Malaysian University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…

  17. Sports doping in the adolescent athlete the hope, hype, and hyperbole.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-08-01

    A well-balanced diet with appropriate training is the key to maximizing athletic performance. Nutritional counseling should be an essential part of anticipatory guidance, especially for certain teens, such as those who are vegetarians or those with low-calorie intakes. Other considerations for anticipatory guidance are listed in Box 8. Adequate hydration before, during, and after practice or a game is important to maintain hemodynamic balance, prevent heat disorders, and optimize performance. Cool water is adequate for short-duration activities, while carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids are more desirable for long-term activities, especially those lasting more than an hour. Such drinks are also more palatable and the athlete is more likely to consume them. Carbohydrates (meaning hydrates of carbon) are an important part of the athlete's diet; carbohydrates are rapidly broken down and their energy is quickly supplied to the body. The body stores only a small amount of carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in the liver, while muscle glycogen is an immediate source of energy. Thus, carbohydrate loading has been used to increase glycogen stores and aid the athlete involved in endurance events. PMID:12296535

  18. Positive Transitions for Student Athletes: Life Skills for Transitions in Sport, College & Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Darin J.; Stankovich, Christopher E.; Kays, Todd M.

    This book provides concrete information and step-by-step exercises to help student athletes succeed in college and make a successful transition to the world beyond college. The book is divided into 14 units containing some or all the following elements: goals; reading materials accompanying review questions; exercises; a unit recap; unit review

  19. Sporting Bodies, Ageing, Narrative Mapping and Young Team Athletes: An Analysis of Possible Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix, Cassandra; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on life history data generated from interviews with young athletes at an English university, this paper explores the narrative maps provided to them by older team members and the ways in which these influence perceptions of self-ageing. Three possible selves associated with mid-life emerged from the analysis for detailed focus. These are

  20. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Deimel, Jay F; Dunlap, Bradley J

    2012-04-01

    The Female Athlete Triad poses serious health risks, both short and long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within the skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, and central nervous systems. With the surge of females participating in athletics within the past 10 to 15 years, it is both conceivable and likely that the prevalence of this syndrome will continue to grow. Therefore, it is imperative that appropriate screening and diagnostic measures are enacted by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers, counselors, teachers, and dieticians in order to provide the proper care to affected athletes. Initial awareness should take place within the educational confines of elementary and high schools. Screening for female athletes exhibiting risk factors for the triad should also take place at the time of sports physicals. If one component of the triad is identified, the clinician should take the time to effectively workup the other 2. Treatment for each component of the triad includes both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures, with emphasis placed upon increased energy availability and overall improved nutritional health. Using this all-encompassing type of approach, sports medicine practitioners should feel empowered to continue to promote the lifelong well-being of female athletes in the years to come. PMID:22341014

  1. Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data. Methods We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6), soccer (n = 8), handball (n = 12), kayaking (n = 9) and triathlon (n = 9) groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test. Results We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity. Conclusions Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol. PMID:26717409

  2. Sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety, and individual cognitions: how do they interact?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the interaction between individual and environmental determinants of physical activity, although this may be important information for the development of effective interventions. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether perceived neighborhood safety modifies associations between individual cognitions and sports participation. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75) of 87 neighborhoods in the city of Eindhoven, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 2474). We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze the interactions between perceived neighborhood safety and individual cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention) on sports participation (yes/no). Results In its association with sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety interacted significantly with self-efficacy and attitude (p < 0.05). Among persons who perceived their neighborhood as safe, a positive attitude was strongly associated with sports participation (OR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.48-2.71). In contrast, attitude was not associated with sports participation in persons who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.34-1.24). Further, self-efficacy was significantly stronger associated with sports participation in persons who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.31-2.60) than in those who perceived their neighborhood as safe (OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.05-1.36). Social influence and intention did not interact with perceived neighborhood safety. Conclusions Associations between individual cognitions and sports participation depend on neighborhood circumstances, such as perceived neighborhood safety. Interventions to promote sports participation in adults should take the interaction between environmental and individual characteristics into account. More research is needed to find out the causal pathways in individual-environment interactions. PMID:21777414

  3. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on youth athletic development.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F; Mountjoy, Margo; Armstrong, Neil; Chia, Michael; Côté, Jean; Emery, Carolyn A; Faigenbaum, Avery; Hall, Gary; Kriemler, Susi; Léglise, Michel; Malina, Robert M; Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Sanchez, Alex; Soligard, Torbjørn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; van Mechelen, Willem; Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    The health, fitness and other advantages of youth sports participation are well recognised. However, there are considerable challenges for all stakeholders involved-especially youth athletes-in trying to maintain inclusive, sustainable and enjoyable participation and success for all levels of individual athletic achievement. In an effort to advance a more unified, evidence-informed approach to youth athlete development, the IOC critically evaluated the current state of science and practice of youth athlete development and presented recommendations for developing healthy, resilient and capable youth athletes, while providing opportunities for all levels of sport participation and success. The IOC further challenges all youth and other sport governing bodies to embrace and implement these recommended guiding principles. PMID:26084524

  4. Trait and State Anxiety in Israeli Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Gershon; Milgram, Roberta M.

    1978-01-01

    Examined trait anxiety in three groups of Israeli physical education students (N-251) competitors in individual sports, in team sports, and noncompetitors. The measure was the Spielberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene Trait Anxiety Scale (1970). Additionally, two groups of competitive athletes were compared on State Anxiety as measured by the Spielberger

  5. Asthma in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ?2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of ?-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ?2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic ?2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  6. The coaching preferences of elite athletes competing at Universiade '83.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C

    1984-12-01

    The study investigated the coaching preferences of 95 male and 65 female elite athletes competing at Universiade '83 (Edmonton, Canada). Preferred coaching behaviour (PCB) was measured using a version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). Preference scores were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, nationality, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that males prefer significantly more Autocratic behaviour than females (p = .039). Also, athletes in team sports prefer significantly more Training behaviour (p = .001), Autocratic behaviour (p less than .001), and Rewarding behaviour (p = .017), and significantly less Democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and Social Support behaviour (p = .002) than athletes in individual sports. No significant differences in PCB attributable to the age or nationally of the athlete were found. In addition, data collected in a previous study (Terry and Howe, 1984), which examined the PCB of 'club' athletes, was included to facilitate a comparison of club v elite athletes. A MANOVA showed that elite athletes prefer significantly more Democratic behaviour (p = .01) and Social Support behaviour (p = .001), and significantly less Rewarding behaviour (p = .01) than athletes at a 'club' level. Although differences between subject groups were found, it can be concluded that athletes generally tend to favour coaches who "often" display Training behaviour and Rewarding behaviour, "occasionally" display Democratic behaviour and Social Support behaviour, and "seldom" display Autocratic behaviour. PMID:6525753

  7. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and psychopharmacologic treatments in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Conant-Norville, David O; Tofler, Ian R

    2005-10-01

    It is conjectured that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms adversely impacting academics, family functioning, social relationships, and vocational performance might also negatively affect athletic and sport performance and enjoyment; this warrants further scientific inquiry. Children, adolescents, and adults participate in organized and impromptu sport activities, both team and individual. With the concern about an epidemic of obesity in the United States, barriers to participation in sport and exercise such as ADHD need to be better understood. This article approaches ADHD in sports by providing a brief introduction to ADHD, first reviewing general clinical findings, then discussing recreational youth sports and psychopharmacological treatment risks and benefits for the elite athlete. PMID:16169448

  8. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be predicted by a history of concussion (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, p = 0.016), preinjury mood disorders (OR 17.9, 95% CI 2.9-113.0, p = 0.002), family history of mood disorders (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.5, p = 0.026), and delayed symptom onset (OR 20.7, 95% CI 3.2-132.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this age- and sex-matched case-control study of risk factors for PCS among youth with SRC, risk for development of PCS was higher in those with a personal and/or family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. These findings highlight the unique nature of SRC in youth. For this population, providers must recognize the value of establishing the baseline health and psychiatric status of children and their primary caregivers with regard to symptom reporting and recovery expectations. In addition, delayed symptom onset was an unexpected but strong risk factor for PCS in this cohort. Delayed symptoms could potentially result in late removal from play, rest, and care by qualified health care professionals. Taken together, these results may help practitioners identify young athletes with concussion who are at a greater danger for PCS and inform larger prospective studies for validation of risk factors from this cohort. PMID:25745949

  9. Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooley, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)

  10. Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports. Report to Congressional Addressees. GAO-07-535

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the roles of women as both students and athletes have changed in higher education, with female enrollment surpassing male enrollment, and female athletic participation showing gains as well. These changes have generated public interest in whether women participate in athletics at comparable levels to men and whether men's

  11. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    PubMed

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs. PMID:26545270

  12. The Quantitative Analysis on the Individual Characteristics of Urban Residents and Their Sport Consumption Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianliang, Lei; Hongying, Yu

    Using the questionnaire, mathematical statistics and entropy measurement methods, the quantitative relationship between the individual characteristics urban residents and their sports consumption motivation are studied. The results show that the most main sports consumption motivation of urban residents is fitness motivation and social motivation. Urban residents of different gender, age, education and income levels are different in regulating psychological motivation, rational consumption motivation and seeking common motivation.

  13. Transitioning to an Athletic Subjectivity: First-Semester Experiences at a Corporate (Sporting) University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Bryan C.; Mower, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of…

  14. Transitioning to an Athletic Subjectivity: First-Semester Experiences at a Corporate (Sporting) University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Bryan C.; Mower, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of

  15. The Symbolic Boundary of Sports: Middle School Athletic Culture and Mexican Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents an analysis of the hidden curriculum of school sports in mediating the achievement of Mexican immigrant girls in middle schools in the southwestern United States. Using Bourdieu's theory of taste, the author shows how symbolic boundaries expressed by students and teachers legitimize cultural practices that…

  16. Coaches' Perspectives of Eighth-Grade Athletes Playing High School Varsity Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.; Bentley, Tiffany C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-graders playing high school varsity sports from the perspective of the high school coach. The qualitative inquiry was used to allow for personal insights into this coaching phenomenon, to share coaching experiences, and to provide a guide for future coaching action. Participants included 11 high

  17. The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Caldern, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport

  18. The Symbolic Boundary of Sports: Middle School Athletic Culture and Mexican Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents an analysis of the hidden curriculum of school sports in mediating the achievement of Mexican immigrant girls in middle schools in the southwestern United States. Using Bourdieu's theory of taste, the author shows how symbolic boundaries expressed by students and teachers legitimize cultural practices that

  19. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  20. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups. PMID:25621525

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR ATHLETES WHO SUSTAINED A LOWER EXTREMITY INJURY IN PREPARATION FOR RETURN TO SPORT: A DELPHI STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Baker, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: To develop a consensus on the critical constructs necessary to be included in a physical performance assessment checklist (PPAC) to assess an athlete's ability for return to sport following a lower extremity injury. Methods: The study used a 3?round Delphi method to finalize the PPAI originally developed by a panel of experts. Fourteen Delphi representative sample participants were randomly derived from the authors of peer?reviewed publications of lower extremity injuries. Nine participants completed all 3 rounds. Results: Throughout the 3 rounds, the 10 initial constructs were modified and revised to produce the finalized PPAC consisting of 12 constructs necessary to consider for an athlete's return to sport after a lower extremity injury. Conclusions: This instrument can be used as a checklist to advocate for prospective batteries of physical performance tests to incorporate the elements identified by this study. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439809

  2. A Study of Factors that Influence High School Athletes to Choose a College or University, and a Model for the Development of Player Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cory J.; Groves, David; Schneider, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Decisions made by high school and college basketball athletes are becoming increasingly complex as sport has evolved into a true industry. The decisions made during the formative years have a tremendous impact upon the individual as well as the institution that the athlete chooses to attend. Most of the studies about athletes and their institution

  3. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A

    2004-08-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation. PMID:15283616

  4. Understanding How Organized Youth Sport May Be Harming Individual Players within the Family Unit: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Corliss N.; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little thus far has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. A model is proposed to explain under which circumstances sport leads to positive versus negative outcomes, ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

  5. 3D pre- versus post-season comparisons of surface and relative pose of the corpus callosum in contact sport athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yi; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wilkins, Bryce; Hwang, Darryl; Tsao, Sinchai; Wang, Yalin; Law, Meng; Leporé, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing[1]. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sport athlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.

  6. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual

  7. Does improved decision-making ability reduce the physiological demands of game-based activities in field sport athletes?

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Carius, Josh; Mulvey, Mike

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of video-based perceptual training on pattern recognition and pattern prediction ability in elite field sport athletes and determined whether enhanced perceptual skills influenced the physiological demands of game-based activities. Sixteen elite women soccer players (mean +/- SD age, 18.3 +/- 2.8 years) were allocated to either a video-based perceptual training group (N = 8) or a control group (N = 8). The video-based perceptual training group watched video footage of international women's soccer matches. Twelve training sessions, each 15 minutes in duration, were conducted during a 4-week period. Players performed assessments of speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint), repeated-sprint ability (6 x 20-m sprints, with active recovery on a 15-second cycle), estimated maximal aerobic power (V O2 max, multistage fitness test), and a game-specific video-based perceptual test of pattern recognition and pattern prediction before and after the 4 weeks of video-based perceptual training. The on-field assessments included time-motion analysis completed on all players during a standardized 45-minute small-sided training game, and assessments of passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making ability. No significant changes were detected in speed, repeated-sprint ability, or estimated V O2 max during the training period. However, video-based perceptual training improved decision accuracy and reduced the number of recall errors, indicating improved game awareness and decision-making ability. Importantly, the improvements in pattern recognition and prediction ability transferred to on-field improvements in passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making skills. No differences were detected between groups for the time spent standing, walking, jogging, striding, and sprinting during the small-sided training game. These findings demonstrate that video-based perceptual training can be used effectively to enhance the decision-making ability of field sport athletes; however, it has no effect on the physiological demands of game-based activities. PMID:18978606

  8. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    PubMed

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities. PMID:25134752

  9. The Effect of Course Length on Individual Medley Swimming Performance in National and International Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000–2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000–2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000–2011. PMID:25414752

  10. The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Methods Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (PW), sports drink (SpD) and ScJ. In each trial 3ml/kg/BW of 6 % of carbohydrate (CHO) fluid was given at every 20 min interval of exercise and a blood sample was taken to measure the hematological parameters. During recovery 200 ml of 9% CHO fluid was given and blood sample was drawn at 5, 10, 15 min of recovery. Results Ingestion of sugarcane juice showed significant increase (P<0.05) in blood glucose levels during and after exercise compared to SpD and PW. However, no significant difference was found between PW, SpD and ScJ for total exercise time, heart rate, blood lactate and plasma volume. Conclusion ScJ may be equally effective as SpD and PW during exercise in a comfortable environment (<30C) and a more effective rehydration drink than SpD and PW in post exercise as it enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis. PMID:24427476

  11. Standards of nutrition for athletes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Diel, F; Khanferyan, R A

    2013-01-01

    The Deutscher Olympische Sportbund (DOSB) founded recently an advisory board for German elite athlete nutrition, the 'Arbeitsgruppe (AG) Ernahrungsberatung an den Olympiastutzpunkten'. The 'Performance codex and quality criteria for the food supply in facilities of German elite sports' have been established since 1997. The biochemical equivalent (ATP) for the energy demand is calculated using the DLW (Double Labeled Water)-method on the basis of RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) and BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) at sport type specific exercises and performances. Certain nutraceutical ingredients for dietary supplements can be recommended. However, quality criteria for nutrition, cooking and food supply are defined on the basis of Health Food and the individual physiological/social-psychological status of the athlete. Especially food supplements and instant food have to be avoided for young athletes. The German advisory board for elite athlete nutrition publishes 'colour lists' for highly recommended (green), acceptable (yellow), and less recommended (red) food stuff. PMID:24741951

  12. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  13. Balance control during gait in athletes and non-athletes following concussion.

    PubMed

    Parker, Tonya M; Osternig, Louis R; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan

    2008-10-01

    Current literature provides only limited information regarding performance on dynamic motor tasks following concussion. However, recent investigations have suggested that participation in contact sports may have a negative effect on cognitive function without the existence of a medically diagnosed concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine balance control during gait in concussed and uninjured athletes and non-athletes. Twenty-eight Grade 2 concussed individuals (14 athletes and 14 non-athletes) and 28 uninjured matched controls (14 athletes and 14 non-athletes) were assessed for their gait performance within 48 h, 5, 14, and 28 days post-injury under conditions of divided and undivided attention. Athletes, whether concussed or not, walked slower and swayed more and faster than non-athletes. Athletes consistently demonstrated gait imbalance even in the absence of concussion. The findings of this study support the supposition that participation in high-impact sports has a measurable and possibly detrimental effect on balance control in the absence of a medically diagnosed concussion. PMID:18243036

  14. Is an interest in computers or individual/team sports associated with adolescent psychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Harju, Outi; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helin; Rsnen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    The Internet plays a major role in adolescents' free time activities and communication nowadays. The aim here was to investigate the possibility of an association of computers and video games or sports (team, individual) with psychiatric disorders among underage psychiatric inpatients. The series of adolescents (n?=?508) had been diagnosed using semistructured interviews (K-SADS-PL). The results showed that an interest in computers and video games did not increase the risk of any specific psychiatric disorder among these adolescent inpatients, but the likelihood of a substance-related disorder was statistically significantly lower among the boys with computers as a hobby. Team sports were related to increased likelihood of conduct disorder among the boys, whereas the likelihood of an affective disorder was reduced. No such association was found in individual sports or among the girls. We conclude that social contacts and peers play an important role in preventing adolescent depression. PMID:21288072

  15. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  16. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Johannes H G M; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K; de Graaf, Albert A; Binsl, Thomas W; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-11-13

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39C in the brain, and 39.7C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  17. Anger Expression Styles of Hearing Impaired Individuals Doing Sport and Those Not Doing Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altin, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the anger expression styles between the sportive hearing impaired individuals and the sedentary hearing impaired individuals. In the sportive hearing impaired group, there were 170 participants: 62 females and 108 males doing basketball, volleyball and football teams as licensed sportsmen in various clubs…

  18. Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

    2013-02-01

    The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing more relevant than laboratory testing. However, given that many tests, such as the multistage fitness test and the Yo-Yo intermittent test, have originally been developed for AB games players, the assumption that these can also be used for wheelchair athletes may be erroneous. With the array of AB aerobic and anaerobic field tests available, it is difficult to ascertain which ones may be best suited for wheelchair athletes. Therefore, new, wheelchair sport-specific tests have been proposed and validated. Careful selection of tests to enable coaches to distinguish between disability classifications, wheelchair proficiency and actual performance improvements is paramount as this will not only enhance the value of field-based testing, but also help with the development of meaningful normative data. PMID:23329608

  19. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of

  20. Personality and mood of former elite male athletes--a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Bckmand, H; Kaprio, J; Kujala, U; Sarna, S

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the personality and mood of former athletes in middle and old age. The subjects were male athletes who represented Finland from 1920 to 1965 and male referents who were classified as healthy at 20 years of age. The athletes were classified into a total of five athlete groups (endurance, power/combat, power/individual, team, shooting) and one reference group. Four personality scales (extroversion, neuroticism, life satisfaction, and hostility) were used in a baseline questionnaire in 1985 (athletes N = 1040, referents N = 777). Anxiety and depression were assessed in a follow-up in 1995 (athletes N = 758, referents N = 578) with a shortened version of the BSI-53 symptom inventory. According to ANCOVA there were group differences in extroversion, neuroticism, and life satisfaction but not in hostility. Athletes who had participated in power/combat sports and team sports were more extroverted than referents. Endurance sport and shooting sport athletes had lower neuroticism scores than the referents. Endurance, power/combat, team and shooting sport athletes were more satisfied with their lives than were the referents. Discriminant analysis mainly supported these findings. Differences regarding depression were also statistically significant between the groups as referents were more depressed than endurance sport and team sport athletes. No group differences in anxiety were found. The subjects described in this study are unique in number of respects. Bearing in mind the limitations of the study subjects, it is concluded that former athletes differ from nonathletes in some personality characteristics and depression. PMID:11354525

  1. Crime and Athletes: New Racial Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Notes subtle forms of racism in U.S. sport, suggesting that current interpretations of sport allow Whites to view athletes in ways that reinforce black stereotypes. A recent dangerous stereotype is that playing sports makes athletes violence-prone. Many college athletes come from high risk environments and need campus support in dealing with this

  2. A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.

    PubMed

    Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? .2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation. PMID:22093018

  3. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  4. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of

  5. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  6. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ponamgi, Shiva P; DeSimone, Christopher V; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes as well as the unknown efficacy of ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise has resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. PMID:26100423

  7. Reliability and Validity of a 20-s Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test in Team Sport Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ahmed; Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Gaddour, Abdelmajid; Neji, Zied; Shephard, Roy J.; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20) versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30) could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg) who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for peak power output (PPO) (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95) and mean power output (MPO) (ICC 0.98 and 0.90) did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin) and fatigue index (FI) were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76). Standard errors of the means (SEM) for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were “marginal,” with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97), with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively). Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30. PMID:25474744

  8. The athlete biological passport: ticket to a fair Commonwealth Games.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, Vittoria; Rehman, Haroon; Bassindale, Thomas; Clement, Rhys Ge

    2014-08-01

    In summer 2014, the world watched as Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and athletes pushed the boundaries of human performance. Sport has developed into a multi-billion pound industry leading to the development of a 'win at any cost' mentality in some individuals. The abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has developed into a sophisticated arms race between those unfairly enhancing performance and those wishing to preserve the dignity of sport and the health of the competitors. The challenge for the Commonwealth games organising committee was to ensure that competition remained fair and that athletes were kept safe. The athlete biological passport is a system implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency directed towards enhancing the identification of those athletes accountable for the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. This article exemplifies which drugs are currently being exploited and how the athlete biological passport has evolved to improve their detection. PMID:25187193

  9. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions. PMID:26861161

  10. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or

  11. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  12. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 2.7 years; V?O2max, 57.6 8.6 mLminkg?1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%? 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis. PMID:26444557

  13. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  14. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  15. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  16. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Milln, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, Csar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0mg/kg). At 60min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (641 (sd 17) v. 566 (sd 151); P=0001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (312 v. 104%; P<0001), nervousness (132 v. 0%; P=0002) and activeness (169 v. 39%; P=0007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>005). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants. PMID:25212095

  17. Coaches' attitudes towards placebo interventions in sport.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Müller, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Placebo-induced performance enhancement is a new controversial issue in competitive sports. Coaches have control over the use of placebos, but their practices and attitudes were barely studied to date. In this survey 96 coaches from regional, national and international levels were asked about their practices and attitudes concerning placebo use in sports. Results revealed that 90% of the respondents were aware of placebo effects. Many (44%) coaches admitted to administering a placebo to their athletes. Those working at international level have administered placebos more often than the others (P = .02). Two thirds of the coaches agreed to the wider use of placebos in sport. Respondents who have used placebos in the past reported improved athletic performance. They also agreed more to the wider use of placebos than the coaches who previously did not use a placebo (P = .001). Team sport coaches use more often placebos than coaches working with individual athletes (P = .05). Only 10% of the sample thought that their athletes would refuse a hypothetical performance enhancer supplied by them. After a successful placebo intervention, only 15% of the coaches would administer it again without consulting the athlete. Overall, the coaches are optimistic about placebo use in sports. Close to half of them, especially those coaching at higher levels of competition, may use it regularly while achieving positive results. PMID:25743412

  18. Endurance Sport and “Cardiac Injury”: A Prospective Study of Recreational Ironman Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. Methods: 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female) were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Results: Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg), maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7%) and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC%) showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%). Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002–1.052, p = 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04–1.47, p = 0.019). Conclusions: Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume. PMID:25192145

  19. University and College Counselors as Athletic Team Consultants: Using a Structural Family Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individual athlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide

  20. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    PubMed

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs. PMID:21831001

  1. Perceptions of Athletic Training Services by Collegiate Student-Athletes: A Measurement of Athlete Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Objective: I evaluated the perceptions student-athletes had of their athletic trainers and of the medical coverage provided them by the athletic departments at their institutions. My intent was to assess differences between male and female athletes, between athletes of high-profile and low-profile sports, and between athletes who competed at the NCAA Division I and Division II levels. The research design was also directed at identifying any subgroup of student-athletes who demonstrated a significantly different perception toward their athletic trainer(s). Design and Setting: Questionnaires were sent to 32 athletic training programs at 28 NCAA Division I and II institutions. Eighteen of the 32 programs participated, yielding a 56% response. Subjects: A total of 343 student-athletes from 18 selected athletic programs at both the NCAA Division I and II levels participated. One questionnaire contained response errors and was not included in the analysis. Measurements: A questionnaire was developed and pilot tested at 3 collegiate settings apart from those participating in the study. Validity and reliability analyses were conducted and confirmed by additional professionals in the field of athletic training. Cumulative mean perception scores between groups were measured using independent t tests. Differences in scores between subgroups were measured using a 1-way analysis of variance. Results: I observed significant differences in mean cumulative perception scores between sex and sport-profile groups. Male athletes and athletes in high-profile sports demonstrated a higher mean perception score than did females and athletes in low-profile sports. There was no difference in scores when compared across athletic divisions. Subgroups of all the athletes participating were identified. Several subgroups demonstrated significant differences in mean cumulative perception scores. Conclusions: Males and females in low-profile sports at Division II schools and females in high-profile sports at Division II schools had significantly lower mean perception scores than did other subgroups of athletes. PMID:16558533

  2. Neighbourhood social capital as a moderator between individual cognitions and sports behaviour among Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prins, R G; Beenackers, M A; Boog, M C; Van Lenthe, F J; Brug, J; Oenema, A

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore whether individual cognitions and neighbourhood social capital strengthen each other in their relation with engaging in sports at least three times per week. Cross-sectional analyses on data from the last wave of the YouRAction trial (2009-2010, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; baseline response: 98%) were conducted. In total 1129 had data on the last wave questionnaire (93%) and 832 of them had complete data on a self-administered questionnaire on frequency of sports participation, perceived neighbourhood social capital, cognitions (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention toward sport participation) and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived neighbourhood social capital to the neighbourhood level. Multilevel logistic regression analyses (neighbourhood and individual as levels) were conducted to examine associations of cognitions, neighbourhood social capital and the social capital by individual cognition interaction with fit norm compliance. If the interaction was significant, simple slopes analyses were conducted to decompose interaction effects. It was found that neighbourhood social capital was significantly associated with fit norm compliance (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.13-25.74). Moreover, neighbourhood social capital moderated the association of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention with fit norm compliance. The simple slope analyses visualized that the associations of cognitions with fit norm compliance were stronger in case of more neighbourhood social capital. Hence, higher levels of neighbourhood social capital strengthenthe associations of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention in their association with fit norm compliance. PMID:24606792

  3. A comparison of well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Matt D; Loughead, Todd M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction. A total of 444 intercollegiate athletes (272 well-peer mentored and 172 non-peer mentored) from a variety of sport teams participated in the study. Athletes from both well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored groups reported their satisfaction levels using the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results of a MANOVA and follow-up post hoc ANOVAs showed that well-peer mentored athletes were significantly more satisfied than their non-peer mentored counterparts in terms of individual performance, personal dedication, team task contribution, team social contribution, team integration, ethics, ability utilisation and training and instruction. Overall, the findings suggest that athletes who are well-peer mentored by a teammate perceive higher satisfaction levels with various aspects of their athletic experience than athletes who are not peer mentored by a teammate. Given these positive findings, practitioners (i.e., coaches, sport psychology consultants) should inform athletes on the benefits of peer-to-peer mentoring. The practical implications of the results and strategies to promote peer athlete mentoring relationships in sport are highlighted. PMID:26069999

  4. Exercise and airway injury in athletes.

    PubMed

    Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, Andr

    2013-01-01

    Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:23697359

  5. Does the individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jokela, M; Hanin, Y L

    1999-11-01

    According to the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model, an athlete's performance is successful when his or her pre-competition anxiety is within or near the individually optimal zone. When anxiety falls outside the optimal zone, performance deteriorates. The model also suggests that skilled athletes are aware of, and are able to accurately recall and anticipate, their pre-competition anxiety. A meta-analysis of 19 studies from 1978 to 1997 (146 effect sizes based on 6387 participants) was conducted to examine the validity of the assumptions regarding the in-out of the zone notion and the accuracy of recalls and anticipatory measures of anxiety. The findings provide fairly good empirical support for the IZOF anxiety model, with an overall effect size (d) for the in-out of the zone notion of d = +0.44 (41 effect sizes, n = 3175). In other words, the performance of athletes who were within their individually optimal zones were almost one-half a standard deviation unit better than that of athletes who were outside their zones. Furthermore, both effect sizes (r(w)) for accuracy of precompetition anxiety measures, recall (r(w) = +0.71, 24 effect sizes, n = 369) and anticipatory (r(w) = +0.69, 81 effect sizes, n = 2843), exceeded the 'large effect' suggested for correlations by Cohen. The implications for future research extending the IZOF model to a wider range of positive and negative emotions are discussed. PMID:10585167

  6. Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains

  7. Sex Discrimination in High School Sports. A Report and Recommendations from Public Hearings on Interscholastic Athletics for Girls in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Commission for Women, Harrisburg.

    The Pennsylvania Commission for Women held hearings on equal opportunity for girls in athletics in November 1978. Participants included coaches, parents, students, organization and state officials. Testimony was presented on inequities between girls' and boys' athletic programs, coaching and officiating salaries, and attitudes toward female and

  8. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,

  9. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  10. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athletes response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  11. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports. PMID:22236820

  12. Antecedents of Player Satisfaction in Team Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Merrill J.

    1981-01-01

    Satisfaction of participants in team sports hinges on psychosocial needs of individual athletes. Team affiliation creates a ready-made social structure in which emotional rewards of close friendships, motivation to achieve particular goals, and social reinforcement through personal recognition are granted. Other factors include: (1) team size; (2)

  13. Detecting and developing youth athlete potential: different strokes for different folks are warranted.

    PubMed

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sport talent identification and development (TI and TD) in youth continues to attract strong interest among coaches, sport scientists and sport administrators. TI for sport in youth with the anticipation of future elite level sport achievement is both an art and a science, and is strongly influenced by within athlete and extraneous-to-athlete factors (ecosystem of support or the lack of). The returns from investment on current TI and TD models of sport in youth are subpar in that few continue in the sport to achieve podium positions at the elite sport level in adulthood. Why, where and how one succeeds in sport, and what that success means to the athlete and stakeholders are dependent on the culture and context of the country. We advocate harnessing the power of sport to help in youth development, to be holistic in its nurturance, to allow for individual idiosyncratic expressions of the athletes, to provide for talent transfer across sport, and to facilitate key stakeholders to 'join' hands to work for the common interest and understanding for as many youth and adults so as to provide them with opportunitiesthrough support and coaching to compete at the different levels of competition in sport. Governments, policy makers and administrators of sport must decide,within their specific circumstances, if TI and TD in sport in youth is serving a meaningful purpose and is a viable return on investment; in short, is it mission possible or is it a quest for the Holy Grail for a podium finish in elite level sport competition? PMID:25907182

  14. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  15. An individualized longitudinal approach to monitoring the dynamics of growth and fitness development in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Oʼhara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics of 3 individual adolescent junior rugby league players and compared their characteristics with a cross-sectional population matched by age and skill level. Cross-sectional anthropometric and fitness assessments were conducted on 1,172 players selected to the Rugby Football League's talent development program (i.e., the Player Performance Pathway) between 2005 and 2008. Three players of differing relative age, maturational status, and playing position were measured and tracked once per year on 3 occasions (Under 13s, 14s, 15s age categories) and compared against the cross-sectional population. Results demonstrated that the later maturing players increased height (player 1 = 9.2%; player 2 = 7.8%) and a number of fitness characteristics (e.g., 60-m speed-player 1 = -14.9%; player 2 = -9.9%) more than the earlier maturing player (player 3-Height = 2.0%, 60-m sprint = -0.7%) over the 2-year period. The variation in the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics between the 3 players highlights the importance of longitudinally monitoring individual characteristics during adolescence to assess the dynamic changes in growth, maturation, and fitness. Findings showcase the limitations of short-term performance assessments at one-off time points within annual-age categories, instead of advocating individual development and progression tracking without deselection. Coaches should consider using an individual approach, comparing data with population averages, to assist in the prescription of appropriate training and lifestyle interventions to aid the development of junior athletes. PMID:23439337

  16. Diabetes in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Fields, Karl B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise is recommended for individuals with diabetes mellitus, and several facets of the disease must be considered when managing the diabetic athlete. The purpose of this article is to review diabetes care in the context of sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database, as well as manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Results: Diabetics should be evaluated for complications of long-standing disease before beginning an exercise program, and exercise should be modified appropriately if complications are present. Athletes who use insulin or oral insulin secretogogues are at risk for exercise-induced immediate or delayed hypoglycemia. Diabetics are advised to engage in a combination of regular aerobic and resistance exercise. Insulin-dependent diabetics should supplement carbohydrate before and after exercise, as well as during exercise for events lasting longer than 1 hour. Adjustment of insulin dosing based on planned exercise intensity is another strategy to prevent hypoglycemia. Insulin-dependent athletes should monitor blood sugar closely before, during, and after exercise. Significant hyperglycemia before exercise should preclude exercise because the stress of exercise can paradoxically exacerbate hyperglycemia and lead to ketoacidosis. Athletes should be aware of hypoglycemia symptoms and have rapidly absorbable glucose available in case of hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Exercise is an important component of diabetes treatment, and most people with diabetes can safely participate in sports at recreational and elite levels with attention to appropriate precautions. PMID:23015921

  17. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),…

  18. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),

  19. Sport Heroes in Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Doris R.

    This paper reports the findings of a study of the role of sports in the lives of U.S. Congressmen and focuses attention on six gifted athletes for whom sports provided preparation for government service. The word "hero" as used in this paper refers to former members of Congress who were admired for their athletic prowess and for their political…

  20. Applying Personal Genetic Data to Injury Risk Assessment in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Goodlin, Gabrielle T.; Roos, Andrew K.; Roos, Thomas R.; Hawkins, Claire; Beache, Sydney; Baur, Stephen; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries. PMID:25919592

  1. A PHASED REHABILITATION PROTOCOL FOR ATHLETES WITH LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    VanGelder, Leonard H.; Vaughn, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Conservative non-surgical management of a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc (HLD) in athletes is a complex task due to the dramatic forces imparted on the spine during sport participation. The demands placed upon the athlete during rehabilitation and return to sport are unique not only from a sport specific perspective, but also regarding return to the sport strength and conditioning programs utilized for sport preparation. Many prescriptions fail to address postural and motor control faults specific to athletic development, which may prevent full return to sport after suffering a HLD or predispose the athlete to future exacerbations of a HLD. Strength exercises involving squatting, deadlifting, and Olympic power lifts are large components of the typical athlete's conditioning program, therefore some progressions are provided to address potential underlying problems in the athlete's technique that may have contributed to their HLD in the first place. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to propose a framework for rehabilitation that is built around the phases of healing of the disc. Phase I: Non-Rotational/Non-Flexion Phase (Acute Inflammatory Phase), Phase II: Counter rotation/Flexion Phase (Repair Phase), Phase III: Rotational Phase/Power development (Remodeling Phase), and Phase IV: Full return to sport. This clinical commentary provides a theoretical basis for these phases based on available literature as well as reviewing many popular current practice trends in the management of an HLD. The authors recognize the limits of any general exercise rehabilitation recommendation with regard to return to sport, as well as any general strength and conditioning program. It is vital that an individual assessment and prescription is made for every athlete which reviews and addresses movement in all planes of motion under all necessary extrinsic and intrinsic demands to that athlete. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175134

  2. Mental Well-Being and Sport-Related Identities in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has linked physical activity and sports participation with improved mental and social well-being, including reduced risk of depression and suicidality. In this study we examined relationships among several dimensions of athletic involvement (team sport participation, individual sport participation, athlete identity, and jock identity), gender, and depression and suicidal behavior in a sample of 791 undergraduate students. Both participation in a team sport and athlete identity were associated with lower depression scores. Athlete identity was also associated with lower odds of a past-year suicide attempt, whereas jock identity was associated with elevated odds of a suicide attempt. The findings are discussed in light of the relationship between mental well-being and a larger constellation of health-risk behaviors linked to a toxic jock identity. PMID:20661467

  3. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the

  4. "Emerging" Sports for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Debra E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association has recently introduced nine new sports to intercollegiate athletics: team handball, archery, badminton, bowling, crew, ice hockey, squash, synchronized swimming, and water polo. The initiative is intended to encourage colleges to create more athletic opportunities for women. It sets scholarship limits

  5. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2008-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:18295084

  6. Spinal injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Boden, Barry P; Jarvis, Christopher G

    2009-02-01

    Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. Approximately 8.7% of all new cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading. Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. PMID:19084763

  7. Perceptions of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Study of NCAA Men's Sport Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among organizational justice components, overall job satisfaction, and organizational commitment within the intercollegiate athletics setting. Perceptions of three organizational justice components (procedural, distributive, and interactional), overall job satisfaction, and

  8. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  9. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  10. Nonlinear Pedagogy: An Effective Approach to Cater for Individual Differences in Learning a Sports Skill

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Komar, John; Tan, Clara Wee Keat; Button, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Learning a sports skill is a complex process in which practitioners are challenged to cater for individual differences. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach for learning a sports skill. Twenty-four 10-year-old females participated in a 4-week intervention involving either a Nonlinear Pedagogy (i.e.,manipulation of task constraints including equipment and rules) or a Linear Pedagogy (i.e., prescriptive, repetitive drills) approach to learn a tennis forehand stroke. Performance accuracy scores, movement criterion scores and kinematic data were measured during pre-intervention, post-intervention and retention tests. While both groups showed improvements in performance accuracy scores over time, the Nonlinear Pedagogy group displayed a greater number of movement clusters at post-test indicating the presence of degeneracy (i.e., many ways to achieve the same outcome). The results suggest that degeneracy is effective for learning a sports skill facilitated by a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach. These findings challenge the common misconception that there must be only one ideal movement solution for a task and thus have implications for coaches and educators when designing instructions for skill acquisition. PMID:25140822

  11. The School Psychologist and Sport: A Natural Interface to Promote Optimal Functioning Between, Student-Athlete, Family and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Marshall L.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a background and logical explanation for school psychologists to feel justified in the pursuit of providing sport psychology services. This perspective is useful for the school psychologist or other school administrative personnel who may question or be questioned about the value or need for the provision of sport psychology

  12. Comparative Study of the Status of Women in Sport and Athletics Across Four Countries: Egypt, Japan, Norway, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Anne

    The purpose of this study was to assemble a profile of the status of women in four countries, including their accomplishments in international sports events. The status of women within a country must be defined and understood before equivalence in sport opportunities for males and females can be comprehended. The first hypothesis was that a lack

  13. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  14. Training practices and overtraining syndrome in Swedish age-group athletes.

    PubMed

    Kenttä, G; Hassmén, P; Raglin, J S

    2001-08-01

    Heavy training in combination with inadequate recovery actions can result in the overtraining/staleness syndrome and burnout. Even young and aspiring elite athletes develop staleness. The aim was therefore to determine the incidence and nature of staleness, and its association with training behavior and psychosocial stressors in young elite athletes. A sample of 272 individuals from 16 sports completed questionnaires on training, staleness, and psychosocial stress and 37% reported being stale at least once. The incidence rate was higher for individual sports (48%) compared with team (30%) and less physically demanding sports (18%). Stale athletes reported greater perceptual changes and negatively elevated mood scores in comparison to healthy athletes. Staleness was distinguished from burnout on the basis of motivational consequences; 41 % of the athletes lost their motivation for training, which in turn indicates a state of burnout. Further, 35 % of the athletes reported low satisfaction with time spent on important relationships, 29% rated the relationship with their coach as ranging from very, very bad to only moderately good. The results indicate that staleness is a widespread problem among young athletes in a variety of sports, and is not solely related to physical training, but also to non-training stressors. PMID:11531041

  15. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team

  16. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  17. Sibling dynamics and sport expertise.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, M J; Farrow, D; MacMahon, C; Baker, J

    2015-10-01

    Family members are known to be highly influential in the development of sport expertise. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on parents, with less known about sibling influences on expertise. This investigation explored associations between sport expertise, sibling characteristics, and sibling participation in sport and physical activity. Athletes representing three skill levels provided details of sibling characteristics and participation in sport and physical activity via the Developmental History of Athletes Questionnaire. Elite athletes were more likely to be later-born children, while pre-elite and non-elite athletes were more likely to be first-born. Compared with siblings of non-elite athletes, siblings of elite athletes were more likely to have participated in regular physical activity and were more likely to have participated in sport at the pre-elite and elite levels. These results suggest siblings may play a key role in sport expertise development. PMID:25640295

  18. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 genotyping in Japanese athletes and evaluation of the current sports drug testing for detecting testosterone misuse.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Ueda, Toshihiko; Nishitani, Yasunori; Kano, Hiroko; Ikekita, Ayako; Kageyama, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    Ethnicity has been found to influence urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratios among athletes. Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is the most active enzyme in testosterone glucuronidation. UGT2B17 polymorphism analysis is rarely performed in Japanese athletes, and the influence of testosterone administration on steroid profiles and carbon isotope ratios, according to gene polymorphisms, in Asians remains unknown. The prevalence of UGT2B17 genotypes and urinary androgenic steroid profiles, classified according to UGT2B17 genotypes, was investigated in Japanese athletes (255 male and 256 female). Testosterone enanthate (100 mg) was administered intramuscularly to Japanese female volunteers (del/del: n = 6, del/ins: n = 3, ins/ins: n = 1). The distribution rates of the UGT2B17 del/del genotype in Japanese male and female athletes were 74.5% and 60.2%, respectively. The ins/ins genotype was detected in only three male (1.2%) and seven female (2.7%) athletes. The prevalence of the UGT2B17 deletion genotype was extremely high in Japanese athletes. The T/E ratio in the del/del group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. After testosterone was administered to female volunteers, the T/E ratios for the del/del individuals failed to reach the positivity criterion of 4. By contrast, in all of the del/del subjects, the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis successfully fulfilled the positivity criterion. The overall result has demonstrated the limited effectiveness of population-based T/E ratios in screening tests for testosterone use. Subject-based steroid profiling with UGT2B17 genotyping will be an effective strategy for detecting testosterone misuse. PMID:22887913

  19. Health and sports law collide: do professional athletes have an unfettered choice to accept risk of harm?

    PubMed

    Berger, Ken J

    2011-03-01

    Is there a positive duty at law to prevent an athlete with a serious medical disability from performance, despite the player accepting the risk? Is high risk of serious injury or death in the athletic context equivalent to euthanasia? Euthanized death is a predictable consequence of deliberate action. Accepting high risk in the athletic context is distinguishable. Athletes are often more likely able to make voluntary decisions without the burdens of incurable pain and clouding medications. Should policy reasons, nonetheless, preclude athletes from accepting high or uncertain risks of serious injury or death? What standard of medical certainty or legal certainty is appropriate regarding the "right to risk"? The higher the risk of serious injury or death and the less the medical uncertainty the more tort law might trump contract principles. In contrast, medically certain outcomes are easier to knowingly and voluntarily assume by way of contract. Waivers are contracts and present a conflict between a person's rights to have freedom to contract and negligence. Contracts shift the risk. An athlete can be disqualified to avoid a significant risk of injury that cannot be eliminated through reasonable medical accommodations. The problem is that physicians tend to be conservative and without any input from informed athletes, many otherwise disabled players would be refused participation, albeit with a high risk. If an athlete is able to seek medical treatment that reduces the risk and does so, an athlete's will to return should not be ignored. The team must substantiate the restriction by justifying a relatively certain and substantial risk. An athlete may agree to accept high risk of serious injury or death through a contractual waiver to insulate others from liability in negligence. Independent legal advice and advice from medical experts ensure that such waivers are legally enforceable. As medical law has broad application, dealing with improving the rights, rules and policies of health care as it relates to the use of advanced medical technologies in potentially vulnerable persons and consequently the right to accept risk, is as important both evaluative and meritorious exercise for all health and legal systems throughout the world. PMID:21528794

  20. Achieving optimum sports performance during Ramadan: some practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Chalabi, Hakim; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Muslim athletes should fast from sunrise to sunset each day throughout the 30 days of Ramadan. Most athletes will continue to train throughout Ramadan, and they may also be required to compete at this time, but they will also engage in the religious, cultural, and social activities that Ramadan represents. The available evidence indicates that high-level athletes can maintain performance during Ramadan if physical training, food and fluid intake, and sleep are appropriate and well controlled. Individualized monitoring of athletes may help to prevent fatigue and overtraining and to reduce the risk of consequent illness and injury. The timing and intensity of training may require adjustment to optimize the training response, and training close to or after sunset may have advantages, but this will vary between individual and team sports and between environments that are predominantly Muslim and those that are predominantly non-Muslim. Training late in the day allows nutrition interventions after training to promote adaptations to the training stimulus, to promote recovery, and might help to reduce muscle damage. Sleep deficits have a number of adverse effects on well-being and performance, and athletes should ensure adequate sleep throughout Ramadan. In non-Muslim majority environments, especially in team sports, coaches and athletes should be sensitive to the needs of their team-mates who may be fasting. Event organizers should take account of the needs of Muslim athletes when scheduling the dates and timings of sports competitions. PMID:22769241

  1. ?-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Phillip M

    2014-06-01

    ?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

  2. Coaches' Perceptions of Team Cohesion in Paralympic Sports.

    PubMed

    Falco, William R; Bloom, Gordon A; Loughead, Todd M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches' perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches' perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented. PMID:26113550

  3. Finances and College Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…

  4. Finances and College Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division

  5. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,

  6. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  7. Issues in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Beim, G; Stone, D A

    1995-07-01

    Effective treatment of the female athlete begins with an understanding of the anatomic and physiologic differences between males and females and the epidemiology of injury patterns in athletic women. However, the female athlete has a variety of special concerns that the sports medicine physician should be familiar with. PMID:7609959

  8. Take Athletics Out of College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehling, Barbara S.

    1981-01-01

    Problems of collegiate athletics are identified: failure to prepare athletes for employment, underfinancing of women's sports, and inadequate athletic recreation for many students. A monitoring system on recruiting, financial aid, academic eligibility is suggested along with institutional cooperation to reduce the competitive pressure. (Author/MLW)

  9. Loyalty: Why Is It so Problematic in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2012-01-01

    What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a…

  10. Keep It Simple. Teaching Tips for Special Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Judith E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Physical educators can help Special Olympics athletes learn cross-lateral delivery techniques for bowling or throwing softballs by color coding the throwing arm and opposing foot. The article explains color coding, presenting teaching tips for both sports. A series of workshops on modifying exercise principles for individuals with physical…

  11. Loyalty: Why Is It so Problematic in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2012-01-01

    What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a

  12. Boosting in Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury: A Critical Review of Physiology and Testing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Gee, Cameron M; West, Christopher R; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-08-01

    Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience autonomic dysfunction, which can have major implications on heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, and consequently athletic performance. Athletic performance may be improved by the induction of autonomic dysreflexia ('boosting'), a dangerous and sometimes life-threatening condition. Here, we review the autonomic response to exercise in individuals with SCI and the current testing methods for boosting, and examine the potential for autonomic testing to be used in the classification of SCI athletes. Given the difficulties associated with researching the effects of boosting, only three studies have compared the physiological performance of elite athletes in the boosted and unboosted state. These studies found athletes had an improved performance of ~7 to 10% in the boosted state. Blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption, and circulating catecholamines were also higher in the boosted state. Although 27.1% of athletes believe that boosting was common in their sport, no athlete has ever tested positive for boosting at an event sanctioned by the International Paralympic Committee. Athletes with SCI competing in sports that have a high cardiovascular demand/aerobic component may experience the greatest benefit of boosting. Boosting improves athletic performance even at blood pressure levels well below the current threshold for disqualification set by the International Paralympic Committee, a level at which individuals with SCI are putting their health and lives at serious risk. PMID:26009300

  13. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ? .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ? .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ? .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than GEN, particularly in emotional functioning. These findings further support the notion that ATH constitutes a unique population that requires its own set of normative values for self-reported, patient-rated outcome instruments. PMID:23672388

  14. First ray disorders in athletes.

    PubMed

    Nihal, Aneel; Trepman, Elly; Nag, David

    2009-09-01

    Athletes who participate in contact sports (American football, soccer, rugby) or who are involved in high-impact sports (dancing, running, gymnastics) are susceptible to first ray forefoot injuries. Common first ray disorders in athletes include hallux rigidus, turf toe, sand toe, sesamoid disorders, and fractures. First ray disorders in athletes frequently are treated by nonoperative methods including relative rest, ice, elevation, activity modification, shoe modification, and insoles. PMID:19680112

  15. Gender verification in sports by PCR amplification of SRY and DYZ1 Y chromosome specific sequences: presence of DYZ1 repeat in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, A; Garca de Herreros, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform genetic sex typing during the Barcelona Olympic Games using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Y chromosome specific sequences. METHODS: The assay consisted of the amplification of a specific sequence corresponding to the repeat DYZ1 element from buccal smears samples of 2406 female competitors. Positive samples were reanalysed for the presence of another Y chromosome specific gene, SRY. RESULTS: The expression of these two elements did not always correlate; six samples were found where the presence of DYZ1 but not SRY was detected. This presence of DYZ1 sequence in female athletes is higher than in unselected females, where no DYZ1 amplification was observed in any of the 1629 samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Amplification of DYZ1 repeat should not be used as the only index for determining genetic sex, at least in sporting events. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9015592

  16. The effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer training program on anthropometry, physical fitness and skilled performance in Special Olympics soccer athletes and non-disabled partners.

    PubMed

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; zer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; A?lam??, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were randomly selected out of all the students between the ages 12 and 15, with a diagnosis of educable mental retardation and no secondary disabilities, who were attending a special education school. Participants without ID (WoID) were randomly selected from a regular secondary school out of the same age groups of male students. All participants were given permission by their parents or guardians to participate in the study. Participants in the TRG included 23 youth WID and 23 youth WoID. Mean ages were = 14.1 (SD = 1.1) and 13.2 (SD = 0.79) respectively. Fifteen WID, and 15 WoID comprised the CG. Mean ages were 14.51 (SD = 0.81) and 13.78 (SD = 0.49) respectively. Prior to and following the program measurements were conducted, and data were collected on students' anthropometric and fitness components of the Brockport physical fitness test as well as a soccer skill performance based on the SO soccer skill test. Participants in the TRG trained 8 weeks, 1.5h per session, three times per week, in an after-school soccer program. CG did not participate in any sports program outside of the school physical education class. Dependent t tests and effect size calculations revealed that SO athletes and non-disabled partners scored significantly higher with regard to physical fitness and football skills in most variables compared with their CG. This Unified Program was successful in increasing fitness and soccer skill performance of youth WID as well as of those WoID. PMID:23134807

  17. The Prevalence of Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescent Student Athletes From the State of Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry; Replogle, William; McIntyre, Louis; Igboechi, Oduche; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and hypertension in the United States. The prevalence of these diagnoses among individuals participating in school-sanctioned sports has not been clearly defined. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among student athletes and investigate associations between race, sex, type and number of sports played, and the prevalence of these diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Pre–sports participation medical examinations (N = 7705) performed between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed to identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated BP and examine relationships between the type of sports played, participation in multiple sports versus a single sport, and the athlete’s body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and BMI. The risk of obesity among single-sport athletes was more than 2-fold the risk (relative risk [RR], 2.13) compared with ≥3-sport athletes and 1.42 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.42). The prevalence of elevated BP was 21.2%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and elevated BP. The risk of elevated BP among single-sport athletes was 1.59 times greater (RR, 1.59) than ≥3-sport athletes and 1.30 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.30). Finally, obese students were 2.40 times more likely to have elevated BP compared with nonobese students (P < .001). Conclusion: The result of this study confirms the progressive nature of the obesity epidemic and identifies the contribution of obesity to the worsening cardiometabolic profiles in student athletes. The study also identifies that participation in multiple sports and running sports decreases the individual’s risk for obesity and hypertension. Clinical Relevance: The present study emphasizes the importance of screening for obesity and elevated blood pressure during the athlete’s preparticipation physical examination. PMID:26962540

  18. High School Athletes Perceptions of Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Theresa L.; Diakogeorgiou, Eleni; Hellstrom, Brian; Kuchwara, Nick; Tafoya, Erica; Young, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background: The perception high school athletes have regarding concussions may influence their injury-reporting behavior, and if their perceptions are based on incorrect or incomplete information, they may be at risk for subsequent head injuries. Purpose: To determine whether the recent influx of concussion information has had a positive impact on high school athletes knowledge of concussions, to determine their perceptions regarding the severity of a concussion injury, and to determine whether receiving correct information will potentially alter their future reporting behavior. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 454 high school athletes (212 females, 242 males; mean age, 15.7 1.15 years) from 6 different schools participated in an anonymous survey. The researchers met with teams individually at their high schools to collect data and provide an educational intervention regarding sports-related concussions. The survey questions assessed the athletes personal injury histories and perceptions and knowledge of the severity of concussion injuries. Results: There was a difference in the number of athletes who reported having their bell rung (n = 297) versus the number of athletes reporting at least 1 concussion (n = 172) (t (453) = ?11.60, P = .000, d = ?0.54). There was also a difference in the number of athletes who reported a history of at least 1 concussion at the beginning of the study session (n = 172) versus the number of athletes who reported at least 1 concussion at the end of the session (n = 292) (t (453) = ?12.018, P = .000, d = 0.732). Fifty percent of athletes also stated that the importance of a game/event should dictate when they return to play. Conclusion: High school athletes continue to fail to realize when they have sustained a concussion. Additionally, athletes lack understanding regarding the severity and seriousness of a concussion. A better effort at formalized education must be made if the culture of sports is to change. Clinical Relevance: Allied health care professionals need to continue to put forth a great effort in educating all student athletes on what a concussion is and the dangers of a concussion injury. Preseason meetings should be used as an opportunity to provide formalized education to all student athletes. PMID:26535279

  19. The moral worth of sport reconsidered: contributions of recreational sport and competitive sport to life aspirations and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-07-01

    Based on self-determination theory, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that importance ratings of life aspirations would mediate the effects of participation in recreational and competitive sport on psychological well-being. In addition, the effects of sport participation on psychological well-being were hypothesized to indicate that, compared with competitive athletes, recreational athletes would report higher psychological well-being. The participants were 118 university students (83 males, 35 females) with a mean age of 20.8 years (s = 7.6). In accordance with the initial hypotheses, a path analysis supported the mediating effect of importance ratings of life aspirations, but not of attainment ratings of life aspirations, on the relationship between participation in recreational and competitive sport and psychological well-being. The indirect effects observed for importance ratings supported the conclusion that recreational athletes showed a preference for intrinsic life aspirations compared with competitive athletes and reported higher psychological well-being. Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that the moral worth of sport does not reside so much in the frequency with which individuals engage in sport but in the goals and values people express through sport participation. PMID:17497406

  20. Sports Facility Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

    The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…