Sample records for individual sport athletes

  1. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    PubMed

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  2. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy, L; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The current web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N=1, 275) transitioning to college. Peak Blood Alcohol Concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in individual sports compared to other groups. Athletes competing in both team and individual sports reported greater lifetime tobacco use and combined alcohol/tobacco use compared to individual or team sports alone. Preventive strategies targeting HS athletes in general and those participating in team sports in particular may be useful in minimizing future alcohol use and related problems. PMID:25400492

  3. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that occurs ... direction or intense twisting movements. Although a sports hernia may lead to a traditional, abdominal hernia, it ...

  4. Individual Self-Determination and Relationship Satisfaction of Athletes in Dyadic Sports: Examining the Moderating Role of Dyadic Self-Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Gaudreau; Marie-Claude Fecteau; Stéphane Perreault

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore a multilayered hierarchical model of motivation in which the role of self-determination at the dyadic level is expected to moderate the relationship between individual self-determination and both cohesion and relationship quality of athletes in dyadic sports. The sample consisted of 66 athletes from 3 different sports: badminton, figure skating, and synchronized

  5. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  6. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  7. Sport nutrition for young athletes

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Laura K

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is an important part of sport performance for young athletes, in addition to allowing for optimal growth and development. Macronutrients, micronutrients and fluids in the proper amounts are essential to provide energy for growth and activity. To optimize performance, young athletes need to learn what, when and how to eat and drink before, during and after activity. PMID:24421690

  8. Differences in Television Sports Reporting of Men's and Women's Athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuggle, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. Results indicated: both programs devoted only about 5% of their air time to women's sports; story placement and on-camera comments indicated an emphasis on men's athletics; and stories about women involved individual competition, with almost no…

  9. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated. The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues. The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully. Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours. When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

  10. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  11. An Analysis of Individual Stretching Programs of Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate individual stretching programs of intercollegiate athletes, 238 athletes (164 male, 74 female) in ten sports were surveyed about their stretching practices. Almost all of the athletes stretched, but to varying degrees. Muscle groups stretched by the fewest athletes were the adductors, plantar flexors, hips, and neck. (Author/MT)

  12. Appendix 9-P Department of Intercollegiate Athletics and Department of Recreational Sports

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    Appendix 9-P Department of Intercollegiate Athletics and Department of Recreational Sports to meet a sport obligation. 2. Generally, any requests from an individual in a sport which practices the Athletic Department or Recreational Sport program does not assure approval of a request. The Parking

  13. Intercollegiate Athletics: Big Business or Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odenkirk, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Two major factors plaguing the sanity of collegiate athletic programs are identified as (1) the excessive economic needs of the athletic programs and (2) the gross abuses associated with recruitment of athletes. There is general agreement that abuses will not be stemmed until university presidents take more responsibility for college sports. (MLW)

  14. Why Young Athletes Sign Up for Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zach; Strasser, Joe; McKenzie, Isaac; Stoll, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students participate in sports because of several reasons. A coach may effectively guide his team if he knows what motivates each player. In this article, the authors investigate the reasons why athletes sign up for sports. They designed a questionnaire with open-ended and close-ended questions which focuses on how students perceived sports, why…

  15. Special-Admissions by Sport FOR FIRST-YEAR STUDENT-ATHLETES ON ATHLETICS AID BY SPORTS GROUP*

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    in a group is two or less. 2.1 Academic Standards Item 6. Special Admissions by Sports Group Year All FirstSpecial-Admissions by Sport FOR FIRST-YEAR STUDENT-ATHLETES ON ATHLETICS AID BY SPORTS GROUP-athletes receiving athletics aid* by sport group who were admitted through special exception provisions during

  16. Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer P. Agans; G. John Geldhof

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation, joining sports, constant participation, changing participation, dropping out, and inconsistent participation), using data from

  17. Parental Behaviors in Team Sports: How do Female Athletes Want Parents to Behave?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla J. Knight; Kacey C. Neely; Nicholas L. Holt

    2011-01-01

    Parents display various positive and negative behaviors at youth sport competitions. This study examined early adolescent female athletes’ preferred parental behaviors at team sport competitions. Individual interviews were conducted with 36 female athletes (M age = 13.5 years) who frequently competed in team sports. Data analysis led to the identification of three categories of parental behavior across different phases of

  18. Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Austin Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…

  19. Athletes' Hours Renew Debate over College Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past year, members of Congress have poked around the well-fed belly of intercollegiate athletics, questioning whether college sports deserves its tax-exempt status. Myles Brand, the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has led the countercharge against the government, repeatedly defending the educational value…

  20. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes. PMID:24665795

  1. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  2. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brook Carlsen

    2010-12-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a pa

  3. Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate symptoms and neurocognitive recovery patterns after sports-related concussion in high school and college athletes. Study design College athletes (n = 371) and high school athletes (n = 183) underwent baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals who received a concussion during athletic competition (n = 54) underwent serial neuropsychologic evaluation after injury and were compared with

  4. Double play : athletes' use of sport video games to enhance athletic performance

    E-print Network

    Silberman, Lauren (Lauren Beth)

    2010-01-01

    A design feature of contemporary sport video games allows elite athletes to play as themselves in life-like representations of actual sporting events. The relation between playing sport video games and actual physical ...

  5. ATHLETICS AND RECREATION Varsity and High Performance Sport

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    athletes are supported in their academic and physical endeavours Better integrate sporting scheduling that affect their ability to meet requirements (academic and athletic). Tutors ­ currently Thunderbird studyATHLETICS AND RECREATION Varsity and High Performance Sport 5 July 9.00am ­ 12.00pm Attendees

  6. Supporting the paralympic athlete: focus on wheeled sports.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of wheelchair sports provides the scientist with a unique challenge. There are two major components that contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance: the athlete and the chair. It is the interaction of these two components that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. This article will describe three discrete case studies on how sport scientists have worked with Great Britain coaches and practitioners to help optimise training leading to a major competition through evidence base practise. A fourth area will describe on-going work designed to address the optimisation of wheelchair configurations for wheelchair court sports. It will focus on four sports: wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. The first topic will discuss the concept of pushing economy and mechanical efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The second topic will show how technology assists the coaching process. The third topic will illustrate the concept of sports classification, and show how training volume 'in terms of basketball shooting' may need to be individually assigned and finally future research within wheelchair team sports and chair configurations will be examined. PMID:20528446

  7. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science\\/sports medicine staff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K E Fallon; D F Gerrard

    2007-01-01

    Background: The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient’s satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and,

  8. TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS 2011-2012 We may call it a sports option, but it't impact just a few of our sports. The 12th Man is feared at all our venues. From Tennis to Volleyball 778412800 9798452311 or 88899AGGIE (9924443) tickets.12manfoundation.com mysportspass.tamu.edu Sports

  9. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge over their opponents. PMID:23672331

  10. High School and College Athletes' Attitudes Toward Sport Psychology Consulting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott B. Martin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore attitudes about sport psychology consulting of high school and college athletes living in the United States. The Sport Psychology Attitudes–Revised form (SPA-R; Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, & Page, 2002) was administered to 362 high school and 431 college athletes. A 2 (Gender) × 2 (Age Group: High School and College) × 2

  11. Sport As Life Content of Successful Finnish Amateur Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauli Vuolle

    1978-01-01

    The report presents research findings on Finnish male top athletes' education, occupation and family life in the span of life, time expenditure during active sport career, and their relations with sport career. The frame of reference is Festinger's theory of dissonance. The population was the most successful athletes in the Olym pic years from 1956 to 1972. The results are

  12. Transition into College Sports: The Freshman Student-Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Dean; And Others

    Changes in attitude, motivation, and values take place in the academic, athletic, and social areas of student-athletes' lives during their freshman year of college. Twenty incoming college freshman athletes involved in "revenue" sports (football, basketball, and ice hockey) participated in this study and were interviewed in the fall and again in…

  13. Athletic identity and its relationship to sport participation levels.

    PubMed

    Lamont-Mills, Andrea; Christensen, Steven A

    2006-12-01

    This study looked at the relationship between athletic identity and three levels of sport participation (elite, recreational, non-participation). Athletic identity was measured using the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) with participants being compared on the total AIMS score and scores on its three factors (social identity, exclusivity, negative affectivity). Results indicated that the male non-participation group scored lower on all three factors and the total AIMS when compared to the two athlete groups. The male elite and recreational groups did not differ on exclusivity and negative affectivity but did differ on the total AIMS and social identity, with elite scoring higher than recreational. For female participants, the non-participation group again scored lower on all three factors and the total AIMS when compared to the two athlete groups. The female elite and recreational groups did not differ on negative affectivity but did differ on the total AIMS, social identity, and exclusivity, with elite scoring higher than recreational. Findings suggest that to assume sport is only important to elite athletes ignores the role that sport may play for less talented sport participants. Whilst not seeing themselves as athletes per se, it is suggested that participation in sport may still impact upon the self-perceptions of recreational sport participants. Therefore, threats to participation may result in similar negative consequences for both elite athletes and recreational sport participants. PMID:16765643

  14. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?

    PubMed

    Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

    2013-07-01

    Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond requirements during long events. Across the sparse literature on competition hydration practices in other sports, there are examples of planned and/or ad hoc opportunities to consume fluid, where enhanced access to drinks may allow situations at least close to ad libitum drinking. However, this situation is not universal and, again, the complex array of factors that influence the opportunity to drink during an event is also often beyond the athletes' control. Additionally, some competition formats result in athletes commencing the event with a body fluid deficit because of their failure to rehydrate from a previous bout of training/competition or weight-making strategies. Finally, since fluids consumed during exercise may also be a source of other ingredients (e.g., carbohydrate, electrolytes, or caffeine) or characteristics (e.g., temperature) that can increase palatability or performance, there may be both desirable volumes and patterns of intake that are independent of hydration concerns or thirst, as well as benefits from undertaking a "paced" fluid plan. Further studies of real-life hydration practices in sports including information on motives for drinking or not, along with intervention studies that simulate the actual nature of real-life sport, are needed before conclusions can be made about ideal drinking strategies for sports. Different interpretations may be needed for elite competitors and recreational participants. PMID:23529286

  15. Epidemiology of Concussions Among United States High School Athletes in 20 Sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mallika Marar; Natalie M. McIlvain; Sarah K. Fields; R. Dawn Comstock

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions.Purpose: To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.Methods: Using

  16. Sport injuries as the main cause of sport career termination among Finnish top-level athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leena Ristolainen; Jyrki A. Kettunen; Urho M. Kujala; Ari Heinonen

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are common among athletes, and are sometimes so severe that they affect an athlete's career in sport. As studies on sport career termination are few, we conducted a study to investigate the role of injuries as a reason for ending a sport career. The study group consisted of 574 male and female top-level cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and

  17. Sport injuries as the main cause of sport career termination among Finnish top-level athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leena Ristolainen; Jyrki A. Kettunen; Urho M. Kujala; Ari Heinonen

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are common among athletes, and are sometimes so severe that they affect an athlete's career in sport. As studies on sport career termination are few, we conducted a study to investigate the role of injuries as a reason for ending a sport career. The study group consisted of 574 male and female top-level cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and

  18. Athletic Identity and Well-Being among Young Talented Athletes who Live at a Dutch Elite Sport Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten T. Verkooijen; Pepijn van Hove; Giel Dik

    2012-01-01

    Differences in athletic identity and well-being were examined between athletes living in a Dutch elite sport center (CTO) and athletes not living in such a center (age range: 16–30). Measures included the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer & Cornelius, 2001), the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001).

  19. Sports psychology’ a crucial ingredient for athletes success: conceptual view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parsanjeet Kumar; Awadhesh Kr Shirotriya

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally sports people have dedicated an enormous amount of preparation to their physical conditioning and technical skills. The importance and attention to psychological preparation can often be over looked. The diversity, unpredictability and intensity of sport places challenges to the athlete both on a physically and psychologically level. The human mind is complex with people learning and developing at different

  20. Athletic injuries: Comparison by age, sport, and gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. DeHaven; David M. Lintner

    1986-01-01

    Injuries treated at the University of Rochester Section of Sports Medicine over a 7 year period were surveyed. Patients were drawn from professional, intercollegiate (Division 111), high school, intramural, and unorganized athletics at the University and the surrounding com munity. Data on injury diagnosis was available for 4,551 cases, with data on age, gender, and sport of injury available for

  1. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. PMID:20601743

  2. The Athlete's Perception of Coaches' Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level.

    PubMed

    Siekanska, Ma?gorzata; Blecharz, Jan; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka

    2013-12-18

    The study was designed to examine how active and former athletes across a different sports level perceived coaching behavior. Eighty competitive athletes (44 males and 36 females; 21.89 ± 1.48 years of age; 8.35 ± 3.65 years of competitive experience) from the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland, participated in the study. They represented both individual (n = 50) and team sports (n = 30). Seventeen participants were internationally renowned and 63 were recognized for competitive excellence at a national level. The participants responded to a demographic survey and the Coaches' Behaviors Survey. The qualitative analysis procedures were employed to extract themes from open-ended questions. It was confirmed that coaches who perceived their athletes as more skilled, also treated them differently. Female athletes as compared with male athletes, more frequently pointed at the leniency in coach's behavior towards highly skilled athletes, and perceived it as a factor inhibiting athletic development. Additionally, women often found individualization of the training process as a behavior reinforcing development. Less accomplished athletes more often pointed out to "a post-training session interest in the athlete" as directed only towards more accomplished counterparts; however, they indicated "leniency and favoring" less often than the athletes with international achievements. They also listed "excessive criticism" as a type of behavior hindering development, but they indicated coaches' "authoritarianism and distance" less frequently than the more accomplished counterparts. The study added data to the discussion of the Pygmalion effect and the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy both in general (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968; Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Jussim, 1989) and sport psychology (Harris and Rosenthal, 1985; Horn et al., 1998; Solomon and Kosmitzki, 1996; Solomon et al., 1998; Solomon, 2001). PMID:24511359

  3. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes’ and Coaches’ Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Gee

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a competitive contest. Nevertheless, recent research

  4. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

  5. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  6. Gender Differences in the Sport Socialization Process of High School Varsity Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.

    This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was…

  7. Medical sports injuries in the youth athlete: emergency management.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Donna L; Molony, Joseph T

    2012-04-01

    As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi-factorial process encompassing pre-participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions. PMID:22530197

  8. Pre-Participation and Follow-Up Screening of Athletes for Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman; Littwitz, Henning; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity increases life expectancy and sport is a priori not harmful. Exhausted sporting activity (e.g. endurance running, triathlon, cycling or competitive sport) can lead under individual conditions to negative cardiac remodelling (pathological enlargement/function of cardiac cavities/structures) or in worst case to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). This individually disposition can be genetically determined or behaviourally/environmentally acquired. Overall competitive young male athletes suffer five-fold higher than non-competitive athletes from sudden death and athletes aged over 30 bear a potential for arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation or a 20-fold higher possibility for SCD as female athletes. Patients with diabetes, coronary disease, obesity or hypertension require different special managements. Screening of cardiorespiratory health for sport activities has a lot of faces. Basically there is a need for indicated examinations or possible preventive measures inside or outside of pre-competition screening. The costs of screening compared to expenditure of whole effort for sporting activities are acceptable or even negligible, but of course dependent on national/regional settings. The various causes and possibilities of screening will be discussed in this article as basic suggestion for an open discussion beyond national borders and settings. PMID:25883700

  9. Racial identity and sport: The case of a bi-racial athlete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T. Stanley; Jamie E. Robbins

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to examine racial identity development in a bi-racial athlete. The variant approach of identity development suggests that individuals of more than one racial background are confronted with a unique set of developmental tasks in order to achieve racial identity. The sport environment may offer a unique context through which racial identity may

  10. Sports Nutrition Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Pritchett, Kelly L.; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M.; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. Objective: To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. Patients and Other Participants: The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Results: Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program should be integrated for ATs and SCSs. This integrative approach is beneficial for the continuity of care, as both categories of professionals might be developing and integrating preventive or rehabilitative programs for athletes. PMID:22488287

  11. Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin Field; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Joseph Maroon

    Abstract Objectives- Sports related concussion is common in children and adults. However,age-related differences have never been studied. In this study we evaluate post-concussion recovery patterns between high school and college athletes. Study Design-371 college and 183 high school athletes underwent,baseline neuropsychological evaluation between 1997 and 2000. Individuals sustaining a concussion during athletic competition,underwent,serial neuropsychological evaluation following injury. Main outcome measures

  12. Attitudes toward sport psychology consulting of adult athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott B. Martin; David Lavallee; Michael Kellmann; Stephen J. Page

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes about sport psychology consulting of athletes living in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany. The Sport Psychology Attitudes ? Revised form (SPA?R; Martin, Kellmann, Lavallee, & Page, 2002) was administered to 404 athletes from the United States, 147 athletes from the United Kingdom, and 260 athletes from Germany. A 2

  13. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = ?0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [?0.77, ?0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = ?0.33, 95% CI [?0.59, ?0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  14. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period. PMID:24748461

  15. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes. PMID:22845561

  16. Osteoarthritis in Young, Active, and Athletic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825

  17. Current limitations of the Athlete's Biological Passport use in sports.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2011-09-01

    The Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) has received both criticisms and support during this year. In a recent issue of The Lancet, Michael Wozny considered that the use of the ABP makes it more difficult to take banned substances and that it was successfully used against the Italian elite cyclist Franco Pellizotti. After that, Italy's anti-doping tribunal considered that there was not enough evidence to prove manipulation of his own blood profile in Pellizotti's case. However, the UCI appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) that sanctioned Pellizotti with a suspension of 2 years. Since its implementation, some problems have emerged. From 2010 to date, a large number of reports regarding the stability of the blood variables used to determine the ABP have been published, showing mixed results. This study considers that there is a risk of misinterpreting the physiological variations of the hematological parameters determined by the anti-doping authorities in the ABP. The analytical variability due to exercise training and competitions and/or to different metabolic energy demands, hypoxia treatments, etc. could lead to an increase in false-positives when using the ABP with the dramatic consequences that they might cause in major sports events like the forthcoming London Olympic Games. Moreover, the ABP characteristics, procedures, thresholds, or individual determination of reference ranges, abnormal out-comes, strikes, "how the profile differs from what is expected in clean athletes" should be clearly stated and explained in a new public technical document to avoid misunderstandings and to promote transparency. PMID:21619474

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Collegiate Female Athletes: Comparisons Among Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. Objective: To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: University health care system. Patients or Other Participants: All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Results: Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 ± 0.055 g·cm ?2) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 ± 0.086 g·cm ?2) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Conclusions: Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and sport type with regard to her bone health. PMID:18059997

  19. Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other…

  20. SFU REC SPORTS rec.sfu.ca athletics.sfu.ca

    E-print Network

    representative for students, staff, and visitors to the Recreation and Athletics facilities at the Rec SportsSFU REC SPORTS rec.sfu.ca · athletics.sfu.ca POSITION TITLE: Rec Sports Assistant (Student Volunteer) POSITION SUMMARY: Recreation Sports Assistants work within a team of SFU students to manage

  1. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

  2. Collaborative Multi-Camera Tracking of Athletes in Team Sports

    E-print Network

    Piater, Justus H.

    Collaborative Multi-Camera Tracking of Athletes in Team Sports Wei Du, Jean-Bernard Hayet, Justus@montefiore.ulg.ac.be, {jean-bernard.hayet, justus.piater, jacques.verly}@ulg.ac.be Abstract. A novel approach to tracking

  3. Collaborative Multi-Camera Tracking of Athletes in Team Sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Du; Jean-Bernard Hayet; Justus Piater; Jacques Verly

    A novel approach to tracking athletes in team sports us- ing multiple cameras is proposed that addresses several issues including occlusions and propagation of wrong information. The strength of this approach lies in the use of belief propagation which enables good ob- servations in some views to compensate for poor observations in other views due e.g. to occlusions. Each target

  4. Effect of different sports on body cell mass in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, A; Melchiorri, G; Brozzi, M; Di Marco, A; Volpe, S L; Garofano, P; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the impact of various sports on body cell mass (BCM). Ninety-eight male subjects, 17-33 years of age, participated in the study. The sample included athletes from three professional Italian football (soccer) teams, representing three different divisions (A, n=16; B, n=14; and C, n=18), judo athletes (J, n=10), and water polo athletes (W, n=14) who all competed at the national level. Twenty-six age-matched individuals served as the control group (CG). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), and BCM were assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). There were no significant differences in body weight and FFM among the groups. A and B were significantly taller than J and CG. B had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) than CG, while C had a significantly lower BMI than J and CG. CG had a significantly greater FM and %BF than A, B, and C. C had a significantly lower BCM than Aand B. CG had a significantly lower BCM than A, B, J, and W. In conclusion, differences in BCM exist among athletes of different sports, and among athletes within the same sport who compete at different levels. PMID:14618450

  5. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595

  6. Beliefs about the causes of success in sports and susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individual sports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use. PMID:24016156

  7. Women Athletes' Personal Responses to Sexual Harassment in Sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Fasting; Celia Brackenridge; Kristin Walseth

    2007-01-01

    The examination of sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past two decades. It is especially important for sport psychology consultants to understand this issue because they have professional opportunities to influence both individual and organizational responses to it. This article uses interview data from an investigation of sexual harassment in sport to examine the

  8. A personal development model of sport psychology for athletes with disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Martin

    1999-01-01

    Achieving superior sport performance is often the result of well developed psychological skills (Morris & Thomas, 1995). However, little is known about psychological skill development in athletes with disabilities (Hanrahan, 1998). The purpose of the present paper is to help sport psychologists in their work with athletes with physical disabilities. Although there are many similarities among athletes with and without

  9. Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malinauskas BM; Overton RF; Carraway VG; Cash BC

    Purpose: This study examined incidence of sport-related injury, interest in supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among 145 college athletes (89 males, 56 females). Materials and methods: A survey was used to assess sport- related injuries, interest in three categories of supplements to treat injury, and sources of supplement information among college athletes who used athletic training

  10. Study on the Trait Sport-confidence of the collegiate basketball athletes and its influence factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Tianfeng; Wang Enfeng

    2011-01-01

    As an important component of the athletes' comprehensive abilities; sport-confidence impacts on the athletic performance whether before or during the event. By means of documental data method, survey method, psychological measurement, and statistical method, the research had directed on the trait sport-confidence (SC- Trait) of collegiate basketball athletes who had participated in college basketball matches of shanghai, china and its

  11. Sport concussion assessment tool: baseline values for varsity collision sport athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Shehata; J P Wiley; S Richea; B W Benson; L Duits; W H Meeuwisse

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To determine baseline symptom and neurocognitive norms for non-concussed and previously concussed varsity athletes using the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT).Study Design:Descriptive cohort study.Setting:University of Calgary.Subjects:260 male and female university football, ice hockey and wrestling athletes over three seasons (2005–7).Methods:A baseline SCAT was completed during preseason medical evaluation. Subjects were grouped as follows: all participants, men, women, never concussed (NC)

  12. Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Gain Sports Marketing Experience! McGill Athletics & Recreation is looking for outgoing sports-enthusiasts interested in gaining real sports marketing and communications experience. A marketing or business background and weekends (Schedule will vary, approx 3-10 hours per week) Passion for sports Cheerful, outgoing

  13. Differences between male and female college lean sport athletes, nonlean sport athletes, and nonathletes on behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trent A. Petrie

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the relative frequency of behavioral and psychological indices of eating disorders in collegiate athletes and nonathletes. Participants were 230 male and 250 female nonathletes. and 187 male and 113 female varsity athletes. The male and female athletes were classified separately as either in a lean sport (i.e., where weight or appearance was central to success) or a

  14. Sports Coaching and Athletic Performance is a 20 credit-hour

    E-print Network

    Fork, Richard

    Sports Coaching and Athletic Performance is a 20 credit-hour program that prepares students for careers in the coaching profession, sports leadership, and athletic performance, and has no prerequisites by NASPE (National Association for Sport and Physical Education) and the NCACE (National Council

  15. Sports-related genitourinary trauma in the male athlete.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Refky; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Raptis, Costa; Siegel, Cary

    2015-04-01

    Genitourinary trauma is infrequent with regard to sports-related injuries and is frequently overlooked in the acute setting because other life-threatening or serious injuries take precedence. Once the patient has been stabilized, the radiologist plays a key role in the diagnosis of genitourinary trauma. The most commonly injured genitourinary organ is the kidney followed by the bladder and the urethra. Therefore, one should be familiar with imaging signs of genitourinary trauma in the athletic patient in order for these patients to be triaged appropriately. This article is a review of the spectrum of genitourinary trauma caused by sports-related injuries. PMID:25323027

  16. Mitochondrial biogenesis related endurance genotype score and sports performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Meckel, Yoav; Morán, María; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the probability of individuals having the 'optimal' mitochondrial biogenesis related endurance polygenic profile, and compared the endurance polygenic profile of Israeli (Caucasian) endurance athletes (n = 74), power athletes (n = 81), and non-athletes (n = 240). We computed a mitochondrial biogenesis related 'endurance genotype score' (EGS, scoring from 0 to 100) from the accumulated combination of six polymorphisms in the PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway. Some of the variant alleles of the polymorphisms studied were so infrequent, that the probability of possessing an 'optimal' EGS (= 100) was 0% in the entire study population. However, the EGS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in endurance athletes (38.9 ± 17.1) compared with controls (30.6 ± 12.4) or power athletes (29.0 ± 11.2). In summary, although the probability of an individual possessing a theoretically 'optimal' genetic background for endurance sports is very low, in general endurance athletes have a polygenic profile that is more suitable for mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20647061

  17. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-02-17

    ABSTRACT Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

  18. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

  19. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2?h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  20. Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

  1. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended. PMID:25855365

  2. Physical testing prior to returning to normal sports activity for elite athletes following ACL injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios G Ziogas

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is among the most frequent sports-related injuries especially in contact sports such as football, basketball, soccer and skiing. In professional sports, ACL injury has a significant financial impact on both athlete and team, since several months are required before full return to professional sport activity. At the end of the rehab program an overall assessment

  3. Critical Comments About Body Shape and Weight: Disordered Eating of Female Athletes and Sport Participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne C. Muscat; Bonita C. Long

    2008-01-01

    This investigation explored the role of critical comments about weight and body shape and disordered eating symptoms of female athletes (N = 157) and sport participants (N = 63). Results revealed that both athletes and sport participants who recalled critical comments, compared with those who did not, and those who recalled more severe critical comments, reported greater disordered eating (controlling

  4. A comparison of bone mineral densities among female athletes in impact loading and active loading sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Fehling; L. Alekel; J. Clasey; A. Rector; R. J. Stillman

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMD) of collegiate female athletes who compete in impact loading sports; volleyball players (N = 8) and gymnasts (N = 13), to a group of athletes who participate in an active loading sport; swimmers (N = 7), and a group of controls (N = 17). All of the volleyball,

  5. Hypertension update and cardiovascular risk reduction in physically active individuals and athletes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Lawless, Christine E

    2010-04-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease worldwide. Its inadequate treatment leads to major cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. These conditions decrease life expectancy and are a substantial cost burden to health care systems. Physically active individuals and professional athletes are not risk free for developing this condition. Although the percentage of persons affected is substantially lower than the general population, these individuals still need to be thoroughly evaluated and blood pressure targets monitored to allow safe competitive sports participation. Regarding treatment, lifestyle modification measures should be routinely emphasized to athletes and active individuals with the same importance as for the general population. Medication treatment can be complicated because of restrictions by athletic organizations and possible limitations on maximal exercise performance. In addition, the choice of an antihypertensive drug should be made with consideration for salt and water losses that routinely occur in athletes, as well as preservation of exercise performance and endothelial function. First-line therapies for athletes and physically active individuals may be different from the general population. Some authorities believe that blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is more beneficial compared with diuretics because of ACE inhibitors and ARBs being able to avoid salt and water losses. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are another reasonable choice. Despite effects on heart rate, nondihydropyridine CCBs do not appear to impair exercise performance. beta-Blockers are not used as a first-line therapy in athletes because of effects on exercise and prohibition by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and World Anti-Doping Agency in certain sports. In this article, we address the evidence on hypertension and its related treatments in active individuals to provide recommendations that allow the best competitive sports results and reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:20424397

  6. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  7. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median?=?3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median?=?1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P?=?0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports. PMID:23662691

  8. Sports and Exercise in Athletes with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Craig; Day, Sharlene M; Saberi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease and one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Current guidelines restrict the participation of patients with HCM in competitive sports, limiting the health benefits of exercise. However, many individuals with HCM have safely participated in sports, with a low incidence of SCD. Improved stratification of patients and desired activity may allow most individuals with HCM to engage in physical activity safely. Therefore, physicians should create an individualized approach in guiding each patient with HCM eager to enjoy the benefits of physical activity in a safe manner. PMID:26100424

  9. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model

    PubMed Central

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-01-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child’s well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  10. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-07-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child's well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  11. Development of the Sports Performance Inventory: A Psychological Measure of Athletic Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Jones; George Neuman; Robert Altmann; Brian Dreschler

    2001-01-01

    The current study extends existing sport psychology research by developing a more comprehensive athlete attitudinal survey—the Sports Performance Inventory (SPI). A multiple item survey consisting of sport-related attitudinal items was distributed to 274 students enrolled in a large Division I Midwestern university. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation performed on the original survey items resulted in an 83 item

  12. Athletes confessions: the sports biography as an interaction ritual.

    PubMed

    Thing, L F; Ronglan, L T

    2015-04-01

    Commercialization of emotions is not a new phenomenon but in Denmark there is a new general trend to tell and sell personal stories in the media. Personal deprivation and crises are also major topics in sports media. This paper focuses on sports biographies as a book genre that is reviving in popularity. The paper approaches the topic through the biographies of one Danish athlete: the former professional cyclist, Jesper Skibby, who writes about his doping disclosure and shares his personal dilemmas as a former elite sportsman. The thematic text analysis orientates around social interactions, emotions, and personality constructions. Inspired by microsociology with a Durkheimian flavor of Goffman and Hochschild, themes including "face work," "interaction rituals," and "emotions management" are discussed. The analysis claims that sharing personal information in the media is not only a means of confession and reclaiming status but is also business and management - on an intimate level. Telling the story of the corrosion of a sporting character has become a hot issue, an entertainment, and not least a commercial commitment. PMID:24673745

  13. MR spectroscopic evidence of brain injury in the non-diagnosed collision sport athlete.

    PubMed

    Poole, Victoria N; Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Breedlove, Evan L; Breedlove, Katherine M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Dydak, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    With growing evidence of long-term neurological damage in individuals enduring repetitive head trauma, it is critical to detect lower-level damage accumulation for the early diagnosis of injury in at-risk populations. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic scans of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex were collected from high school American (gridiron) football athletes, prior to and during their competition seasons. Although no concussions were diagnosed, significant metabolic deviations from baseline and non-collision sport controls were revealed. Overall the findings indicate underlying biochemical changes, consequential to repetitive hits, which have previously gone unnoticed due to a lack of traditional neurological symptoms. PMID:25144258

  14. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Chinese Professional Athletes of Strength Sports with Different Body Weight Categories

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Guo, Yan; Xie, Minhao

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes. PMID:24255714

  15. Welcome to the new Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre! At approximately 365,000 sq. ft. of athletic and recreational space, the Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre

    E-print Network

    Boonstra, Rudy

    Welcome to the new Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre! At approximately 365,000 sq. ft. of athletic and recreational space, the Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre (TPASC) will offer a wide range of world-class athletic to the Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre through payroll deduction, you will be eligible to access all

  16. Playing to Win: American Sports & Athletes on Stamps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Smithsonian National Postal Museum has profiled a wide swath of American life on stamps over the years, and this latest online exhibit from their busy minds looks at American sports and athletes on stamps. The collection was created by Alexander Haimann, and it features dozens of unique and compelling stamps, including the 3-cent stamp issued to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the creation of baseball by Abner Doubleday in Cooperstown, New York. Each page of the site has a different thematic focus, including "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" (featuring notable ballparks) and "American Boxing: From Dempsey to Marciano". There is complete information for each stamp, including material on when the stamp was issued. Also, visitors can zoom in and out on each stamp to look for creative details.

  17. Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Study Design: Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. Results: On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and ?0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R2 change 3.2%, P < .001). Conclusions: This study represents the largest sample of BMD data in senior athletes to date. Senior participation in high-impact sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. Clinical Relevance: These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging. PMID:23015914

  18. Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes’ Coping with Interpersonal Stressors in Sport: More Similarities than Differences?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharleen D. Hoar; Peter R. E. Crocker; Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the types of coping strategies adolescent athletes use to manage sport-related interpersonal stress. To explain gender coping differences, the dispositional and situational gender coping hypotheses were explored (Tamres, Janicki, & Helgenson, 2002). Adolescent athletes from Western Canada (N = 524) completed measures of stress appraisal and coping-strategy use in response to a self-selected interpersonal

  19. Male Athletes and the Cult(ure) of Thinness in Sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    Although female emaciators and anorexics in sport have received considerable academic attention as a deviant population of athletes (Atkinson 2008; Grieve 2007), researchers have only recently attended to the onset and development of self-starvation or weight minimization programs among male athletes (Hargreaves and Tiggemann 2006; Papathomas and Lavallee 2006). The bulk of academic literature on eating pathologies among male (or

  20. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Schaal; Muriel Tafflet; Hala Nassif; Valérie Thibault; Capucine Pichard; Mathieu Alcotte; Thibaut Guillet; Nour El Helou; Geoffroy Berthelot; Serge Simon; Jean-François Toussaint; Monica Uddin

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced.MethodsMultivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations.ResultsA representative sample of 13% of the

  1. Special Athletic Opportunities for Individuals with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnick, Joseph P., Ed.; Short, Francis X., Ed.

    The report contains 12 author contributed chapters concerned with special athletic opportunities for individuals with handicapping conditions. The monograph begins with a detailed treatment of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 followed by descriptions of athletic programs developed by various groups. Remaining chapters are concerned…

  2. Effect of sports activity on bone mineral density in wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Kimiko; Wang, Da-Hong; Mori, Keiko; Takahashi, Kayo; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takigawa, Tomoko; Takaki, Jiro; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-01-01

    The present study carried out a measurement of body composition and a nutrition survey, targeting 28 male wheelchair athletes and comparing them with 25 male physically able healthy athletes as the controls. The DXA method was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD), percentage of body fat (% body fat), and lean body mass (LBM). Possible factors affecting the BMD of the wheelchair athletes with spinal injuries were analyzed including age, body part, type of sport, area of injury, length of injury, and the length of time it took before restarting sports activity after injury. BMD in the arms, body trunk, legs, and entire body was measured. There were no significant differences in the BMD of the wheelchair athletes by age group (from 20 to 29, from 30 to 39, and 40 years and older), by sports (basketball, track and field, and tennis), and by area of injury (high and low paraplegia). BMD in the legs (r = -0.549, P < 0.01), body trunk (r = -0.414, P < 0.05), and entire body (r = -0.452, P < 0.05) of the wheelchair athletes was negatively correlated with the period since injury; however, no such a relationship was observed in the arms. In addition, the multiple regression analysis for BMD of each body region showed that the earlier the wheelchair athletes restarted sports after injury, the higher values the BMD of legs (r = -0.467, P < 0.05), body trunk (r = -0.469, P < 0.05), and entire body (r = -0.488, P < 0.05), independent of age and sports. The leg BMD of the wheelchair athletes was lower than that of the physically able athletes, with a BMD 76.5% of the controls. The present study suggests that restarting sports activity in a timely manner after treatment and rehabilitation for the injury is useful in preventing loss of BMD in wheelchair athletes and ultimately improving their quality of life. PMID:18095071

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing Sudden Death in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care. PMID:22488236

  4. Working memory capacity among collegiate student athletes: Effects of sport-related head contacts, concussions, and working memory demands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lester B. Mayers; Thomas S. Redick; Sheila H. Chiffriller; Ashley N. Simone; Keith R. Terraforte

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Design: Ambidirectional cohort study. Setting: Athletics department at an American university. Participants: Student athletes competing

  5. Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi-sport athletes. PMID:24622506

  6. Brain Function Decline in Healthy Retired Athletes who Sustained their Last Sports Concussion in Early Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis De Beaumont; H Théoret; David Mongeon; Julie Messier; Suzanne Leclerc; Sebastien Tremblay; Dave Ellemberg; Maryse Lassonde

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of sports concussions on cognitive and motor function may persist up to a few years post-injury. The present study sought to investigate the effects of having sustained a sports concussion more than 30 years prior to testing on cognitive and motor functions. Nineteen healthy former athletes, in late adulthood (mean age =

  7. Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

  8. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

  9. A Survey of Sports Medicine Physicians Regarding Psychological Issues in Patient-Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barton J. Mann; William A. Grana; Peter A. Indelicato; Daniel F. ONeill; Steven Z. George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the extent to which sports medicine physicians encounter and discuss psychological issues among athletes they treat and to evaluate physicians' perceptions of the availability and efficacy of sport psychologists and other mental health resources.Study Design: Cross-sectional study.Methods: A survey was sent via e-mail to all physician members of 4 prominent sports medicine professional associations: the American Orthopaedic

  10. TEXAS A&M ATHLETICS STUDENT SPORTS OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    present his/her own student ID, along with the necessary sports cards. The student ID is scanned A&M are not included. Sports Cards Students who purchase a sports option receive a sports card that is valid throughout their career at Texas A&M. Sports Cards are distributed at the Ticket

  11. University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Athlete Pre-Participation Health History, 2012-2013

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    :_____________________________________, ______________________ Relationship ______________________________, _____________________, _________, _______________________ Street_________________ Name____________________________________________ Sex_______ Date of Birth______________ Sport

  12. Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be caused by athletic overuse, improper body mechanics and technique, lack of proper conditioning, insufficient stretching, ... important to evaluate and correct poor technique and mechanics that may have predisposed the athlete to the ...

  13. Superstitions of Canadian Intercollegiate Athletes: an Inter-Sport Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jane Gregory; Brian M. Petrie

    1975-01-01

    Belief structures categorized as superstitions were investigated among members of six selected Intercollegiate athletic teams enrolled at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada during the 1971-72 aca demic year. A mailed questionnaire was employed as the survey instru ment and distributed to 174 athletes chosen by systematic random sampling from lists supplied by the Department of Athletics. The over

  14. Sport nutrition and doping factors in swimming; parallel analysis among athletes and coaches.

    PubMed

    Sajber, Dorica; Rodek, Jelena; Escalante, Yolanda; Oluji?, Dragana; Sekuli?, Damir

    2013-05-01

    The sport nutrition and doping are known to be important issues in sports, but there is evident lack of studies which investigated those issues in swimming, especially with regard to parallel analysis of coaches and athletes. The first aim of this study was to compare knowledge of swimming coaches and their athletes about nutrition and doping. Also, we have identified interrelationships between studied sociodemographic-, sport-; nutrition- and doping-related-factors. The sample of subjects comprised 55 athletes (20.3 +/- 2.2 years of age; 24 females) and 22 coaches (mean age 36.5 +/- 7.8 years; 4 females) from Croatia (98% of respondents). In the first phase of the investigation we have validated specific questionnaires to determine the knowledge of sport nutrition (KSN), and knowledge on doping (KD). The test-retest correlation and percentage of equally responded queries revealed both questionnaires as reliable. The discriminative validity was proven also since coaches scored better than their athletes on both questionnaires. Athletes declared their coaches as the primary sources of knowledge about nutrition and doping. Among coaches, formal and self-education are equally important sources of information about doping and nutrition. The age is negatively, while the formal education is positively correlated to KD and KSN scores among coaches. Consequently, permanent educational programs about nutrition and doping are emphasized, especially among older coaches and younger athletes. PMID:23914506

  15. Development of the 2012 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians position statement on concussion in athletics

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, William J.; Nabhan, Dustin C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the development of the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians (ACBSP) Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics regarding the management of concussion in sport and to offer suggestions to qualifying doctors of chiropractic (DCs) to make return-to-play decisions and clarify common concepts pertaining to evaluating and managing concussion in sport. Methods A literature review of position statements from sports medicine organizations was performed. The authors reviewed each statement for content. Key issues in the management of concussion in sport were identified with special consideration to concussion management by DCs. A position statement on the management of concussion in sport was drafted by the authors and submitted to the Board of Directors of the ACBSP for review. The Board of Directors called for minor revision; and after all revisions were made, the document was resubmitted. The Board of Directors of the ACBSP accepted the document for publication and presentation. The document was presented and disseminated to certificants by the ACBSP at the 2011 Chiropractic Sports Sciences Symposium. Results The 2012 ACBSP Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics was accepted by the ACBSP Board of Directors. Conclusion The Position Statement on Concussion in Athletics has been accepted by the ACBSP. This document offers guidance on the management of concussion in sport and provides qualifying DCs information to make return-to-play decisions. PMID:24396329

  16. The role of autonomic function on sport performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Krassioukov, Andrei; West, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Devastating paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal cardiovascular control present significant hemodynamic challenges to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially during exercise. In general, resting arterial pressure after SCI is lower than with able-bodied individuals and is commonly associated with persistent orthostatic intolerance along with transient episodes of life-threatening hypertension, known as "autonomic dysreflexia." During exercise, the loss of central and reflexive cardiovascular control attenuates maximal heart rate and impairs blood pressure regulation and blood redistribution, which ultimately reduces venous return, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Thermoregulation also is severely compromised in high-lesion SCI, a problem that is compounded when competing in hot and humid conditions. There is some evidence that enhancing venous return via lower body positive pressure or abdominal binding improves exercise performance, as do cooling strategies. Athletes with SCI also have been documented to self-induce autonomic dysreflexia before competition with a view of increasing blood pressure and improving their performance, a technique known as "boosting." For health safety reasons, boosting is officially banned by the International Paralympics Committee. This article addresses the complex issue of how the autonomic nervous system affects sports performance in athletes with SCI, with a specific focus on the potential debilitating effects of deranged cardiovascular control. PMID:25134753

  17. Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes.

    PubMed

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

  18. Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

  19. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  20. Prediction of sport adherence through the influence of autonomy-supportive coaching among spanish adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Bartolomé J; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key pointsImportance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes.Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation.Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  1. Motivation for sport participation in older Italian athletes: the role of age, gender and competition level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta De Pero; Stefano Amici; Cinzia Benvenuti; Carlo Minganti; Laura Capranica; Caterina Pesce

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying whether age, competition level and gender influence motivation for sport participation in\\u000a Italian senior athletes. Four hundred and thirty-three athletes aged 45–80 years participated in the study by completing the\\u000a SMS questionnaire validated for this population. Separate scores for the 7 Extrinsic Motivation (EM), Intrinsic Motivation\\u000a (IM) and Amotivation (AM) subscales of the SMS questionnaire,

  2. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos González-Haro; Julio Calleja-González; Jesus F. Escanero

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008–2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by

  3. Sports Technology and Choice of Location Individual Evaluation of Sports Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Bökemann

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a regional approach to sports economy. Starting from a macroeconomic position sport is defined as consumer technology the development of which is regarded in the context of evolution theory using product cycle argument.Sports preferences and demand for sports activities microanalytically are explained by social milieu factors. Hypotheses are formulated how individual skills and talents on one hand

  4. Athlete burnout in elite sport: A self-determination perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Lonsdale; Ken Hodge; Elaine Rose

    2009-01-01

    Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) as the theoretical framework, we examined potential antecedents of athlete burnout in 201 elite Canadian athletes (121 females, 80 males; mean age 22.9 years). Employing a cross-sectional design, our primary aims were to investigate the relationships between behavioural regulations and athlete burnout and to examine whether self-determined motivation mediated relationships between basic needs

  5. Epidemiology of sports injuries on collegiate athletes at a single center

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruno Berbert; Asperti, André Marangoni; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of sports injuries in college athletes from the same institution from 1993 to 2013. METHODS: Athletes from 13 modalities were interviewed about the presence and type of injury, type of treatment and time of withdrawal, based on the questionnaire "Injury Surveillance System" (ISS). Data were analyzed with graphs and tables of injury prevalence by gender, age, site of injury and modality. We also analyzed the average time of withdrawal of athletes, returning to sports practice and new lesions. RESULTS: It was observed that 49.91% of the athletes showed some type of injury, with similar incidence between genders; the most frequent injuries were the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the ankle sprain; the average withdrawal time was 11 weeks. ACL was the injury with greater impact on college sports career, especially given the time of withdrawal. CONCLUSION: The most frequent injury, ACL, occurred most frequently in indoor sports such as handball and volleyball and had the highest number of cases treated with surgery and a longer average withdrawal time. More studies are needed to create a larger database in order to schedule preventive measures for amateur athletes. Level IV of Evidence, Epidemiological Study. PMID:25538479

  6. Sports-Related Concussion in Helmeted vs. Unhelmeted Athletes: Who Fares Worse?

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, S L; Lee, Y M; Odom, M J; Forbes, J A; Solomon, G S; Sills, A K

    2015-05-01

    In the management of sports-related concussion, little is known about the effect of wearing or not wearing a helmet (i.?e., helmet status) on the acute outcomes of concussed athletes. We endeavored to assess acute neurocognitive and symptom changes after SRC in helmeted vs. unhelmeted athletes. In a retrospective study, 1?025 athletes from 2 regional databases sustained a SRC. Athletes were matched by age, gender, number of prior concussions, and days to post-concussion test, yielding a final cohort of 138 athletes. For each group of 69, differences in post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores were compared using group mean differences as well as reliable change index (RCI) scores set at the 80% confidence interval. With gender, prior concussions, and days to post-concussion test similar in each group, using group mean change scores and RCI methodology, we found no significant differences between the helmeted and unhelmeted groups in 4 neurocognitive tests and one total symptom score. In a cohort of carefully matched athletes from 2 regional concussion centers, helmet status was unrelated to neurocognitive scores and total symptoms in athletes after suffering a SRC. These findings suggest that acute outcomes in helmeted vs. unhelmeted sports are quite similar. PMID:25664998

  7. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  8. Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as…

  9. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

  10. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  11. The MetaSkills Model of Sports Counseling: Helping Athletes Achieve Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Marlin M.

    1984-01-01

    The MetaSkills model of sports counseling evolved from use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Ericksonian communicator patterns with athletes. The theoretical perspectives of human behavior upon which the model is based are explored. Overall counseling process and its parts are described. (Author/DF)

  12. Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kielan Yarrow; John W. Krakauer; Peter Brown

    2009-01-01

    Events like the World Championships in athletics and the Olympic Games raise the public profile of competitive sports. They may also leave us wondering what sets the competitors in these events apart from those of us who simply watch. Here we attempt to link neural and cognitive processes that have been found to be important for elite performance with computational

  13. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  14. Decision Making in NCAA Athletics: Factors Associated with Adding Sports to Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Sloane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the decision-making factors, priorities and process used when adding sports to NCAA Division I institutions. The media often focuses on gender equity and financial parameters when discussing athletic decision-making, but this study seeks to go beyond speculation and add to intercollegiate…

  15. Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Heinonen; P. Oja; P. Kannus; H. Sievanen; H. Haapasalo; A. Mänttäri; I. Vuori

    1995-01-01

    To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray

  16. The Parent-Coach/Child-Athlete Relationship in Youth Sport: Cordial, Contentious, or Conundrum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Fretwell, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and…

  17. SFU REC SPORTS rec.sfu.ca athletics.sfu.ca

    E-print Network

    SFU REC SPORTS rec.sfu.ca · athletics.sfu.ca POSITION TITLE: Intramural Official POSITION SUMMARY Davies Complex, SFU Burnaby Fall and Spring Terms Summer Term Basketball (Tuesdays 3:20-5:30pm) Basketball (Tuesdays 3:20-5:30pm) Outdoor Soccer (Wednesdays 12:20-2:30pm) Outdoor Soccer (Wednesdays 3

  18. Differences in ball sports athletes speed discrimination skills before and after exercise induced fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaivo Thomson; Anthony Watt; Jarmo Liukkonen

    2009-01-01

    Substantial research exists in relation to the effect of fatigue on the cognitive skills of athletes. Very few studies in the sport domain, however, have investigated decision-making time and accuracy in relation to the discrimination of the speed of a mov- ing object following exercise at maximal intensity. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the pre-

  19. The sporting life: Athletic activities during early adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol E. Kirshnit; Mark Ham; Maryse H. Richards

    1989-01-01

    The decline in sports participation that begins in early adolescence has been well documented, and there has been considerable controversy regarding the reasons for this attrition. The present study addressed the attrition process by focusing on the subjective experience of sports as a function of grade, gender, and sport context. Following the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method, 401 5th–9th-grade

  20. Sport psychiatry: a systematic review of diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Claudia L; Factor, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    Sport psychiatry focuses on diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness in athletes in addition to utilization of psychological approaches to enhance performance. As this field and its research base are relatively new, clinicians often deliver psychiatric care to athletes without a full understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic issues unique to this population. In this systematic review, we discuss published findings relating to psychiatric diagnosis and medical treatment of mental illness in athletes. There have been several studies looking at the prevalence of some psychiatric disorders in various athlete populations. Eating disorders and substance abuse are the most studied of these disorders and appear to be common problems in athletes. However, to provide informed understanding and treatment, we especially need more research on overtraining syndrome, bipolar disorder, suicidality, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychosis in athletes. Research is needed in the areas of prevalence, risk factors, prognosis and the unique experiences facing athletes with any of these disorders. Additionally, there have not been any large, systematic studies on the use of psychotropic medications in athletes. Small studies suggest that some medications may either be performance enhancing or detrimental to performance, but we need larger studies with rigorous methodology. Higher level athletes suffering from psychiatric symptoms often have reservations about taking medications with unknown performance and safety effects, and methodological issues with the current literature database preclude any definitive conclusions on performance effects of psychiatric medications. We need many more, higher quality studies on the use by athletes of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, stimulants and other ADHD medications, sedative-hypnotics and antipsychotics. Such studies should utilize sensitive performance measures and involve longer term use of psychotropic medications. Furthermore, study subjects should include athletes who actually have the psychiatric disorder for which the medication is proposed, and should include more women. PMID:20942511

  1. College Athletes and Drug Testing: Attitudes and Behaviors by Gender and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis players were most likely to agree that drug use by college athletes is socially acceptable. Lacrosse players were most likely to know of atleast one teammate using drugs. Overall, attitudes towards the mandatory drug education and testing program were ambivalent. About half of our responding athletes believed drug testing was necessary and discouraged drug use. Only 17% believed that the program was an invasion of privacy. PMID:16558222

  2. Sports Nutrition and Doping Factors in Synchronized Swimming: Parallel Analysis among Athletes and Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Furjan Mandic, Gordana; Peric, Mia; Krzelj, Lucijana; Stankovic, Sladana; Zenic, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Although nutrition and doping are important factors in sports, neither is often investigated in synchronized swimming (Synchro).This study aimed to define and compare Synchro athletes and their coaches on their knowledge of sports nutrition (KSN)and knowledge of doping (KD); and to study factors related to KSN and KD in each of these groups. Additionally, the KSNand KD questionnaires were evaluated for their reliability and validity. Altogether, 82 athletes (17.2 ± 1.92 years of age) and 28 coaches (30.8 ± 5.26 years of age) from Croatia and Serbia were included in the study, with a 99% response rate. The testand retest correlations were 0.94 and 0.90 for the KD and KSN,respectively. Subjects responded equally to 91% queries of the KD and 89% queries of the KSN. Although most of the coache sare highly educated, they declared self-education as the primary source of information about doping and sport-nutrition. Coaches scored higher than their athletes on both questionnaires which defined appropriate discriminative validity of the questionnaires. Variables such as age, sports experience and formal education are positively correlated to KSN and KD scores among athletes. The athletes who scored better on the KD are less prone to doping behavior in the future. These data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. Special attention should be placed on younger athletes. Key Points Although most of the synchro coaches are highly educated, self-education is declared as the primary source of information about doping and sportnutrition. The knowledge of doping and doping-health hazards are negatively related to potential doping behavior in the future among synchronized swimmers The data reinforce the need for systematic educational programs on doping and sports nutrition in synchronized swimming. We advocate improving the knowledge of sports nutrition among older coaches and the knowledge of doping among younger coaches, while among athletes,younger swimmers should be targeted PMID:24421736

  3. University of Virginia Athletics & Sports Medicine New Student-Athlete Health History 2013-14

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    ____________________________________________ Sex_______ Date of Birth_______________ Sport(s)_________________________ UVA Student ID_______________ _____________________________, _____________________________________, ___________________ Permanent Street Address City State ZIP Cell phone Emergency, Contact: ____________________________________, ______________, __________________ Name Relationship Phone Year of Last Tetanus (Td, TDAP) vaccine ______________ Unless otherwise

  4. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2014-11-11

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4±10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9±3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and team-mates second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood, however gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement. PMID:25387042

  5. Women, Sports, and Science: Do Female Athletes Have an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Kraus, Rebecca S.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes data from a longitudinal study of high school youth to suggest that involvement in sports often has a strong and positive association with young womens' success in high school science. Associates participation in cheerleading with negative results. Summarizes both the functionalist and conflict theories regarding the purpose of sports.…

  6. School nurses' familiarity and perceptions of academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michelle L; Welch, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained several questions pertaining to concussion management and academic accommodations. There were significant differences regarding personal experience as well as familiarity of academic accommodations (p < .001) between school nurses who work at a school that employs an athletic trainer and school nurses who work at a school that does not employ an athletic trainer. There were significant weak positive relationships between years of experience and familiarity with academic accommodations (r = .210, p < .001), 504 plans (r = .243, p < .001), and individualized education plans (r = .205, p < .001). School nurses employed at a single school were significantly more familiar with academic accommodations (p = .027) and 504 plans (p = .001) than school nurses employed at multiple schools. Health care professionals should collaborate to effectively manage a concussed patient and should consider academic accommodations to ensure whole-person health care. PMID:25015367

  7. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:24444205

  8. Goal perspectives and sport participation motivation of Special Olympians and typically developing athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Oz, Mali; Barak, Sharon

    2013-07-01

    Based on social-learning and self-determination motivational theories, the purpose of this study was to determine the sources of motivation in youth and young adults with intellectual disability (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO) competitions and those of typically developed (TD) age- and activity-matched athletes. A convenience sample of 63 SO (25 females and 38 males) and 59 TD (16 females and 43 males) athletes was retrieved through communication with local club coaches. Three sub-groups of SO athletes were identified based on disability, including non specified intellectual disability (NSID=39), Down syndrome (DS=17), and Autism (Aut=7). Mean SO and TD athlete ages were 20.35 (SD=7) and 18.8 (SD=8), respectively. For analysis purposes four age groups were created (<15, 15-17, 18-20, >20 years). Participants completed the 13-item, two-factor Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and a 16-item four-factor abridged version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). SO and TD athletes were active in swimming (54 and 48, respectively) and basketball (9 and 11, respectively). Groups with and without ID were compared by means of t-tests in the dichotomized variables gender and activity, as well as by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc comparisons across disability and age groups. Gender distribution was the same in both groups. Participants with DS and NSID scored significantly higher than TD athletes in most motivational scales. Participants with ID increased their external motivation with increasing age, while a reversed pattern was observed in TD. In summary, significant differences between motivational patterns of SO athletes with ID and TD athletes can be observed. These differences should be considered when developing training and competition programs. PMID:23643768

  9. Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

  10. Altitude exposure in sports: the Athlete Biological Passport standpoint.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Brioche, Thomas; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is principally founded on monitoring an athlete's biological variables over time, to identify abnormal biases on a longitudinal basis. Several factors are known to influence the results of these markers. However, the manner in which the altitude factor is taken into account still needs to be standardized. Causal relationships between haematological variables should be correctly integrated into ABP software. In particular, modifications of haematological parameters during and after exposure to different altitudes/hypoxic protocols need to be properly included within detection models. PMID:24115763

  11. 3D Pre-vs. Post-Season Comparisons of Surface and Relative Pose of the Corpus Callosum in Contact Sport Athletes

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected Sport Athletes Yi Lao1,2 , Niharika Gajawelli1,2 , Lauren Haas2 , Bryce Wilkins1,2 , Darryl Hwang2, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA 1 Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive

  12. Stereotype Threat and Sport: Can Athletic Performance be Threatened?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sian L. Beilock; Allen R. McConnell

    Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The

  13. Effect of head impacts on diffusivity measures in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ford, James C.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur; Greenwald, Richard M.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Bolander, Richard P.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Turco, John H.; Raman, Rema; Jain, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season affects white matter diffusion measures in collegiate contact sport athletes. Methods: A prospective cohort study at a Division I NCAA athletic program of 80 nonconcussed varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following impact, and 79 non–contact sport athletes. Assessment occurred preseason and shortly after the season with diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive measures. Results: There was a significant (p = 0.011) athlete-group difference for mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum. Postseason fractional anisotropy (FA) differed (p = 0.001) in the amygdala (0.238 vs 0.233). Measures of head impact exposure correlated with white matter diffusivity measures in several brain regions, including the corpus callosum, amygdala, cerebellar white matter, hippocampus, and thalamus. The magnitude of change in corpus callosum MD postseason was associated with poorer performance on a measure of verbal learning and memory. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between head impact exposure, white matter diffusion measures, and cognition over the course of a single season, even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, in a cohort of college athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are short term or persistent. PMID:24336143

  14. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2)?=?18.50, p?=?.001, RMSEA?=?.069, GFI?=?.97, AGFI?=?.91, TLI?=?.93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2)?=?.08, p?=?0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2)?=?.07, p?=?0.01) and BSQ (R(2)?=?.10, p?=?0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2)?=?.02, p?=?0.14), competitive level (R(2)?=?.01, p?=?0.19), training regimen (R(2)?=?.03, p?=?0.11) or body fat (R(2)?=?.02, p?=?0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. PMID:25963103

  15. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  16. Who's Got Game?: Exposure to Sports and Entertainment Media and Social Physique Anxiety in Division I Female Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Hines Porterfield

    2006-01-01

    This study compared college female athletes' exposure to two types of media—sport and entertainment--and looked for possible associations with social physique anxiety an affective trait that could be present in women who have eating disorder tendencies. Our survey of Division I female athletes yielded very inconsistent patterns with regard to the type of media that is more likely to be

  17. Athletic Trainers' and Physical Therapists' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Psychological Skills Within Sport Injury Rehabilitation Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jordan Hamson-Utley; Scott Martin; Jason Walters

    2008-01-01

    Context: Psychological skills are alleged to augment sport- injury rehabilitation; however, implementation of mental imagery within rehabilitation programs is limited. Objective: To examine attitudes of athletic trainers (ATs) and physical therapists (PTs) on the effectiveness of mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk to improve rehabil- itation adherence and recovery speed of injured athletes. Design: The ATs and PTs were

  18. Participation in Sports for the Athlete with the Marfan Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marla Mendelson

    \\u000a The Marfan syndrome was first described in 1896 by Dr. Antoine Marfan, a French pediatrician [1, 2]. He described a young\\u000a girl who manifested the classic musculoskeletal findings. This syndrome along with its propensity for aortic dilatation has\\u000a been recognized across the world as one of the causes of sudden death in high-profile athletes receiving considerable media\\u000a attention [3]. The

  19. Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. McClincy; Mark R. Lovell; Jamie Pardini; Michael W. Collins; Molly K. Spore

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Neuropsychological testing is a valuable tool in concussion diagnosis and management. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological testing program, consists of eight cognitive tasks and a 21-item symptom inventory. Method: ImPACT was used to examine the cognitive performance of 104 concussed athletes at baseline, 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury. Dependent measures included composite scores from the ImPACT computerized test battery,

  20. Coming to terms with early sports specialization and athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John

    2014-06-01

    The body grows stronger and performs best when appropriate loads and activities are followed by appropriate physical and mental rest and recovery. With this understanding, one has to question the true value of developing a particular sport skill set during childhood and adolescence at the expense of early injury, burnout, and lack of coping-skill development. PMID:24881902

  1. Restricting sports activity in reducing the rate of varicocele and related infertility parameters in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Miroslav; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the cessation of sports training in young athletes reduces the prevalence of varicocele. Material and methods 1,013 young males were divided into three age-matched groups based on their sport activity. The first group consisted of 305 athletically active boys in basketball, volleyball, handball, or football; the second of 44 active water-polo players, and the third of 664 sport-inactive controls. All participants had been initially examined for the presence of varicocele, and positive ones were submitted to orchidometry and seminal fluid analysis. Those with varicocele were then asked to cease all sport activity for the following six months, and the reassessing was performed. Results The results showed a significantly higher percentage of varicocele present in the first group than in the control group (p < 0.49), while the percentage of young males diagnosed with varicocele in the second proved to be even lower than that of the control group (9.09% vs. 12.35%). After the 6-month period of cessation and abstention from all sporting activity, every parameter of the seminal fluid analysis improved in the first group, wherein statistical significance for both sperm concentration (p < 0.001) and sperm motility (p < 0.023) was found. The testicular volume was found not to have increased significantly in either group (p > 0.05). Conclusions The study shows that sport-associated varicocele has a positive prognosis when diagnosed early and upon the cessation of sports training. PMID:25861305

  2. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  3. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester

    2009-07-01

    Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs. PMID:18356105

  4. Age-predicted vs. measured maximal heart rate in young team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maximal heart rate (HR)max is used widely to assess exercise intensity in sport training and particularly in various team sports, there are limited data with regards to the use of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in sport populations. The aim of this study was to compare the measured-HRmax with three prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220-age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208-0.7×age and Nikolaidis-HRmax = 223-1.44×age) in young team sport athletes. Materials and Methods: Athletes of soccer, futsal, basketball and water polo, classified into three age groups (u-12, 9?12 years, n = 50; u-15, 12?15 years, n = 40; u-18, 15?18 years, n = 57), all members of competitive clubs, voluntarily performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test) to assess HRmax. Results: Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax, while Tanaka-HRmax underestimated it (P < 0.001). However, this trend was not consistent when examining each group separately; measured-HRmax was similar with Tanaka-HRmax in u-12 and u-15, while it was similar with Nikolaidis-HRmax in u-18. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to validate two widely used and one recently developed prediction equations in a large sample of young athletes, indicating the need for specific equation in different age groups. Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers should prefer Tanaka-HRmax when desiring to avoid overtraining, while Fox-HRmax and Nikolaidis-HRmax should be their choice in order to ensure adequate exercise intensity. PMID:25114367

  5. Centre of pressure sway characteristics during static one-legged stance of athletes from different sports.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shigeki; Demura, Shinichi; Uchiyama, Masanobu

    2008-05-01

    The frequency of one-legged stance and two-legged stance differs considerably among sports. We therefore expect the balance ability of athletes from different sports to vary. This study compared the sway characteristics during a static one-legged stance of soccer players, basketball players, swimmers, and non-athletes. The centre of pressure sway during one-legged stance of ten male participants representing each of the four groups was measured using a stabilometer. Centre of pressure sway was assessed by four sway factors: sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway, horizontal sway, and high-frequency sway. None of the four groups of participants showed significant differences in body sway between standing on the dominant leg and standing on the non-dominant leg. The soccer players had more high-frequency sway and less anterior-posterior sway and horizontal sway than the basketball players, swimmers, and non-athletes. These results suggest that soccer players have superior ability to maintain a stable one-legged stance. Further study is required to determine how much of the superior balance ability in soccer players is innate and how much is developed through training, as well as to determine the relationship between balance ability and playing performance. PMID:18409108

  6. “Going Pro”: the deferential effects of high aspirations for a professional sports career on African-American student athletes and White student athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystal Beamon; Patricia A Bell

    2002-01-01

    Social scientists have long noted the effects of the images of the African-American male brought forth in popular culture. In fact, popular culture and organized sports have been credited as major contributors to many of the social problems that exist among African-American males. Those social problems are characterized in the oppositional relationship that has formed between athletic and academic achievement,

  7. Oxidative stress and nitrite dynamics under maximal load in elite athletes: relation to sport type.

    PubMed

    Cubrilo, Dejan; Djordjevic, Dusica; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Dragan; Blagojevic, Dusko; Spasic, Mihajlo; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    Maximal workload in elite athletes induces increased generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) and oxidative stress, but the dynamics of RONS production are not fully explored. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of long-term engagement in sports with different energy requirements (aerobic, anaerobic, and aerobic/anaerobic) on oxidative stress parameters during progressive exercise test. Concentrations of lactates, nitric oxide (NO) measured through stabile end product-nitrites (NO(2) (-)), superoxide anion radical (O(2) (•-)), and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) as index of lipid peroxidation were determined in rest, after maximal workload, and at 4 and 10th min of recovery in blood plasma of top level competitors in rowing, cycling, and taekwondo. Results showed that sportmen had similar concentrations of lactates and O(2) (•-) in rest. Nitrite concentrations in rest were the lowest in taekwondo fighters, while rowers had the highest levels among examined groups. The order of magnitude for TBARS level in the rest was bicycling > taekwondo > rowing. During exercise at maximal intensity, the concentration of lactate significantly elevated to similar levels in all tested sportsmen and they were persistently elevated during recovery period of 4 and 10 min. There were no significant changes in O(2) (•-), nitrite, and TBARS levels neither at the maximum intensity of exercise nor during the recovery period comparing to the rest period in examined individuals. Our results showed that long term different training strategies establish different basal nitrites and lipid peroxidation levels in sportmen. However, progressive exercise does not influence basal nitrite and oxidative stress parameters level neither at maximal load nor during the first 10 min of recovery in sportmen studied. PMID:21562799

  8. Athlete's nodules: sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas).

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Eliezri, Y D; Silvers, D N

    1992-08-01

    Sports-related connective tissue nevi of the collagen type (collagenomas) have been referred to as athlete's nodules. Surfers, boxers, marbles players, and football players are some of the athletes in whom these lesions have been observed. The nodules can be found on the dorsal aspect of the feet, knees, or knuckles and can readily be differentiated from other conditions by either clinical history or microscopic features or both. Treatment options include conservative measures or surgical intervention. Recurrent trauma and friction to the involved location are likely causative factors. Although the ultrastructural pathogenesis remains to be established, changes in the molecular metabolism of collagen resulting in enhanced synthesis and/or accumulation of collagen may have a contributory role. PMID:1511619

  9. Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

    2012-08-01

    The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

  10. The Relationship of Symptoms and Neurocognitive Performance to Perceived Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion Among Adolescent Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie K. Sandel; Mark R. Lovell; Nathan E. Kegel; Michael W. Collins; Anthony P. Kontos

    2012-01-01

    Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes’ self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to

  11. Relationships between the coach-created motivational climate and athlete engagement in youth sport.

    PubMed

    Curran, Thomas; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K; Jowett, Gareth E

    2015-04-01

    Youth sport is a source of well-being for adolescents, yet experiences vary and attrition can be high. We sought to better understand the coach behaviors that foster positive experiences in youth sport by examining relationships between the motivational climate and athlete engagement (viz., confidence, dedication, enthusiasm, and vigor). We reasoned that a mastery climate (emphasis on effort and learning) would correspond with higher engagement, whereas a performance climate (emphasis on ability and outcome) was expected to correspond with lower engagement. Two-hundred sixty adolescent soccer players completed measures of engagement and perceived coach motivational climate. All dimensions of engagement were positively predicted by a mastery climate. Furthermore, cognitive aspects of engagement were positively predicted by a performance climate. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that a composite of engagement was positively associated with a mastery climate. Results suggest that a mastery climate offers a means of promoting higher levels of overall engagement. PMID:25996109

  12. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    PubMed

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. PMID:24738561

  13. Organizational and Psychological Consultation in Collegiate Sports Medicine Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Andersen; Britton W. Brewer

    1995-01-01

    The complex authority, accountability, and supervisory structures of sports medicine groups in athletic departments can lead to conflicts that affect healthcare delivery for student—athletes. The authors review consultation models that counselors, sport psychologists, and other organizational consultants can use in dealing with these problems in collegiate sports medicine groups and offer examples of improved functioning through systemic, group, and individual

  14. [Comparative analysis of the regulation of vertical posture in athletes of different sports qualifications].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikova, A A; Savin, A A; Emel'ianova, L V; Nikolaev, R Iu; Vikulov, A D

    2011-01-01

    The goal of study was to investigate the regulation of balance in athletes with different sports qualifications: masters of sport (MS, n=18) and candidates for master of sports (CMS, n=13). Balance examined by means of stabilographic complex ("Rhythm". Russia) in the static tests: in simple bipedal stance (BS) and squat positions (SQ), as well as in the dynamic tests: "Involute", evaluating the tracking movement and "Step input", assessing the reaction of the whole body on the visual-motor task. It was found that the MS with the same anthropometric data, PWC 170 and trunk power did not differ in linear and angular velocity of oscillations of the center of pressure (CP) in BS and SQ positions. MS had a relative dominance of low-frequency oscillations in the spectral analysis in the BS test with eyes open. In the test "Step input" MS had a lower latent period of reaction, a greater speed and an accuracy of the body motion forward and back in response to the step input signals, while they had a relative dominance of high frequency oscillations. Thus, the results showed that the masters of sport have improved postural regulation, which manifested itself mainly in the dynamic test on the speed and accuracy of the vertical body reaction to input visual signals. PMID:22117466

  15. The female athlete: the role of gender in the assessment and management of sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J

    2011-01-01

    Concussions remain a serious public health concern, with approximately 1.6 million to 3 million sport and recreational traumatic and brain injuries occurring every year in the United States. Most research on concussions has been conducted on male athletes, specifically, football players. However, female sport participation has steadily increased over the past decade. Recent studies suggest that the incidence of and recovery from sport-related concussion varies between male and female athletes, with women having a higher risk of sustaining a concussion and taking a longer time to recover than men. As a result, this article addresses the role of gender in the assessment and management of sport-related concussion. PMID:21074087

  16. Preventing ACL injuries in team-sport athletes: a systematic review of training interventions.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria and were independently rated by two reviewers using the McMaster Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group scale. Consensus scores ranged from 3 to 8 out of 10. Seven out of nine studies demonstrated that training interventions have a preventive effect on ACLI. Collectively, the studies indicate there is moderate evidence to support the use of multifaceted training interventions, which consisted of stretching, proprioception, strength, plyometric and agility drills with additional verbal and/or visual feedback on proper landing technique to decrease the rate of ACLIs in team sport female athletes, while the paucity of data preclude any conclusions for male athletes. PMID:22742077

  17. Expert athletes activate somatosensory and motor planning regions of the brain when passively listening to familiar sports sounds.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions. PMID:24732956

  18. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  19. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (?1200–2500?m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  20. Applying self-compassion in sport: an intervention with women athletes.

    PubMed

    Mosewich, Amber D; Crocker P, R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Delongis, Anita

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a self-compassion intervention on negative cognitive states and self-compassion in varsity women athletes. Athletes who self-identified as being self-critical were randomly assigned to a self-compassion intervention (n = 29) or attention control group (n = 22). The self-compassion intervention consisted of a psychoeducation session and writing components completed over a 7-day period. Measures of self-compassion, state self-criticism, state rumination, and concern over mistakes were collected pretreatment, at 1 week posttreatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. A mixed factorial MANOVA with follow-up post hoc tests demonstrated moderate-to-strong effects for the intervention at posttest and follow-up (Wilks's ? = .566, F (8, 42) = 4.03, p < .01, ?2 = .43). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-compassion intervention in managing self-criticism, rumination, and concern over mistakes. Fostering self-compassionate mind frames is a potential coping resource for women athletes dealing with negative events in sport. PMID:24197719

  1. Participation in ball sports may represent a prehabilitation strategy to prevent future stress fractures and promote bone health in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam Sebastian; Sainani, Kristin Lynn; Carter Sayres, Lauren; Milgrom, Charles; Fredericson, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Sports participation has many benefits for the young athlete, including improved bone health. However, a subset of athletes may attain suboptimal bone health and be at increased risk for stress fractures. This risk is greater for female than for male athletes. In healthy children, high-impact physical activity has been shown to improve bone health during growth and development. We offer our perspective on the importance of promoting high-impact, multidirectional loading activities, including ball sports, as a method of enhancing bone quality and fracture prevention based on collective research. Ball sports have been associated with greater bone mineral density and enhanced bone geometric properties compared with participation in repetitive, low-impact sports such as distance running or nonimpact sports such as swimming. Runners and infantry who participated in ball sports during childhood were at decreased risk of future stress fractures. Gender-specific differences, including the coexistence of female athlete triad, may negate the benefits of previous ball sports on fracture prevention. Ball sports involve multidirectional loading with high ground reaction forces that may result in stiffer and more fracture-resistant bones. Encouraging young athletes to participate in ball sports may optimize bone health in the setting of adequate nutrition and in female athletes, eumenorrhea. Future research to determine timing, frequency, and type of loading activity could result in a primary prevention program for stress fracture injuries and improved life-long bone health. PMID:25499072

  2. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Hadžovi?-Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjani?, Samra; Hadžimuratovi?, Adnan; Meki?, Amel

    2014-05-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 ± 23.0 vs. 68.5 ± 30.8 and 80.72 ± 29.1 ?mol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 ± 35.6 ?mol/L), wrestlers (342.5 ± 36.2 ?mol/L) and basketball players (347.95 ± 31.3 ?mol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 ± 667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1 ± 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

  3. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  4. BodySense: An Evaluation of a Positive Body Image Intervention on Sport Climate for Female Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annick Buchholz; Heidi Mack; Gail McVey; Stephen Feder; Nicholas Barrowman

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of

  5. Contemporary Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics--An Annotated Bibliography and Proposed Course Outline: "Contemporary Issues in Collegiate Sports."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Although sport has reached the pinnacle of success, there remain serious questions regarding the role it plays in education. An annotated bibliography of athletics and a course outline are presented with topics including: history, amateurism, violence, injuries,and the mass media. (MLW)

  6. This is your brain on sports. Measuring concussions in high school athletes in the Twin Cities metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sarah; Seymour, Leslie; Roesler, Jon; Glover, Lori; Kinde, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Concussions can have a negative impact on students' ability to perform in the classroom as well as on their health and well-being. Therefore, timely treatment is especially important. To better understand the scope of the problem in Minnesota, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted an online sports-related concussion reporting system in 36 public high schools in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. In the 2013-2014 academic year, 730 concussions were reported to our system from certified athletic trainers working with those schools, with one out of every 100 athletes sustaining concussions. From this, we estimated that 2,974 sports-related concussions occurred among high school athletes statewide. This information is useful for evaluating and guiding prevention efforts and for informing clinicians on how to treat concussions. PMID:25282771

  7. Global positioning system data analysis: velocity ranges and a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dan B; Gabbett, Tim J

    2012-03-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology has improved the speed, accuracy, and ease of time-motion analyses of field sport athletes. The large volume of numerical data generated by GPS technology is usually summarized by reporting the distance traveled and time spent in various locomotor categories (e.g., walking, jogging, and running). There are a variety of definitions used in the literature to represent these categories, which makes it nearly impossible to compare findings among studies. The purpose of this work was to propose standard definitions (velocity ranges) that were determined by an objective analysis of time-motion data. In addition, we discuss the limitations of the existing definition of a sprint and present a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes. Twenty-five GPS data files collected from 5 different sports (men's and women's field hockey, men's and women's soccer, and Australian Rules Football) were analyzed to identify the average velocity distribution. A curve fitting process was then used to determine the optimal placement of 4 Gaussian curves representing the typical locomotor categories. Based on the findings of these analyses, we make recommendations about sport-specific velocity ranges to be used in future time-motion studies of field sport athletes. We also suggest that a sprint be defined as any movement that reaches or exceeds the sprint threshold velocity for at least 1 second and any movement with an acceleration that occurs within the highest 5% of accelerations found in the corresponding velocity range. From a practical perspective, these analyses provide conditioning coaches with information on the high-intensity sprinting demands of field sport athletes, while also providing a novel method of capturing maximal effort, short-duration sprints. PMID:22310509

  8. Sport Biomechanist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  9. Smena: Case Study of a Soviet Sport School for Elite Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Stephen C.

    This paper describes "Smena," a Specialist Children's and Young People's Sport School of Olympic Reserves, located in Leningrad, which trains elite young soccer players. Information is given on: (1) the facilities of the school; (2) the schools' long-range individual and team goals; (3) instructional methods and hours; (4) the responsibilities of…

  10. Narratives of athletic identity after acquiring a permanent physical disability.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Marie-José; Smith, Brett; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Latimer, Amy E

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28-60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semistructured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed. PMID:24762386

  11. Resilience in competitive athletes with spinal cord injury: the role of sport participation.

    PubMed

    Machida, Moe; Irwin, Brandon; Feltz, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Individuals who experience loss of their physical abilities often face the challenges of adapting to a new way of life. Past research has shown that sport participation can assist the physical and psychological adaptation to acquired physical disabilities. The purposes of our study were to examine the following: (a) the resilience process of sport participants with acquired spinal cord injury, and (b) the role of sport participation in the resilience process. We conducted semistructured phenomenological interviews with 12 male quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players. Results show that the development of resilience is a multifactorial process involving pre-existing factors and pre-adversity experiences, disturbance/disturbing emotions, various types and sources of social support, special opportunities and experiences, various behavioral and cognitive coping strategies, motivation to adapt to changes, and learned attributes or gains from the resilience process. We discuss implications for future research and practice. PMID:23771633

  12. The National Sports Safety in Secondary Schools Benchmark (N4SB) Study: Defining Athletic Training Practice Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C. Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Parsons, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. Objective: To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Design: ?Descriptive study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 17?558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): ?A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Results: Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. Conclusions: This is the first study to describe secondary school athletic training that reflects national practice trends. To improve the quality of athletic training care and to support and improve current working conditions, the profession must examine how its members practice on a day-to-day basis. PMID:23768120

  13. Representative Baseline Values on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) in Adolescent Athletes Vary by Gender, Grade, and Concussion History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara C. Valovich McLeod; R. Curtis Bay; Kenneth C. Lam; Anikar Chhabra

    2012-01-01

    Background: To improve and standardize the sideline evaluation of sports-related concussion, the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) was developed. This tool assesses concussion-related signs and symptoms, cognition, balance, and coordination. This newly published assessment tool has not established representative baseline data on adolescent athletes.Hypothesis: Representative baseline SCAT2 scores in adolescent athletes will differ by gender, grade in school, and

  14. Through the Hoop: How Sports Participation Displaces Media Use and Is Related to Body Self-Esteem in Competitive Female Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Bissell; Katharine Birchall

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study analyzed competitive adolescent female athletes' use of entertainment media and sports participation and looked for possible predictors of more positive body self-esteem, an affective trait that could be present in women who have eating disorder tendencies. In this survey of 80 8-18 female athletes, overall body self-esteem was found to be quite high, but athletes in specific

  15. An exploration of the relationships between the quality of the sport, social, and academic experiences of college student-athletes and their adjustment to college: A qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics at major universities provide a variety of opportunities and challenges for student-athletes who choose to participate. This qualitative project studies the quality of interactions in the sport, the social, and the academic experiences for freshman football and male soccer student-athletes and their adjustment to college.\\u000aThe five research questions under review were as follows: Is there a relationship

  16. Cardiac screening of young athletes prior to participation in sports: difficulties in detecting the fatally flawed among the fabulously fit.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay; Merghani, Ahmed; Gati, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    Deaths of young athletes from cardiac disease are uncommon but receive considerable media attention and intermittently galvanize debates about cardiac screening prior to participation in sports. Both the American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) endorse preparticipation screening in athletes; however, there is disagreement about the best approach. The AHA recommends history and physical examination; this approach is pragmatic and relatively inexpensive but has poor sensitivity because most athletes are asymptomatic and physical examination identifies only a minority of those at risk of sudden cardiac death. The inclusion of the electrocardiogram in accordance with the recommendations of the ESC improves sensitivity for detection of serious cardiac disease but is associated with an unacceptably high false-positive rate, in part because of the overlap between the electrical manifestations of athletic training and the cardiomyopathies. For young athletes with normal electrocardiogram results, echocardiography contributes minimally to the diagnosis of serious cardiac diseases. Given all the complexities, cardiac screening of young athletes should be voluntary not mandatory and conducted by highly experienced physicians who fully understand the cardiovascular adaptation to intensive exercise. PMID:25384176

  17. Eating disorders among high performance athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

  18. The general practitioner as sports physician.

    PubMed Central

    Timpson, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    General practitioners must become more knowledgeable about sports medicine in order both to treat the injured athlete and to provide better rehabilitative treatment and advice on fitness and exercise to other patients. Close involvement with young amateur athletes also helps to keep the older physician "in tune" with the younger generation. Finances remain a major problem for amateur sporting events and sports medicine groups, as well as for the individual physician volunteering his time. PMID:902211

  19. Why Athletics Are Vulnerable to Gambling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Incidents of point-shaving and placing and accepting bets are evidence that professional gamblers are influencing college sports and campus life. Because of student athletes' competitive nature, they may be more likely to engage in gambling. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and individual colleges are examining and addressing this…

  20. Sue Behme Head Lacrosse Coach sbehme@sports.rochester.edu 1116 Goergen Athletic Center P.O. Box 270296 Rochester, NY 14627 (585)-245-1030

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    Sue Behme Head Lacrosse Coach sbehme@sports.rochester.edu 1116 Goergen Athletic Center P.O. Box Rochester, NY 14627 sbehme@sports.rochester.edu (585)-245-1030 University of Rochester Elite Lacrosse Clinic MasterCard Amount enclosed or to be charged to card #: $___________ Card

  1. High-Risk Drinking Characteristics in Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James; Swanik, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to further describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. Participants: There were 720 participants from Divisions I, II, and III who participated in either a team sport or an individual sport. Methods: The authors measured…

  2. Physiological and performance test correlates of prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running performance in moderately trained women team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2007-02-01

    A large number of team sports require athletes to repeatedly produce maximal or near maximal sprint efforts of short duration interspersed with longer recovery periods of submaximal intensity. This type of team sport activity can be characterized as prolonged, high-intensity, intermittent running (PHIIR). The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the physiological factors that best relate to a generic PHIIR simulation that reflects team sport running activity. The second purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between common performance tests and the generic PHIIR simulation. Following a familiarization session, 16 moderately trained (VO2max = 40.0 +/- 4.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) women team sport athletes performed various physiological, anthropometrical, and performance tests and a 30-minute PHIIR sport simulation on a nonmotorized treadmill. The mean heart rate and blood lactate concentration during the PHIIR sport simulation were 164 +/- 6 b x min(-1) and 8.2 +/- 3.3 mmol x L(-1), respectively. Linear regression demonstrated significant relationships between the PHIIR sport simulation distance and running velocity attained at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x L(-1) (LT) (r = 0.77, p < 0.05), 5 x 6-second repeated cycle sprint work (r = 0.56, p < 0.05), 30-second Wingate test (r = 0.61, p < 0.05), peak aerobic running velocity (Vmax) (r = 0.69, p < 0.05), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR1) distance (r = 0.50, p < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that an increased LT is associated with improved PHIIR performance and that PHIIR performance may be monitored by determining Yo-Yo IR1 performance, 5 x 6-second repeated sprint cycle test work, 30-second Wingate test performance, Vmax, or LT. We suggest that training programs should focus on improving both LT and Vmax for increasing PHIIR performance in moderately trained women. Future studies should examine optimal training methods for improving these capacities in team sport athletes. PMID:17313257

  3. Sports medicine and ethics.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

    2013-01-01

    Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

  4. Performance analysis in sport: contributions from a joint analysis of athletes' experience and biomechanical indicators.

    PubMed

    Sève, C; Nordez, A; Poizat, G; Saury, J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of combining two types of analysis to investigate sports performance with the aim of optimizing it. These two types of analysis correspond to two levels of athletes' activity: (a) their experiences during performance and (b) the biomechanical characteristics of their movements. Rowing served as an illustration, and the activity of one female crew member was studied during a race. Three types of data were collected: (a) audiovisual data recorded during the race; (b) verbalization data obtained in interviews conducted afterward; and (c) biomechanical data. The courses of experience of the two rowers during the race were reconstructed on the basis of the audiovisual and verbalization data. This paper presents a detailed analysis of a single phenomenon of the race experienced by one of the rowers. According to the coaches, it reflected a dysfunction in crew coordination. The aim of this analysis was to identify the biomechanical characteristics of the rowers' movements that might explain it. The results showed that the phenomenon could be explained principally by an amplitude differential between the two rowers' strokes. On this basis, the coaches defined new training objectives to remedy the dysfunction in crew coordination. PMID:22150999

  5. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

  6. ESPN's "SportsCenter": Socialization of America's Athletes, Coaches and Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aicinena, Steven

    This study examined what values, attitudes, and behaviors are conveyed through televised sports news programming that would be expected in both sport and the world of work. The study involved viewing 102 editions of ESPN's "SportsCenter," a sports news program, and recording comments made by program anchors, news journalists, players, coaches,…

  7. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gretchen A. Kerr; Ashley E. Stirling

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's experiences of relational forms of abuse

  8. Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    E-print Network

    Hook, Lacole Lea

    2012-05-31

    for use of their time, on average only 3% of National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes in men‘s and women‘s basketball, football, baseball, men‘s ice hockey, and men‘s soccer will play professional sports (National Collegiate Athletic... and stable a picture an individual possesses of his or her goals, interests, personality, and talents. Occupational engagement refers to how devoted, concerned, or involved an individual is in engaging in a variety of life experiences that may help them...

  9. INTRAMURALSSpring Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 registration fee required

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    INTRAMURALSSpring Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 are forfeited). 3 week season with up to 2 games per week. Sport Registration Dates Season Dates Basketball (Men of tournament style competition. NO forfeit fee required. Sport Registration Dates Tournament Dates Racquetball

  10. INTRAMURALSFall Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 registration fee required

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    INTRAMURALSFall Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 are forfeited). 3 week season with up to 2 games per week. Sport Registration Dates Season Dates Co-Ed Softball Tournaments* 1 to 4 days of tournament style competition. NO forfeit fee required. Sport Registration Dates

  11. INTRAMURALSSummer Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 registration fee required

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    INTRAMURALSSummer Team Sports* Registration accepted for teams or "free agent" individuals. $25 are forfeited). Sport Registration Dates Season Dates Flag Football (Men's & Women's & Co-Ed) May 5 - May 17 May the team manager via email or text message. Recreational Sports & Fitness 120 Marga Hosaeus Fitness Center

  12. Selected Cutaneous Disorders in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James D.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses selected cutaneous diseases seen in the athlete. These diseases may be caused by interaction with the elements, the playing surface, other athletes, or the clothing or equipment worn during sport. All of these dermatological conditions are relatively common, but the physically active individual can suffer from these maladies and their complications more often than the inactive person. The emphasis in caring for the participant is on prevention, early recognition and practical aspects of management of cutaneous diseases. PMID:21264034

  13. Working in Competitive Sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy L. Van Raalte

    1998-01-01

    Work with competitive athletes is rewarding and challenging. Understanding the unique aspects of the elite sport environment can enhance psychological consultation. This paper begins with several case examples, then background characteristics common to many athletes are described, e.g., early involvement in sport participation, reliance on sport specific behavioral norms. It is suggested that paying particular attention to athletes' sport history,

  14. Comparison of muscle buffer capacity and repeated-sprint ability of untrained, endurance-trained and team-sport athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bishop; Stephen Hill-Haas; Brian Dawson; Carmel Goodman

    2006-01-01

    We measured the muscle buffer capacity (?m) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport\\u000a athletes (n=7), endurance trained (n=6) or untrained but physically active (n=8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine\\u000a $$ {\\\\text{\\\\ifmmode\\\\expandafter\\\\dot\\\\else\\\\expandafter\\\\.\\\\fi{V}O}}_{{{\\\\text{2peak}}}} $$ followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5×6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken

  15. Prediction of sport adherence through the influence of autonomy-supportive coaching among Spanish adolescent athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartolomé J. Almagro; Pedro Sáenz-López; Juan A. Moreno

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motiva- tion. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to

  16. Understanding how organized youth sport maybe harming individual players within the family unit: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bean, Corliss N; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little to date has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of papers on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. Ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

  17. Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports

  18. Anterior capsulolabral reconstruction of the shoulder in athletes in overhand sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank W. Jobe; Charles E. Giangarra; Ronald S. Kvitne; Ronald E. Glousman

    1991-01-01

    From April 1, 1985, through June 30, 1987, 25 skilled athletes with shoulder pain secondary to anterior gle nohumeral instability that had failed to improve with conservative therapy had an anterior capsulolabral re construction. All but one athlete completed a formal rehabilitation program with an average followup of 39 months. The results at followup were rated excellent in 68%, good

  19. Passion in Sport: On the Quality of the Coach-Athlete Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc-André K. Lafrenière; Sophia Jowett; Robert J. Vallerand; Eric G. Donahue; Ross Lorimer

    2008-01-01

    Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adap- tive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N

  20. Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filsinger, Lora C.

    2012-01-01

    As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

  1. The myth of the team captain as principal leader: extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field. PMID:24660668

  2. [Injuries of the acromioclavicular joint in athletes].

    PubMed

    Kraus, N; Scheibel, M

    2014-10-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation is a common injury to the shoulder girdle, especially in contact and high velocity sports. Besides the severity of the injury, and particularly in competitive and elite athletes and the type of sports, individual career plans and in and out of season injuries have to be taken into account when advising treatment for athletes. Conservative treatment is reserved for low-grade dislocations and in-season athletes. The aim is fast pain relief and a safe return to competitive sport. High-grade ACJ dislocations in athletes should be treated surgically. Arthroscopic and arthroscopically-assisted techniques can offer a lower risk of infection, a higher patient acceptance in terms of cosmetic perspectives and the potential to treat concomitant glenohumeral lesions and may avoid potential disadvantages of open techniques, such as secondary obligatory implant removal and extensive soft tissue preparation with a relevant approach morbidity. PMID:25056562

  3. Meet Me at the Crossroads: African American Athletic and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    How individuals define themselves has considerable implications within the realms of sport. Considering the large proportion of African Americans participating in high profile college sports, matters of identity likely become quite relevant. This article addresses issues related to athletic and racial identity contextualized in the sport domain.…

  4. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePLUS

    ... triad include: Weight loss Absent or irregular periods Fatigue Stress fractures Restrictive dieting Binge eating Induced vomiting ... the risk factors for female athlete triad? Being a competitive athlete Playing sports that require you to check your weight often ...

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring.

    PubMed

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

    2013-10-01

    The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-? and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1? concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes. PMID:23916597

  6. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on youth athletic development.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F; Mountjoy, Margo; Armstrong, Neil; Chia, Michael; Côté, Jean; Emery, Carolyn A; Faigenbaum, Avery; Hall, Gary; Kriemler, Susi; Léglise, Michel; Malina, Robert M; Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Sanchez, Alex; Soligard, Torbjørn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; van Mechelen, Willem; Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    The health, fitness and other advantages of youth sports participation are well recognised. However, there are considerable challenges for all stakeholders involved-especially youth athletes-in trying to maintain inclusive, sustainable and enjoyable participation and success for all levels of individual athletic achievement. In an effort to advance a more unified, evidence-informed approach to youth athlete development, the IOC critically evaluated the current state of science and practice of youth athlete development and presented recommendations for developing healthy, resilient and capable youth athletes, while providing opportunities for all levels of sport participation and success. The IOC further challenges all youth and other sport governing bodies to embrace and implement these recommended guiding principles. PMID:26084524

  7. A meta-analytic study of the Profile of Mood States in sport and exercise research 

    E-print Network

    Vaughan, Kristen Lea

    1989-01-01

    as an individual unit of analysis with six dependent variables (the six scales of the POMS: tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion) and a variable number of comparison groups considered as separate samples: elite athlete, average athlete... to sport in 1975. The present study integrates and reviews data from the use of this clinical instrument in a sport or exercise context using meta- analysis. Three categories of comparisons were examined: (1) elite athletes versus their average...

  8. A diffusion tensor imaging study on the white matter skeleton in individuals with sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Cubon, Valerie A; Putukian, Margot; Boyer, Cynthia; Dettwiler, Annegret

    2011-02-01

    Recognizing and managing the effects of cerebral concussion is very challenging, given the discrete symptomatology. Most individuals with sports-related concussion will not score below 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but will present with rapid onset of short-lived neurological impairment, demonstrating no structural changes on traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. The return-to-play decision is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been primarily based on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. We assessed white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity in varsity level college athletes with sports-related concussion without loss of consciousness, who experienced protracted symptoms for at least 1 month after injury. Evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the WM skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed a large cluster of significantly increased MD for concussed subjects in several WM fiber tracts in the left hemisphere, including parts of the inferior/superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and posterior thalamic and acoustic radiations. Qualitative comparison of average FA and MD suggests that with increasing level of injury severity (ranging from sports-related concussion to severe traumatic brain injury), MD might be more sensitive at detecting mild injury, whereas FA captures more severe injuries. In conclusion, the TBSS analysis used to evaluate diffuse axonal injury of the WM skeleton seems sensitive enough to detect structural changes in sports-related concussion. PMID:21083414

  9. Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192

  10. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and psychopharmacologic treatments in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Conant-Norville, David O; Tofler, Ian R

    2005-10-01

    It is conjectured that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms adversely impacting academics, family functioning, social relationships, and vocational performance might also negatively affect athletic and sport performance and enjoyment; this warrants further scientific inquiry. Children, adolescents, and adults participate in organized and impromptu sport activities, both team and individual. With the concern about an epidemic of obesity in the United States, barriers to participation in sport and exercise such as ADHD need to be better understood. This article approaches ADHD in sports by providing a brief introduction to ADHD, first reviewing general clinical findings, then discussing recreational youth sports and psychopharmacological treatment risks and benefits for the elite athlete. PMID:16169448

  11. Development of Sport Courage Scale

    PubMed Central

    Konter, Erkut; Ng, Johan

    2012-01-01

    While theory and practice of sport have much to say about fear, stress and anxiety, they have little to say about courage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a Sport Courage Scale. Data were collected from two groups of male and female athletes aged from 13 to 22 in different individual and team sports. The first set of data (N = 380) was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis, and the second set of data (N = 388) was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Analyses revealed a 5-factor structure of Sport Courage Scale that supported factorial validity and reliability of scale scores. These factors were labelled: “Determination”, “Mastery”, “Assertiveness”, “Venturesome”, and “Self-Sacrifice Behaviour”. Finally, evidence of test-retest reliability of scale scores was supported based on responses from 75 athletes. However, more research is needed to further improve the Sport Courage Scale. PMID:23487444

  12. The sport psychologist\\/athletic coach dual role: Advantages, difficulties, and ethical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose M. Buceta

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of this article are: 1) to discuss, from the perspective of a person working both as a sport psychologist\\/coach and as a sport psychologist\\/non-ch, the ethical considerations in tenns of dual relationships, and 2) from the same perspective, to discuss the advantages and difficulties that may be present when the same person is blending both roles. It is

  13. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  14. Prevalence of sudden cardiac death during competitive sports activities in Minnesota High School athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry J Maron; Thomas E Gohman; Dorothee Aeppli

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. Reliable prevalence data would be useful in assessing the impact of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes on the community and designing effective preparticipation screening strategies.Background. The frequency with which these catastrophes occur is largely unknown.Methods. We utilized a circumstance unique to Minnesota in which the precise number of participants and deaths due to cardiovascular disease could be

  15. Psychosocial factors in sports injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ahern, D K; Lohr, B A

    1997-10-01

    The psychology of sports injury rehabilitation is a relatively new field, even in comparison with the relatively youthful disciplines from which it has evolved. Although the psychology of sports injury has made a significant impact on the sports medicine team, the practical aspects of how and when to refer patients to psychologists need to be better understood. A recent survey of 20 sports medicine physicians indicated a high degree of psychological or behavioral concerns occurring in conjunction with sport injuries, and an increased interest in the services of clinical sports psychologists. An appreciation of mind-body interactions and how they function regarding stress, sports performance, and injury is fundamental to the acceptance of psychological techniques in the medical arena. Teaching these fundamental issues to those in sports and medicine is essential. Furthermore, the psychology of sports injury needs continuing development of a base of theory, empirical research, and clinical practice that is sensitive to the needs of the individual athlete. Research on the assessment of psychosocial factors influencing sports injury and performance, as well as the efficacy of treatment modalities, is warranted. The psychology of sports injury has emerged from several previously established areas of psychology including behavioral medicine, rehabilitation, and sport psychology. As the techniques derived from these arenas are modified to suit the special needs of injured athletes, a set of principles and practices can be-established to better assist the sports medicine team in rehabilitation and prevention of sports injury. PMID:9330812

  16. Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports. Report to Congressional Addressees. GAO-07-535

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the roles of women as both students and athletes have changed in higher education, with female enrollment surpassing male enrollment, and female athletic participation showing gains as well. These changes have generated public interest in whether women participate in athletics at comparable levels to men and whether men's…

  17. Quantifying session ratings of perceived exertion for field-based speed training methods in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-10-01

    Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p < 0.05) changes in sprint velocity and session RPE over 6 weeks. All groups significantly increased 0- to 5-m velocity and 0- to 10-m velocity by 4-7%, with no differences between groups. There were no significant differences in session RPE between the groups, suggesting that protocols were matched for intensity. Session RPE significantly increased over the 6 weeks for all groups, ranging from 3.75 to 5.50. This equated to intensities of somewhat hard to hard. Post hoc testing revealed few significant weekly increases, suggesting that session RPE may not be sensitive to weekly load increases in sprint and plyometric training programs. Another explanation, however, could be that the weekly load increments used were not great enough to increase perceived exertion. Nonetheless, the progressive overload of each program was sufficient to improve 10-m sprint performance. The session RPE values from the present study could be used to assess workload for speed training periodization within a team sports conditioning program. PMID:22130404

  18. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be predicted by a history of concussion (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, p = 0.016), preinjury mood disorders (OR 17.9, 95% CI 2.9-113.0, p = 0.002), family history of mood disorders (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.5, p = 0.026), and delayed symptom onset (OR 20.7, 95% CI 3.2-132.0, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this age- and sex-matched case-control study of risk factors for PCS among youth with SRC, risk for development of PCS was higher in those with a personal and/or family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. These findings highlight the unique nature of SRC in youth. For this population, providers must recognize the value of establishing the baseline health and psychiatric status of children and their primary caregivers with regard to symptom reporting and recovery expectations. In addition, delayed symptom onset was an unexpected but strong risk factor for PCS in this cohort. Delayed symptoms could potentially result in late removal from play, rest, and care by qualified health care professionals. Taken together, these results may help practitioners identify young athletes with concussion who are at a greater danger for PCS and inform larger prospective studies for validation of risk factors from this cohort. PMID:25745949

  19. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy | Volume 9, Number 4 | August 2014 | Page 447 Purpose/Background: Division III (D III) collegiate coaches are challenged to assess athletic readiness and condition

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    of their sports seasons. Athletes reported their off-season training habits (weightlifting, cardio- vascular exercise, plyometric exercise, and scrimmage) during the six weeks prior to the preseason. Athletes also hours per exercise category than their female counterparts. Mean SLJ distances (normalized to height

  20. Sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety, and individual cognitions: how do they interact?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the interaction between individual and environmental determinants of physical activity, although this may be important information for the development of effective interventions. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether perceived neighborhood safety modifies associations between individual cognitions and sports participation. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75) of 87 neighborhoods in the city of Eindhoven, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 2474). We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze the interactions between perceived neighborhood safety and individual cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention) on sports participation (yes/no). Results In its association with sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety interacted significantly with self-efficacy and attitude (p < 0.05). Among persons who perceived their neighborhood as safe, a positive attitude was strongly associated with sports participation (OR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.48-2.71). In contrast, attitude was not associated with sports participation in persons who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.34-1.24). Further, self-efficacy was significantly stronger associated with sports participation in persons who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.31-2.60) than in those who perceived their neighborhood as safe (OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.05-1.36). Social influence and intention did not interact with perceived neighborhood safety. Conclusions Associations between individual cognitions and sports participation depend on neighborhood circumstances, such as perceived neighborhood safety. Interventions to promote sports participation in adults should take the interaction between environmental and individual characteristics into account. More research is needed to find out the causal pathways in individual-environment interactions. PMID:21777414

  1. Effects of different precooling techniques on repeat sprint ability in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the simultaneous use of internal and external precooling methods with singular methods and their effect on repeated sprint cycling in hot/humid conditions. Twelve male team sport players completed four experimental conditions, initially involving a 30-min precooling period consisting of either a cooling jacket (J); ingestion of an ice slushy ice slushy; combination of cooling jacket and ice ingestion (J + ice slushy); or control (CONT). This was followed by 70 min of repeat sprint cycling (in~35°C, 60% relative humidity [RH]), consisting of 2 × 30-min halves, separated by a 10-min half-time period where the same cooling method was again used. Each half comprised 30 × 4 s maximal sprints on 60 s, interspersed with sub-maximal exercise at varying intensities. Total mean power and work performed were significantly higher (p = 0.02) in J + ice slushy (233.6 ± 31.4 W) compared to ice slushy (211.8 ± 34.5 kJ), while moderate effect sizes (ES: d = 0.67) suggested lower core temperatures (TC) in J + ice slushy (36.8 ± 0.3°C) compared to J (37.0 ± 0.3°C) and CONT (37.0 ± 0.3°C) following precooling. A moderate ES (d = 0.57) also indicated lower TC in J + ice slushy (38.2 ± 0.3) compared to ice slushy (38.4 ± 0.4°C) after half-time cooling. Change (?) in mean skin temperature over half-time cooling was significantly greater (p = 0.036) for J (1.0 ± 0.4°C) compared to ice slushy (0.5 ± 0.5°C), and ES (d = 0.5-1.10) also suggested a greater ? for J compared to the other conditions. Sweat loss was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in ice slushy and J + ice slushy compared to J and CONT. In conclusion, a combination of (external and internal) body cooling techniques may enhance repeated sprint performance in the heat compared to individual cooling methods. PMID:24444249

  2. The Effect of Course Length on Individual Medley Swimming Performance in National and International Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000–2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000–2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000–2011. PMID:25414752

  3. The effect of course length on individual medley swimming performance in national and international athletes.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-09-29

    Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000-2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000-2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000-2011. PMID:25414752

  4. The Symbolic Boundary of Sports: Middle School Athletic Culture and Mexican Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents an analysis of the hidden curriculum of school sports in mediating the achievement of Mexican immigrant girls in middle schools in the southwestern United States. Using Bourdieu's theory of taste, the author shows how symbolic boundaries expressed by students and teachers legitimize cultural practices that…

  5. 1Athletic Training & Sports Health Care | Vol. 5 No. X 2013 Enhancing Ice Hockey Skills Through

    E-print Network

    Mitroff, Stephen

    performance. Recent research has suggested that a new sport train- ing tool, Nike SPARQ Vapor Strobe eyewear (Nike Inc, Beaverton, Oregon), can improve vision, atten- tion, and anticipatory timing.1-3 Those consultant to Nike Inc, Beaverton; and Dr Reichow is from Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon

  6. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  7. Transitioning to an Athletic Subjectivity: First-Semester Experiences at a Corporate (Sporting) University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Bryan C.; Mower, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of…

  8. Athletes' age, sex, and years of education moderate the acute neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Brooke K; Horswill, Mark S; Geffen, Gina M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine which pre-existing athlete characteristics, if any, are associated with greater deficits in functioning following sports-related concussion, after controlling for factors previously shown to moderate this effect (e.g., time since injury). Ninety-one independent samples of concussion were included in a fixed+systematic effects meta-analysis (n = 3,801 concussed athletes; 5,631 controls). Moderating variables were assessed using analogue-to-ANOVA and meta-regression analyses. Post-injury assessments first conducted 1-10 days following sports-related concussion revealed significant neuropsychological dysfunction, postural instability and post-concussion symptom reporting (d = -0.54, -1.10, and -1.14, respectively). During this interval, females (d = -0.87), adolescent athletes competing in high school competitions (d = -0.60), and those with 10 years of education (d = -1.32) demonstrated larger post-concussion neuropsychological deficits than males (d = -0.42), adults (d = -0.25), athletes competing at other levels of competition (d = -0.43 to -0.41), or those with 16 years of education (d = -0.15), respectively. However, these sub-groups' differential impairment/recovery beyond 10 days could not be reliably quantified from available literature. Pre-existing athlete characteristics, particularly age, sex and education, were demonstrated to be significant modifiers of neuropsychological outcomes within 10 days of a sports-related concussion. Implications for return-to-play decision-making and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23375058

  9. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual

  10. Community College Athletics: The Road Less Traveled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Joseph R.; Kirk, Arthur

    1979-01-01

    Community colleges are urged to break away from the commercialized athletics modeled by four-year colleges and develop programs that have educational value, focus on the success of the individual, and encourage wide student participation. Focus should be on lifelong involvement in sports and student learning. (JMD)

  11. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Corrado; Federico Migliore; Michela Bevilacqua; Cristina Basso; Gaetano Thiene

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In 1982, a nationwide program of preparticipation screening of all individuals embarking in competitive sports activity was\\u000a launched in Italy. The screening protocol includes athlete’s personal and family history, physical examination, and twelve-lead\\u000a electrocardiogram (ECG) as first-line examination; additional tests such as echocardiography or exercise testing are requested\\u000a only for subjects who have positive findings at the initial evaluation.

  12. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ponamgi, Shiva P; DeSimone, Christopher V; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes as well as the unknown efficacy of ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise has resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. PMID:26100423

  13. Where, when, and Why Young Athletes Use Imagery: An Examination of Developmental Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.; Hall, Craig R.; Fishburne, Graham J.; Strachan, Leisha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate young athletes' imagery use from a developmental perspective. The participants were 110 male and female athletes competing in both team and individual sports. They represented four different age cohorts (i.e., 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 years). Sixteen focus groups, two for each age category and…

  14. Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

    2013-02-01

    The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing more relevant than laboratory testing. However, given that many tests, such as the multistage fitness test and the Yo-Yo intermittent test, have originally been developed for AB games players, the assumption that these can also be used for wheelchair athletes may be erroneous. With the array of AB aerobic and anaerobic field tests available, it is difficult to ascertain which ones may be best suited for wheelchair athletes. Therefore, new, wheelchair sport-specific tests have been proposed and validated. Careful selection of tests to enable coaches to distinguish between disability classifications, wheelchair proficiency and actual performance improvements is paramount as this will not only enhance the value of field-based testing, but also help with the development of meaningful normative data. PMID:23329608

  15. More Similar than Different: The Psychological Environment of Paralympic Sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen D. Dieffenbach; Traci A. Statler

    2012-01-01

    As the opportunities for sport participation have increased for individuals with disabilities so has the level of competition. Athletes with disabilities now routinely compete at the national and international level with participation at the Paralympic Games as the crowning opportunity. Unfortunately, in the sport context, the concept of disability is often seen as a cue for different or special needs.

  16. Athletic Identity of Community College Student Athletes: Issues for Counseling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B. Kissinger; Richard Newman; Michael T. Miller; Daniel P. Nadler

    2011-01-01

    Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400 community college student athletes to begin

  17. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  18. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  19. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  20. [Bechterew disease and top level sport: an attainable combination?].

    PubMed

    Kleinjan, Marjolein; van Rijthoven, André W A M; Backx, Frank J G

    2009-01-01

    One 23-year-old and two 24- year-old athletes were diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. Because of their wish to compete in sport at the highest level, we considered the feasible extent and intensity of physical sports-load regarding the short-, middle- and long-term effects in this particular subgroup of ankylosing spondylitis patients. We could not find any published articles regarding the physical capacities of highly motivated athletes with ankylosing spondylitis. To give 'tailor made' advice to each athlete, we analysed these patients by using a standardized questionnaire, followed by analysis of the case history and a thorough physical examination. As a result we obtained an idea of the maximum individual feasible sports-load in relation to individual capacity for each athlete. Individual and disease characteristics, as well as the sport-specific physical load, can influence the physical capacity of the athlete. To register the effects of maximum sports-load in the middle and long term, and to work towards offering the best possible advice to athletes with ankylosing spondylitis, follow-up research in these 3 patients is advisable. PMID:19785895

  1. Concussion in Winter Sports

    MedlinePLUS

    ... national governing bodies for sports to develop a poster for young athletes. This poster lets athletes know that all concussions are serious ... if they think they have a concussion. The poster was created through CDC's "Heads Up" educational campaign ...

  2. A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.

    PubMed

    Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0? ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation. PMID:22093018

  3. The Management of Athletes with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Molossi, Silvana; Grenier, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Although rare, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is devastating to families and communities. Screening of athletes prior to sports participation by trained professionals is useful in identifying individuals who carry known risk factors for SCD. Inclusive in this population are those athletes with congenital heart disease. Sports medicine specialists should be able to identify those at risk for adverse events surrounding vigorous activity and direct appropriate evaluation by the specialist (ie, cardiologist) as deemed appropriate. Equally importantly, they should be able to coach individuals in order to improve performance and quality of life with exercise in a safe environment. PMID:26100428

  4. Systems Engineering 490/495 -Spring 2013 Sports Analytics\\

    E-print Network

    Systems Engineering 490/495 - Spring 2013 Sports Analytics\\ DESIGNING A GAME ANALYSIS DECISION Overview Collegiate Athletics · Largest national non-profit collegiate sports organization U.S. (NCAA 2013 Athletic Department Administrative Support Athletic Director Finance Operations Academic

  5. University and College Counselors as Athletic Team Consultants: Using a Structural Family Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individual athlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide…

  6. Department of Sport and Exercise SPORTS CENTRE

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Department of Sport and Exercise SPORTS CENTRE MEMBERSHIP 2014-15 For access to Athletic Union club charge of £3.70 on each visit for use of Sports Centre facilities outside of AU Club session times be made in cash or with a debit/credit card, in person at Sports Centre Reception. We regret we

  7. Vital signs and demographics in the preparticipation sports exam: do they help us find the elusive athlete at risk for sudden cardiac death?

    PubMed

    Sealy, David P; Pekarek, Lesslie; Russ, David; Sealy, Clark; Goforth, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Much attention recently has been paid to the detection of those young athletes who may be at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in sports participation. In this article, we attempt to summarize the remarkably few studies that examine the question of whether vital signs and basic demographics are associated with athletes at risk for SCD. Historical items such as chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitations are not reviewed. The only demographics mentioned in the literature as associated with SCD are being of the male gender, which is associated highly with SCD, and being African-American. Most notably, we were unable to find even prospective data asking the question of whether resting pulse, blood pressure, height, weight, and age are potential risk factors. Therefore, we also have included recent data from our own research to make this summary more complete. PMID:21068565

  8. Dietary antioxidants for the athlete.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Mustafa; Lappalainen, Jani; Sen, Chandan K

    2006-06-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress and tissue damage. Although a basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is required to drive redox signaling and numerous physiologic processes, excess ROS during exercise may have adverse implications on health and performance. Antioxidant nutrients may be helpful in that regard. Caution should be exercised against excess antioxidant supplements, however. This article presents a digest for sports practitioners. The following three recommendations are made: 1) it is important to determine the individual antioxidant need of each athlete performing a specific sport; 2) multinutrient preparations, as opposed to megadoses of any single form of nutrient, seem to be a more prudent path to choose; and 3) for outcomes of antioxidant supplementation, performance should not be the only criteria. Overall well being of the athlete, faster recovery, and minimization of injury time could all be affected by antioxidant therapy. PMID:16822339

  9. Sports 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    target market as a viable consumer base. As such, marketers should understand what factors encourage African Americans to consume sport, and what factors deter African Americans from consuming baseball. Thus, the purpose of my study was to advance...

  10. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: The significance of competitive level and type of sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Jonker; Marije T. Elferink-Gemser; Chris Visscher

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12–16 years as a function of competitive

  11. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stronger athlete. Back Continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  12. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  13. Champions of American Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westin, Sandra

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exhibition (originating at the Smithsonian Institution) which celebrates athletes and sports-related figures who became legends in their own time. Information is presented on art works, sports memorabilia, advertising posters, and photographs. (AM)

  14. Media Coverage of the Post Title IX Female Athlete: A Feminist Analysis of Sport, Gender, and Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Kane

    1996-01-01

    I. Introduction Sport is one of the most important institutions in American culture. This certainly is demonstrated by the vast resources spent on sport-related enter- prises. With respect to discretionary spending alone, billions of dollars are spent annually on the sale of licensed sport products (e.g., baseball caps). In 1992, retail sales of all licensed sport merchandise totaled $ 12.2

  15. How to Practice Sports Cardiology: A Cardiology Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Christine E

    2015-07-01

    The rigorous cardiovascular (CV) demands of sport, combined with training-related cardiac adaptations, render the athlete a truly unique CV patient and sports cardiology a truly unique discipline. Cardiologists are advised to adopt a systematic approach to the CV evaluation of athletes, taking into consideration the individual sports culture, sports-specific CV demands, CV adaptations and their appearance on cardiac testing, any existing or potential interaction of the heart with the internal and external sports environment, short- and long-term CV risks, and potential effect of performance-enhancing agents and antidoping regulations. This article outlines the systematic approach, provides a detailed example, and outlines contemporary sports cardiology core competencies. PMID:26100427

  16. Detecting and developing youth athlete potential: different strokes for different folks are warranted.

    PubMed

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sport talent identification and development (TI and TD) in youth continues to attract strong interest among coaches, sport scientists and sport administrators. TI for sport in youth with the anticipation of future elite level sport achievement is both an art and a science, and is strongly influenced by within athlete and extraneous-to-athlete factors (ecosystem of support or the lack of). The returns from investment on current TI and TD models of sport in youth are subpar in that few continue in the sport to achieve podium positions at the elite sport level in adulthood. Why, where and how one succeeds in sport, and what that success means to the athlete and stakeholders are dependent on the culture and context of the country. We advocate harnessing the power of sport to help in youth development, to be holistic in its nurturance, to allow for individual idiosyncratic expressions of the athletes, to provide for talent transfer across sport, and to facilitate key stakeholders to 'join' hands to work for the common interest and understanding for as many youth and adults so as to provide them with opportunities through support and coaching to compete at the different levels of competition in sport. Governments, policy makers and administrators of sport must decide, within their specific circumstances, if TI and TD in sport in youth is serving a meaningful purpose and is a viable return on investment; in short, is it mission possible or is it… a quest for the Holy Grail for a podium finish in elite level sport competition? PMID:25907182

  17. Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad Killam; Robin L. Cautin; Anthony C. Santucci

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist, and the Stroop task. Based on a brief self-report concussion history survey, male and female athletes who participated in ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, and\\/or soccer were assigned to one of

  18. Validation of Ottawa ankle rules protocol in Greek athletes: study in the emergency departments of a district general hospital and a sports injuries clinic

    PubMed Central

    Papacostas, E; Malliaropoulos, N; Papadopoulos, A; Liouliakis, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To validate the Ottawa ankle rules protocol for predicting ankle and midfoot fractures in Greek athletes. Method—A prospective survey in the emergency departments of a district general hospital and a sports injury clinic in Greece over nine months. A clinical evaluation was made of 122 patients with acute ankle and/or midfoot injury, and then radiographs were taken. Results—Nine ankle and eight midfoot fractures were detected. The sensitivity of the Ottawa ankle rules protocol in predicting fractures in both the malleolar and midfoot zones was 100%. The negative predictive value for each of these areas was also 1.0. Specificity was estimated to be 0.3 for ankle fractures and 0.4 for midfoot fractures. Positive predictive values were 0.16 and 0.28 respectively. A possible reduction of up to 28.7% was found in the need for radiography. Conclusions—Use of the Ottawa ankle rules protocol in evaluating injured Greek athletes resulted in 100% sensitivity when performed by orthopaedic residents or sports medicine doctors, and had the potential to reduce the use of radiography. Key Words: ankle sprains; radiographs; injuries PMID:11726486

  19. University of Manchester sports injury clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Galasko; T. J. Menon; G. J. Lemon; A. J. Banks; M. A. Morris; M. S. Bourne; S. Bentley

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of the sports injury clinic based at the Student Health Centre, University of Manchester during its first eighteen months. A total of 852 patients including 46 Centre of Excellence athletes were treated. The results indicate that the establishment of such a specialised clinic is worthwhile, that the injured sportsmen should be treated by individuals trained

  20. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  1. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident. PMID:21568189

  2. Mental Well-Being and Sport-Related Identities in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has linked physical activity and sports participation with improved mental and social well-being, including reduced risk of depression and suicidality. In this study we examined relationships among several dimensions of athletic involvement (team sport participation, individual sport participation, athlete identity, and jock identity), gender, and depression and suicidal behavior in a sample of 791 undergraduate students. Both participation in a team sport and athlete identity were associated with lower depression scores. Athlete identity was also associated with lower odds of a past-year suicide attempt, whereas jock identity was associated with elevated odds of a suicide attempt. The findings are discussed in light of the relationship between mental well-being and a larger constellation of health-risk behaviors linked to a “toxic jock” identity. PMID:20661467

  3. Athletic Identity of Community College Student Athletes: Issues for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…

  4. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Marco; Wenzel, Uwe; Draganski, Bogdan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Ragert, Patrick; Krug, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual’s performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete’s brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes’ persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years. PMID:26079870

  5. Loyalty: Why Is It so Problematic in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2012-01-01

    What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a…

  6. Using Learning Preferences to Improve Coaching and Athletic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julia L.

    2009-01-01

    Each individual learns in a different manner, depending on his or her perceptual or learning preferences (visual, auditory, read/write, or kinesthetic). In sport, coaches and athletes must speak a common language of instructions, verbal cues, and appropriate motor responses. Thus, developing a clear understanding of how to use students' learning…

  7. Perceptions of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Study of NCAA Men's Sport Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among organizational justice components, overall job satisfaction, and organizational commitment within the intercollegiate athletics setting. Perceptions of three organizational justice components (procedural, distributive, and interactional), overall job satisfaction, and…

  8. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  9. [Endurance sports and arythmias].

    PubMed

    Burgan, H; Burri, H

    2013-03-01

    Endurance sports can predispose to the occurrence of certain arrhythmias, making them more frequent in athletes than in the general population. Endurance athletes often exhibit electrocardiographic modifications that are difficult to interpret without specific knowledge of the athlete's ECG. Some of these ECG modifications and arrhythmias are benign, however others can be potentially life threatening. PMID:23534112

  10. Policy on Complimentary Admission for Student Athletes Policy on Complimentary

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    -ATHLETES TO HOME EVENTS Student-athletes must present their Husky ID card at the Student Sports Pass window at each: Tickets, admission, athletics, sports, events, games #12;Policy on Complimentary Admission for Student event in order to gain access to the event. If the card is invalid for any reason, the student- athlete

  11. NUMBER: ATHL 2.03 SECTION: Athletics

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    .D. card for athletics events. 5. Invalid I.D. cards will be confiscated. D. Revenue Sports--Special Groups Hyman Issued by: Athletics I. Policy A. Revenue Sports 1. Students must be full-time or have paid of Trustees. B. Non-Revenue Sports Full-time, fee-paying students are entitled to attend all USC-sponsored non

  12. 2009 Collegiate Athletic Department Sustainability Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSherry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report shows that while sustainability efforts appear to be growing within collegiate athletics, commitment to sustainability is lower among athletic departments than compared to their institutions as a whole and to professional sports teams. The survey was distributed to the 119 athletic departments at National Collegiate Athletic

  13. The Female Athlete Triad: Are Elite Athletes at Increased Risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MONICA KLUNGLAND TORSTVEIT; JORUNN SUNDGOT-BORGEN

    2005-01-01

    KLUNGLAND TORSTVEIT, M., and J. SUNDGOT-BORGEN. The Female Athlete Triad: Are Elite Athletes at Increased Risk? Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 184-193, 2005. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the percentage of elite athletes and controls at risk of the female athlete triad. Methods: A detailed questionnaire, which included questions regarding training and\\/or

  14. Quantifying expert athlete knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Storm J. Russell; John H. Salmela

    1992-01-01

    Recent research in sport psychology has focused on the role of the athlete's knowledge base in defining high-level sport performance. However, few studies have attempted to examine this knowledge directly, largely because of the methodological challenges involved (Allard & Burnett, 1985). One effective approach to investigating expertise in other domains has been to examine ways in which experts sort and

  15. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg. PMID:22741210

  16. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:12937591

  17. African-American Male Student-Athletes in Division I Collegiate Sports: Expectations and Aspirations for Undergraduate Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Seanan

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative case study explored undergraduate degree attainment by African American males in football and basketball at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Southwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants at the institution to uncover experiences that helped or…

  18. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  19. 12-lead ECG in the athlete: physiological versus pathological abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Corrado; A Biffi; C Basso; A Pelliccia; G Thiene

    2009-01-01

    Participation in sports activity and regular physical training is associated with physiological structural and electrical changes in the heart (athlete’s heart) that enable sustained increases in cardiac output for prolonged periods. Cardiovascular remodelling in the conditioned athlete is often associated with ECG changes. In rare cases, abnormalities of an athlete’s ECG may reflect an underlying heart disease which puts the

  20. Effects of drop jumps added to the warm-up of elite sport athletes with a high capacity for explosive force development.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker, Roger; Hübner, Klaus; Lorenz, Tobias; Marti, Bernard

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate influence of eccentric muscle action on vertical jump performance in athletes performing sports with a high demand of explosive force development. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, 13 Swiss elite athletes (national team members in ski jump, ski alpine, snowboard freestyle and alpine, ski freestyle, and gymnastics) with a mean age of 22 years (range 20-28) were randomized into 2 groups. After a semistandardized warm-up, group 1 did 5 jumps from a height of 60 cm, landing with active stabilization in 90 degrees knee flexion. One minute after these modified drop jumps, they performed 3 single squat jumps (SJ) and 3 single countermovement jumps (CMJ) on a force platform. The athletes repeated the procedure after 1 hour without the modified drop jumps. In a crossover manner, group 2 did the first warm-up without and the second warm-up with the modified drop jumps. Differences of the performance (jump height and maximal power) between the different warm-ups were the main outcomes. The mean absolute power and absolute height (without drop jumps) were CMJ 54.9 W.kg(-1) (SD = 4.1), SJ 55.0 W.kg(-1) (SD = 5.1), CMJ 44.1 cm (SD = 4.1), and SJ 40.8 cm (SD = 4.1). A consistent tendency for improvement with added drop jumps to the warm-up routine was observed compared with warm-up without drop jumps: maximal power CMJ +1.02 W.kg(-1) (95% confidence interval [CI] = +0.03 to +2.38), p = 0.045; maximal power SJ +0.8 W.kg(-1) (95% CI = -0.34 to +2.02), p = 0.148; jump height CMJ +0.48 cm (95% CI = -0.26 to +1.2), p = 0.182; SJ +0.73 cm (95% CI = -0.36 to +1.18), p = 0.169. Athletes could add modified drop jumps to the warm-up before competitions to improve explosive force development. PMID:17530974

  1. -Texas A&M University-DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL SPORTS

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    1 -Texas A&M University- DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL SPORTS INTRAMURAL SPORTS DODGEBALL Regulations-aid or athletic tape. The Department of Recreational Sports WILL NOT provide band-aids or athletic tape to cover published in the Texas A&M Rec Sports Handbook will be the governing policies for all intramural sports

  2. -Texas A&M University-DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL SPORTS

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    1 -Texas A&M University- DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL SPORTS INTRAMURAL SPORTS DODGEBALL Regulations, with a band-aid or athletic tape. The Department of Recreational Sports WILL NOT provide band-aids or athletic published in the Texas A&M Rec Sports Handbook will be the governing policies for all intramural sports

  3. Violence in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Donald L.

    Increasing violence in sports is deplored, and a warning is issued on an apparent trend toward antisocial behavior. Contact sports such as hockey and football are cited as typically engendering aggression among athletes, but spectator sports (boxing, car racing, basketball, and baseball) are also singled out as eliciting increasing violence on the…

  4. UC SAN DIEGO ATHLETICS A Proud Tradition of Academic and Athletic Excellence

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    UC SAN DIEGO ATHLETICS A Proud Tradition of Academic and Athletic Excellence UC San Diego education, they are driven to excel and surpass their opponents in 23 men's and women's varsity sports student-athletes strive for academic and athletic excellence. The success of the program is bolstered

  5. Judging Cheaters: Is Substance Misuse Viewed Similarly in the Athletic and Academic Domains?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya Dodge; Kevin J. Williams; Miesha Marzell; Rob Turrisi

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how individuals judge others who use performance-enhancing drugs in two different domains—the athletic domain and the academic domain. Approximately 1,200 males in their freshman year of college completed a questionnaire that included two scenarios. One scenario described an athlete who misused anabolic steroids to help him succeed at a sporting event. The other described a college

  6. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions » Athlete's Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Athlete's Foot Athlete's foot is a skin infection caused by fungus. A ... on any part of the body; on the foot it is called athlete’s foot, or tinea pedis. ...

  7. Scapular Strength in Presence of Scapular Winging and Tipping in Female Athletes Who Participate in Overhead Sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachelle Ewy; Sarah Hudson; Carrie Miller; Andrea Rhoads

    The purpose of this study is to determine if scapular stabilizer weakness and instability is a plausible explanation for excessive winging and\\/or tipping of the scapula in females who participate in overhead sports. Instability may be an early sign of weakness that can contribute to shoulder injury. Literature regarding causes of scapular winging and tipping pertaining to weak scapular stabilizer

  8. Club Sports Council Nomination Form

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    a representative serve on the Club Sports Council. Expectations: One academic year commitment ActivelyClub Sports Council Nomination Form The Club Sports Council (CSC) is composed of seven elected club sport student athletes and one faculty/ staff advisor who serve as representatives for all Division

  9. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis. PMID:19713179

  10. Sport injuries in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID:22355484

  11. Intercollegiate Sports: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (June 19, 1991--Overview; July 25, 1991--Academics and Athletics; September 12, 1991--Historically Black Colleges and Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection and Competitiveness of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce met on three occasions to hear testimony on intercollegiate sports and in particular on proposed legislation to regulate college sports, to assure due process in investigations of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA),…

  12. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model. PMID:24197720

  13. No association between ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite judo athletic status.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Yvert, Thomas; de Diego, Alfonso; Santiago, Catalina; Díaz de Durana, Alfonso L; Carratalá, Vicente; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo. PMID:23348074

  14. Weight management in the performance athlete.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2013-01-01

    Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone, including athletes that expend high amounts of energy in their sport. This brief review addresses the concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating. Emphasis is placed on teaching athletes the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets. As the general population becomes heavier, more young athletes will come to their sport needing to alter bodyweight or composition to perform at their peak. Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the athletes achieve their bodyweight goals. PMID:23765356

  15. Clinical Outcome and Return to Competition after Microfracture in the Athlete’s Knee

    PubMed Central

    Mithoefer, Kai; Gill, Thomas J.; Cole, Brian J.; Williams, Riley J.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2010-01-01

    Microfracture is frequently used for articular cartilage repair in athletes. This study aimed to define the strength and weaknesses of this minimally invasive cartilage repair technique in the athletic population in an effort to optimize indications, functional outcome, and athletic participation after microfracture in the athlete’s knee. A systematic analysis of original studies using microfracture in athletes was performed. Functional outcome was assessed by activity outcome scores, ability to return to sports participation, timing of the return to sport, level of postoperative sports activity, and continuation of athletic competition over time. Thirteen studies describing 821 athletes were included in the analysis with an average follow-up of 42 months. Good or excellent results were reported in 67% of athletes with normal International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores in 80% and significant increase of Lysholm scores, Tegner activity scores, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) sports subscales. Return to sports was achieved in 66% at an average of 8 months after surgery, with return to competition at the preinjury level in 67%. Forty-nine percent of athletes continued to compete without change in level of play, while decreasing function was observed in 42% after 2 to 5 years. Athlete’s age, preoperative duration of symptoms, level of play, lesion size, and repair tissue morphology affected sports activity after microfracture. Microfracture improves knee function and frequently allows for return to sports at the preinjury level, but deterioration of athletic function occurs in some patients. Several independent factors were identified that can help to optimize the return to athletic competition after microfracture in the athlete’s knee.

  16. Low Score for Collegiate Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    A recent report of Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society finds that National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college and university sports departments are not hiring appropriate numbers of minorities and women, especially in such positions as athletic directors and coaches. In contrast, minorities are…

  17. Running head: Explanatory Style and Resilience Explanatory Style and Resilience after Sports Failure

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    other athletes drop out of their sport following a setback? One key psychological factor influencing how University of Paris XI, France Personality and Individual Differences (2003), 35(7), 1685,version1-27May2009 Author manuscript, published in "Personality and Individual Differences 35, 7 (2003

  18. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois; Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Dugmore, Dorian L; Heidbuchel, Hein H; Mellwig, Klaus-Peter; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M; Papadakis, Michael; Rasmusen, Hanne; Sharma, Sanjay; Solberg, Erik E; van Buuren, Frank; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival. PMID:21672932

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  20. Dietary intakes of elite female athletes in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Hassapidou; A. Manstrantoni

    2001-01-01

    Background Although there is a great interest in sports in Greece, there are very few data regarding dietary intakes and habits of Greek elite female athletes. The present study assesses the dietary intakes and the energy balance of elite female athletes of four different sports (volleyball, middle distance running, ballet dancing, and swimming) and a non-athletic control group. Methods Data

  1. Relative age, talent identification and youth skill development: Do relatively younger athletes have superior technical skills?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Schorer; Joe Baker; Dirk Büsch; Andreas Wilhelm; Jan Pabst

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to differences among individuals in age-based cohorts typically used in sport. These effects usually favour relatively older members of the cohort and are thought to result from differences in maturation and experience among athletes of different chronological age. Recently, researchers suggested that relatively younger participants may not be as disadvantaged as previously thought. In two

  2. Are Elite Athletes With Disabilities Mentally Tougher Than Able-Bodied Competitors? (R)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Penna; Sharon A. Burden; Garry E. Richards

    The growth through adversity hypothesis suggests that when an individual is required to cope with adverse events they learn strategies that enable them to adapt more effectively with environmental and situational demands. If applied to a sporting context, it could be suggested that where athletes have had to overcome adversity, in particular physical disability, they may exhibit different psychological skills

  3. Gambling habits of athletes and nonathletes classified as disordered gamblers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephen M; Loubier, Sherri L

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the forms of gambling that were the most prevalent in those having problems with their gambling. High-risk individuals who were experiencing difficulties with their gambling were examined. Specifically, the gambling behaviors of current athletes, former athletes, and nonathletes were investigated. Only members of these 3 groups with elevated scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) were tested. Specifically, only those classified as disordered gamblers (SOGS score > or = 3) were recruited. Among these individuals with high SOGS scores, former athletes were more likely to participate in skill-based forms of gambling such as sports gambling and poker card playing, whereas nonathletes were more likely to partake in gambling games that were based predominately on chance factors. Also, former athletes were more likely to wager on the sport they had once played. Findings suggest that a competitive spirit may lead athletes to involvement in skill-based forms of gambling. While other explanations were considered, preliminary indicators support this view. PMID:21053765

  4. An Examination of the Role That Intercollegiate Athletic Participation Plays in Academic Achievement: Athletes' Feats in the Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Maloney; Robert E. McCormick

    1993-01-01

    We investigate whether intercollegiate athletic participation affects scholarly success. The overall means of course grades suggest that athletes do not do as well in the classroom as regular students. Background factors explain this underperformance for most sports; athletes come to school with lower SAT scores and poorer high school preparation. However, players in the revenue sports do worse even accounting

  5. San Joaquin Delta College Student Athlete Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; Marcopulos, Ernest

    In spring 1988, a study was conducted of students who participated in college athletics at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) between 1983-84 and 1987-88. Data collected on each student athlete included ethnicity, sport, place of residence, initial and current reading level, total grade point average (GPA), GPA in athletics and physical education…

  6. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  7. Sports dentistry: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Singamaneni, Vijaya Kumar; Rao, Saketh Rama; Karthikeyan, Jamini

    2014-12-01

    Dental trauma in sports is the major linking channel between sports and dentistry. Sports dentistry is the prevention of oral/facial athletic injuries and related oral diseases and manifestations. In children, sports activities were found to be responsible for 13% of overall oral trauma. It is emphasized that there is a great need for "Team Dentist" from high schools to professional teams. In this review, we discuss the relationship between sports and dentistry, and the importance of educating parents, teachers, and children in prevention of injuries related to the sports. PMID:25625070

  8. Sport-Related Concussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  9. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…

  10. Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups from the diet. Eating behaviors may better characterize the complex interactions between individual food items and specific food groups. The purpose was to examine the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients survey (REAP) as a valid tool for analyzing eating behaviors of NCAA Division-I male and female athletes using pattern identification. Also, to investigate the relationships between derived eating behavior patterns and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) while stratifying by sex and aesthetic nature of the sport. Methods Two independent samples of male (n = 86; n = 139) and female (n = 64; n = 102) collegiate athletes completed the REAP in June-August 2011 (n = 150) and June-August 2012 (n = 241). Principal component analysis (PCA) determined possible factors using wave-1 athletes. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined factors accounting for error and confirmed model fit in wave-2 athletes. Wave-2 athletes’ BMI and WC were recorded during a physical exam and sport participation determined classification in aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport. Mean differences in eating behavior pattern score were explored. Regression models examined interactions between pattern scores, participation in aesthetic or non-aesthetic sport, and BMI and waist circumference controlling for age and race. Results A 5-factor PCA solution accounting for 60.3% of sample variance determined fourteen questions for EFA and CFA. A confirmed solution revealed patterns of Desserts, Healthy food, Meats, High-fat food, and Dairy. Pattern score (mean ± SE) differences were found, as non-aesthetic sport males had a higher (better) Dessert score than aesthetic sport males (2.16 ± 0.07 vs. 1.93 ± 0.11). Female aesthetic athletes had a higher score compared to non-aesthetic female athletes for the Dessert (2.11 ± 0.11 vs. 1.88 ± 0.08), Meat (1.95 ± 0.10 vs. 1.72 ± 0.07), High-fat food (1.70 ± 0.08 vs. 1.46 ± 0.06), and Dairy (1.70 ± 0.11 vs. 1.43 ± 0.07) patterns. Conclusions REAP is a construct valid tool to assess dietary patterns in college athletes. In light of varying dietary patterns, college athletes should be evaluated for healthful and unhealthful eating behaviors. PMID:25302055

  11. Texas A&M University Department of Recreational Sports

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    1 Texas A&M University Department of Recreational Sports Intramural Sports SAND VOLLEYBALL-aid or athletic tape. The Department of Recreational Sports WILL NOT provide band-aids or athletic tape to cover Regulations published in the Texas A&M Intramural Sports Handbook will be the governing policies for all

  12. Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Sport Interference Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Silver, N. Clayton; Dickens, Yani; Covassin, Tracey; Lancer, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The Sport Interference Checklist (SIC) was developed in 141 athletes to assist in the concurrent assessment of cognitive and behavioral problems experienced by athletes in both training (Problems in Sports Training Scale, PSTS) and competition (Problems in Sports Competition Scale, PSCS). An additional scale (Desire for Sport Psychology Scale,…

  13. Athletics & Recreation Master Plan Sub?Committee Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlie Titus; Terry Condon; Chris Fitzgerald; Ken McBryde; Robert Burgess; Shaun Curry; Laurie Milliken; Chris Sweeney; Pavel Braude; Ryan Norton; Jack Looney; Susan Wolfson

    2009-01-01

    In 2000 the Athletics & Recreation Department at UMass Boston Implemented a five year strategic plan that would more realistically align sports sponsorship with available financial and facility resources. We reduced the number of sports sponsored from 20 to 14 maintaining 7 sports for women and 7 sports for men. The only sports maintained without a facility were Men’s baseball

  14. Sport Instruction for Individuals with Disabilities. The Best of Practical Pointers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA.

    This book, written for teachers by teachers, includes articles by 14 contributing authors and is divided into three sections. Section 1 is entitled "Practical Pointers for Team Sports" and contains the following chapters: "Mainstreaming the Physically Handicapped for Team Sports" (S. J. Grosse); "Program Guide to Team Soccer for the Mentally…

  15. Evaluation of ACE gene I/D polymorphism in Iranian elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Somayeh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Salehi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is an important gene, which is associated with the successful physical activity. The ACE gene has a major polymorphism (I/D) in intron 16 that determines its plasma and tissue levels. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is an association between this polymorphism and sports performance in our studied population including elite athletes of different sports disciplines. We investigated allele frequency and genotype distribution of the ACE gene in 156 Iranian elite athletes compared to 163 healthy individuals. We also investigated this allele frequency between elite athletes in three functional groups of endurance, power, and mixed sports performances. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was performed on intron 16 of the ACE gene. The ACE genotype was determined for each subject. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 15, and results were analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results: There was a significant difference in genotype distribution and allele frequency of the ACE gene in athletes and control group (P = 0.05, P = 0.03, respectively). There was also a significant difference in allele frequency of the ACE gene in 3 groups of athletes with different sports disciplines (P = 0.045). Proportion of the ACE gene D allele was greater in elite endurance athletes (37 high-distance cyclists) than two other groups. Conclusions: Findings of the present study demonstrated that there is an association between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and sports performance in Iranian elite athletes. PMID:25371864

  16. Injuries to Athletes with Physical Disabilities: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    1986-01-01

    While athletes with disabilities may not be injured any more often than other athletes, the types of injuries they sustain are specific to their disabilities and chosen sports. Characteristic injuries are described, and preventive measures are suggested. (Author/MT)

  17. MID-AMERICA INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS ASSOCIATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATT NEWBERY; T. Jay; Natasha Oaks

    2003-01-01

    (OVERLAND PARK, Kan.) - The Mid-America Inter- collegiate Athletics Association is proud to announce the 2003 Commissioner's Academic Honor Roll for the sport of cross country. Student-athletes are named to the squad under the fol- lowing criteria: 1.) The student-athlete must have a cumu- lative grade-point average of 3.00 or better at the qualify- ing institution; 2.) The student-athlete must

  18. Doping and supplementation: the attitudes of talented young athletes.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, A J; Petróczi, A; Bailey, R; Pearce, G; McNamee, M J

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence of a small but significant proportion of adolescents engaging in doping practices. Young athletes face very specific pressures to achieve results as they strive for a career at an elite level. This study used an anonymized questionnaire to survey 403 (12-21 years old) talented young athletes' attitudes toward performance-enhancing substances and supplements. Two-thirds of the sample comprised males. Athletes were generally against the use of doping substances to enhance sporting performance. Within this generally unfavorable view, males tended to express a more permissive attitude toward performance-enhancing methods than females. Those convinced of the necessity of supplementation for sporting success were also more likely to express permissive attitudes. When asked whether they would take a "magic" drug that, while undetectable, would significantly enhance performance, the overwhelming majority of athletes said "no," but many thought others would take the substance. Interestingly, there was a significant association between the projected use of the hypothetical drug by competitors and the individual respondent's willingness to take the hypothetically "magic" substance. The study offers an insight into young athletes' attitudes toward specific forms of performance enhancement, and the strength of their beliefs in the face of a tempting hypothetical scenario. PMID:20973831

  19. Impingement syndrome in athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Hawkins; J. C. Kennedy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes, particularly those who are involved in sporting activ ities requiring repetitive overhead use of the arm (for example, tennis players, swimmers, baseball pitchers, and quarterbacks), may develop a painful shoulder. This is often due to impinge ment in the vulnerable avascular region of the supraspinatus and biceps tendons. With the passage of time, degeneration and tears of the rotator

  20. The female athlete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle P. Warren; Shanmugan Shantha

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the number of women participating in organized sports has grown dramatically. Several forms of menstrual irregularities have been described in the female athlete: primary and secondary amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, short luteal phases and anovulation. The incidence of menstrual irregularities is much higher in activities where a thin body is required for better performance. The hormonal pattern

  1. Sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions. PMID:25856350

  2. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  3. Saga of American Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  4. Dynamic balance in high level athletes.

    PubMed

    Davlin, Christina D

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dynamic balance performance in highly skilled athletes. Participating athletes were currently competing at the collegiate Division I, professional, elite, or Olympic levels, or their individual coaches believed the athlete performed comparably to these levels. High level male and female gymnasts (n=57, M age=17.3 yr., SD=4.1), soccer players (n=58, M age= 19.8 yr., SD=1.6), swimmers (n=70, M age= 17.1 yr., SD=2.5), and individuals with no formal competitive sport experience (n=61, M age= 16.8 yr., SD= 2.0) volunteered. Dynamic balance performance was measured on a stabilometer, which requires participants to continuously adjust posture to maintain an unstable platform in the horizontal position for 30 sec. Each participant performed 3 practice trials followed by 7 test trials. Analysis indicated that athletes were superior to nonathletes in balance performance. Gymnasts performed better on the dynamic balance task than all other groups. Soccer players and swimmers performed similarly and were superior to the control subjects. There was no difference between the performance of men and women. Moderate to high negative correlations were found between dynamic balance performance and height and weight. PMID:15291203

  5. Awareness and Comfort in Treating the Female Athlete Triad: Are We Failing Our Athletes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Troy; Anne Z. Hoch; John E. Stavrakos

    Background: Recognition of the Female Athlete Triad (disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis) has in- creased significantly since it was defined in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine. However, knowledge and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad is still lacking among physicians and medical personnel. Purpose: We surveyed physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and coaches to determine their knowl- edge

  6. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Morano; Dario Colella; Laura Capranica

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while

  7. Developing a Sports and Recreation Master Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira; Body, David

    1983-01-01

    The sports facilities situation has become critical at many universities. The methods for evaluating athletics and recreation physical plants, their utilization, and needs are reviewed, along with the creation of a successful sports and recreation master plan. (MLW)

  8. Selected Problems in Sports Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This publication, covering a broad spectrum of sports safety problems, is designed as a source of information for those who plan, organize, administer, or evaluate various physical education and recreational activities, athletics, or sports. In the first section, the prevention of sports injury is stressed with attention to different age groups…

  9. Intercollegiate Athletics in the Roaring Twenties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Robert J.

    College sports were started by students in the post Civil War period of the 1860's and 1870's. By the 1880's football, baseball, crew, and track and field were popular intercollegiate sports. The desire of the nation as a whole for diversion after World War I provided an impetus for sports in general and intercollegiate athletics in particular.…

  10. Availability of and Attitudes toward Counseling Services for the College Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandi, Thomas A.; Wittig, Arno F.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 104 universities to assess attitudes of athletic directors toward clinical sports psychology, availability of counseling services for athletes, and the use of these services by athletes. While most athletic directors supported the benefits of counseling, few services were available specifically for athletes. (JAC)

  11. Individual and relational risk factors for the development of eating disorders in adolescent aesthetic athletes and general adolescents.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Rita; Narciso, Isabel; Alarcão, Madalena

    2013-12-01

    This study compared potential risk and protective factors, levels of disordered eating (DE), and their relationship among young aesthetic athletes (elite and non-elite) and controls (N = 725; 62.5 % females; mean age = 15.3, SD = 2.1). The participants completed self-report measures (McKnight Risk Factor Survey-IV, Contour Drawing Rating Scale and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire). Female elite athletes showed a greater risk of developing eating disorders than non-elite athletes and controls, with no difference between the three groups of males. Multiple group analyses revealed important differences in DE predictors. Although social pressure is the strongest DE predictor in non-elite athletes and controls, in elite athletes, the strongest DE predictor is body image dissatisfaction. Parental influences, rather than self-esteem, are predictors of DE in elite athletes, unlike the other two groups. These results show that the risk and protective factors involved in the development of DE are not universally valid. The results highlight the importance of studying specific characteristics associated with DE in aesthetic athletes. Some implications for ED risk assessment and prevention are discussed. PMID:23943379

  12. Before the New Season Kicks Off, Get a Game Plan to Cut Sports Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1988-01-01

    Cites statistics on death and injury from high school sports. Offers advice to coaches and athletic directors about safety consciousness, how to assess sports safety programs, and the advantages of employing certified athletic trainers. (MLF)

  13. Implicit motives and basic need satisfaction in extreme endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Julia; Wegner, Mirko; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the effects of basic psychological needs on the flow experience in sports are moderated by implicit motives. However, so far, only leisure and health-oriented sports have been analyzed. In a pilot study and a main study (N = 29, 93), we tested whether the implicit achievement and affiliation motives interact with the need for competence and the need for social relatedness satisfaction, respectively, to predict flow experience and well-being in extreme endurance athletes. Results showed that highly achievement-motivated individuals benefited more from the need for competence satisfaction in terms of flow than individuals with a low achievement motive did. In addition, highly affiliation-motivated individuals whose need for social relatedness is satisfied reported higher positive affect and lower exercise addiction scores than athletes with a low motive. We discuss the differential effects of the interplay between the achievement and affiliation motives and basic needs on different outcome variables. PMID:24918312

  14. Eating Disorders and Their Putative Risk Factors Among Female German Professional Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p?sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25828261

  15. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  16. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…

  17. Overview of Youth Sports Programs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; And Others

    This overview focuses on two out of the six categories of organized youth sports; namely, agency-sponsored and interscholastic athletics. The discussion of the current status and proposed future direction of organized athletics for youth includes seven components of the problem: the role of youth sports in American culture; the role of athletic

  18. Findings from the preparticipation athletic examination and athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Pendergrast, R A; Seymore, C; Gaillard, G; Donner, J

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the findings from a standardized preparticipation athletic examination, the sport played, and athletic injuries requiring treatment by a physician and/or requiring the athlete to miss one or more games. Of public high school students receiving a preparticipation athletic examination during the 1989-1990 academic year, 674 (56%) either completed a telephone interview or returned a mailed questionnaire at the end of the academic year. The sample consisted of 408 (60.5%) blacks and 243 (36.1%) whites; 470 (69.7%) of the subjects were males. The subjects ranged in age from 13 to 20 years (mean +/- SD, 16.1 +/- 1.2 years), and participated in at least 10 school sports. Injuries were reported by 29.5% of the athletes. The highest proportion of athletes injured occurred among male football (36.3%), female basketball (33.3%), male baseball (19.4%), male soccer (17.2%), and female track and field (15.8%) participants. Responses by the athletes and their parents on the standardized health history were significantly associated with injuries in several specific areas. Knee injuries were associated with previous knee injuries, knee surgery, and history of injuries requiring medical treatment. Ankle injuries were associated with previous ankle injuries and previous injuries requiring medical treatment. Both arm and other leg injuries were associated with previous fractures. Male athletes with either abnormal knee or ankle findings from the physical examination were more likely to injure the knee or ankle, respectively. However, the sensitivities and positive predictive values of these relationships are weak. These data suggest that the preparticipation athletic examination may not predict certain athletic injuries and that additional prevention efforts for specific body areas of injury are needed in certain sports. PMID:1736652

  19. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events. PMID:22185072

  20. West Virginia University 1 College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    and exercise psychology, and sport management. The doctoral program in kinesiology administered through education, athletic training, athletic coaching education, and sport management leading to a master offered online. The master's degree programs in athletic coaching and sport management have both on

  1. West Virginia University 1 College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    or secondary health and/or physical education teachers and athletic coaches. Graduates in sport and exercise · Bachelor of Science in Physical Education Nature of Program Students in athletic coaching education, athletic training, physical education teacher education, sport and exercise psychology, and sport

  2. Estimation of return-to-sports-time for athletes with stress fracture – an approach combining risk level of fracture site with severity based on imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim was to compare the return-to-sports-time (RTST) following stress fractures on the basis of site and severity of injury. This retrospective study was set up at a single institution. Diagnosis was confirmed by an interdisciplinary adjudication panel and images were rated in a blinded-read setting. Methods 52 athletes (female, n?=?30; male, n?=?22; mean age, 22.8?years) with stress fracture (SFX) who had undergone at least one examination, either MRI or bone scintigraphy, were included. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) and/or bone scintigraphy (BS) of SFX were classified as either low- or high-grade SFX, according to existing grading systems. For MRI, high-grade SFX was defined as visibility of a fracture line or bone marrow edema in T1-, T2-weighted and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, with low-grade SFX showing no fracture line and bone marrow edema only in STIR and/or T2-weighted sequences. In BS images, a mild and poorly defined focal tracer uptake represented a low-grade lesion, whereas an intense and sharply marginated uptake marked a high-grade SFX. In addition, all injuries were categorized by location as high- or low-risk stress fractures. RTST was obtained from the clinical records. All patients were treated according to a non-weight-bearing treatment plan and comprehensive follow-up data was complete until full recovery. Two-sided Wilcoxon’s rank sum test was used for group comparisons. Results High-risk SFX had a mean RTST of 132?days (d) [IQR 64d – 132d] compared to 119d [IQR 50d – 110d] for low-risk sites (p?=?0.19). RTST was significantly longer (p?=?0.01) in high-grade lesions [mean, 143d; IQR 66d – 134d] than in low-grade [mean, 95d; IQR 42d – 94d]. Analysis of high-risk SFX showed no difference in RTST (p?=?0.45) between high- and low-grade [mean, 131d; IQR 72d – 123d vs. mean, 135d; IQR 63d – 132d]. In contrast, the difference was significant for low-risk SFX (p?=?0.005) [low-grade; mean, 61d; IQR 35d – 78d vs. high-grade; mean, 153d; IQR 64d – 164d]. Conclusion For SFX at low-risk sites, the significant difference in RTST between low- and high-grade lesions allows more accurate estimation of RTST by this approach. Both location of the injury and severity determined by imaging should therefore be considered for prediction of RTST. PMID:22866765

  3. Cognitive psychology in sport: Progress and prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aidan Moran

    2009-01-01

    ProblemThere has been a recent upsurge of research interest in cognitive sport psychology or the scientific study of mental processes (e.g., mental imagery) in athletes. Despite this interest, an important question has been neglected. Specifically, is research on cognitive processes in athletes influential outside sport psychology, in the “parent” field of cognitive psychology or in the newer discipline of cognitive

  4. High school students' body weight control: differences between athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikulan, Rita; Piko, Bettina E

    2012-03-01

    Due to chronic dissatisfaction with body weight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of body weight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in body weight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to body weight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their body weight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their body weight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys. PMID:22816201

  5. Achilles tendon injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kvist, M

    1994-09-01

    Two-thirds of Achilles tendon injuries in competitive athletes are paratenonitis and one-fifth are insertional complaints (bursitis and insertion tendinitis). The remaining afflictions consist of pain syndromes of the myotendineal junction and tendinopathies. The majority of Achilles tendon injuries from sport occur in males, mainly because of their higher rates of participation in sport, but also with tendinopathies a gender difference is probably indicated. Athletes in running sports have a high incidence of Achilles tendon overuse injuries. About 75% of total and the majority of partial tendon ruptures are related to sports activities usually involving abrupt repetitive jumping and sprinting movements. Mechanical factors and a sedentary lifestyle play a role in the pathology of these injuries. Achilles tendon overuse injuries occur at a higher rate in older athletes than most other typical overuse injuries. Recreational athletes with a complete Achilles tendon rupture are about 15 years younger than those with other spontaneous tendon ruptures. Following surgery, about 70 to 90% of athletes have a successful comeback after Achilles tendon injury. Surgery is required in about 25% of athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries and the frequency of surgery increases with patient age and duration of symptoms as well as occurrence of tendinopathic changes. However, about 20% of injured athletes require a re-operation for Achilles tendon overuse injuries, and about 3 to 5% are compelled to abandon their sports career because of these injuries. Myotendineal junction pain should be treated conservatively. Partial Achilles tendon ruptures are primarily treated conservatively, although the best treatment method of chronic partial rupture seems to be surgery. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures of athletes are treated surgically, because this increases the likelihood of athletes reaching preinjury activity levels and minimises the risk of re-ruptures. Marked forefoot varus is found in athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries, reflecting the predisposing role of ankle joint overpronation. Athletes with the major stress in lower extremities have often a limited range of motion in the passive dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and total subtalar joint mobility, which seems to be predisposing factor for these injuries. Various predisposing transient factors are found in about one-third of athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries; of these, traumatic factors (mostly minor injuries) predominate. The typical histological features of chronically inflamed paratendineal tissue of the Achilles tendon are profound proliferation of loose, immature connective tissue and marked obliterative and degenerative alterations in the blood vessels. These changes cause continuing leakage of plasma proteins, which may have an important role in the pathophysiology of these injuries. The chronically inflamed paratendineal tissues of the Achilles tendon do not seem to have enough capacity to form mature connective tissue. PMID:7809555

  6. -Texas A&M University-Department of Recreational Sports

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    -Texas A&M University- Department of Recreational Sports INTRAMURAL SPORTS OUTDOOR SOCCER. The goalkeeper may be of either gender. 3. ELIGIBILITY/RESTRICTED PLAYERS Participants may NOT represent more, with a band-aid or athletic tape. The Department of Recreational Sports WILL NOT provide band-aids or athletic

  7. The Miller Lite Report on Women in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New World Decisions, Ltd., Iselin, NJ.

    A survey distributed to a random sample of 7,000 members of the Women's Sports Foundation uncovered many similarities and differences between athletic women and other Americans interested in sports and fitness. Although the sample of athletic women was atypical of women generally, they resemble other Americans in the sports/fitness activities they…

  8. The relationship between multidimensional competitive anxiety, cognitive threat appraisal, and coping strategies: A multi-sport study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia Dias; José F. Cruz; António Manuel Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between, multidimensional competitive trait anxiety (cognitive and somatic anxiety), trait cognitive threat appraisal, and coping styles. Five-hundred and fifty male and female athletes of several individual and team sports, between the ages of 15 and 35 (M?=?19.8?±?4.5), completed the translated and adapted versions of the Sport Anxiety Scale and

  9. The Cardiovascular Physiology of Sports and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Opondo, Mildred A; Sarma, Satyam; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Athletes represent the extremes of human performance. Many of their remarkable abilities stem from a cardiovascular system that has adapted to meet the metabolic needs of exercising muscle. A large and compliant heart is a hallmark feature of athletes who engage in highly aerobic events. Despite high fitness levels, athletes may present with symptoms that limit performance. Understanding and dissecting these limitations requires a strong background in sports science and the factors that determine sports capabilities. This article reviews the basic principles of exercise physiology, cardiovascular adaptations unique to the "athlete's heart," and the utility of exercise testing in athletes. PMID:26100417

  10. Women and sport.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M; Robertson, A

    2010-05-01

    Women have historically taken part in sports for many centuries. The first recorded female game competitions were the Herean Games in approximately 1,000 BC, named after the Goddess Hera. Held at Olympia in Greece, these games were for women alone and were thought to have originated as part of ancient fertility rights. Historically there is evidence of sporting activities involving women, but nothing of significance until after the 1948 summer Olympic Games, when 385 female athletes participated. Over the last six decades there has been a noted rise in the number of female athletes, reaching its maximum with the 2008 Beijing Olympics, where over 42% of the 11,028 athletes were women. Similarly in 2006, at the Turin Winter Olympics in Italy, 40% of the 2,500 athletes were females. In the 2012 Olympics, the Olympic Committee anticipates that approximately 44% of all athletes participating will be female. Despite there being a significant rise in the number of elite athletes in the UK, there appears to be an overall decrease in the amount and intensity of physical exercise undertaken by teenage girls. This is considered to be due to the fact that physical education is no longer an integral part of the school curriculum in the UK. There is, however, a small but significant group of elite athletes who start to train at a very early age (9-10 years old) especially in gymnastics, skating, swimming and athletics. PMID:20533698

  11. Faculty Perceptions of Division I Male Student-Athletes: The Relationship between Student-Athlete Contact, Athletic Department Involvement, and Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    E-print Network

    Tovar, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-12-31

    It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about...

  12. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gary; Phillips, Stuart M

    2011-01-01

    Strength and power athletes are primarily interested in enhancing power relative to body weight and thus almost all undertake some form of resistance training. While athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy and include an appreciation of the sports supplement industry, the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus achievement of pre-competition body mass requirements. Total energy and macronutrient intakes of strength-power athletes are generally high but intakes tend to be unremarkable when expressed relative to body mass. Greater insight into optimization of dietary intake to achieve nutrition-related goals would be achieved from assessment of nutrient distribution over the day, especially intake before, during, and after exercise. This information is not readily available on strength-power athletes and research is warranted. There is a general void of scientific investigation relating specifically to this unique group of athletes. Until this is resolved, sports nutrition recommendations for strength-power athletes should be directed at the individual athlete, focusing on their specific nutrition-related goals, with an emphasis on the nutritional support of training. PMID:21660839

  13. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport

    PubMed Central

    Malagoni, Anna Maria; Lamberti, Nicola; Carrabre, James E.; Litmanen, Hannu; Jeannier, Pierre; Zhukovskaja, Larisa; Dal Follo, Donatella; Zambon, Christel; Resch, Nicole; Manfredini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union’s rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention. Methods For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes’ daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994–2000) and post (2001–2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008–2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation’s budget. Results The competition load and athletes’ daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes’ daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase. Conclusions The management of an athlete’s potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete’s effort and federation income. PMID:26115423

  14. Update on sports concussion.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, sports concussion has become one of the most researched topics in sports medicine. Significant resources have been allocated to the study of this issue, with a dramatic increase in information concerning most aspects of this common sports injury. In light of this considerable increase in research, this review is offered to provide clinicians involved in the care of athletes a summary of key features of the evaluation and management of sports concussion with attention to recent contributions to the literature. PMID:25261007

  15. Cooling athletes with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Katy E; Price, Michael J; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Cooling strategies that help prevent a reduction in exercise capacity whilst exercising in the heat have received considerable research interest over the past 3 decades, especially in the lead up to a relatively hot Olympic and Paralympic Games. Progressing into the next Olympic/Paralympic cycle, the host, Rio de Janeiro, could again present an environmental challenge for competing athletes. Despite the interest and vast array of research into cooling strategies for the able-bodied athlete, less is known regarding the application of these cooling strategies in the thermoregulatory impaired spinal cord injured (SCI) athletic population. Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have a reduced afferent input to the thermoregulatory centre and a loss of both sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. The magnitude of this thermoregulatory impairment is proportional to the level of the lesion. For instance, individuals with high-level lesions (tetraplegia) are at a greater risk of heat illness than individuals with lower-level lesions (paraplegia) at a given exercise intensity. Therefore, cooling strategies may be highly beneficial in this population group, even in moderate ambient conditions (~21 °C). This review was undertaken to examine the scientific literature that addresses the application of cooling strategies in individuals with an SCI. Each method is discussed in regards to the practical issues associated with the method and the potential underlying mechanism. For instance, site-specific cooling would be more suitable for an athlete with an SCI than whole body water immersion, due to the practical difficulties of administering this method in this population group. From the studies reviewed, wearing an ice vest during intermittent sprint exercise has been shown to decrease thermal strain and improve performance. These garments have also been shown to be effective during exercise in the able-bodied. Drawing on additional findings from the able-bodied literature, the combination of methods used prior to and during exercise and/or during rest periods/half-time may increase the effectiveness of a strategy. However, due to the paucity of research involving athletes with an SCI, it is difficult to establish an optimal cooling strategy. Future studies are needed to ensure that research outcomes can be translated into meaningful performance enhancements by investigating cooling strategies under the constraints of actual competition. Cooling strategies that meet the demands of intermittent wheelchair sports need to be identified, with particular attention to the logistics of the sport. PMID:25119157

  16. Body composition of athletes in Bahrain.

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, A O; Ragheb, M A; al-Marzooq, G

    1994-01-01

    A total sample of 304 athletes was selected from first class clubs related to four common sports (football, handball, volleyball and basketball) and compared with 53 non-athlete adults. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skinfold thickness were measured to assess their body composition. The findings revealed that there were differences in body composition among athletes according to the type of sport. Basketballers and volleyballers were the tallest athletes, while handballers were the heaviest ones. Skinfold thickness measurements showed that basketball and handball players have more subcutaneous fat than other athletic groups. As compared with non-athletes, the Bahraini players had higher means for height, weight, subscapular, suprailliac thickness and mid-arm circumference. PMID:8000811

  17. Athletics for All: Providing Opportunities for Students of All Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    The glory days of high school sports are no longer reserved for dream team athletes, as athletic directors are increasingly opening up sports to all students, regardless of ability, and seeing winning results on the field and off. This push is reflected in the most recent National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) survey, which…

  18. Cumulative Effects of Concussion in High School Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell; Grant L. Iverson; Robert C. Cantu; Joseph C. Maroon; Melvin Field

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It is a common assumption in sports medicine that prior history of concussion is predictive of lowered threshold and worse outcome following subsequent concussive injury. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between concussion history in high school athletes and the on-field presentation of symptoms following subsequent concussion. Methods: 173 athletes experiencing sports concussion comprised the initial

  19. Retrospektive Befragung bei Schweizer Athletinnen zur Female Athlete Triad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Mathys; Christine Meyer Egli; Sibylle Matter; Roland Biedert; Martin Birkhäuser

    2005-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) is a complex of symptoms that consists of the 3 components disturbed eating, amenorrhoea, and osteoporosis. These symptoms become more important in females performing high-level sport as well as in females performing re- creational sport. The aim of this study was to record the situation of young Swiss female high-performance athletes more precisely. 709 questionnaires

  20. Climate and Motivation for Women Athletes in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younes, Shima; Ciccomascolo, Lori; Shim, Minsuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that motivate women athletes to participate in sport in Palestine and the motivational climate created by coaches and parents. Additionally, participants' commitment to sport was investigated as well as the social constraints that Palestinian women athletes face. Participants (n = 107)…

  1. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  2. INTRAMURAL SPORTS PARTICIPANT HANDBOOK

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    1 INTRAMURAL SPORTS PARTICIPANT HANDBOOK Revised Fall 2011 Intramural Sports is a comprehensive the academic year. The Intramural Sports program is committed to providing all students the opportunity to participate and encourages individuals, clubs, and organizations to join in the fun. The Intramural Sports

  3. INTRAMURAL SPORTS PARTICIPANT HANDBOOK

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    1 INTRAMURAL SPORTS PARTICIPANT HANDBOOK Revised Spring 2012 Intramural Sports is a comprehensive the academic year. The Intramural Sports program is committed to providing all students the opportunity to participate and encourages individuals, clubs, and organizations to join in the fun. The Intramural Sports

  4. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes.

    PubMed

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-11-01

    Many athletes, coaches, and support staff are taking an increasingly scientific approach to both designing and monitoring training programs. Appropriate load monitoring can aid in determining whether an athlete is adapting to a training program and in minimizing the risk of developing non-functional overreaching, illness, and/or injury. In order to gain an understanding of the training load and its effect on the athlete, a number of potential markers are available for use. However, very few of these markers have strong scientific evidence supporting their use, and there is yet to be a single, definitive marker described in the literature. Research has investigated a number of external load quantifying and monitoring tools, such as power output measuring devices, time-motion analysis, as well as internal load unit measures, including perception of effort, heart rate, blood lactate, and training impulse. Dissociation between external and internal load units may reveal the state of fatigue of an athlete. Other monitoring tools used by high-performance programs include heart rate recovery, neuromuscular function, biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments, questionnaires and diaries, psychomotor speed, and sleep quality and quantity. The monitoring approach taken with athletes may depend on whether the athlete is engaging in individual or team sport activity; however, the importance of individualization of load monitoring cannot be over emphasized. Detecting meaningful changes with scientific and statistical approaches can provide confidence and certainty when implementing change. Appropriate monitoring of training load can provide important information to athletes and coaches; however, monitoring systems should be intuitive, provide efficient data analysis and interpretation, and enable efficient reporting of simple, yet scientifically valid, feedback. PMID:25200666

  5. Grasshoppers in the Outfield: An Examination of the Effects of Sports on Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chelsea R. Baker

    2010-01-01

    Many psychologists have studied the effects of sports on children because it is an issue that is important for children and parents alike. Athletic participation is a popular activity in the United States for children and many begin sports at young ages. Theokas (2009) claimed that the importance of athletics is that sports are more than physical activity—sports have an

  6. Active surveillance of sudden cardiac death in young athletes by periodic Internet searches.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristal; Pan, Yann Ping; Pock, Michelle; Chang, Ruey-Kang R

    2013-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that prospective, systematic Internet searches could identify occurrences of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes and would be useful for establishing a system of active surveillance. Weekly advanced Google searches of the Internet were conducted for cases of SCD in young athletes during a 12-month period (2007-2008). Athletes ages 11-30 years who collapsed during a game, practice, or within an hour of exercise were included in the study. Individuals with known histories of cardiac issues and events occurring outside the United States were excluded. Verification of SCD was by autopsy reports and death certificates from county coroner offices and vital record agencies. Initially, 71 events were identified. Verification for the cause of death by coroner reports was possible in 45 cases, 43 (96 %) of which were confirmed to be SCDs. A total of 69 individuals 11-30 years of age (mean 17 ± 5 years) died suddenly of cardiovascular causes while participating in 15 different organized sports and a variety of nonorganized physical activities. The most common cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (30 %), followed by coronary artery anomalies (9 %), and myocarditis (9 %). The incidence of athlete SCD, the types of sports involved, and the cardiac causes of death in our study were comparable with those of previous reports. Readily available Internet searches have the potential to be a powerful tool for identifying occurrences of athlete SCD. An active surveillance system using Google searches followed by coroner report verification can provide important epidemiologic and clinical information. PMID:23681420

  7. Intercollegiate Athletics: Waning Amateurism and Rising Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    The struggle for the preservation of amateurism and the rights of student-athletes are discussed. Pressures for reform have come from within the NCAA and from a congressional investigation. Issues discussed include: the sports marketplace, reform and the NCAA, a bill of rights for student athletes, and future directions. (MLW)

  8. Coaches, Athletes and Nutrition: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis; Mandali, Swarna; Conn, James

    2005-01-01

    Athletes often adjust their dietary routines to enhance sport performance, but problems can arise when athletes turn for guidance to coaches who may not be trained in the field of nutrition, or who, themselves, are poor examples when it comes to healthy eating habits. There are many myths regarding nutrition that are spread throughout the world of…

  9. Athletes Question Effectiveness of NCAA Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Three years ago, as part of a broad effort to raise academic standards in college sports, the NCAA adopted a controversial rule designed to make life difficult for athletes idling in the classroom. The measure--known as the 40-60-80 rule, or the "progress toward degree" requirement--mandates that, to remain eligible to compete, athletes must…

  10. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  11. Article Spurs Community to Support Athlete, Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Janelle

    1999-01-01

    Describes the coverage of an athlete's spinal cord injury by the "Wildcat News" (Woodrow Wilson High School, Dallas, Texas). Notes a fellow teammate (the sports editor) covered the accident. Discusses the efforts made to be sensitive to the situation and the needs of others. Appends an exercise concerning coverage of athletic injuries. (RS)

  12. EATING DISORDERS AWARENESS Eating Disorders Among Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie King; Bonnie Sutherly

    ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate

  13. Athletes' Headaches: Not Necessarily 'Little' Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Headaches experienced by athletes are categorized (exertional, effort, and trauma-triggered migraines), and treatment methods related. Consequences of misdiagnosis, lack of reporting, and poor monitoring are discussed as well as categories of athletes most likely to suffer sports-related headaches. (IAH)

  14. Sex Discrimination in High School Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Timothy K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses Yellow Springs Exempted Village School District Board of Education vs Ohio High School Athletic Association where U.S. District Court in Ohio held unconstitutional a state athletic association rule prohibiting girls from participating on the same team as boys in contact sports. Available from City School of Law, 5100 Rockhill Road, K.C.,…

  15. Forensic and technical aspects of drug testing in athletics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Barry Sample; John C. Baenziger

    1993-01-01

    The use of performance?enhancing drugs by athletes is not a new phenomenon but testing for these substances began only in the 1960s. Since that time, various regulators of athletic competitions have developed lists of substances whose use by athletes is banned. This article discusses the regulations and chain of custody requirements of different sports oversight agencies, the classes of banned

  16. Internal Fixation of Acute Stable Scaphoid Fractures in the Athlete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur C. Rettig; Stephen C. Kollias

    1996-01-01

    Our study evaluated the results of surgical repair of acute carpal scaphoid fractures in athletes and the time required for the athletes to return to play. Although playing casts are a nonsurgical option, they reduce the effectiveness of the athlete in sports that require max imal manual dexterity; thus, the management of scaph oid fractures is challenging when early return

  17. The Female Athlete Triad - The role of nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Monica Klungland Torstveit

    Summary In response to the number of studies concluding that some female athletes are suffering from menstrual dysfunction, disordered eat- ing, reduced bone mass and stress fractures, the American College of Sports Medicine coined the term «The Female Athlete Triad» in 1992. The Female Athlete Triad is a serious syndrome compromis- ing three interrelated components: (i) disordered eating; (ii) ame-

  18. Playing for God: Managing Athletics at a Catholic School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    States that, in Catholic schools, the Gospel mission--teaching the Gospel of Jesus to students--should be present in all aspects of the athletic experience. Asserts that encouraging participation in athletics, developing a moral-based athletic program, and properly supervising sports teams are all key elements in the excellence of Catholic…

  19. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…

  20. ELITE ATHLETES AT FLINDERS UNIVERSITY -GUIDELINES 1. Introduction and Purpose

    E-print Network

    such as a world championship; · represents their state in a senior team; · high level of training, competition the application and confirm the athlete is competing and training at an elite level; and · responses athletes studying at university level the Australian Sports Commission has developed the Elite Athlete

  1. Moral Atmosphere and Athletic Aggressive Tendencies in Young Soccer Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guivernau, Marta; Duda, Joan L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the moral atmosphere of athletic teams to athletes' self-described likelihood to be aggressive (SLA). Reports athletes indicated they would be more aggressive if they thought their coach supported such behavior. Argues the findings show that the influence of others can shape the moral atmosphere operating on youth sports teams. (CAJ)

  2. Leadership Development of Team Captains in Collegiate Varsity Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandzol, Christian; Perlis, Susan; Draina, Lois

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the leadership development of team captains and student-athletes engaged in NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics at 6 private institutions of higher education. Student-athletes in the sports of men's and women's soccer, women's field hockey, men's and women's cross country, and women's tennis completed the 2nd edition of…

  3. Eating disorders in collegiate female athletes: factors that assist recovery.

    PubMed

    Arthur-Cameselle, Jessyca N; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that assist female athletes' recovery from eating disorders. Forty-seven female collegiate athletes who experienced eating disorders responded to an open-ended question regarding factors that most helped their recovery. The most common factors were the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport, support from others, and shifts in values/beliefs. A unique finding was that the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport most frequently facilitated recovery. This knowledge can help treatment providers to foster athletes' motivation to recover and distinguishes athletes as a unique treatment population from non-athletes. PMID:24365527

  4. Alcohol Use, Sexual Activity, and Perceived Risk in High School Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Fromme, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined one’s sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes’ more frequent behavioral risks compared to non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Methods Prior to leaving home, college bound high school graduates (n=2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Results Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. Conclusions These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence. PMID:17707300

  5. Studies of Television and Youth Sports: Laboratory/Field Research on the Effects of Pro-Social and Anti-Social TV Models on Children/Youth in Sport/Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This study investigates the question of whether or not exposure to televised professional sports affects the social behavior of young people who themselves actively engage in those sports. Lacrosse, hockey, baseball were monitored on television, with students questioned about the impact the behavior of the players (pro-social and anti-social) has…

  6. The role of achievement motivation in the relationship between athletic and academic achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace M Hickey

    1992-01-01

    The connection between sports participation and academic achievement was investigated with a primary focus on the role that motivation plays in this relationship. Female high school student-athletes, who have been underrepresented in sports psychology literature in the past served as participants. The School Attitude Measure and the Sport Orientation Questionnaire were administered to 70 athletes defined as students who participate

  7. Athletic & Fitness Centers Mon-Fri: 6:30AM-8PM

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    the Goergen Athletic Center Goergen Athletic Center: (585)275-7643 Susan B. Anthony ID Card Office: (585 Director (585)275-6277 kshanley@sports.rochester.edu Wendy Andreatta, Assistant to R Club (585)275-4274 wandreatta@sports.rochester.edu Ladi Iya, Assistant to R Club (585)275-9461 liya@sports

  8. Go for the Win: A Collaborative Model for Supporting Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Jacqueline S.; James, Tammy; Martin, Gerardina; Milliner, Kellianne

    2015-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics is a transformative component in the structure of many institutions of higher education. Campuses benefit from the inclusion of athletic sporting events in assorted ways, and student-athletes are at the core of the events. Their academic success is essential to the success of the team. Studies show college athletes

  9. Readings in Sports Psychology 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, H. T. A., Ed.

    In this collection of papers the psychology of human behavior and performance is examined as it is revealed by the action and interaction of athletes, coaches, and physical education teachers actively engaged in competitive and noncompetitive sports. The following subjects are discussed: (1) competitive sport and personality development; (2)…

  10. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete. PMID:25014386

  11. Effects of coach leadership and coach-athlete relationship on collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hampson, R; Jowett, S

    2014-04-01

    The study examined the independent and combined effects of coach leadership and coaching relationships on team efficacy. A total of 150 sport performers from football teams across a range of competitive levels completed a multisection self-report instrument to assess their individual perceptions of the level of collective efficacy, the type of coach leadership, and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Multiple regression analyses revealed that perceptions of both coach leadership and the coach-athlete relationship predicted variance in team efficacy. Overall, the findings suggest that the quality of coach-athlete relationships added to the prediction of individuals' collective efficacy beyond what was predicted by coaches' behaviors of leadership alone. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22966768

  12. Diseases of the Aorta in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Aline; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    Sudden cardiovascular deaths in athletes are rare and only a fraction are due to aortic events. There has been concern that the hemodynamic load during exercise may lead to aortic dilation, but aortic dimensions in endurance and strength-trained athletes are only slightly larger than those in sedentary comparison subjects. The presence of a bicuspid aortic valve without significant valvular dysfunction and normal aortic dimensions should not influence eligibility to practice sport. Patients with genetic syndromes associated with aortopathy generally should be restricted from vigorous sports participation. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of diseases of the aorta in athletes. PMID:26100422

  13. Utah Intramural Sports Participant Handbook

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Utah Intramural Sports Participant Handbook #12;- 2 - - 2 - Overview The Intramural Sports Program needs of the community we serve. The Intramural Sports Program offers competition in sports for women, tournaments and special events programmed on a semester basis. Team, dual and individual sport experiences

  14. Is there a right not to know one's sex? The ethics of 'gender verification' in women's sports competition.

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    The paper discusses the current medical practice of 'gender verification' in sports from an ethical point of view. It takes the recent public discussion about 800 m runner Caster Semenya as a starting point. At the World Championships in Athletics 2009 in Berlin, Germany, Semenya was challenged by competitors as being a so called 'sex impostor'. A medical examination to verify her sex ensued. The author analyses whether athletes like Semenya could claim a right not to know that is generally acknowledged in human genetics and enforced by international and national genetic privacy laws. The relevance of this right for genetic diagnosis in sports is discussed. To this end, the interests of the athlete concerned and of third parties are balanced according to the expected benefits and harms.Harm is documented in a number of cases and includes unjustified disqualification, severe sex and gender identity crisis, demeaning reactions, social isolation, depression and suicide. Benefits are dubious as most cases of intersex are considered irrelevant for sports competition. It has to be concluded that the benefits to be gained from 'gender verification' in sports via genetic testing do not outweigh the grave individual disadvantages. The current practice of athletic associations to largely ignore the right of competitors not to know does not comply with prevailing ethical provisions on the protection of sensitive personal data. Therefore, genetic 'gender verification' in sports should be abolished. PMID:21367768

  15. Sport Personality Assessment: Facts, Fallacies, and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig

    The status of sport personality literature is reviewed in light of three key questions: Is there a sport type? Does personality relate to success? Does sport participation influence the athlete's personality? Critical assessment of the literature provides rather definite answers to these questions. Some theoretical underpinnings of personality…

  16. Is Substance Use a Team Sport? Attraction to Team, Perceived Norms, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Grossbard; Justin Hummer; Joseph LaBrie; Eric Pederson; Clayton Neighbors

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of attraction to one's team in predicting alcohol and marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes. Attraction to team and alcohol-related information were collected via an online survey and marijuana use-related information was gathered in a live setting. We investigated the influence of attraction to one's team above and beyond the influence of gender and perceived norms,

  17. Nature versus nurture in determining athletic ability.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban J

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the truism that both nature and nurture determine human athletic ability. The major thesis developed is that environmental effects work through the process of growth and development and interact with an individual's genetic background to produce a specific adult phenotype, i.e. an athletic or nonathletic phenotype. On the nature side (genetics), a brief historical review is provided with emphasis on several areas that are likely to command future attention including the rise of genome-wide association as a mapping strategy, the problem of false positives using association approaches, as well as the relatively unknown effects of gene-gene interaction(epistasis), gene-environment interaction, and genome structure on complex trait variance. On the nurture side (environment), common environmental effects such as training-level and sports nutrition are largely ignored in favor of developmental environmental effects that are channeled through growth and development processes. Developmental effects are difficult to distinguish from genetic effects as phenotypic plasticity in response to early life environmental perturbation can produce lasting effects into adulthood. In this regard, the fetal programming (FP) hypothesis is reviewed in some detail as FP provides an excellent example of how developmental effects work and also interact with genetics. In general, FP has well-documented effects on adult body composition and the risk for adult chronic disease, but there is emerging evidence that FP affects human athletic performance as well. PMID:19696505

  18. Investigating college athletes' role identities and career development

    E-print Network

    Finch, Bryan Lewis

    2009-05-15

    ). Both roles have also been shown to be important to the athletes themselves (Adler & Adler, 1987; Snyder, 1985). College athletes face numerous challenges during their collegiate careers. Along with the previously mentioned role conflict, athletes... raised that male athletes may be prone to show lower levels of career maturity, particularly African-American men who compete in revenue sports such as basketball (Adler & Adler, 1991; Harrison & Lawrence, 2003). Another aspect of importance in career...

  19. The impact of circadian phenotype and time since awakening on diurnal performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-02-16

    Circadian rhythms, among other factors, have been shown to regulate key physiological processes involved in athletic performance. Personal best performance of athletes in the evening was confirmed across different sports. Contrary to this view, we identified peak performance times in athletes to be different between human "larks" and "owls" (also called "morningness/eveningness types" or "chronotypes" and referred to as circadian phenotypes in this paper), i.e., individuals with well-documented genetic and physiological differences that result in disparities between their biological clocks and how they entrain to exogenous cues, such as the environmental light/dark cycle and social factors. We found time since entrained awakening to be the major predictor of peak performance times, rather than time of day, as well as significant individual performance variations as large as 26% in the course of a day. Our novel approach combining the use of an athlete-specific chronometric test, longitudinal circadian analysis, and physical performance tests to characterize relevant sleep/wake and performance parameters in athletes allows a comprehensive analysis of the link between the circadian system and diurnal performance variation. We establish that the evaluation of an athlete's personal best performance requires consideration of circadian phenotype, performance evaluation at different times of day, and analysis of performance as a function of time since entrained awakening. PMID:25639241

  20. Athletic Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalk, Ocania

    1974-01-01

    The athletic trainer is, in effect, a paramedic who gives first aid and rehabilitation treatments to injured athletes. Opportunities, income, education, and a list of undergraduate and graduate programs approved by the National Athletic Training Association are presented. (Author/SC)

  1. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  2. Athletic Trainers in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sandra E.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the role of athletic trainers in New York State secondary schools. Discusses the need for trainers to provide emergency medical care for sports injuries and to develop prevention programs. Reviews efforts to obtain certification for trainers from the New York State Education Department. (FMW)

  3. Iron supplementation in athletes--first do no harm.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Heinz; Vogel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Although it generally does not improve performance, iron is often used by elite athletes. The physiologic changes induced by exercise can mimic iron deficiency and decrease hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations. Determination of serum transferrin receptor concentrations may identify true iron deficiency, which occurs particularly in young athletes. In contrast, increased iron stores in the body are a frequent finding in elite athletes who have used long-term iron supplementation. Elite runners have increased intestinal blood loss, but this usually can be compensated by enhanced absorption of dietary iron. The combination of exercise-induced hemolysis with enhanced intestinal blood loss in various endurance sports leads to severe abnormalities of routine tests, and extreme physical activity may be responsible for positive fecal occult blood determinations. Indiscriminate iron supplementation carries the risk of inducing hemochromatosis in individuals homozygous for the widespread C282Y allele of the HFE gene. This polymorphism is common and can be found in about 1% of individuals of Northern European descent; moreover, iron supplementation can modify the presentation of important underlying diseases such as celiac disease or colon carcinoma. In conclusion, iron supplements should be prescribed for athletes with iron-deficiency anemia and carefully monitored if given for prophylaxis; unless a therapeutic response occurs, investigations to establish the cause of iron deficiency should be initiated. PMID:15212743

  4. THE SCARLET HAWKS -EQUITY IN ATHLETICS MEN'S AND WOMEN'S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

    E-print Network

    Saniie, Jafar

    . Athletic Participation: The following is the number of participants by gender for each varsity team INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY September, 2010 The Department of Athletics and Recreation at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) offers a comprehensive program of varsity sports for both men and women. IIT strives

  5. Balance control during gait in athletes and non-athletes following concussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonya M. Parker; Louis R. Osternig; Paul van Donkelaar; Li-Shan Chou

    2008-01-01

    Current literature provides only limited information regarding performance on dynamic motor tasks following concussion. However, recent investigations have suggested that participation in contact sports may have a negative effect on cognitive function without the existence of a medically diagnosed concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine balance control during gait in concussed and uninjured athletes and non-athletes. Twenty-eight

  6. The ‘worn-out athlete’: A clinical approach to chronic fatigue in athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Derman; M. P. Schwellnus; M. I. Lambert; M. Emms; C. Sinclair-Smith; P. Kirby; T. D. Noakes

    1997-01-01

    Chronic fatigue in the athletic population is a common but difficult diagnostic challenge for the sports physician. While a degree of fatigue may be normal for any athlete during periods of high-volume training, the clinician must be able to differentiate between this physiological fatigue and more prolonged, severe fatigue which may be due to a pathological condition. As chronic fatigue

  7. Violent, Delinquent, and Aggressive Behaviors of Rural High School Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Deborah J.; Lantz, Christopher D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sports participation and self-reported violent, delinquent, and aggressive behaviors in rural high school populations. Three-hundred and thirty-eight athletes and non-athletes from four rural high schools completed the YRBSS and the Conflict Behavior Scale (CBS). The results…

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors for Concussion in High School Athletes, North Carolina, 1996-1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Schulz; Stephen W. Marshall; Frederick O. Mueller; Jingzhen Yang; Nancy L. Weaver; William D. Kalsbeek; J. Michael Bowling

    A prospective cohort study was used to quantify risk factors for sports concussions. Analysis was based on a stratified cluster sample of North Carolina high school athletes followed during 1996-1999. Clustering was by school and sport, and the sample included 15,802 athletes with 1-8 seasons of follow-up per athlete. Concussion rates were estimated for 12 sports, and risk factors were

  9. Head injuries in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R C Cantu

    1996-01-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common

  10. -Texas A&M University-Department of Recreational Sports

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    -Texas A&M University- Department of Recreational Sports INTRAMURAL SPORTS INDOOR SOCCER. The Department of Recreational Sports WILL NOT provide band-aids or athletic tape to cover jewelry items Regulations published in the Texas A&M Rec Sports Handbook will be the governing policies for all intramural

  11. -Texas A&M University-Department of Recreational Sports

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    -Texas A&M University- Department of Recreational Sports INTRAMURAL SPORTS OUTDOOR SOCCER RULES. 3. ELIGIBILITY/RESTRICTED PLAYERS Participants may NOT represent more than one team in any sport at the game site, with a band-aid or athletic tape. The Department of Recreational Sports WILL NOT provide

  12. Information in English : There are two sport centers available

    E-print Network

    Ráth, Balázs

    Information in English : There are two sport centers available 1/ Indoor: Budapest, XI. Bertalan of sports If you would like to use the central sport center of Bertalan L. call this number ­ 463 like to use the athletic sport center at Bogdanfy ut (tennis, beach volleyball Kincses Gábor 06

  13. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented. PMID:26113552

  14. Influence of coaches' autonomy support on athletes' motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Gillet; Robert J. Vallerand; Sofiane Amoura; Brice Baldes

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesBased on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation [Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 271–360). New York: Academic Press], the purpose of this study was to propose and test a model which posits that coaches' autonomy support facilitates athletes' self-determined

  15. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  16. Current Issues in the Identification, Assessment, and Management of Concussions in Sports-Related Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine McKeever; Philip Schatz

    2003-01-01

    The recent literature has focused on the need for appropriate identification, assessment, and management of sports-related concussion. This article addresses current issues in the preva- lence and assessment of sports-related concussion. Despite a paucity of research on female athletes and youth athletes, there is evidence that female athletes are at higher risk for injury than males and that concussions may

  17. Development of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.; Deeter, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, a multidimensional, sport-specific measure of individual differences in achievement orientation, indicates that it is a valid and reliable measure of individual sport achievement orientation. (JD)

  18. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations to optimize the fluid-replacement practices of athletes. Background: Dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes do not voluntarily drink sufficient water to prevent dehydration during physical activity. Drinking behavior can be modified by education, increasing accessibility, and optimizing palatability. However, excessive overdrinking should be avoided because it can also compromise physical performance and health. We provide practical recommendations regarding fluid replacement for athletes. Recommendations: Educate athletes regarding the risks of dehydration and overhydration on health and physical performance. Work with individual athletes to develop fluid-replacement practices that optimize hydration status before, during, and after competition. Imagesp224-a PMID:16558633

  19. Sports-Science Roundtable: Does Sports-Science Research Infl uence Practice?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bishop; Angus Burnett; Damian Farrow; Tim Gabbett; Robert Newton

    As sports scientists, we claim to make a signifi cant contribution to the body of knowledge that infl uences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research infl u-

  20. On the same team? a qualitative study of female sportswriters' attitudes on covering women's athletics 

    E-print Network

    Butler, Bryan Christopher

    2008-10-10

    work in sports media might improve coverage for female athletes. Ten women sportswriters who work at daily newspapers were interviewed to explore how they perceived covering women's sports. Most of the sportswriters said that they did not feel any...

  1. Personality traits and exercise capacity in male athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Dumciene, Audrone; Mamkus, Gediminas; Venckunas, Tomas

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the relationships between personality traits and athletic capacity, this study compared a sample of 376 young adult men (169 athletes, 207 non-athletes; M age = 23.8 yr., SD = 3.9). 26 lab-based exercise capacity parameters were measured, as well as the Big Five major personality traits using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The results indicated that athletes scored higher than non-athletes for Conscientiousness but scores were not statistically different between groups for other personality traits. Team sport athletes scored higher on Extraversion than endurance athletes. All the personality traits were associated with some of the exercise capacity indices; however, these correlations were rather weak (rs < .2). PMID:24724519

  2. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  3. Preseason strength and flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Knapik; Connie L. Bauman; Bruce H. Jones; John Mc A. Harris; Linda Vaughan

    1991-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight female collegiate athletes, par ticipating in eight weightbearing varsity sports, were administered preseason strength and flexibility tests and followed for injuries during their sports seasons. Strength was measured as the maximal isokinetic torque of the right and left knee flexors and knee extensors at 30 and 180 deg\\/sec. Flexibility was meas ured as the active range of

  4. Tracing the Development of Athletes Using Retrospective Interview Methods: A Proposed Interview and Validation Procedure for Reported Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Côté; K. Anders Ericsson; Madelyn P. Law

    2005-01-01

    A new interview procedure is proposed for collecting valid information on the acquisition of high-level performance in sport. The procedure elicits verifiable information on the development of athletes' achievements in their primary sport, as well as factors that might influence performance, including involvement in other sporting activities, injuries, physical growth and quality of training resources. Interviewed athletes also describe their

  5. Racial Differences in Reactive Versus Self-Paced Sports Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morgan Worthy; Allan Markle

    1970-01-01

    The hypothesis is advanced that black athletes perform better, relative to white athletes, in sports activities that are reactive in nature than in sports activities that are self-paced in nature. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is presented from the fields of professional baseball, professional basketball, and college basketball. These differences are apparently independent of differences in socioeconomic class. Some

  6. Nutrition and the athlete.

    PubMed

    Bullard, J A

    1978-12-01

    The importance of good nutrition cannot be over emphasized for both the athlete and the non-athlete. The difference is essentially in the number of calories. Both need a well balanced diet, normally taken as three meals a day. Modifications on the day of participation require planning as well as understanding. Many myths have developed from a false impression that some advantage will be gained over an opponent or that performance will be enhanced. Scientific evidence does not support these claims. The physician should be aware of the recommendations contained in the Canadian Food Guide for the basic diet. He should also be prepared to discuss variations in dietary habits which have entered the sports scene. PMID:20469286

  7. Female Basketball Student-Athletes' Motivation: Analyzing Academic Standing and Ethnicity at Atlantic Coast Conference Institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Juanell Pettaway Willis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey female basketball student-athletes, participating in Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) member institutions, in order to determine their academic, collegiate athletic, and career athletic motivation based on academic standing and ethnicity. Another purpose was to validate the Student-Athletes’ Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ), a newly developed instrument used to measure student-athletes’ motivation.

  8. Sports Union Recreational Sport

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    Sports Union Recreational Sport Programme Futsal(5 a-side Football) Play football on a weekly basis and Semester 2 Entry form You must fill in a Recreational Sport Entry Form. This can be collected from the Sports Centre reception and hand it in along with your entry fee. Find us on Facebook at Heriot

  9. Is the Breadth of Individualized Ranges of Optimal Anxiety (IZOF) Equal for all Athletes? A Graphical Method for Establishing IZOF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Pons; Isabel Balaguer; M. Luisa; Garcia-Merita

    2001-01-01

    Recall and direct methods to determine the individual zone of optimal functioning(IZOF) cannot account for potential individual differences in the span of optimal anxiety. Accordingly, an attempt was made to test a graphical technique that could establish the span of optimal anxiety ranges for individuals. State anxiety (STAI; Spielberger, Gorusch, & Lushene, 1970; and CSAI-2; Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, &

  10. Challenges and Countermeasures for Thermal Environment and Indoor Air Quality in Sports Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Xianting; Ma Yong; Shao Xiaoliang; Ma Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    the sports building is often crowded with many sports practitioners, so the thermal environment and indoor air quality in the sports buildings are very important to the athletes and other sports practitioners. Many problems such as different demands between auditorium and playing area, air conditioning system design and air conditioning operation exist in sports buildings in order to improve the

  11. The Parents' Optimum Zone: Measuring and optimising parental engagement in youth sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celia Brackenridge

    Both Sport England, through its Long Term Athlete Development programme, and the NSPCC, through its Child Protection in Sport Unit, have a stake in improving parental behaviour in youth sport in order to optimise the safety and performance potential of young athletes. This paper reports on a commissioned review of parenting research literature and programmes by these two agencies in

  12. Coach strategies for addressing psychosocial challenges during the return to sport from injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Podlog; Rylee Dionigi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic

  13. Cardioleader use in acyclic types of sports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondin, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the cardioleader method in regulating training loads and tests for athletes in acyclic sports was investigated. It was found that the use of this method increases the effectiveness of the training process.

  14. Facility Focus: Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines projects that demonstrate three different commitments administrators make to their athletic facilities: convenience; excellence; and comfort. Projects discussed involve a fitness center, a football stadium, and a multi-sport indoor practice facility. (GR)

  15. Sports Trauma Management and the High School Nurse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Richard J.; Shute, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses that school nurses would not be able to pass a standardized test of sports trauma management and that certified athletic trainers would score higher on this test were investigated. Results revealed that athletic trainers were indeed more knowledgeable than school nurses regarding athletic injuries among the high school population.…

  16. Eccentric Utilization Ratio: Effect of Sport and Phase of Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. McGuigan; Timothy L. A. Doyle; Michael Newton; Dylan J. Edwards; Sophia Nimphius; Robert U. Newton

    2006-01-01

    The eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), which is the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) to static jump (SJ) performance, has been suggested as a useful indicator of power performance in athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare the EUR of athletes from a variety of different sports and during different phases of training. A total of 142 athletes from

  17. Playing with heart and soul…and genomes: sports implications and applications of personal genomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Whether the integration of genetic/omic technologies in sports contexts will facilitate player success, promote player safety, or spur genetic discrimination depends largely upon the game rules established by those currently designing genomic sports medicine programs. The integration has already begun, but there is not yet a playbook for best practices. Thus far discussions have focused largely on whether the integration would occur and how to prevent the integration from occurring, rather than how it could occur in such a way that maximizes benefits, minimizes risks, and avoids the exacerbation of racial disparities. Previous empirical research has identified members of the personal genomics industry offering sports-related DNA tests, and previous legal research has explored the impact of collective bargaining in professional sports as it relates to the employment protections of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). Building upon that research and upon participant observations with specific sports-related DNA tests purchased from four direct-to-consumer companies in 2011 and broader personal genomics (PGx) services, this anthropological, legal, and ethical (ALE) discussion highlights fundamental issues that must be addressed by those developing personal genomic sports medicine programs, either independently or through collaborations with commercial providers. For example, the vulnerability of student-athletes creates a number of issues that require careful, deliberate consideration. More broadly, however, this ALE discussion highlights potential sports-related implications (that ultimately might mitigate or, conversely, exacerbate racial disparities among athletes) of whole exome/genome sequencing conducted by biomedical researchers and clinicians for non-sports purposes. For example, the possibility that exome/genome sequencing of individuals who are considered to be non-patients, asymptomatic, normal, etc. will reveal the presence of variants of unknown significance in any one of the genes associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), Marfan’s syndrome, and other conditions is not inconsequential, and how this information is reported, interpreted, and used may ultimately prevent the individual from participation in competitive sports. Due to the distribution of genetic diversity that reflects our evolutionary and demographic history (including the discernible effects of restricted gene flow and genetic drift associated with cultural constructs of race) and in recognition of previous policies for “leveling” the playing field in competitive sports based on “natural” athletic abilities, preliminary recommendations are provided to discourage genetic segregation of sports and to develop best practice guidelines for genomic sports medicine programs that will facilitate player success, promote player safety, and avoid genetic discrimination within and beyond the program. PMID:23940833

  18. Playing with heart and soul…and genomes: sports implications and applications of personal genomics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jennifer K

    2013-01-01

    Whether the integration of genetic/omic technologies in sports contexts will facilitate player success, promote player safety, or spur genetic discrimination depends largely upon the game rules established by those currently designing genomic sports medicine programs. The integration has already begun, but there is not yet a playbook for best practices. Thus far discussions have focused largely on whether the integration would occur and how to prevent the integration from occurring, rather than how it could occur in such a way that maximizes benefits, minimizes risks, and avoids the exacerbation of racial disparities. Previous empirical research has identified members of the personal genomics industry offering sports-related DNA tests, and previous legal research has explored the impact of collective bargaining in professional sports as it relates to the employment protections of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). Building upon that research and upon participant observations with specific sports-related DNA tests purchased from four direct-to-consumer companies in 2011 and broader personal genomics (PGx) services, this anthropological, legal, and ethical (ALE) discussion highlights fundamental issues that must be addressed by those developing personal genomic sports medicine programs, either independently or through collaborations with commercial providers. For example, the vulnerability of student-athletes creates a number of issues that require careful, deliberate consideration. More broadly, however, this ALE discussion highlights potential sports-related implications (that ultimately might mitigate or, conversely, exacerbate racial disparities among athletes) of whole exome/genome sequencing conducted by biomedical researchers and clinicians for non-sports purposes. For example, the possibility that exome/genome sequencing of individuals who are considered to be non-patients, asymptomatic, normal, etc. will reveal the presence of variants of unknown significance in any one of the genes associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), Marfan's syndrome, and other conditions is not inconsequential, and how this information is reported, interpreted, and used may ultimately prevent the individual from participation in competitive sports. Due to the distribution of genetic diversity that reflects our evolutionary and demographic history (including the discernible effects of restricted gene flow and genetic drift associated with cultural constructs of race) and in recognition of previous policies for "leveling" the playing field in competitive sports based on "natural" athletic abilities, preliminary recommendations are provided to discourage genetic segregation of sports and to develop best practice guidelines for genomic sports medicine programs that will facilitate player success, promote player safety, and avoid genetic discrimination within and beyond the program. PMID:23940833

  19. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained?16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken?3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes. PMID:22248498

  20. Explanatory Style and Athletic Performance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Howell, David

    Created by David Howell of the University of Vermont, this website is self described as: "This document was prepared as an illustration of the use of both t tests and correlation/regression analysis in drawing conclusions from data in an actual study." The study compares athletic performance of swimmers that are optimists versus pessimists. Howell provides: an introduction, a section on explanatory style, a section on athletic performance, methods and results. This is a great look at how statistics can be applied to many different disciplines, in this case sports, and provide wonderful insight into different aspects of the field.

  1. Vaccination in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites. PMID:24986118

  2. Upper gastrointestinal issues in athletes.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jason J; Kapur, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are common among athletes with rates in the range of 30% to 70%. Both the intensity of sport and the type of sporting activity have been shown to be contributing factors in the development of GI symptoms. Three important factors have been postulated as contributing to the pathophysiology of GI complaints in athletes: mechanical forces, altered GI blood flow, and neuroendocrine changes. As a result of those factors, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), nausea, vomiting, gastritis, peptic ulcers, GI bleeding, or exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) may develop. GERD may be treated with changes in eating habits, lifestyle modifications, and training modifications. Nausea and vomiting may respond to simple training modifications, including no solid food 3 hours prior to an athletic event. Mechanical trauma, decreased splanchnic blood flow during exercise, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) contribute to gastritis, GI bleeding, and ulcer formation in athletes. Acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors may be useful in athletes with persistence of any of the above symptoms. ETAP is a common, poorly-understood, self-limited acute abdominal pain which is difficult to treat. ETAP incidence increases in athletes beginning a new exercise program or increasing the intensity of their current exercise program. ETAP may respond to changes in breathing patterns or may resolve simply with continued training. Evaluation of the athlete with upper GI symptoms requires a thorough history, a detailed training log, a focused physical examination aimed at ruling out potentially serious causes of symptoms, and follow-up laboratory testing based on concerning physical examination findings. PMID:22410703

  3. Female athlete triad syndrome in the high school athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Carr, Kathleen E

    2011-08-01

    Female sports participation at the high school level has significantly increased since the 1970s. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the "female athlete triad," which refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Athletes with conditions related to the triad are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease and may not experience all conditions simultaneously. Previous research related to the triad has primarily focused on collegiate and elite athletes. However, mounting evidence demonstrates that the triad is present in the high school population. High school athletes should be assessed for triad components at preparticipation physicals. In addition, parents, coaches, and health care professionals should be educated and informed about the female athlete triad syndrome. In the presence of triad symptoms, further evaluation and treatment by a multidisciplinary team is strongly recommended for the athlete. PMID:21802036

  4. Cartilage Repair in Football (Soccer) Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players.

  5. Sports Field Management Guide, September 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This journal presents three articles on athletic facility turf management practices. Articles are as follows: "Turfgrass Choices for Athletic Fields" (Eric K. Nelson); "Fertilization: Maximizing Performance of High-Traffic Turf" (John C. Stier); and "Tips for Sports Turf-Managers" (Gil Landry). (GR)

  6. An Interprofessional Learning Experience in Sports Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumamoto, David P.; DiOrio, Louis P.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of dental schools elicited information about course offerings in sports dentistry, opinions about offering such a course, dental school construction of mouthguards for campus or outside athletes, and provision of treatment for athlete dental trauma. A University of Illinois course is described and student reactions are discussed. (MSE)

  7. Journal of Issues in Collegiate Athletics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created as an initiative by the College Sport Research Institute (CSRI) the Journal of Issues in Collegiate Athletics is "intended to foster an atmosphere that encourages personal and intellectual growth for faculty and students, demands excellence and professional integrity from faculty and student affiliates, supports independent critical college-sport research, and advocates for college athletes' rights and education." Visitors to the site can look over information about their editorial board and staff, their complete mission statement, and then make their way to the actual journal. The publication was started in 2008, and visitors can view articles such as "Collegiate Sport Chaplaincy: Problems and Promise" and "Can the Faculty Reform Intercollegiate Athletics? A Past, Present, and Future Perspective". The site is rounded out by a listing of links to related organizations, conferences, and online resources.

  8. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers). PMID:18548363

  9. 1 Student-Athlete Academic Performance at Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    by agreeing that student-athlete graduation rates in football and men's basketball there are many teams with excellent graduation rates, the problem is not limited to football and men's basketball. Graduation rates in several other sports2, including

  10. Time to re-evaluate gender segregation in athletics?

    PubMed

    Foddy, Bennett; Savulescu, Julian

    2011-12-01

    The case of Caster Semenya provides a vivid illustration of the ways in which natural genetic variation can generate large differences in athletic performance. But since we normally segregate athletic sports along the lines of this particular variation-gender-her case also highlights problems with the current approach to justice in sporting competition. Female athletes seem to have a valid complaint when they are made to compete against athletes who are, in one sense or another, male. But once we recognise that gender is not a binary quantity, sex segregation in competitive sport must be seen as an inconsistent and unjust policy, no matter what stance we take on the goals of sport or on the regulation of doping. PMID:20702382

  11. Athletic shoes: finding a good match.

    PubMed

    Martin, D R

    1997-09-01

    When you walk into an athletic-shoe store, chances are you'll be overwhelmed by the selection and feel the marketing magnet of sports celebrities and their namesake shoes. Superstores may carry hundreds of different joggers from a dozen major brands. And the same goes for most other types of athletic shoes, from walkers and cross-trainers to basketball shoes and football cleats. PMID:20086941

  12. Intercollegiate Athletics and Escalation of Commitment 

    E-print Network

    Bouchet, Frank Adrien

    2012-07-16

    to the athletic department. In effect, the university is providing a direct subsidy to the athletic department. This subsidy comes at a time when university?s finances are strained due to budget cuts. These budget cuts often affect the funding of academic..., there were likely many other factors influencing the local government?s decision to continue with this project; however, this example illustrates the point that ______________ This dissertation follows the style of Journal of Sport Management. 2 some...

  13. Return to play after conservative treatment in athletes with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation: a practice-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to confirm the short-term outcome of conservative treatment in terms of the ability to return to play and factors influencing return to play in athletes with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. A total of 100 consecutive athletes (72 male and 28 female) who consulted our sports medicine clinic during the 16-year period between September 1993 and October 2009 because of severe low back pain and/or leg pain/numbness due to lumbar disc herniation were studied. The mean age of the subjects was 23 years. All of them were conservatively treated by being advised to discontinue their sporting activities with/without short-term medication. After the subjective symptoms had reduced by more than 80%, individual training was started in order to allow the athletes to return to play. Seventy-nine athletes (79.0%) returned to play at an average of 4.8 months (range 1-12 months) after the start of treatment and were able to sustain the activities for at least 6 months, the minimum duration of follow-up in the study. The outcome of the conservative treatment was not influenced by the intensity of the sporting activity. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the severity of the symptoms prior to the start of treatment was the factor influencing the ability of the athletes to return to play. The present study confirmed the satisfactory short-term outcome of conservative treatment in athletes with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation regarding return to play and revealed that subjective symptoms prior to the start of treatment appeared to be a key factor in return to play after conservative treatment. PMID:24198567

  14. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  15. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  16. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  17. An Analysis of Sportswomen on the Covers and in the Feature Articles of Women's Sport and Fitness Magazine, 1975-1989

    E-print Network

    Leath, Virginia M.; Lumpkin, Angela

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzes the treatment of athletes in Women's Sports and Fitness between 1975 and 1989. Author, article length, gender, sport, race, and sporting role were assessed for each article; the number of accompanying pictures to each article...

  18. Sport specificity of mental disorders: the issue of sport psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Markser, Valentin Z

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among elite athletes is still under debate. More and more evidence has accumulated that high-performance athletes are not protected from mental disorders as previously thought. The authors discuss the issue of the sport specificity of selected mental diseases in elite athletes. Specific aspects of eating disorders, exercise addiction, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mood disorders in the context of overtraining syndrome are examined. In particular, the interrelationship between life and work characteristics unique to elite athletes and the development of mental disorders are reviewed. Differences of clinical presentation and some therapeutic consequences are discussed. The authors suggest that the physical and mental strains endured by elite athletes might influence the onset and severity of their psychiatric disorder. Beside the existing research strategies dealing with the amount of exercise, its intensity and lack of recreation experienced by athletes, further research on psycho-social factors is needed to better understand the sport-specific aetiology of mental disorders in high-performance athletes. PMID:24091603

  19. Coach-athlete attachment and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship: implications for athlete's well-being.

    PubMed

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether athletes' attachment styles with the coach were linked to aspects of the coach-athlete relationship quality and, in turn, whether relationship quality was linked to athletes' well-being. One hundred and ninety-two athletes completed a questionnaire measuring their attachment styles and relationship quality with the coach as well as their feelings of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis found athletes' avoidant and secure attachment styles to be associated with aspects of coach-athlete relationship quality such as social support, relationship depth, and interpersonal conflict. Interpersonal conflict appeared to play a key role in athletes' PA and NA. From a practical perspective, an understanding of conflict management could provide a resource that allows athletes (and coaches) to enhance the quality of their sporting relationships. Specifically, an awareness of proactive strategies (e.g., steps to clarify expectations) and reactive strategies (e.g., cooperation during the discussion of disagreements) could potentially lead both coaches and athletes to "broaden" their viewpoints and in turn "build" connections that are capable of generating positive emotions including interest, excitement, happiness, and zeal. PMID:24713087

  20. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  1. Birthplace effects on the development of female athletic talent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dany J. MacDonald; Jared King; Jean Cote; Bruce Abernethy

    Summary This study examined the extent to which an athlete's place of birth can influence the likelihood of playing professional sport. Information regarding the birthplace of all American female athletes in the Ladies Professional Golf Asso- ciation and Women's United Soccer Association was gathered from official league websites. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if the birthplace of these

  2. Food attitudes in female athletes: Association with menstrualcycle length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy I. Williams; Heather J. Leidy; Kathleen A. Flecker; Angelique Galucci

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indicators of risk of disordered eating, body image and varied menstrual cycle lengths. Altogether, 151 female athletes were invited from 16 sports and 70 female non-athletic controls were recruited from a university lecture class. The participants completed several surveys, including demographics, menstrual cycle history, physical activity, Eating Disorder Inventory

  3. An Exploration of Leadership Characteristics in College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiche, Keith; Sedlacek, William E.; Adams-Gaston, Javaune

    This study examined the attitudes and behaviors associated with leadership qualities in 73 freshman athletes at the University of Maryland, College Park. The Sport Leadership Behavior Inventory (SLBI), the Noncognitive Questionnaire (NCQ), and the New Student Census were administered to the athletes. The SLBI was chosen to provide a definition of…

  4. Win, Women, and Money: Collegiate Athletics Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Ewald B.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with collegiate athletics involve winning at any cost, accommodating women, and financing sports in an era of declining resources and rising costs. Abuses in athletics programs, presidential responsibility, research of the problems and its results, and predictions for the future are examined with regard to these issues. (JMD)

  5. Disorders of personality and mood in athletes: Recognition and referral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Andersen; Eric L. Denson; Britton W. Brewer; Judy L. van Raalte

    1994-01-01

    In the applied sport psychology literature, there has been discussion of the importance of referring clients to the appropriate expert when circumstances warrant. The present paper addresses the recognition and referral of athletes with personality and mood disorders. This paper describes some of these disorders as they may appear in athletes, along with key recognition signs, diagnostic criteria, case examples,

  6. Stereotype Threat Effects on Black and White Athletic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Stone; Christian I. Lynch; Mike Sjomeling; John M. Darley

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments showed that framing an athletic task as diagnostic of negative racial stereotypes about Black or White athletes can impede their performance in sports. In Experiment 1, Black participants performed significantly worse than did control participants when performance on a golf task was framed as diagnostic of \\

  7. H.S. Athletics Out of Bounds, Report Warns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of high school athletic programs have taken on the trappings of university-level sports. A trend that greatly affects school athletics and academic performance, and are now becoming more frequent at the high school and even the middle school level. A report released by the National Association of State Boards of Education warns…

  8. Faculty Members Feel "Disconnected" from College Athletics, Report Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2007-01-01

    A "striking number" of professors involved in governance at universities with high-profile athletics programs say they are disconnected from and do not know much about the issues facing college sports, according to survey findings released last week by the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics. The survey, which was conducted by…

  9. Coaching Strategies for Helping Adolescent Athletes Cope with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to…

  10. The Impact of a Performance Profiling Intervention on Athletes' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Neil J. V.; Greenlees, Iain A.; Thelwell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Originally developed by Butler (1989) with the Great Britain Olympic boxing team, performance profiling is an assessment tool primarily used by sport psychologists to enhance athlete awareness. The completed profile provides the athlete, the coach, and psychologist with a visual representation of the athlete's perception of his or her performance…

  11. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  12. http://rcc.its.psu.edu/hpc Functional Abnormalities in Normally-Appearing Athletes Following

    E-print Network

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments. In this study we utilize functionalhttp://rcc.its.psu.edu/hpc Functional Abnormalities in Normally-Appearing Athletes Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: a functional MRI Study Abstract Concussion in sport, otherwise known as mild

  13. Exploration of Factors Related to the Development of Vocational Identity in Collegiate Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the vocational consequences and benefits of being a student-athlete in a large university and competitive level of sport, and how these contribute to the development of a student-athlete's vocational identity. A mass email was sent to the entire student-athlete population at a Division I university…

  14. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…

  15. Threshold and memory: A new theoretical model for athlete CAM use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Koh

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The role of theory in research cannot be over emphasised. Present literature on athlete complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use poses two problems: in the few studies on CAM use that have utilised theory, the use of theory has been inconsistent or lack validation; in athlete motivational studies, theoretical models focused on the athlete and the sport and not

  16. A National Study on Gambling among US College Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina; Paskus, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the national prevalence of gambling problems and sports wagering among US college student-athletes. Participants: A national sample of 20,739 student-athletes participated in the study. Methods: The authors used data from the first national survey of gambling among college athletes, conducted by the National…

  17. Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

    1995-01-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

  18. Catastrophic injuries among young athletes.

    PubMed

    Zemper, E D

    2010-01-01

    While very rare, catastrophic injuries in youth sports have a major impact on athletes and their families when they do occur. This article reviews and summarises the sparse research on direct catastrophic injuries in youth sports, a direct catastrophic sports injury being defined as a sport injury that resulted from participation in the skills of the sport, and resulted in a fatality or in a non-fatal brain or spinal cord injury, or skull or spinal fracture. While an electronic database search was completed to assemble the articles reviewed here, much of the data come from the National Center for Catastrophic Injury Research at the University of North Carolina, which has the most extensive and complete data set on this issue. This article reviews and summarises what is known about the rate of occurrence of these injuries in various youth sports, the risk factors for these injuries, injury mechanisms and what can be done to prevent them in various youth sports. PMID:19892698

  19. Athletic Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the John Justin Athletic Center at Texas Christian University, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architect and contractors, as well as photographs. (EV)

  20. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, and locker room floors. To prevent ... public areas Wear flip-flops in locker room showers Keep your toenails clean and clipped short Treatments ...