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Sample records for individual sport athletes

  1. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  2. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    PubMed

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  3. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load. PMID:24255910

  4. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.

    PubMed

    Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports. PMID:24993935

  5. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p < 0.05; d = 0.30]. Furthermore, negative attribution after failure was associated with individual sports (β = 0.27; p < 0.001), as well as with the dependent variable depression (β = 0.26; p < 0.01). Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p < 0.05). Negative attribution after failure mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to

  6. Perceptions of self of Division I team and individual sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Barbara Day; Black, Nate; Vincent, William J

    2010-04-01

    The Worth Index was administered to 176 Division I athletes who were competing in team and individual sports at Brigham Young University. The purpose of the study was to measure and compare their perceptions of worth and self-esteem. The Worth Index is a valid tool measuring whether an individual believes worth and self-esteem are earned by way of performance (conditional) or are inherent (unconditional). The Worth Index measures perceptions of basic human worth and worth as related to personal security, performance, and the physical self. The four subscales represent these four categories. There were no significant differences between the perceptions of athletes in team and individual sports on any of the subscales of the Worth Index. However, on each subscale, all participants combined rated themselves significantly higher on unconditional worth than conditional worth. PMID:20499562

  7. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  8. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p < 0.05; d = 0.30]. Furthermore, negative attribution after failure was associated with individual sports (β = 0.27; p < 0.001), as well as with the dependent variable depression (β = 0.26; p < 0.01). Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p < 0.05). Negative attribution after failure mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to

  9. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    PubMed

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. PMID:21419964

  10. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  11. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  12. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality. PMID:27544991

  13. Differences in Television Sports Reporting of Men's and Women's Athletics: ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuggle, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the amount of coverage given to women's athletics by ESPN SportsCenter and CNN Sports Tonight. Results indicated: both programs devoted only about 5% of their air time to women's sports; story placement and on-camera comments indicated an emphasis on men's athletics; and stories about women involved individual competition, with almost no…

  14. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A

  15. Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

    2015-03-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points

  16. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  17. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pubic bone (adductors) are also stretched or torn. Cause Sports activities that involve planting the feet ... may need to consider surgery to repair the torn tissues. Page ( 2 ) AAOS does not endorse any ...

  18. How Sport Psychologists Help Coaches and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Gerard F.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that sport psychologists play a vital role in helping athletes overcome obstacles in order to achieve their goals and provide athletes with tools to reach peak performance and personal growth (i.e., psychological and behavioral interventions for enhancing athletic performance). Sport psychologists work within the complex pathways between…

  19. DIFFERENCES IN DYNAMIC BALANCE SCORES IN ONE SPORT VERSUS MULTIPLE SPORT HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Robert J.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Methods: Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. Results: No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ. PMID:22530189

  20. How does sport psychology actually improve athletic performance? A framework to facilitate athletes' and coaches' understanding.

    PubMed

    Gee, Chris J

    2010-09-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a competitive contest. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that many athletes, coaches, and sporting administrators are still quite reluctant to seek out the services of a qualified sport psychologist, even if they believe it could help. One of the primary reasons for this hesitation appears to be a lack of understanding about the process and the mechanisms by which these mental skills affect performance. Unlike the "harder sciences" of sport physiology and biochemistry where athletes can see the tangible results in themselves or other athletes (e.g., he or she lifted weights, developed larger muscles, and is now stronger/faster as a result), the unfamiliar and often esoteric nature of sport psychology appears to be impeding a large number of athletes from soliciting these important services. As such, the purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a simple framework depicting how mental skills training translates into improved within-competition performance. This framework is intended to help bridge the general "understanding gap" that is currently being reported by a large number of athletes and coaches, while also helping sport psychology practitioners sell their valuable services to individual athletes and teams. PMID:20935240

  1. Why Young Athletes Sign Up for Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zach; Strasser, Joe; McKenzie, Isaac; Stoll, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students participate in sports because of several reasons. A coach may effectively guide his team if he knows what motivates each player. In this article, the authors investigate the reasons why athletes sign up for sports. They designed a questionnaire with open-ended and close-ended questions which focuses on how students perceived sports, why…

  2. Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Austin Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…

  3. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes. PMID:24665795

  4. Athletes' Hours Renew Debate over College Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Over the past year, members of Congress have poked around the well-fed belly of intercollegiate athletics, questioning whether college sports deserves its tax-exempt status. Myles Brand, the president of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has led the countercharge against the government, repeatedly defending the educational value…

  5. Four-year changes in college athletes' ethical value choices in sports situations.

    PubMed

    Priest, R F; Krause, J V; Beach, J

    1999-06-01

    Positive values for fairness in competition are supposed to undergird the behavior of athletes engaged in sport. Whether athletes' values actually develop over 4 years in a college that emphasizes character development is the focus of this study. Athletes' (N = 631) use of deontological ethics (Hahm, Beller & Stoll, 1989) in 21 sports value dilemmas were evaluated. At entrance, as well as near graduation, intercollegiate athletes' value scores were lower than intramural athletes' scores. Both groups' scores declined while they were in college. Individual-sport athletes had higher scores than team-sport athletes but manifested a greater decline over 4 years. The findings are consistent with other studies that show decreases in "sportsmanship orientation" and an increase in "professional" attitudes associated with participation in sport. PMID:10380248

  6. Trajectories of Participation in Athletics and Positive Youth Development: The Influence of Sport Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…

  7. The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport

  8. Perceptions of Sport Retirement by Current Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Brandy Sue

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the problem of college student-athletes retiring from their sports unprepared for life outside of sanctioned athletics. The purpose was to identify if a current student-athlete believes he/she is prepared for a career life after competitive college athletics and who the student-athlete feels should provide guidance into the…

  9. Sports or Athletics: A North American Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Alex, Ed.

    This book reports on the 15th Annual Canadian American Seminar, the purpose of which was to explore the widening gulf between sports and athletics, and to examine and predict trends in the U.S. and Canada. The seminar presentations are divided into six sessions, plus the Frank Boland Memorial Lecture delivered by Jesse Owens. Each session includes…

  10. The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these. PMID:24367777

  11. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETES WITH SPORT CONCUSSION

    PubMed Central

    McQueen-Borden, Emily; Bell, Roberta A.; Barr, Thomas; Juengling, Jenifer

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary. The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals. Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22893863

  12. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  13. Athletes with Visual Impairments: Attributes and Sports Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, Paul E.; Strause, Brad; Ponchillia, Susan V.

    2002-01-01

    A study of athlete members of the United States Association of Blind Athletes (n=159) assessed factors affecting sport participation and sport attitudes. Those who received physical education in junior high school or high school were more likely to participate in school or college sports than were those who did not. (Contains references.)…

  14. Bioethics, sport and the genetically enhanced athlete.

    PubMed

    Miah, Andy

    2002-01-01

    This paper begins by acknowledging the interest taken by various international organisations in genetic enhancement and sport, including the US President's Council on Bioethics (July, 2002) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (March, 2002). It is noticed how sporting organisations have been particularly concerned to emphasize the 'threat' of genetics to sport, whereas other institutions have recognised the broader bioethical issues arising from this prospect, which do not readily reject the use of genetic technology in sport. Sports are identified as necessarily 'human' and 'moral' practices, the exploration of which can reveal greater insight into the intuitive fears about genetic modification. It is argued that anti-doping testing measures and sanctions unacceptably persecute the athlete. While there are substantial reasons to be concerned about the use of genetic modification in sport, the desire for policy ought not diminish the need for ethical research; nor ought such research embody the similar guise of traditional 'anti' doping strategies. Rather, the approach to genetics in sport must be informed more by broader social policies in bioethics and recognition of the greater goods arising from genetic technology. PMID:16285154

  15. Concussion Education in U.S. Collegiate Sport: What Is Happening and What Do Athletes Want?

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Baugh, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Concussion education for athletes has the potential to play a role in reducing the health burden of concussions from sport by modifying individual risk-related behaviors. In U.S. collegiate sport, decisions about content and delivery of concussion education are left up to the individual institution. This may result in a high degree of variability in what educational materials athletes receive and is particularly problematic as few concussion education programs have demonstrated efficacy. Health educators can play an important role in working collaboratively with sports medicine clinicians to design and evaluate evidence-based concussion education materials for athletes that meet their learning needs. As a first step in this process, the present study characterizes the content, source, and delivery modalities of concussion currently being provided to U.S. collegiate athletes. It also describes the reported concussion education preferences of a sample of U.S. collegiate athletes. Participants were 789 athletic trainers from 276 schools and 325 athletes from four schools. Results indicated that education is most frequently provided by athletic trainers but that many athletes would also like coaches and physicians to be involved in this process. Athletes also indicated a preference for content provision across a range of topics, including athletic and academic consequences of continued play with a concussion. Implications for the design and delivery of concussion education for athletes are discussed. PMID:26293460

  16. Concussion Education in U.S. Collegiate Sport: What Is Happening and What Do Athletes Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Baugh, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Concussion education for athletes has the potential to play a role in reducing the health burden of concussions from sport by modifying individual risk-related behaviors. In U.S. collegiate sport, decisions about content and delivery of concussion education are left up to the individual institution. This may result in a high degree of variability…

  17. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  18. Reflections on Sport Psychology and the Olympic Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M.

    The eventual role that educational and clinical sport psychologists may play in assisting high-level athletes is discussed. An example of research on Olympic-level rifle and pistol shooters is presented as an example of how sport scientists can be involved in influencing policy for Olympic athletes. Obstacles which prevent the applied potential of…

  19. Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement: athletes at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Koehle, Michael S; Cheng, Ivy; Sporer, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Many sports incorporate training at altitude as a key component of their athlete training plan. Furthermore, many sports are required to compete at high altitude venues. Exercise at high altitude provides unique challenges to the athlete and to the sport medicine clinician working with these athletes. These challenges include altitude illness, alterations in training intensity and performance, nutritional and hydration difficulties, and challenges related to the austerity of the environment. Furthermore, many of the strategies that are typically utilized by visitors to altitude may have implications from an anti-doping point of view.This position statement was commissioned and approved by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine. The purpose of this statement was to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to assist clinicians with the preparation and management of athletes and individuals travelling to altitude for both competition and training. PMID:24569430

  20. The relationship between coaching behaviours and sport anxiety in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, J; Côté, J; Hawes, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous research has identified the relationship between athlete sport anxiety and various sport outcomes (e.g., performance and dropout). For the majority of athletes involved in sport, the coach is an influential element of the competitive experience. Two hundred and twenty-eight athletes from 15 sports, completed the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). The predictive ability of athletes' perceived frequency of seven coaching behaviours (physical training, mental preparation, goal setting, technical skills, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport) on four forms of sport anxiety (total anxiety, somatic anxiety, concentration disruption and worry) was examined. Results indicate that negative personal rapport was a significant predictor of all measured forms of sport anxiety while competition strategies was a significant predictor for total anxiety, concentration disruption, and worry. Other behaviours were not significant. The findings suggest that negative rapport between coach and athlete is an important contributor to athlete anxiety. In addition, behaviours that the coach demonstrates relative to competition can be influential in reducing athlete anxiety. PMID:11104303

  1. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities?

    PubMed

    Garth, Alison K; Burke, Louise M

    2013-07-01

    Although expert groups have developed guidelines for fluid intake during sports, there is debate about their real-world application. We reviewed the literature on self-selected hydration strategies during sporting competitions to determine what is apparently practical and valued by athletes. We found few studies of drinking practices involving elite or highly competitive athletes, even in popular sports. The available literature revealed wide variability in fluid intake and sweat losses across and within different events with varied strategies to allow fluid intake. Typical drinking practices appear to limit body mass (BM) losses to ~2 % in non-elite competitors. There are events, however, in which mean losses are greater, particularly among elite competitors and in hot weather, and evidence that individual participants fail to meet current guidelines by gaining BM or losing >2 % BM over the competition activity. Substantial (>5 %) BM loss is noted in the few studies of elite competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance events; while this may be consistent with winning outcomes, such observations cannot judge whether performance was optimal for that individual. A complex array of factors influence opportunities to drink during continuous competitive activities, many of which are outside the athlete's control: these include event rules and tactics, regulated availability of fluid, need to maintain optimal technique or speed, and gastrointestinal comfort. Therefore, it is questionable, particularly for top competitors, whether drinking can be truly ad libitum (defined as "whenever and in whatever volumes chosen by the athlete"). While there are variable relationships between fluid intake, fluid balance across races, and finishing times, in many situations it appears that top athletes take calculated risks in emphasizing the costs of drinking against the benefits. However, some non-elite competitors may need to be mindful of the disadvantages of drinking beyond

  2. Youth Sports/Athletic Programs--Local or National Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick

    The author (1) explains a system analysis approach developed by the Sports Institute for Research through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) for working with government, business, and service organizations in sport-related areas; (2) examines the distinction between professional athletics and amateur sport; (3) discusses conflict resolution by…

  3. Sports Specialization and Intensive Training in Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." PMID:27573090

  4. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level. PMID:26265340

  5. Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... who participate in sports. Though injuries that cause back pain are not the most common cause of injury ... sprains are the most common injuries that cause back pain in the young athlete. They can be caused ...

  6. Sports hernia and femoroacetabular impingement in athletes: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Munegato, Daniele; Bigoni, Marco; Gridavilla, Giulia; Olmi, Stefano; Cesana, Giovanni; Zatti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between sports hernias and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in athletes. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Google Scholar databases were electronically searched for articles relating to sports hernia, athletic pubalgia, groin pain, long-standing adductor-related groin pain, Gilmore groin, adductor pain syndrome, and FAI. The initial search identified 196 studies, of which only articles reporting on the association of sports hernia and FAI or laparoscopic treatment of sports hernia were selected for systematic review. Finally, 24 studies were reviewed to evaluate the prevalence of FAI in cases of sports hernia and examine treatment outcomes and evidence for a common underlying pathogenic mechanism. RESULTS: FAI has been reported in as few as 12% to as high as 94% of patients with sports hernias, athletic pubalgia or adductor-related groin pain. Cam-type impingement is proposed to lead to increased symphyseal motion with overload on the surrounding extra-articular structures and muscle, which can result in the development of sports hernia and athletic pubalgia. Laparoscopic repair of sports hernias, via either the transabdominal preperitoneal or extraperitoneal approach, has a high success rate and earlier recovery of full sports activity compared to open surgery or conservative treatment. For patients with FAI and sports hernia, the surgical management of both pathologies is more effective than sports pubalgia treatment or hip arthroscopy alone (89% vs 33% of cases). As sports hernias and FAI are typically treated by general and orthopedic surgeons, respectively, a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and treatment is recommended for optimal treatment of patients with these injuries. CONCLUSION: The restriction in range of motion due to FAI likely contributes to sports hernias; therefore, surgical treatment of both pathologies represents an optimal therapy. PMID:26380829

  7. American Indian Collegiate Athletes: Accessing Education through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Christie, Alisse

    2013-01-01

    Few activities have the power to bring people together as sports; victory is contagious, defeat unifies, and the concept of a team can create common goals and unbreakable bonds among teammates, communities, and even an entire nation. In a sense, sport has the power to change lives. The lessons that athletics can teach-preparation, competitiveness,…

  8. Japanese University Athletes' Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…

  9. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. PMID:20601743

  10. How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…

  11. Gender Differences in the Sport Socialization Process of High School Varsity Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.

    This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was…

  12. Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131) completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001) with a mean compliance of 84 ± 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly. Key pointsAthletes perceive ASRM and the factors influencing implementation differently. Therefore, to encourage compliance, it is important to tailor implementation strategies to the athlete and their sport context to increase appeal and minimize unappealing factors.Athletes using an ASRM on their

  13. Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131) completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001) with a mean compliance of 84 ± 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly. Key points Athletes perceive ASRM and the factors influencing implementation differently. Therefore, to encourage compliance, it is important to tailor implementation strategies to the athlete and their sport context to increase appeal and minimize unappealing factors. Athletes using an ASRM on their

  14. Pre-Participation and Follow-Up Screening of Athletes for Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman; Littwitz, Henning; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity increases life expectancy and sport is a priori not harmful. Exhausted sporting activity (e.g. endurance running, triathlon, cycling or competitive sport) can lead under individual conditions to negative cardiac remodelling (pathological enlargement/function of cardiac cavities/structures) or in worst case to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). This individually disposition can be genetically determined or behaviourally/environmentally acquired. Overall competitive young male athletes suffer five-fold higher than non-competitive athletes from sudden death and athletes aged over 30 bear a potential for arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation or a 20-fold higher possibility for SCD as female athletes. Patients with diabetes, coronary disease, obesity or hypertension require different special managements. Screening of cardiorespiratory health for sport activities has a lot of faces. Basically there is a need for indicated examinations or possible preventive measures inside or outside of pre-competition screening. The costs of screening compared to expenditure of whole effort for sporting activities are acceptable or even negligible, but of course dependent on national/regional settings. The various causes and possibilities of screening will be discussed in this article as basic suggestion for an open discussion beyond national borders and settings. PMID:25883700

  15. Tendon Adaptation to Sport-specific Loading in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; John, M; Riegels, N; Mayer, F

    2016-02-01

    Tendon adaptation due to mechanical loading is controversially discussed. However, data concerning the development of tendon thickness in adolescent athletes is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in Achilles (AT) and patellar tendon (PT) thickness in adolescent athletes while considering age, gender and sport-specific loading. In 500 adolescent competitive athletes of 16 different sports and 40 recreational controls both ATs and PTs were sonographically measured. Subjects were divided into 2 age groups (< 13; ≥ 13 years) and 6 sport type categories (ball, combat, and water sports, combined disciplines, cycling, controls). In addition, 3 risk groups (low, moderate, high) were created according to the athlete's risk of developing tendinopathy. AT and PT thickness did not significantly differ between age groups (AT/PT:<13: 5.4±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm;≥13: 5.3±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm). In both age groups males presented higher tendon thickness than females (p<0.001). AT thickness was highest in ball sports/cyclists and lowest in controls (p≤0.002). PT thickness was greatest in water sports and lowest in controls (p=0.02). High risk athletes presented slightly higher AT thickness compared to the low risk group (p=0.03). Increased AT and PT thickness in certain sport types compared to controls supports the hypothesis of structural tendon adaptation due to sport-specific loading. PMID:26509367

  16. Sports Nutrition Knowledge Among Collegiate Athletes, Coaches, Athletic Trainers, and Strength and Conditioning Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M.; Pritchett, Kelly L.; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M.; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. Objective: To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. Patients and Other Participants: The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Results: Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Management of Sport Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Kutcher, Jeffrey; Palm, Michael; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with best-practice guidelines for the management of sport-related concussions. Background: An estimated 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the United States as a result of sport and physical activity. Athletic trainers are commonly the first medical providers available onsite to identify and evaluate these injuries. Recommendations: The recommendations for concussion management provided here are based on the most current research and divided into sections on education and prevention, documentation and legal aspects, evaluation and return to play, and other considerations. PMID:24601910

  18. Methods of body mass reduction by combat sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ciro José; Roas A, Fernanda Castro Martins; Brito I, Surian Souza; Marins J, Carlos Bouzas; Córdova, Claudio; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methods adopted to reduce body mass (BM) in competitive athletes from the grappling (judo, jujitsu) and striking (karate and tae kwon do) combat sports in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An exploratory methodology was employed through descriptive research, using a standardized questionnaire with objective questions self-administered to 580 athletes (25.0 ± 3.7 yr, 74.5 ± 9.7 kg, and 16.4% ± 5.1% body fat). Regardless of the sport, 60% of the athletes reported using a method of rapid weight loss (RWL) through increased energy expenditure. Strikers tend to begin reducing BM during adolescence. Furthermore, 50% of the sample used saunas and plastic clothing, and only 26.1% received advice from a nutritionist. The authors conclude that a high percentage of athletes uses RWL methods. In addition, a high percentage of athletes uses unapproved or prohibited methods such as diuretics, saunas, and plastic clothing. The age at which combat sport athletes reduce BM for the first time is also worrying, especially among strikers. PMID:22349031

  19. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  20. Current limitations of the Athlete's Biological Passport use in sports.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2011-09-01

    The Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) has received both criticisms and support during this year. In a recent issue of The Lancet, Michael Wozny considered that the use of the ABP makes it more difficult to take banned substances and that it was successfully used against the Italian elite cyclist Franco Pellizotti. After that, Italy's anti-doping tribunal considered that there was not enough evidence to prove manipulation of his own blood profile in Pellizotti's case. However, the UCI appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) that sanctioned Pellizotti with a suspension of 2 years. Since its implementation, some problems have emerged. From 2010 to date, a large number of reports regarding the stability of the blood variables used to determine the ABP have been published, showing mixed results. This study considers that there is a risk of misinterpreting the physiological variations of the hematological parameters determined by the anti-doping authorities in the ABP. The analytical variability due to exercise training and competitions and/or to different metabolic energy demands, hypoxia treatments, etc. could lead to an increase in false-positives when using the ABP with the dramatic consequences that they might cause in major sports events like the forthcoming London Olympic Games. Moreover, the ABP characteristics, procedures, thresholds, or individual determination of reference ranges, abnormal out-comes, strikes, "how the profile differs from what is expected in clean athletes" should be clearly stated and explained in a new public technical document to avoid misunderstandings and to promote transparency. PMID:21619474

  1. Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

    1999-03-01

    In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting, mental and physical issues. The results were analysed using (1) the metric scaling procedure of correspondence analysis, (2) cultural consensus analysis and (3) PROperty FITting analysis. A two-dimensional solution provided the best interpretation of the similarity judgements. The correspondence analysis configuration positioned the sport psychologist centrally between a sport-oriented pair and the cluster of mental health professionals. Participants reported adequate consensus on all three expertise variables, which is consistent with the assumptions of Cultural Consensus Theory. Consistent with earlier research, the three variables were salient in the participants' similarity judgements of sport and mental health professionals. Our results suggest the existence of a more favourable perception of the sport psychologist and a distancing from a direct association with mental health practitioners. However, the centrality of the term may indicate a more cloudy distinction as to where the sport psychologist exists in relation to other professionals. PMID:10362387

  2. Sports Betting and Other Gambling in Athletes, Fans, and Other College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Toben F.; LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Stanton, Michael; Shaffer, Howard J.; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Gambling on college and professional sports and the influence of attending colleges with differing levels of "sports interest" were examined among athletes, sports fans, and other students (N = 10,559) at 119 colleges in the United States using multilevel statistical analysis. Athletes and fans reported more sports gambling compared to other…

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have

  4. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 ± 4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001). In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001). Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001), the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001). Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes. PMID:26785960

  5. Total lumbar disc replacement in athletes: clinical results, return to sport and athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Wiechert, Karsten; Khattab, Mohamed F.; Korge, Andreas; Mayer, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) in predominantly young and active patients, no previous study has addressed possibilities, limitations and potential risks regarding athletic performance following TDR. Mechanical concerns remain and the implant’s resilience as regards its load-bearing capacity during sporting activities is unknown. Thirty-nine athletic patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. These patients participated in a large variety of different types of sport. Significant and lasting pain-relief was attained following TDR with a mean follow-up of 26.3 months (range 9–50.7 months; FU rate 97.4%). Sporting activity was resumed within the first 3 months (38.5%) to 6 months (30.7%) with peak performance being reached after 5.2 months. Thirty-seven patients (94.9%) achieved resumption of sporting activity. Athletic performance improved significantly in 33 patients (84.6%). Minor subsidence was observed in 13 patients (30%) within the first 3 months with no further implant migration thereafter in 12 patients. Participation in all types of sport recorded in this study was accessible for a high rate of patients up to the level of professional athletes as well as those participating in extreme sports. Preoperative participation in sport proved to be a strong positive predictor for highly satisfactory postoperative outcome following TDR. In a selected group of patients, however, preoperative inability to participate in sporting activities did not impair postoperative physical activity. Due to the young age of the patients and significant load increase exerted during athletic activities, persisting concerns regarding the future behaviour of the implant remain and will require longer follow-up, modified investigation techniques and larger patient cohorts. PMID:17205239

  6. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    PubMed

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. PMID:27490353

  7. Ramadan and sport: minimizing effects upon the observant athlete.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Much of the available information on this subject has been collected from sedentary subjects or low-level competitors, often without well matched controls. Other issues requiring clearer definition include the duration of fasting, the local environment, the timing of observations, and changes in training, diet and sleep patterns. Sleep may be shortened or made good with daytime naps. Circadian rhythms of temperature, metabolism, hormonal secretions and physical performance may be disrupted and incidental activities curtailed. Disturbances of psychomotor performance include daytime sleepiness, impaired vigilance and slower reactions. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Sedentary individuals sometimes exploit Ramadan to reduce body fat stores. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Protein intake must allow for gluconeogenesis, and provide quality protein ingested around training times. Blood sugar levels are likely to fall over a long and active day, even if morning glycogen reserves are maximized. Metabolism of fat should be encouraged, beginning prior to Ramadan; inclusion of fat in the pre-dawn meal also slows gastric emptying. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat, but the immediate deficit can usually be made good at night. Some studies show an initial fluid depletion, with recovery as Ramadan continues, possibly reflecting changes in urine and sweat production. Top athletes can maintain training throughout Ramadan, although coaches sometimes reduce demands through a pre-competitive tapering of effort. Late night or early morning training requires negotiation with players who are not observing Ramadan, and dietary adjustments to maintain optimal plasma amino acid levels when training. Performance of repeated anaerobic

  8. Validation of the student athletes' motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-08-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement. PMID:26331138

  9. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

  10. Athletic Trainers' Familiarity With and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations in Secondary School Athletes After Sport-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richelle M.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sport-related concussion can affect athletes' sport participation and academic success. With the recent emphasis on cognitive rest, student-athletes may benefit from academic accommodations (AA) in the classroom; however, athletic trainers' (ATs') perceived familiarity with, and use of, AA is unknown. Objective: To assess secondary school ATs' perceived familiarity with, attitudes and beliefs about, and incorporation of AA for student-athletes after sport-related concussion. A secondary purpose was to determine whether employment status altered familiarity and use of AA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey. Patients or Other Participants: Of 3286 possible respondents, 851 secondary school ATs accessed the survey (response rate = 25.9%; 308 men [36.2%], 376 women [44.2%], 167 respondents [19.6%] with sex information missing; age = 37.3 ± 10.1 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were solicited via e-mail to complete the Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge Following Pediatric Athlete Concussion among Athletic Trainers employed in the secondary school setting (BAKPAC-AT) survey. The BAKPAC-AT assessed ATs' perceived familiarity, perceptions, and roles regarding 504 plans, Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), and returning student-athletes to the classroom. Independent variables were employment status (full time versus part time), employment model (direct versus outreach), years certified, and years of experience in the secondary school setting. The dependent variables were participants' responses to the AA questions. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to assess relationships and Mann-Whitney U and χ2 tests (P < .05) were used to identify differences. Results: Respondents reported that approximately 41% of the student-athletes whose sport-related concussions they managed received AA. Respondents employed directly by the school were more familiar with 504 plans (P < .001) and IEPs (P < .001) and had a greater belief

  11. Hip Imaging in Athletes: Sports Imaging Series.

    PubMed

    Agten, Christoph A; Sutter, Reto; Buck, Florian M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2016-08-01

    Hip or groin pain in athletes is common and clinical presentation is often nonspecific. Imaging is a very important diagnostic step in the work-up of athletes with hip pain. This review article provides an overview on hip biomechanics and discusses strategies for hip imaging modalities such as radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR arthrography and traction MR arthrography). The authors explain current concepts of femoroacetabular impingement and the problem of high prevalence of cam- and pincer-type morphology in asymptomatic persons. With the main focus on MR imaging, the authors present abnormalities of the hip joint and the surrounding soft tissues that can occur in athletes: intraarticular and extraarticular hip impingement syndromes, labral and cartilage disease, microinstability of the hip, myotendinous injuries, and athletic pubalgia. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27429142

  12. Reporting doping in sport: national level athletes' perceptions of their role in doping prevention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S H; Long, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper qualitatively explores national level athletes' willingness to report doping in sport. Following ethical approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine national level athletes from rugby league (n = 5) and track and field athletics (n = 4). Thematic analysis established the main themes within the data. Contextual differences existed around the role that athletes perceived they would play if they became aware of doping. Specifically, track and field athletes would adopt the role of a whistle-blower and report individuals who were doping in their sport. In comparison, the rugby league players highlighted a moral dilemma. Despite disagreeing with their teammates' actions, the players would adhere to a code of silence and refrain from reporting doping. Taking these findings into account, prevention programs might focus on changing broader group and community norms around doping. In doing so, community members' receptivity to prevention messages may increase. Moreover, developing skills to intervene (e.g., speaking out against social norms that support doping behavior) or increasing awareness of reporting lines could enhance community responsibility for doping prevention. In sum, the findings highlight the need to consider the context of sport and emphasize that a one-size-fits-all approach to anti-doping is problematic. PMID:24673128

  13. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595

  14. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

  15. Game On: Past Year Gambling, Gambling-Related Problems, and Fantasy Sports Gambling Among College Athletes and Non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females. PMID:26183955

  16. The Sport Experience of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Survey of Special Olympics Athletes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harada, Coreen M.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sport experience for athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in Special Olympics (SO). This study included a nationally representative sample of 1,307 families and 579 athletes in the U.S., focusing on sport involvement over the lifespan and motives for participating and for leaving…

  17. Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

    2004-01-01

    Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…

  18. Sports Psychology and the Collegiate Athlete: One Size Does Not Fit All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas L.

    1993-01-01

    Reacts to four previous articles on sport psychology and counseling psychology. Commends articles but questions lack of any significant reference to minority athlete, considering that articles focused on college athletics, that football and basketball are instrumental to college sport, and that participation of African-American athletes is…

  19. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2015-11-01

    Weight management for athletes and active individuals is unique because of their high daily energy expenditure; thus, the emphasis is usually placed on changing the diet side of the energy balance equation. When dieting for weight loss, active individuals also want to preserve lean tissue, which means that energy restriction cannot be too severe or lean tissue is lost. First, this brief review addresses the issues of weight management in athletes and active individuals and factors to consider when determining a weight-loss goal. Second, the concept of dynamic energy balance is reviewed, including two mathematical models developed to improve weight-loss predictions based on changes in diet and exercise. These models are now available on the Internet. Finally, dietary strategies for weight loss/maintenance that can be successfully used with active individuals are given. Emphasis is placed on teaching the benefits of consuming a low-ED diet (e.g., high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food to increase satiety while reducing energy intake. Health professionals and sport dietitians need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals. PMID:26553496

  20. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  1. Exercise and sports in cardiac patients and athletes at risk: Balance between benefit and harm.

    PubMed

    Maisch, B

    2015-05-01

    Physical training has a well-established role in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Moderate exercise has been shown to be beneficial in chronic stable heart failure. Competitive sports, however, is contraindicated in most forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in myocarditis, in pericarditis, and in right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. In most European countries, the recommendations of medical societies or public bodies state that these diseases have to be ruled out by prescreening before an individual can take up competitive sports. But the intensity and quality of this health check vary considerably from country to country, from the type of sports activity, and from the individuals who want to participate in sports. Prescreening on an individual basis should also be considered for leisure sports, particularly in people who decide to start training in middle age after years of physical inactivity to regain physical fitness. In leisure sports the initiative for a medical check-up lies primarily in the hands of the "healthy" individual. If she or he plans to participate in extreme forms of endurance sports with excessive training periods such as a marathon or ultramarathon and competitive cycling or rowing, they should be aware that high-intensity endurance sports can lead to structural alterations of the heart muscle even in healthy individuals. Physical exercise in patients with heart disease should be accompanied by regular medical check-ups. Most rehabilitation programs in Europe perform physical activity and training schedules according to current guidelines. Little is known about athletes who are physically handicapped and participate in competitive sports or the Paralympics, and even less is known about individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) who participate in local, regional, international competitions or the Special Olympics or just in leisure sport activities. PMID:25822293

  2. African American Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport: A Qualitative and Visual Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on 26 African American athletes and explores their perceptions of athletic career transition. Participants consisted of student athletes from a United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IIA institution in the Southeastern region. Participants completed the Life After Sports Scale (LASS), a 58-item…

  3. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

  4. Jersey number detection in sports video for athlete identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qixiang; Huang, Qingming; Jiang, Shuqiang; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wen

    2005-07-01

    Athlete identification is important for sport video content analysis since users often care about the video clips with their preferred athletes. In this paper, we propose a method for athlete identification by combing the segmentation, tracking and recognition procedures into a coarse-to-fine scheme for jersey number (digital characters on sport shirt) detection. Firstly, image segmentation is employed to separate the jersey number regions with its background. And size/pipe-like attributes of digital characters are used to filter out candidates. Then, a K-NN (K nearest neighbor) classifier is employed to classify a candidate into a digit in "0-9" or negative. In the recognition procedure, we use the Zernike moment features, which are invariant to rotation and scale for digital shape recognition. Synthetic training samples with different fonts are used to represent the pattern of digital characters with non-rigid deformation. Once a character candidate is detected, a SSD (smallest square distance)-based tracking procedure is started. The recognition procedure is performed every several frames in the tracking process. After tracking tens of frames, the overall recognition results are combined to determine if a candidate is a true jersey number or not by a voting procedure. Experiments on several types of sports video shows encouraging result.

  5. Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

  6. Sports Participation, Anthropometric and Physiological Profiles of University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Moses, M O; Duduyemi, B M

    2016-01-01

    Sports participation has been adjudged to enhance healthy living. This study described anthropometric andphysiological (A-P) profiles of university athletes based on types of sports (ToS) and duration (in years) of participation(DoP). One hundred and twenty-nine athletes (69 males, 60 females), aged l5-36, who had played averagely for5.78±0.29years, from nine games and preparing for Ghana University Sports Association (GUSA) 2014 participated in thestudy. Ex-post facto research design was adopted. Data on ToS, DoP, age, height, weight, body mass index, waist and hipcircumference, body fat and water, blood pressure and heart rate were collected, entered into SPSS Data Editor 17.0 andexported to STATA 11 where multiple regression analysis and t-test were carried out. ToS has significant effects onanthropometric [F(7,121) = 2.478, p<0.05] and physiological [F(5,123) = 5.532, p<0.05] profiles. DoP has significant effects onphysiological profiles [F(7,121) = 5.185, p<0.05] of the athletes. Significant differences existed in age, height, weight, BMI,WHR and SBP (p<0.05) based on gender. BMI and HR values were not sufficiently healthy for athletes. Clinical interventionis imperative to determine actual cardiovascular risks of the sample because they might be unfit for national assignment ifnot properly monitored and trained to be consistent in moderate fitness lifestyles. PMID:27574766

  7. Keeping Your Head in the Game: Sport-Specific Imagery and Anxiety Among Injured Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Monsma, Eva; Mensch, James; Farroll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. Objective: To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Design: Observational design. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Results: Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Conclusions: Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic

  8. Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This chapter includes all cases involving student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, booster organizations, sports programs and events, and sports facilities and equipment at both the K-12 and higher education levels, but does not include case law involving physical education or intramural participation. Sections discuss…

  9. Interrelationships between Expressive Individualism and Other Achievement Goal Orientations among African and European American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the construct of expressive individualism and its relationship to other goal perspectives established in sport literature. European and African American high school athletes completed surveys. Results indicate that personal expression relates to task orientation for African Americans, whereas for European Americans it relates to ego…

  10. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  11. Student Athlete Success: Impact of Sport Participation on Student Engagement among NAIA and NCAA Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a great quantity of research on student engagement and its impact on learning and retention, limited research exists on the impact of sport participation on student athlete engagement; an even smaller amount of research exists on the impact of sport participation among different athletic divisions (NCAA Division I, NCAA Division…

  12. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  13. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  14. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  15. Handling of medical knowledge in sport: Athletes' medical opinions, information seeking behaviours and knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758

  16. The relationship between action anticipation and emotion recognition in athletes of open skill sports.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-01

    Action anticipation plays an important role in the successful performance of open skill sports, such as ball and combat sports. Evidence has shown that elite athletes of open sports excel in action anticipation. Most studies have targeted ball sports and agreed that information on body mechanics is one of the key determinants for successful action anticipation in open sports. However, less is known about combat sports, and whether facial emotions have an influence on athletes' action anticipation skill. It has been suggested that the understanding of intention in combat sports relies heavily on emotional context. Based on this suggestion, the present study compared the action anticipation performances of taekwondo athletes, weightlifting athletes, and non-athletes and then correlated these with their performances of emotion recognition. This study primarily found that accurate action anticipation does not necessarily rely on the dynamic information of movement, and that action anticipation performance is correlated with that of emotion recognition in taekwondo athletes, but not in weightlifting athletes. Our results suggest that the recognition of facial emotions plays a role in the action prediction in such combat sports as taekwondo. PMID:27160338

  17. Toward a multidimensional model of athletes' commitment to coach-athlete relationships and interdependent sport teams: a substantive-methodological synergy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

    2014-02-01

    Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport. PMID:24501144

  18. Sports and Exercise in Athletes with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Craig; Day, Sharlene M; Saberi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease and one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Current guidelines restrict the participation of patients with HCM in competitive sports, limiting the health benefits of exercise. However, many individuals with HCM have safely participated in sports, with a low incidence of SCD. Improved stratification of patients and desired activity may allow most individuals with HCM to engage in physical activity safely. Therefore, physicians should create an individualized approach in guiding each patient with HCM eager to enjoy the benefits of physical activity in a safe manner. PMID:26100424

  19. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes. PMID:25756787

  20. Differences in Job Satisfaction of Athletic Coaches in Revenue and Non-Revenue Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Virden; And Others

    A study investigated whether or not the job satisfaction of athletic coaches is influenced by the fact that their sports were revenue or nonrevenue producing. A revenue sport was identified as one being able to sustain itself financially within the university (baseball, football, basketball). Nonrevenue sports were identified as tennis, swimming,…

  1. Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolum, Janet

    This updated second edition provides comprehensive and current information on women in sports, detailing the history, biography, bibliography, and statistics of female professional and amateur athletes. The book is divided into 4 parts with 6 chapters. Part 1, History of Women's Sports, presents: (1) Women in American Sports and (2) Women in the…

  2. Management Careers in Professional Sport and College/University Athletics: Results of a Survey Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitel, Patricia A.; And Others

    This study assessed the needs of management positions and obtained evaluations of sport management programs by management personnel from different sport program perspectives, i.e., professional sport and college/university athletics. Results of survey identified: (1) specific similarities and differences in the criteria for both hiring sport…

  3. Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

  4. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    and mineral supplements are not needed if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume unbalanced diets with low micronutrient density may require supplements. Because regulations specific to nutritional ergogenic aids are poorly enforced, they should be used with caution and only after careful product evaluation for safety, efficacy, potency, and legality. A qualified sports dietitian and, in particular, the Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics in the United States, should provide individualized nutrition direction and advice after a comprehensive nutrition assessment. PMID:19225360

  5. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model

    PubMed Central

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-01-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child’s well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  6. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-07-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child's well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  7. Athletes confessions: the sports biography as an interaction ritual.

    PubMed

    Thing, L F; Ronglan, L T

    2015-04-01

    Commercialization of emotions is not a new phenomenon but in Denmark there is a new general trend to tell and sell personal stories in the media. Personal deprivation and crises are also major topics in sports media. This paper focuses on sports biographies as a book genre that is reviving in popularity. The paper approaches the topic through the biographies of one Danish athlete: the former professional cyclist, Jesper Skibby, who writes about his doping disclosure and shares his personal dilemmas as a former elite sportsman. The thematic text analysis orientates around social interactions, emotions, and personality constructions. Inspired by microsociology with a Durkheimian flavor of Goffman and Hochschild, themes including "face work," "interaction rituals," and "emotions management" are discussed. The analysis claims that sharing personal information in the media is not only a means of confession and reclaiming status but is also business and management - on an intimate level. Telling the story of the corrosion of a sporting character has become a hot issue, an entertainment, and not least a commercial commitment. PMID:24673745

  8. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    PubMed

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  9. Role of Sport Medicine Professionals in Addressing Psychosocial Aspects of Sport-Injury Rehabilitation: Professional Athletes' Views

    PubMed Central

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V.; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. Objective: To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design Qualitative study. Setting: Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Patients or Other Participants: Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Results: Athletes in our study viewed injuries as “part and parcel” of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. Conclusions: The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities. PMID:25243737

  10. Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.

  11. Recreational Athletes Return to Sport at a Comparable Rate to Elite Athletes Following Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Alexander E.; Kuhns, Benjamin; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Levy, David; Nho, Shane Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the current study was to evaluate patient reported outcomes and return to sport in a cohort of distinctly recreational and amateur level athletes following hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Methods: Following IRB approval, clinical data was retrospectively retrieved for 66 consecutive FAI patients (26 men, 40 women) who had undergone hip arthroscopy and identified themselves as recreational or amateur athletes on intake forms. Two-year patient-reported outcomes (PRO) included a sport-specific questionnaire, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Hip Outcome Scores with Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales were analyzed. Results: The mean age and BMI of all subjects was 26.8 ± 7.6 years and 23.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Athletes had withdrawn from sport for an average of 9.5 ± 6.7 months prior to surgery and on average required 9.7 ± 5.1 months to return to sport. After two years, all mean PRO scores had improved significantly (Figure 1), and 57 patients (92%) had returned to play and continued participation. Patients who had withdrawn from sport for greater than 8 months before surgery returned to sport significantly more slowly than those who had withdrawn for less than 8 months (p=0.01). Greater withdrawal from sport prior to surgery also correlated with lower postoperative improvements in HOS-ADL and HOS-SS scores. Bivariate analysis revealed that increasing body-mass index (BMI) was associated with lower improvements in PROs. Conclusion: Recreational athletes, following hip arthroscopy for FAI, return to play at a high rate. Increasing BMI and preoperative withdrawal from sport both significantly prolong return to play and diminish two-year PROs. Most return-to-play studies following hip arthroscopy for FAI have focused on professional athletes, with limited generalizability to the average sports medicine surgeon practice. This is the first study of its kind to focus

  12. Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. Results The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p < 0.0001; p = 0.04), with no differences between the volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p < 0.001; p = 0.006). However in both sports groups there weren’t any gender differences in either part of the test (p = 0.18; p = 0.056). Conclusions These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence. PMID:24447526

  13. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    PubMed

    Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences. PMID:25189187

  14. Coaches' Coaching Competence in Relation to Athletes' Perceived Progress in Elite Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at whether higher levels of perceived coaching competencies focusing on relational issues, were associated with higher satisfaction among elite athletes with their progress in sport. In order to explore this, we investigated elite athletes' perceptions of their coaches' coaching competence (CCS) and how these perceptions related…

  15. Athletes' Efforts to Meet College Academic Standards Buoy Prep-School Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Some high-school athletes with borderline grades and low achievement-test scores are enrolling in small, private preparatory schools in an effort to meet the National Collegiate Athletic Association's academic standards and play sports during their freshman year in college. (MLW)

  16. Outstanding Women Athletes: Who They Are and How They Influenced Sports in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolum, Janet

    This book highlights the stories of 60 of this century's female athletes who pioneered, participated in, or continue to compete in women's sports. Following forewords by Billie Jean King, Anita DeFrantz, and Deborah Slaner Anderson, the volume contains biography, history, an annotated bibliography, and statistics on women athletes from the late…

  17. Substance Use among College Athletes: A Comparison Based on Sport/Team Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Prior research shows that college athletes have higher rates of substance use, especially alcohol, than do college students who are not involved in athletics. To augment the literature, the author sought to determine which sports/teams are at the greatest risk for substance use. Participants: The author used data from the 1999 Harvard…

  18. Comparison of Graduation Rates for Scholarship Athletes and All Students, by Sport, Race, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    This annual report compares graduation rates for scholarship athletes at Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to those of the student body as a whole over 3- and 6-year periods. Colleges and universities identified scholarship athletes in 11 sport categories: football, basketball, baseball, softball, track and field,…

  19. Determination of University Athletes Character through Sport Participation in Niger Delta of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dada, Benson Olu

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing reports concerning the character displayed by athletes on and off the field of play. These reports are not far different from the ones observed in Nigerian University sports. This worrisome report has necessitated this study carried out on determining the character of university athletes in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The…

  20. Prediction and Quantification of Individual Athletic Performance of Runners.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Duncan A J; Király, Franz J

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0.3 seconds on 100 metres performances, and a lower error than the state-of-the-art in performance prediction (30% improvement, RMSE) over a range of distances. We are also the first to report on a systematic comparison of predictors for running performance. Our model has three parameters per runner, and three components which are the same for all runners. The first component of the model corresponds to a power law with exponent dependent on the runner which achieves a better goodness-of-fit than known power laws in the study of running. Many documented phenomena in quantitative sports science, such as the form of scoring tables, the success of existing prediction methods including Riegel's formula, the Purdy points scheme, the power law for world records performances and the broken power law for world record speeds may be explained on the basis of our findings in a unified way. We provide strong evidence that the three parameters per runner are related to physiological and behavioural parameters, such as training state, event specialization and age, which allows us to derive novel physiological hypotheses relating to athletic performance. We conjecture on this basis that our findings will be vital in exercise physiology, race planning, the study of aging and training regime design. PMID:27336162

  1. Prediction and Quantification of Individual Athletic Performance of Runners

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners’ performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0.3 seconds on 100 metres performances, and a lower error than the state-of-the-art in performance prediction (30% improvement, RMSE) over a range of distances. We are also the first to report on a systematic comparison of predictors for running performance. Our model has three parameters per runner, and three components which are the same for all runners. The first component of the model corresponds to a power law with exponent dependent on the runner which achieves a better goodness-of-fit than known power laws in the study of running. Many documented phenomena in quantitative sports science, such as the form of scoring tables, the success of existing prediction methods including Riegel’s formula, the Purdy points scheme, the power law for world records performances and the broken power law for world record speeds may be explained on the basis of our findings in a unified way. We provide strong evidence that the three parameters per runner are related to physiological and behavioural parameters, such as training state, event specialization and age, which allows us to derive novel physiological hypotheses relating to athletic performance. We conjecture on this basis that our findings will be vital in exercise physiology, race planning, the study of aging and training regime design. PMID:27336162

  2. Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Karine; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Thibault, Valérie; Pichard, Capucine; Alcotte, Mathieu; Guillet, Thibaut; El Helou, Nour; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Simon, Serge; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. Methods Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. Results A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being the most prevalent (6%), followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%). Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women); the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%). Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%), but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%). Discussion This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders. PMID:21573222

  3. Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi-sport

  4. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing Sudden Death in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Anderson, Scott A.; Courson, Ronald W.; Heck, Jonathan F.; Jimenez, Carolyn C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Michael G.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Swartz, Erik E.; Walsh, Katie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention and screening, recognition, and treatment of the most common conditions resulting in sudden death in organized sports. Background: Cardiac conditions, head injuries, neck injuries, exertional heat stroke, exertional sickling, asthma, and other factors (eg, lightning, diabetes) are the most common causes of death in athletes. Recommendations: These guidelines are intended to provide relevant information on preventing sudden death in sports and to give specific recommendations for certified athletic trainers and others participating in athletic health care. PMID:22488236

  5. Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

  6. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in a given…

  7. Sport (and exercise) medicine in Britain: healthy citizens and abnormal athletes.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Historians have not so far considered Britain as a pioneer in sports medicine, instead arguing that an amateur ethos retarded developments in science and medicine. This article demonstrates that Britain institutionalized and formally recognized sport (and exercise) medicine in advance of most other nations. Further, its sports medicine grew from a focus on elite, competitive and professional sports and not--as had been the case for other countries--on school sports and exercise for health. An interest in the amateur athlete appeared only after 1970, the result of increased government intervention in national fitness and new theories in public health. PMID:22164596

  8. Sports Hernia and Extra-Articular Causes of Groin Pain in the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Randy M; Lerebours, Frantz; Strauss, Eric J

    2015-06-01

    Groin pain is a common complaint in athletes that use the musculature of the lower abdomen and proximal thigh. The complex anatomy of the groin region and broad differential diagnosis presents the sports medicine specialist with unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and adductor dysfunction are common extra-articular musculoskeletal causes of groin pain in athletes. The current paper reviews the pathogenesis, history and physical examination, imaging, non-operative treatment, surgical techniques, and outcomes for these conditions. Treatment algorithms are presented for management of patients with sports hernia, osteitis pubis, and adductor dysfunction. PMID:26517161

  9. Skin manifestations of athletes competing in the summer olympics: what a sports medicine physician should know.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Jacqueline F; Adams, Brian B; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2012-05-01

    Olympic athletes are vulnerable to traumatic, environmental and infectious skin manifestations. Although dermatological complaints are frequent among Olympians, there is a scarcity of literature that reviews sports-related dermatoses among Olympic athletes. A comprehensive review of PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE searches of all available literature through to January 2011 was conducted, focusing on sports-related dermatological presentations as well as the key words 'Olympic athletes' and 'skin diseases'. Common skin conditions can be harmful and even prohibitive for competition. Common aetiologies of dermatological conditions related to sports include: skin infections with dermatophytes such as tinea pedis and tinea corporis, bacteria such as pitted keratolysis, and folliculitis and viruses such as herpes gladiatorum. Frictional dermatoses occur commonly and include athlete's nodules, jogger's itch, frictional blisters, callosities and talon noir. Trauma can cause haematomas such as auricular haematomas. Due to long training hours in the sun, many endurance athletes experience high levels of UV radiation and a higher risk for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Pre-existing dermatoses can also be aggravated with practice and competition; in particular, atopic eczema and physical urticarias. Infrequent dermatoses are susceptible to misdiagnosis, delay in treatment and needless biopsies. This review highlights the diagnosis and management of sports-related dermatoses by the following general categories of Olympic sport: endurance, resistance, team sport, and performing arts. PMID:22512412

  10. Posterior shoulder instability in the athletic population: Variations in assessment, clinical outcomes, and return to sport

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Bradley, James P

    2015-01-01

    Posterior instability of the shoulder is becoming an increasingly recognized shoulder injury in the athletic population. Diagnostic elements, such as etiology, directionality, and degree of instability are essential factors to assess in the unstable athletic shoulder. Concomitant injuries and associated pathologic lesions continue to be a significant challenge in the surgical management of posterior shoulder instability. Return to sport and previous level of play is ultimately the goal for every committed athlete and surgeon, thus subpopulations of athletes should be recognized as distinct entities requiring unique diagnostic, functional outcome measures, and surgical approaches. PMID:26716088

  11. Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    Hypohydration - if sufficiently severe - adversely affects athletic performance and poses a risk to health. Strength and power events are generally less affected than endurance events, but performance in team sports that involve repeated intense efforts will be impaired. Mild hypohydration is not harmful, but many athletes begin exercise already hypohydrated. Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and - where opportunities exist - to consume fluid during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. In high-intensity efforts, there is no need, and may be no opportunity, to drink during competition. Most team sports players do not drink enough to match sweat losses, but some drink too much and a few may develop hyponatremia because of excessive fluid intake. Athletes should assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine markers. Short-term changes in hydration can be estimated from the change in body mass. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after exercise. PMID:20840563

  12. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  13. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  14. Core Muscle Injury/Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia, and Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    PubMed

    Ross, James R; Stone, Rebecca M; Larson, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Core muscle injury/sports hernia/athletic pubalgia is an increasingly recognized source of pain, disability, and time lost from athletics. Groin pain among athletes, however, may be secondary to various etiologies. A thorough history and comprehensive physical examination, coupled with appropriate diagnostic imaging, may improve the diagnostic accuracy for patients who present with core muscular injuries. Outcomes of nonoperative management have not been well delineated, and multiple operative procedures have been discussed with varying return-to-athletic activity rates. In this review, we outline the clinical entity and treatment of core muscle injury and athletic pubalgia. In addition, we describe the relationship between athletic pubalgia and femoroacetabular impingement along with recent studies that have investigated the treatment of these related disorders. PMID:26524557

  15. Rehabilitation Strategies for the Athletic Individual with Early Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Ihm, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the United States. The condition has most commonly been associated with elderly sedentary individuals; however, it also can affect those who participate in regular athletic activities. The diagnosis and management of these individuals can be challenging because of both their higher level of physical activity and their overall athletic goals. Treatment requires an appropriate exercise regimen, rehabilitation program, and education of both the athlete and the coach. The focus of our article is to provide an up-to-date overview of the evaluation and management of the athletic individual who presents with symptomatic early knee OA, in particular, the nonsurgical rehabilitation treatment options available to the practitioner and the evidence to support these recommendations. PMID:27172082

  16. Consequences of single sport specialization in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Mia; Parikh, Shital N; Pandya, Nirav K

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric and adolescent sports participation has increased with a concomitant increase in injuries. Sports have transitioned from recreational to deliberate, structured activities wherein success is determined by achievement of 'elite' status. This has led to specialization in a single sport with intensive, repetitive activity at younger ages causing physical and emotional consequences, particularly true for the growing athlete who is particularly susceptible to injury. Clinicians caring for this population must understand the epidemiology of youth sports specialization, the unique physiology/structure of this age group, and the potential physical and emotional consequences. PMID:25771319

  17. Athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and coaching competency in sport teams: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Bosselut, Grégoire; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Eys, Mark A; Fontayne, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and two theoretically derived dimensions of coaching competency (i.e., game strategy and technique competencies). A total of 243 players from 26 teams representing various interdependent sports completed French versions of the Role Ambiguity Scale and the Coaching Competency Scale. Multilevel analyses supported the existence of relationships between the four dimensions of role ambiguity and the two dimensions of coaching competency at both individual and team levels. When the levels were considered jointly, athletes perceiving greater ambiguity in their role in both offensive and defensive contexts were more critical of their coach's capacities to lead their team during competitions and to diagnose or formulate instructions during training sessions. The results also indicated that the dimension of scope of responsibilities was the main contributor to the relationship with coaching competency at an individual level, whereas role evaluation was the main contributor to this relationship at a group level. Findings are discussed in relation to the role episode model, the role ambiguity dimensions involved in the relationships according to the level of analysis considered, and the salience of ambiguity perceptions in the offensive context. PMID:22691398

  18. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

  19. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  20. Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports: A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing. PMID:23533655

  1. Stressors experienced by injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Lynne; Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon; Mitchell, Ian

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the stressors participants experienced during three phases of injury (onset, rehabilitation and return to competitive sport). Within- and cross-case analyses showed that athletes experienced sport, medical/physical, social and financial stressors. There were a number of differences in the stressors experienced across the three phases and between team and individual-sport athletes. Findings have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions aimed at managing the potentially stressful sport injury experience and facilitating injured athletes' return to competitive sport. PMID:22551525

  2. Emotions, immunity and sport: Winner and loser athlete's profile of fighting sport.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Mirko; Fratta, Irene La; Ialenti, Valentina; Patruno, Antonia; Ferrone, Alessio; Franceschelli, Sara; Rizzuto, Alessia; Tatangelo, Raffaella; Campagna, Giovanna; Speranza, Lorenza; Felaco, Mario; Grilli, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have focused on the relationship between hormonal changes and affective states in sporting contexts relating to an agonistic outcome. More recently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been successfully associated with affective state modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether athletes who won or lost show different levels of steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, or expressions of anger and anxiety during six training fights in seasonal competitions down to the main seasonal competition. In 25 male kick-boxing athletes (age±SD, 28.68±5.34), anger states (RS score) and anxiety states (AS score) were assessed by STAXI-2 and STAI-Y, respectively. Cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and IL-1β salivary levels were measured by the ELISA method. The saliva samples were taken in the afternoon, 30min prior to the start and 30min from the end of both simulated and official competitions. The results showed that the RS score, T, T/C ratio salivary levels increased during the season, whereas the AS score, C and IL-1β suggested an opposite trend. Close to an official competition, the RS score, T, T/C ratio and IL-1β salivary concentrations were significantly higher, and then decreased during competition. By contrast, the AS score and C levels significantly increased throughout the official competition. In addition, significant differences were found for hormones and IL-1β concentrations as well as psychometric assessment close to the outcome of an official match. Athletes who lost showed an higher AS score and C level, while those who won were characterized by an higher level during the pre-competition RS score, T, T/C ratio, and IL-1β. Note that these factors were positively and significantly correlated at the pre-official competition time, while in a linear regression analysis, IL-1β, T and T/C ratio concentrations explained 43% of the variance in the RS score observed at the same time (adjusted R

  3. Postural Stability and Subsequent Sports Injuries during Indoor Season of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Catalina, Osuna-Pérez M; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period. PMID:24926132

  4. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes. PMID:26690037

  5. Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Bartolomé J.; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  6. Prediction of sport adherence through the influence of autonomy-supportive coaching among spanish adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Bartolomé J; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key pointsImportance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes.Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation.Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  7. Effective nutrition support programs for college athletes.

    PubMed

    Vinci, D M

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Husky Sport Nutrition Program at the University of Washington. This program is a component of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Total Student-Athlete Program, an NCAA-sponsored CHAMPS/Life Skills Program that provides life skills assistance to student-athletes. Successful integration of a sport nutrition program requires an understanding of the athletic culture, physiological milestones, and life stressors faced by college athletes. The sport nutritionist functions as an educator, counselor, and administrator. Team presentations and individual nutrition counseling provide athletes with accurate information on healthy eating behaviors for optimal performance. For women's sports, a multidisciplinary team including the sport nutritionist, team physician, clinical psychologist, and athletic trainer work to prevent and treat eating disorders. Case studies are presented illustrating the breadth of nutrition-related issues faced by a sport nutritionist working with college athletes. PMID:9738137

  8. Body composition in taller individuals using DXA: A validation study for athletic and non-athletic populations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Gobbo, Luís A; Matias, Catarina N; Petroski, Edio L; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Minderico, Claudia S; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2013-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) cannot be used to evaluate participants taller than the scan area. We aimed to analyse the accuracy of bone mineral content, fat mass, and lean mass assessed with DXA whole-body scan and from the sum of two scans (head and trunk plus limbs). Participants were 31 athletes (13 males and 18 females) and 65 non-athletes (34 males and 31 females), that fit within the DXA scan area. Three scans were performed using a Hologic Explorer-W fan-beam densitometer: a whole-body scan used as the reference; a head scan; and a trunk and limbs scan. The sum of the head scan and the trunk and limbs scan was used as the alternative procedure. Multiple regression and agreement analysis were performed. Non-significant differences between methods were observed for fat mass (0.06 kg) and lean mass (-0.07 kg) while bone mineral content from the alternative procedure differed from the reference scan (0.009 kg). The alternative procedure explained > 99% of the variance in the reference scan and low limits of agreement were observed. Precision analysis indicated low pure errors and the higher coefficients of variation were found for fat mass (whole-body: 3.70%; subtotal: 4.05%). The method proposed is a valid and simple solution to be used in individuals taller than the DXA scan area, including athletes engaged in sports recognised for including very tall competitors. PMID:23092580

  9. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. PMID:22609334

  10. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  11. Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background For effective deterrence methods, individual, systemic and situational factors that make an athlete or athlete group more susceptible to doping than others should be fully investigated. Traditional behavioural models assume that the behaviour in question is the ultimate end. However, growing evidence suggests that in doping situations, the doping behaviour is not the end but a means to an end, which is gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, models of doping should include and anti-doping policies should consider attitudes or orientations toward the specific target end, in addition to the attitude toward the 'tool' itself. Objectives The aim of this study was to empirically test doping related dispositions and attitudes of competitive athletes with the view of informing anti-doping policy developments and deterrence methods. To this end, the paper focused on the individual element of the drug availability – athlete's personality – situation triangle. Methods Data were collected by questionnaires containing a battery of psychological tests among competitive US male college athletes (n = 199). Outcome measures included sport orientation (win and goal orientation and competitiveness), doping attitude, beliefs and self-reported past or current use of doping. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures. Results Whilst the doping model showed satisfactory fit, the results suggested that athletes' win and goal orientation and competitiveness do not play a statistically significant role in doping behaviour, but win orientation has an effect on doping attitude. The SEM analysis provided empirical evidence that sport orientation and doping behaviour is not directly related. Conclusion The considerable proportion of doping behaviour unexplained by the model suggests that other factors play an influential role in athletes' decisions regarding prohibited methods. Future research, followed by

  12. Analysis of the respirogram phase of Korean wrestling athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Sub; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Respiratory function is important for patients including athletes who require physical therapy for respiratory dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the differences in the respirograms between Korean wrestling athletes and nonathletes according to phase for the study of sports physiotherapy. [Subjects and Methods] Respiratory function was measured using spirometry in both the athletes and nonathletes while they were in a sitting position. [Results] Spirometry parameters in the athletes were significantly higher than in the nonathletes. In respirogram phasic analysis, the expiratory area and total area of forced vital capacity were significantly increased in the athletes compared with the nonathletes. The slopes of the forced vital capacity for athletes at slopes 1, 2, and 3 of the A area were significantly increased. In correlative analysis, chest circumference was significantly correlated with slope 3 of the A area of the forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the differences in changes in the phases of the respirogram between the Korean wrestling athletes and nonathletes may in part contribute to our understanding of respiratory function in sports physiotherapy research. PMID:27064260

  13. Analysis of the respirogram phase of Korean wrestling athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Sub; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Respiratory function is important for patients including athletes who require physical therapy for respiratory dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the differences in the respirograms between Korean wrestling athletes and nonathletes according to phase for the study of sports physiotherapy. [Subjects and Methods] Respiratory function was measured using spirometry in both the athletes and nonathletes while they were in a sitting position. [Results] Spirometry parameters in the athletes were significantly higher than in the nonathletes. In respirogram phasic analysis, the expiratory area and total area of forced vital capacity were significantly increased in the athletes compared with the nonathletes. The slopes of the forced vital capacity for athletes at slopes 1, 2, and 3 of the A area were significantly increased. In correlative analysis, chest circumference was significantly correlated with slope 3 of the A area of the forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the differences in changes in the phases of the respirogram between the Korean wrestling athletes and nonathletes may in part contribute to our understanding of respiratory function in sports physiotherapy research. PMID:27064260

  14. Athletic pubalgia and "sports hernia": optimal MR imaging technique and findings.

    PubMed

    Omar, Imran M; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Koulouris, George; Bergin, Diane; Gopez, Angela G; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C

    2008-01-01

    Groin injuries are common in athletes who participate in sports that require twisting at the waist, sudden and sharp changes in direction, and side-to-side ambulation. Such injuries frequently lead to debilitating pain and lost playing time, and they may be difficult to diagnose. Diagnostic confusion often arises from the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the pubic symphysis region, the large number of potential sources of groin pain, and the similarity of symptoms in athletes with different types or sites of injury. Many athletes with a diagnosis of "sports hernia" or "athletic pubalgia" have a spectrum of related pathologic conditions resulting from musculotendinous injuries and subsequent instability of the pubic symphysis without any finding of inguinal hernia at physical examination. The actual causal mechanisms of athletic pubalgia are poorly understood, and imaging studies have been deemed inadequate or unhelpful for clarification. However, a large-field-of-view magnetic resonance (MR) imaging survey of the pelvis, combined with high-resolution MR imaging of the pubic symphysis, is an excellent means of assessing various causes of athletic pubalgia, providing information about the location of injury, and delineating the severity of disease. Familiarity with the pubic anatomy and with MR imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and in other confounding causes of groin pain allows accurate imaging-based diagnoses and helps in planning treatment that targets specific pathologic conditions. PMID:18794316

  15. Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as…

  16. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  17. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates. PMID:27176786

  18. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

  19. Sporting Goods. Part I: Hunting and Fishing Equipment and Part II: Athletic, Marine, and Camping Equipment. A Distributive Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Bill D., Comp.

    These manuals were prepared to introduce students to the fundamentals of hunting and fishing (Part I) and sports requiring athletic, marine and camping equipment (Part II). The sports salesman is in the position of offering a service to the customer, and he can best do so by understanding the sports and the variety of products which may be sold to…

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    and mineral supplements are not needed if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods. However, athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume unbalanced diets with low micronutrient density, may require supplements. Because regulations specific to nutritional ergogenic aids are poorly enforced, they should be used with caution, and only after careful product evaluation for safety, efficacy, potency, and legality. A qualified sports dietitian and in particular in the United States, a Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics, should provide individualized nutrition direction and advice subsequent to a comprehensive nutrition assessment. PMID:19278045

  1. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  2. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  3. Sports and Athletics: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues in sports and athletics for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The listings are drawn from the National Resource Library of the National Center for Youth with Disabilities, which includes journals, books, and non-published materials. The section on bibliographic…

  4. The Medallion Program: Using the Generic Sport Model to Train Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Wendy J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)

  5. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  6. There Was No Golden Age of Sport for African American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Earl

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Harry Edwards' belief about a golden age in sports for African Americans, asserting that the golden age never existed for them. Suggests that Edwards' research does not thoroughly examine the new African American athlete and ignores the issue that the unfulfilled promise of riches and glory requires a larger socioeconomic and…

  7. Athletic Training Educators' Pedagogical Strategies for Preparing Students to Address Sudden Death in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…

  8. The MetaSkills Model of Sports Counseling: Helping Athletes Achieve Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Marlin M.

    1984-01-01

    The MetaSkills model of sports counseling evolved from use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Ericksonian communicator patterns with athletes. The theoretical perspectives of human behavior upon which the model is based are explored. Overall counseling process and its parts are described. (Author/DF)

  9. The Parent-Coach/Child-Athlete Relationship in Youth Sport: Cordial, Contentious, or Conundrum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Fretwell, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and…

  10. Decision Making in NCAA Athletics: Factors Associated with Adding Sports to Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Sloane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the decision-making factors, priorities and process used when adding sports to NCAA Division I institutions. The media often focuses on gender equity and financial parameters when discussing athletic decision-making, but this study seeks to go beyond speculation and add to intercollegiate…

  11. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  12. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  13. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  14. Variations in relative age effects in individual sports: skiing, figure skating and gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph; Janning, Christina; Wong, Harmonie; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    In many sports, policy-makers and administrators employ annual cohorts to reduce differences between athletes during childhood and youth. Although well-intended, unintended relative age effects (RAEs) usually occur. RAEs refer to the specific selection, participation and attainment disadvantages associated with participants' birthdates relative to an arbitrary 'cutoff' date used to group participants within annual age groups. To date, we have little understanding of RAEs in individual sports. In this article, Study 1 considered the presence of RAEs in 1474 ski jumping, 7501 cross-country skiing, 15,565 alpine skiing, 4179 snowboarders and 713 Nordic combined athletes. Chi-square analyses revealed significant RAEs for most of these contexts across sexes. In Study 2, RAEs in the aesthetic sports of figure skating (n=502) and female gymnastics (n=612) were considered. There was no effect for the figure skaters and an atypical effect for the gymnasts. The significant effects across most ski sports coupled with the null effects in figure skating and atypical effect in gymnastics suggest that sport-specific contextual factors are important elements in understanding the mechanisms of RAEs, although further work is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:24444205

  15. Health in Elite Sports from a Salutogenetic Perspective: Athletes' Sense of Coherence

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jochen; Thiel, Ansgar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the high number of stressors encountered in the context of elite sports, a high sense of coherence (SOC) is crucial to allow athletes to maintain their health from both short- and long-term perspectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate SOC in a population of elite athletes, focusing on identification of subsets of athletes with particularly high and low SOC scores, and any related predictors. The elite athletes' SOC scores were also evaluated for differences with those of the general population of Germany; whether a correlation between SOC and subjective health existed was additionally examined. Method In total, 698 male and female elite athletes, drawn from Germany's highest-level national track and field squads, and first and second division handball teams, completed a survey that included the SOC-L9 Scale and measures of subjective health, sociodemographic information, and the number of injury lay-offs experienced during the athletes' careers to date. Results Classification tree analysis reveals six contrast groups with varying SOC scores. Several interacting factors determine the group to which an athlete belongs. Together with overuse injuries, additional factors are age, gender, and completed/not completed apprenticeship/degree. Female athletes aged between 19 and 25, who had already been subject to lay-offs due to overuse injuries, comprise the group with the lowest SOC scores. Overall, the SOC of elite athletes is slightly lower than in the general population. In accordance with other studies, a stronger SOC is also correlated significantly with better global subjective health. Conclusion The identification of contrast groups with varying SOC scores contributes to the development of more targeted salutogenetic health promotion programs. Such programs would ideally include learning modules pertaining to coping with overuse injuries, as well as social support systems aiming to effectively combine education and

  16. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  17. FLUID BALANCE DURING TRAINING IN ELITE YOUNG ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 y, years of training: 7.7±2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6±0.9 °C and 58±8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 min and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (USG≥1.020 mg/dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pre-training urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, while a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥ 1.020 mg/dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was −1.1±0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability. PMID:24513625

  18. Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

  19. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  20. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  1. The asthmatic athlete: inhaled Beta-2 agonists, sport performance, and doping.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Donald C; Fitch, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice. PMID:21200170

  2. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion.

    PubMed

    Romeas, Thomas; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that athletes' domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception (BMP) tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students' non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted) and distance (2 m, 4 m, 16 m). Accuracy and reaction time were measured to assess observers' performance. The results highlighted athletes' superior ability compared to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (accuracy) of distance. More interestingly, experts also displayed greater performance compared to non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (reaction time) of distance. In addition, athletes showed a better performance throughout inverted conditions in the walker (reaction time) and soccer kick (accuracy and reaction time) tasks. This implies that during human BMP, athletes demonstrate an advantage for recognizing body kinematics that goes beyond sport specific actions. PMID:26388828

  3. Women, Sports, and Science: Do Female Athletes Have an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Kraus, Rebecca S.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes data from a longitudinal study of high school youth to suggest that involvement in sports often has a strong and positive association with young womens' success in high school science. Associates participation in cheerleading with negative results. Summarizes both the functionalist and conflict theories regarding the purpose of sports.…

  4. Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Steven J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport…

  5. High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

  6. The management of sport-related concussion: considerations for male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Crutcher, Bryan; Burkhart, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Sport-related concussion continues to be a centerpiece of attention in the field of sports medicine. The benefit to using neurocognitive testing when managing concussion will be documented in this review. In addition to providing critical objective information on the neurocognitive status of the concussed athlete, research data will be provided on the pre- and post-concussion neurocognitive profiles of concussed male and female athletes. Specifically, an overview of research will be presented on the epidemiology of male and female concussion rates, as well as concussion outcomes including symptoms and cognitive function post-injury. Finally, a clinician's perspective on managing sports-related concussion will be presented focusing on three factors regarding sex differences: risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. PMID:24323339

  7. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement. PMID:25387042

  8. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values. PMID:26966961

  9. Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…

  10. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Donna L

    2013-01-01

    Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5-24 years, a 70%-80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. PMID:24379720

  11. Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Donna L

    2013-01-01

    Organized youth sports are highly popular for youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participants in the US. Seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports. On the surface, it appears that US children are healthy and happy as they engage in this traditional pastime, and families report higher levels of satisfaction if their children participate. However, statistics demonstrate a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three children now being overweight, with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle for most children and teenagers. Increasing sports-related injuries, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5–24 years, a 70%–80% attrition rate by the time a child is 15 years of age, and programs overemphasizing winning are problems encountered in youth sport. The challenges faced by adults who are involved in youth sports, from parents, to coaches, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and varied across ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It appears that an emphasis on fun while establishing a balance between physical fitness, psychologic well-being, and lifelong lessons for a healthy and active lifestyle are paramount for success. PMID:24379720

  12. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. PMID:25963103

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of athletic pubalgia and the sports hernia: current understanding and practice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waseem; Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard imaging modality for activity-related groin pain. Lesions, including rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury and osteitis pubis, can be accurately identified and delineated in patients with clinical conditions termed athletic pubalgia, core injury, and sports hernia. A dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia MRI protocol is easy to implement and should be available at musculoskeletal MR imaging centers. This article will review pubic anatomy, imaging considerations, specific lesions, and common MRI findings encountered in the setting of musculoskeletal groin pain. PMID:23168185

  14. Injuries Among Italian DanceSport Athletes: A Questionnaire Survey.

    PubMed

    Pellicciari, Leonardo; Piscitelli, Daniele; De Vita, Marilena; D'Ingianna, Lucia; Bacciu, Serenella; Perno, Giacomo; Lunetta, Laura; Rosulescu, Eugenia; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Foti, Calogero

    2016-03-01

    During training and competition, athletic dancers perform complex artistic movements that can lead to stress on the musculoskeletal system, making them subject to high risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, location, and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among dancesport athletes and to identify potential risk factors for injury. This cross-sectional study was performed at several national dancesport meetings in Italy. All 168 dancesport athletes who participated at the meetings were invited to complete a questionnaire related to injuries they may have suffered during the previous year; other information collected included demographic data (age, sex, height, weight), dance participation (discipline, categories), training (training duration, years since starting to dance), and injury (location, etiology). Of the 168 dancers, 153 completed the questionnaire. Of the 102 injuries reported, 73 athletes (47.7%) reported at least 1 injury. The locations of the injuries were the lower limbs (n=75, 73.5%), upper limbs (8, 7.8%), and spine (19, 18.7%). Significant differences were found in the injury location (p<0.01) as well as the nature of the injury (p<0.01). No significant differences were found between injured and non-injured athletes in demographic data, dance participation, and training variables (p>0.05). The results indicate that about half of the dancers reported at least 1 injury, with these being located particularly in the lower limbs and predominantly strain and sprain injuries. To reduce the prevalence of injuries, a prevention program may be indicated, with future research needed to identify appropriate strategies to prevent injuries. PMID:26966959

  15. Long-Term Effects of Athletics Meet on the Perceived Competence of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninot, Gregory; Maiano, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic program (integrated versus segregated) and of the type of sport (basketball versus swimming) on two domains of perceived competence (athletic competence and social acceptance), and general self-worth. Participants were 48 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID) divided…

  16. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  17. Soccer athletes are superior to non-athletes at perceiving soccer-specific and non-sport specific human biological motion

    PubMed Central

    Romeas, Thomas; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that athletes’ domain specific perceptual-cognitive expertise can transfer to everyday tasks. Here we assessed the perceptual-cognitive expertise of athletes and non-athletes using sport specific and non-sport specific biological motion perception (BMP) tasks. Using a virtual environment, university-level soccer players and university students’ non-athletes were asked to perceive the direction of a point-light walker and to predict the trajectory of a masked-ball during a point-light soccer kick. Angles of presentation were varied for orientation (upright, inverted) and distance (2 m, 4 m, 16 m). Accuracy and reaction time were measured to assess observers’ performance. The results highlighted athletes’ superior ability compared to non-athletes to accurately predict the trajectory of a masked soccer ball presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (accuracy) of distance. More interestingly, experts also displayed greater performance compared to non-athletes throughout the more fundamental and general point-light walker direction task presented at 2 m (reaction time), 4 m (accuracy and reaction time), and 16 m (reaction time) of distance. In addition, athletes showed a better performance throughout inverted conditions in the walker (reaction time) and soccer kick (accuracy and reaction time) tasks. This implies that during human BMP, athletes demonstrate an advantage for recognizing body kinematics that goes beyond sport specific actions. PMID:26388828

  18. Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .

    PubMed

    Beamon, Krystal K

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills. PMID:21174872

  19. Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Seyed Farzad; Aghazade Amiri, Mohammad; Naderifar, Homa; Rakhshi, Elham; Vakilian, Banafsheh; Ashrafi, Elham; Behesht-Nejad, Amir-Houshang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Visual skills are one of the main pillars of intangible faculties of athletes that can influence their performance. Great number of vision tests used to assess the visual skills and it will be irrational to perform all vision tests for every sport. Objectives: The purpose of this protocol article is to present a relatively comprehensive battery of tests and assessments on static and dynamic aspects of sight which seems relevant to sports vision and introduce the most useful ones for archery. Materials and Methods: Through extensive review of the literature, visual skills and respective tests were listed; such as ‘visual acuity, ‘contrast sensitivity’, ‘stereo-acuity’, ‘ocular alignment’, and ‘eye dominance’. Athletes were defined as “elite” and “non-elite” category based on their past performance. Dominance was considered for eye and hand; binocular or monocular aiming was planned to be recorded. Illumination condition was defined as to simulate the real archery condition to the extent possible. The full cycle of examinations and their order for each athlete was sketched (and estimated to take 40 minutes). Protocol was piloted in an eye hospital. Female and male archers aged 18 - 38 years who practiced compound and recurve archery with a history of more than 6 months were included. Conclusions: We managed to select and design a customized examination protocol for archery (a sight-intensive and aiming type of sports), serving skill assessment and research purposes. Our definition for elite and non-elite athletes can help to define sports talent and devise skill development methods as we compare the performance of these two groups. In our pilot, we identified 8 “archery figures” (by hand dominance, eye dominance and binocularity) and highlighted the concept “congruence” (dominant hand and eye in the same side) in archery performance. PMID:27217923

  20. Health-risk behaviors among high school athletes and preventive services provided during sports physicals

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen E.; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pre-participation exams (PPEs), or sports physicals, present opportunities for health care providers to identify and discuss common adolescent health-risk behaviors. We sought to examine the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among high school athletes, and the proportion of providers who address these behaviors during PPEs. Method We used data from two statewide surveys: a survey of adolescents (n=46,492) and a survey of nurse practitioners and physicians (n=561) for this descriptive study. Results The most prevalent risk behaviors reported by student athletes were: low levels of physical activity (70%), bullying perpetration (41%), and alcohol use (41%). Most providers (≥75%) addressed many common risk behaviors during PPEs but fewer addressed bullying, violence, and prescription drug use. Topics discussed differed by provider type and patient population. Discussion Many providers addressed critical threats to adolescent health during PPEs but findings suggest potential disconnects between topics addressed during PPEs and behaviors of athletes. PMID:25043289

  1. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 2: principles of emergency care.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rahul; Palumbo, Mark A; Fadale, Paul D

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries can lead to devastating consequences for the collision athlete. Improved understanding of these injuries can lead to identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, and effective on-field management. This article is the second in a 2-part series. The first part, published in the June 2004 issue, reviewed the current concepts regarding the epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnostic considerations relevant to cervical spine trauma in collision sports. In this article, the principles of on-field emergency care of the spine-injured athlete are reviewed. The authors discuss the need for effective pre-event planning, on-field evaluation and management of cervical spine injuries, and the transition of care from the playing field to the emergency room. The protocol for equipment removal, when necessary, is also reviewed. An organized, rapid approach to the management of cervical spine-injured collision athletes can help to optimize the outcomes of these catastrophic injuries. PMID:15494346

  2. [Some performance tests among athletes: their importance according to sport, their interests and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Ziltener, J-L; Leal, S

    2005-07-27

    In the multiple performance tests that actually exist, the choice of the most representative evaluation of the physical activity is crucial. For the general or field practitioner who wants to give his or her athlete the most useful informations for the follow-up, this choice may be very difficult. Nevertheless, the results of those tests, once a correct interpretation have been done, will give opportunity to built an efficient training's program, whatever the type of sports or the athlete's level. This change in the management of the sportsman is an answer to the request of the athlete or his trainer; from now on, they both want a more scientific training's planning, built on physiological parameters. PMID:16130533

  3. RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF TRAUMATIC SPORTS INJURIES IN THE SKELETALLY IMMATURE ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Molony, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, participation in organized youth sports has risen to include over 35 million contestants.1 The rise in participation has brought about an associated increase in both traumatic and overuse injuries in the youth athlete, which refers to both children and adolescents within a general age range of seven to 17. Exposure rates alone do not account for the increase in injuries. Societal pressures to perform at high levels affect both coaches and athletes and lead to inappropriate levels of training intensity, frequency, and duration. In this environment high physiologic stresses are applied to the immature skeleton of the youth athlete causing injury. Typically, since bone is the weakest link in the incomplete ossified skeleton, the majority of traumatic injuries result in fractures that occur both at mid‐shaft and at the growth centers of bone. The following clinical commentary describes the common traumatic sports injuries that occur in youth athletes, as well as those which require rapid identification and care in order to prevent long term sequelae. PMID:23316432

  4. Laboratory Tests Ordered By a Chiropractic Sports Physician on Elite Athletes Over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Dustin C.; Moreau, William J.; Barylski, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss laboratory tests ordered on elite athletes in an interdisciplinary sports medicine clinic by a doctor of chiropractic over 1 calendar year. Methods A retrospective review of laboratory tests ordered during routine clinical practice as standard screening and diagnostic tests from November 1, 2009, to November 1, 2010 was performed. Data were collected during clinical encounters at one sports medicine clinic and entered into a database for analysis. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to describe the tests ordered and the frequency of abnormal findings. Results Five hundred and thirty-nine studies were ordered for diagnostic and routine screenings on 137 athlete patients (86 males, 51 females), representing 49 types of tests. Sample sources included blood, urine, skin lesions, and fecal matter. The most commonly ordered tests were complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, serum ferritin, creatine kinase, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, total cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and lipid panels. There were 217 studies (40%) flagged as abnormal by the reporting laboratory. Conclusion This report provides greater insight into the diverse array of laboratory studies ordered over a 1-year period for diagnosis and screening of elite athletes. A high percentage of the results were flagged as abnormal by the laboratory. These findings show that the unique physiology of the elite athlete must be considered when interpreting laboratory findings in this population. PMID:26257590

  5. John Amaechi: changing the way sport reporters examine gay athletes.

    PubMed

    Kian, Edward Ted M; Anderson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, John Amaechi became the first former National Basketball Association (NBA) player to publicly announce he was gay. Former NBA star Tim Hardaway made a series of homophobic remarks a week later. A textual analysis was used to analyze narratives on Amaechi's revelation and/or Hardaway's comments published in 50 international newspapers. Four dominant themes emerged from the data. While most of these themes supported narratives that gay males remain unwelcome in men's team sports, all were challenged consistently, thus, showing the fluidity of hegemonic masculinity and the increasing societal acceptance of gays and gay lifestyles. Moreover, print media writers exhibited little homophobia and frequently called for more acceptance of gays, particularly within sport. PMID:19802757

  6. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080

  7. Performance enhancement, elite athletes and anti doping governance: comparing human guinea pigs in pharmaceutical research and professional sports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In light of the World Anti Doping Agency’s 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research’ by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination. Our comparison sheds light on norms of research ethics that these practices exacerbate with respect to the concepts of multiplicity, visibility, and consistency. We argue for the need to establish a proper governance framework to increase the accountability of these unregulated research practices in order to protect the human guinea pigs in elite sports contexts, and to establish reasonable grounds for the performance enhancing effects, and the risks to the health of the athlete, of the methods and substances that might justify their inclusion on the Prohibited List. PMID:24499536

  8. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies. PMID:23703513

  9. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. Objective To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Design Qualitative study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Data Collection and Analysis Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Results Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Conclusions Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity. PMID:26067427

  10. Eccentric Exercise Protocols for Patella Tendinopathy: Should we Really be Withdrawing Athletes from Sport? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saithna, Adnan; Gogna, Rajiv; Baraza, Njalalle; Modi, Chetan; Spencer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 review by Visnes and Bahr concluded that athletes with patella tendinopathy should be withdrawn from sport whilst engaging in eccentric exercise (EE) rehabilitation programs. However, deprivation of sport is associated with a number of negative psychological and physiological effects. Withdrawal from sport is therefore a decision that warrants due consideration of the risk/benefit ratio. The aim of this study was to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to warrant withdrawal of athletes from sport during an eccentric exercise rehabilitation program. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify relevant randomised trials. Data was extracted to determine whether athletes were withdrawn from sport, what evidence was presented to support the chosen strategy and whether this affected the clinical outcome. Seven studies were included. None of these reported high quality evidence to support withdrawal. In addition, three studies were identified in which athletes were not withdrawn from sport and still benefited from EE. This review has demonstrated that there is no high quality evidence to support a strategy of withdrawal from sport in the management of patella tendinopathy. PMID:23248727

  11. Role of Sports in the Development of an Individual and Role of Psychology in Sports*

    PubMed Central

    Ghildiyal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Sports helps an individual much more than in the physical aspects alone. It builds character, teaches and develops strategic thinking, analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking, just to name a few. PMID:25838736

  12. ["Sports hernia" and osteitis pubis in an athlete].

    PubMed

    Paajanen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain in the groin does not always present itself with a clear-cut cause such as muscle tear, inguinal hernia or a disorder of the hip, pelvis, bowel or urinary organs. In such cases a "sports hernia" can be suspected, i.e. muscular injury due to overexertion of the inguinal region. Accordingly, a hernial protrusion is not in question. In addition, if the pubic bone is tender and inflammatory exudate is seen in the magnetic resonance image, the patient has osteitis pubis, i.e. inflammation of the pubic bone. In the initial stage, methods of treatment comprise rest, stretching, anti-inflammatory medication, injections of local anesthetics and corticosteroids, physical therapy and, in the most difficult cases, surgical operation. PMID:19341038

  13. Injury surveillance in young athletes: a clinician's guide to sports injury literature.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Andrea S; Moroz, Leslie; Smith, Angela; Ganley, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    As participation in junior, high-school and college sports has increased dramatically over the last three decades, sports injuries have increased commensurately. In the US alone, sports-related injuries account for 2.6 million visits to the emergency room made by children and young adults (aged 5-24 years). Injuries sustained by high-school athletes have resulted in 500000 doctor visits, 30000 hospitalisations and a total cost to the healthcare system of nearly 2 billion dollars per year. Sports injury surveillance studies have long formed the backbone of injury prevention research, serving to highlight the types and patterns of injury that merit further investigation. Injury surveillance studies have been integral in guiding rule changes, equipment improvement and training regimens that prevent injury. Despite findings that the methodology of injury surveillance studies may significantly influence the design and efficacy of preventative interventions, relatively few sources address epidemiological considerations involved in such studies. The purpose of this review is 3-fold. First, to perform a review of the current injury surveillance literature in order to identify key epidemiological and methodological issues that arise when reading or conducting an injury surveillance study. Second, to identify and describe how injury surveillance studies have addressed these issues. Third, to provide recommendations about the identified issues in order to guide clinicians in the interpretation of data presented in such studies. Searches of Ovid MEDLINE (1966-present) and PubMed were performed. Thirty-three descriptive and review articles addressing epidemiological and methodological considerations in injury surveillance were selected, as well as 54 cohort studies and studies with an experimental design. Data with respect to each study's treatment of the three epidemiological issues of interest were extracted and synthesised into a table. This review identifies the following

  14. The Relationship between Selected Motor Ability Determinants and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescent Athletes from Various Sport.

    PubMed

    Maćkala, Krzysztof; Michalski, Ryszard; Stodólka, Jacek; Rausavljević, Nikola; Čoh, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between speed, lower extremities explosive power, simple, and complex responses in adolescent athletes from various disciplines. Thirty nine athletes of 16.5 years old, N = 13 sprinters and jumpers, N = 13 soccer players, and N = 13 judokas participated in the experiment. Pearson correlations, a one-way ANOVA and an independent t-test for establishing differences between those three groups of athletes was applied. Additionally the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis also was applied. The strong correlation occurred between complex responses and speed; 20 m from standing and 20 m flying start (r = 0.62 and r = 0.65 respectively). In other cases, no strong association was found. The substantial differences between groups occurred in the 20 m run from flying start (t = 5.92) and standing triple jump (t = 4.16). The study indicates that adolescent athletes may need to be assessed differently to a certain extent, including sport specialization. PMID:26434022

  15. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    PubMed

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction. PMID:24738561

  16. Cultural differences in athlete attributions for success and failure: the sports pages revisited.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Lynley J; Islam, Mir Rabiul

    2012-01-01

    Self-serving biases in attribution, while found with relative consistency in research with Western samples, have rarely been found in Japanese samples typically recruited for research. However, research conducted with Japanese participants to date has tended to use forced-choice and/or reactive paradigms, with school or university students, focusing mainly on academic performance or arbitrary and/or researcher-selected tasks. This archival study explored whether self-serving attributional biases would be shown in the real-life attributions for sporting performance made by elite Olympic athletes from Japan and Australia. Attributions (N = 216) were extracted from the sports pages of Japanese and Australian newspapers and rated by Australian judges for locus and controllability. It was hypothesized that Australian, but not Japanese, athletes would show self-serving biases such that they attributed wins to causes more internal and controllable than the causes to which they attributed losses. Contrary to predictions, self-serving biases were shown to at least some extent by athletes of both nationalities. Both Australian and Japanese men attributed wins to causes more internal than those to which they attributed losses. Women, however, attributed wins and losses to causes that did not differ significantly in terms of locus. All athletes tended to attribute wins to causes that were more controllable than the causes to which losses were attributed. Results are inconsistent with a large body of research suggesting that Japanese do not show self-serving biases in attribution, and are discussed in the light of differences in methodology, context, and participants that may have contributed to these effects. PMID:22046996

  17. Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

    2012-08-01

    The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

  18. CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF AN ISOLATED GRADE III LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY IN AN ADOLESCENT MULTI-SPORT ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, M. Alex; Budich, Justin M.; Eckenrode, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case report Background Isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament knee injuries are an uncommon traumatic injury with little guidance available in the literature for conservative management and prognosis for return to sport. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical decision-making in both differential diagnosis and physical therapy management of an isolated grade III lateral collateral ligament sprain in an adolescent multi-sport high school athlete. Case Description A 16 year-old male, high school, multi-sport athlete (cross country, wrestling, track and field) sustained a traumatic knee injury during a wrestling match when his involved lower extremity was forcefully externally rotated by his opponent. Initial clinical presentation revealed pain and increased laxity with varus stress testing of the left knee, which was subsequently identified via MRI as a complete lateral collateral ligament rupture (grade III). A conservative physical therapy program was developed targeting the active and neuromuscular subsystems, theorized to compensate for the lack of an intact lateral collateral ligament. Outcomes The subject attended 18 visits of physical therapy over a period of 12 weeks. His rehabilitation program focused on functional strengthening of the posterolateral corner, enhancement of neuromuscular control, and graded progression to sports specific drills. Return to play decisions were based on a combination of lower extremity functional performance measures, condition specific outcome measures and subjective performance on sports specific tasks. At discharge from physical therapy, he reported 0/10 pain, scored a 76/80 on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and was able to return to competitive track and field events. Discussion Few descriptions in the literature exist for the conservative management of isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament injuries. A program of selective functional strengthening

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for pain after surgical treatment for athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia".

    PubMed

    Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique and findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, including injury at the rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis, are becoming widely recognized. A subset of these patients is treated with various pelvic floor repairs, mesh reinforcements, and tendon releases. Most of these patients do well after intervention, but some have persistent or refractory groin pain, and others eventually develop new injuries in the pubic region or elsewhere about the pelvic girdle. This review describes the expected and some unexpected MRI findings in patients with recurrent or persistent groin pain after a "sports hernia" repair. PMID:21928160

  20. Sport Specialization, Part I

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  1. Relationships between the coach-created motivational climate and athlete engagement in youth sport.

    PubMed

    Curran, Thomas; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K; Jowett, Gareth E

    2015-04-01

    Youth sport is a source of well-being for adolescents, yet experiences vary and attrition can be high. We sought to better understand the coach behaviors that foster positive experiences in youth sport by examining relationships between the motivational climate and athlete engagement (viz., confidence, dedication, enthusiasm, and vigor). We reasoned that a mastery climate (emphasis on effort and learning) would correspond with higher engagement, whereas a performance climate (emphasis on ability and outcome) was expected to correspond with lower engagement. Two-hundred sixty adolescent soccer players completed measures of engagement and perceived coach motivational climate. All dimensions of engagement were positively predicted by a mastery climate. Furthermore, cognitive aspects of engagement were positively predicted by a performance climate. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that a composite of engagement was positively associated with a mastery climate. Results suggest that a mastery climate offers a means of promoting higher levels of overall engagement. PMID:25996109

  2. Sleep habits in German athletes before important competitions or games.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Daniel; Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Adegbesan, Olufemi A; El-Din, Hamdi Galal

    2011-05-01

    Sleep is generally regarded as a valuable resource for psychological and physiological well-being. Although the effects of sleep on athletic performance have been acknowledged in sport science, few studies have investigated the prevalence of sleep problems and their effects on elite athletes before a sport event. In this study, 632 German athletes from various sports were asked about their sleep habits during the night(s) before an important competition or game. The findings indicate that 65.8% of the athletes experienced poor sleep in the night(s) before a sports event at least once in their lives and a similarly high percentage (62.3%) had this experience at least once during the previous 12 months. Athletes of individual sports reported more sleep difficulties than athletes of team sports. The main sleep problem was not being able to fall asleep. Internal factors such as nervousness and thoughts about the competition were rated highest for causing sleep problems. Most athletes stated that disturbed sleep had no influence on their athletic performance; however, athletes also reported effects such as a bad mood the following day, increased daytime sleepiness, and worse performance in the competition or game. The differences between individual and team sports indicate that athletes in some sports need more help than those in other sports in managing sleep problems. PMID:21506041

  3. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC). PMID:25869093

  4. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations. PMID:24620037

  5. Sideline Neurological Evaluation: a Detailed Approach to the Sideline, In-Game Neurological Assessment of Contact Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott; Schnebel, Brock

    2016-07-01

    Contact sport holds inherent risk of traumatic injury to participant athletes. Neurologic injury, from trauma, portends significant potential for morbidity and mortality. The in-game sideline presents a challenging setting for injury evaluation. Athletic trainers and team physicians should understand general principles of the neurologic evaluation and apply a systematic approach that allows an organized evaluation of and differential diagnosis of neurologic injury. Athlete welfare demands an immediate, accurate diagnosis followed by targeted management. Management provides appropriate referral, timely treatment, and appropriate return-to-play decision. Management begins with recognition. PMID:27215629

  6. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01). Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01). In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key points The RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol

  7. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202

  8. Analysis of isokinetic muscle strength for sports physiotherapy research in Korean ssireum athletes.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the muscle conditions such as the isokinetic muscle of Korean ssireum athletes. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 25 elite ssireum athletes. We measured body composition and peak torque at an angular speed at 60°/s using an isokinetic muscle strength dynamometer. [Results] The lean body mass of the left upper limb was significantly higher than that of the right upper limb. However, the lean body mass of the left lower limb was significantly lower than that of the right lower limb. The peak torque for left elbow flexion was significantly higher than that for right elbow flexion. Conversely, the peak torque for left elbow extension was significantly lower than that for right elbow extension. Furthermore, the peak torque for the left knee was significantly lower than that for the right knee for both flexion and extension. [Conclusion] The data from this study elucidate in part the muscle conditions of Korean ssireum athletes, which can be used to establish a reference for the scientific study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:26644679

  9. Analysis of isokinetic muscle strength for sports physiotherapy research in Korean ssireum athletes

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the muscle conditions such as the isokinetic muscle of Korean ssireum athletes. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 25 elite ssireum athletes. We measured body composition and peak torque at an angular speed at 60°/s using an isokinetic muscle strength dynamometer. [Results] The lean body mass of the left upper limb was significantly higher than that of the right upper limb. However, the lean body mass of the left lower limb was significantly lower than that of the right lower limb. The peak torque for left elbow flexion was significantly higher than that for right elbow flexion. Conversely, the peak torque for left elbow extension was significantly lower than that for right elbow extension. Furthermore, the peak torque for the left knee was significantly lower than that for the right knee for both flexion and extension. [Conclusion] The data from this study elucidate in part the muscle conditions of Korean ssireum athletes, which can be used to establish a reference for the scientific study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:26644679

  10. Individual Differences of Action Orientation for Risk Taking in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing…

  11. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  12. Can a Sport Organization Monitor Its Employees' and Athletes' Use of Social Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Peter; Dodds, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    In "Pietrylo v. Hillstone Restaurant Group," the plaintiff filed a wrongful-discharge claim against his employer after he was fired for content he had posted about the employer on a social media web site. This article discusses the implications of the court's decision on athletes in the sport industry.

  13. Self-Perceived Educational Preparedness of Entry-Level Athletic Trainers Regarding Preventing Sudden Death in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Yabor, Thomas M.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: As the first medical professionals on scene when emergency situations arise in sport, athletic trainers (ATs) need to be proficient in recognizing and managing these conditions. Recent evidence regarding exertional heatstroke indicates a lack of educational training as a factor preventing implementation of best practices, yet other causes…

  14. Athletes, yogis and individuals with sedentary lifestyles; do their lung functions differ?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shivesh; Meshram, Sushant; Ramtekkar, Ujjwal

    2007-01-01

    Buffalo health study concluded that pulmonary function is a long-term predictor for overall survival rates. It is essential to be involved in physical activity or sports which help in achieving better lung function. Cross sectional observation study was conducted to determine if yoga and athletic activity (running) are associated with better lung functions as compared to subjects with sedentary lifestyles and how does athletes and yogis differ in lung function. Spirometric parameters were assessed in randomly selected 60 healthy male, non-smoking; non-obese subjects-athletes, yogis and sedentary workers. The groups differed significantly in FEV1 and PEFR. The highest mean FEV1 and PEFR were observed in yogis. Both yogis and athletes had significantly better FEV1 as compared to sedentary workers. Yogis also had significantly better PEFR as compared to sedentary workers and athletes. Yogis and athletes had similar lung functions except for better PEFR amongst yogis. Involvement in daily physical activity or sport preferably yoga can help in achieving better pulmonary function. PMID:17877296

  15. Sportsmanship Development Strategies for Coaches of University Athletes in South-South of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dada, Benson Olu

    2016-01-01

    Sportsmanship has become an important aspect of the sport through which individuals can mirror the moral life of athletes. Studies show that most University athletes do not possess the right sportsmanship spirit in sports. This study was set forth to determine sportsmanship development strategies that can be utilized by sports coaches for…

  16. Sport Biomechanist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  17. The Institution's Obligations to Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A.; Sheilley, Holly K.

    2008-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that growing commercialization of college sports has made it increasingly difficult for universities to reconcile the gap between college sports and the fundamental mission of higher education. This article considers those individuals who choose to be a student athlete in good faith, and suggests strategies that can be…

  18. The aging spine in sports.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Elson, Lauren; Brand, Erik

    2012-07-01

    1. Masters athletes may experience low back pain from multiple sources. Masters athletes with discogenic back pain should avoid or modify sports with combined rotational and compressive forces; individuals with facet-mediated pain should avoid or modify sports with excessive extension and rotation. 2. Optimization of flexibility, strength, endurance, and core control is critical. Sports specific training, realistic goal setting, and counseling are of maximal importance. 3. Overall, the health benefits of continued sports and athletic participation outweigh the potential risks of spinal degeneration in middle-aged athletes. There is little correlation between radiographic appearance of the spine and symptoms; therefore, symptoms should serve as the primary guide when determining activity modifications. Overall, masters athletes should be encouraged to remain active and fit to enhance their quality of life and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22657996

  19. Relationship Between the Hip and Low Back Pain in Athletes Who Participate in Rotation-Related Sports

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Sahrmann, Shirley A.; Van Dillen, Linda R.

    2009-01-01

    Context Hip function has been proposed to be related to low back pain (LBP) because of the anatomical proximity of the hip and lumbopelvic region. To date, findings have been inconclusive, possibly because the samples studied were heterogeneous. Sub-grouping samples based on characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex might clarify research findings. Objective To describe and summarize studies that examine 3 factors proposed to be important to the study of the hip–LBP relationship. Design Review of cross-sectional studies. Setting Academic healthcare center and research laboratory. Subjects 3 groups: athletes with a history of LBP who regularly participate in rotation-related sports, athletes without a history of LBP who are active but do not regularly participate in rotation-related sports, and athletes without a history of LBP who participate in rotation-related sports. Main Outcome Hip range of motion and hip–lumbopelvic region coordination. Measures Hip range of motion was measured with an inclinometer. Coordination was examined based on kinematics obtained with a 3-dimensional motion-capture system. Result Differences among groups were found based on activity demand, LBP classification, and sex. Conclusion When assessing athletes with and without LBP, characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex should be considered. PMID:19321907

  20. Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Kannus, P; Sievänen, H; Haapasalo, H; Mänttäri, A; Vuori, I

    1995-09-01

    To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measured anatomic sites were at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, calcaneus, and distal radius. The athlete group consisted of aerobic dancers (N = 27), squash players (N = 18), and speed skaters (N = 14). The squash players had the highest values for weight-adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (13.8% p < 0.001 as compared with the sedentary reference group), femoral neck (16.8%, p < 0.001), proximal tibia (12.6%, p < 0.001) and calcaneus (18.5%, p < 0.001). Aerobic dancers and speed skaters also had significantly higher BMD values at the loaded sites than the sedentary reference group, the difference ranging from 5.3% to 13.5%. The physically active referents' BMD values did not differ from those of the sedentary referents at any site. The results support the concept that training, including high strain rates in versatile movements and high peak forces, is more effective in bone formation than training with a large number of low-force repetitions. PMID:8541131

  1. Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic…

  2. Brain electrical activities of dancers and fast ball sports athletes are different.

    PubMed

    Ermutlu, Numan; Yücesir, Ilker; Eskikurt, Gökçer; Temel, Tan; İşoğlu-Alkaç, Ümmühan

    2015-04-01

    Exercise training has been shown not only to influence physical fitness positively but also cognition in healthy and impaired populations. However, some particular exercise types, even though comparable based on physical efforts, have distinct cognitive and sensorimotor features. In this study, the effects of different types of exercise, such as fast ball sports and dance training, on brain electrical activity were investigated. Electroencephalography (EEG) scans were recorded in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each. In FBSA, power of delta and theta frequency activities of EEG was significantly higher than those of the dancers and the controls. Conversely, dancers had significantly higher amplitudes in alpha and beta bands compared to FBSA and significantly higher amplitudes in the alpha band in comparison with controls. The results suggest that cognitive features of physical training can be reflected in resting brain electrical oscillations. The differences in resting brain electrical oscillations between the dancers and the FBSA can be the result of innate network differences determining the talents and/or plastic changes induced by physical training. PMID:25834650

  3. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C.; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C.; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

  4. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Pediatric Athletes Presenting to Sports Medicine Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J.; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P.; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. Hypothesis: The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a sports medicine clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009; 2133 charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, height and weight, injury mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, previous injury, and organized sports. Results: A total of 206 ACL tears were analyzed (104 girls, 102 boys). Girls were slightly older than boys (15.1 ± 1.7 vs 14.3 ± 2.1 years; P < 0.01). Male-female comparison of ACL injury/total injury by age revealed that girls had a steeper increase by age than boys. Among 5- to 12-year-olds, boys had a higher ACL injury/total injury ratio than girls (all P < 0.01). Children 13 to 17 years of age showed no significant difference for sex in ACL injury/total injury ratio. As age advanced, the proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries increased for both girls (P < 0.01) and boys (P = 0.04). BMI was independently associated with an ACL injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries was similar for boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years. Girls showed a significantly steeper increase in ACL injury proportion versus boys through puberty. Clinical Relevance: This study will increase clinician awareness of ACL injury occurrence in young male and female athletes 5 to 12 years of age. Injury prevention efforts should target young girls before the onset of puberty and before injury occurs. PMID:25984258

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic determinants of repeated sprint ability in team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Z; Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m(-2); estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA. PMID:26424923

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  7. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  8. Leadership Ability and Achieving Styles among Student-Athletes at a NCAA-II University in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Mary Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined student-athletes' self-reported leadership ability and achieving styles. It analyzed leadership ability and achieving style preferences as they related to gender, class status, ethnicity, and sport classification: individual-sport vs. team-sport athletes. A paper and pencil survey consisting of a composite variable of six…

  9. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains. PMID:26323316

  10. Correlations between Attention, Emotional Distress and Anxiety with Regards to Athletes of 11-15 Years in Perceptual-Motor Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosu, Emilia Florina; Grosu, Vlad Teodor; Monea, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: tests were applied on athletes aged between 11 ± 5 and 15 ± 3. The group of athletes is part of the Romanian Olympic Judo team and ski groups of sports clubs in Gheorgheni (HR), Baia-Sprie (MM), Toplita (HR), Sibiu (SB) and Petrosani (HD). Purpose of Study: through this study, we analyse the correlations between the three…

  11. The general practitioner as sports physician.

    PubMed Central

    Timpson, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    General practitioners must become more knowledgeable about sports medicine in order both to treat the injured athlete and to provide better rehabilitative treatment and advice on fitness and exercise to other patients. Close involvement with young amateur athletes also helps to keep the older physician "in tune" with the younger generation. Finances remain a major problem for amateur sporting events and sports medicine groups, as well as for the individual physician volunteering his time. PMID:902211

  12. Evaluation and management of arrhythmia in the athletic patient.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Athletes may present with palpitations, syncope, or arrest resulting in the diagnosis of arrhythmia, or screening may result in diagnosis of conditions with predisposition to arrhythmia. This chapter focuses on 3 common arrhythmic conditions in athletes-atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and the athlete with an implanted device. (1) Atrial fibrillation: most studies show that atrial fibrillation is more common in competitive athletes, particularly those participating in long-term endurance sports. Postulated mechanisms include morphologic changes such as atrial dilatation, autonomic changes such as increased vagal tone, or inflammatory changes due to sports participation. Treatment options include long-term antiarrhythmic agents, "pill in the pocket" medications, or radiofrequency ablation, a highly successful procedure in athletes. (2) Premature ventricular contractions: data conflict on whether the incidence of PVCs is increased in highly trained individuals. Very frequent PVCs in athletes, however, can be a manifestation of underlying heart disease, and athletes presenting with PVCs should undergo evaluation. In the absence of underlying heart disease, PVCs do not carry a poor prognosis, and US guidelines do not recommend restriction from sports. (3) Implanted devices: the safety of sports for the athlete with an implanted device is unknown, and current guidelines recommend against participation in vigorous competitive sports, based on postulated risks including failure to defibrillate and risk of injury. Many athletes with defibrillators and pacemakers do participate in sports. Ongoing research will better delineate the risks of sports for the athlete with an implanted device. PMID:22386293

  13. Cardiac screening of young athletes prior to participation in sports: difficulties in detecting the fatally flawed among the fabulously fit.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay; Merghani, Ahmed; Gati, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    Deaths of young athletes from cardiac disease are uncommon but receive considerable media attention and intermittently galvanize debates about cardiac screening prior to participation in sports. Both the American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) endorse preparticipation screening in athletes; however, there is disagreement about the best approach. The AHA recommends history and physical examination; this approach is pragmatic and relatively inexpensive but has poor sensitivity because most athletes are asymptomatic and physical examination identifies only a minority of those at risk of sudden cardiac death. The inclusion of the electrocardiogram in accordance with the recommendations of the ESC improves sensitivity for detection of serious cardiac disease but is associated with an unacceptably high false-positive rate, in part because of the overlap between the electrical manifestations of athletic training and the cardiomyopathies. For young athletes with normal electrocardiogram results, echocardiography contributes minimally to the diagnosis of serious cardiac diseases. Given all the complexities, cardiac screening of young athletes should be voluntary not mandatory and conducted by highly experienced physicians who fully understand the cardiovascular adaptation to intensive exercise. PMID:25384176

  14. Sport-Specific Training Targeting the Proximal Segments and Throwing Velocity in Collegiate Throwing Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L.; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E.; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Context The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. Objective To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory and gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Intervention(s) Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability–training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. Results The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P < .001) and muscle power outputs for the chop (ET group = 0.22 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.3 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW; P < .001) and lift (ET group = 0.59 ± 0.67 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.4 ± 0.87 W/kg of BW; P < .001) tests were higher at postintervention in the PT than in the ET group. Conclusions An improvement in throwing velocity occurred simultaneously with measures of muscular endurance and power after a sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments

  15. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  16. Initiation Rites and Athletics: A National Survey of NCAA Sports Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred Univ., NY.

    Alfred University conducted a national survey of college athletes, coaches, and staff members at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions early in 1999 to determine the extent of hazing and initiation rites. A national random sample of 10,000 athletes was taken from a composite list of all athletes from 224 NCAA institutions…

  17. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  18. "Inside the Bubble": A Look at the Experiences of Student-Athletes in Revenue-Producing Sports during College and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menke, Donna J.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study sought to address the overarching research questions: What are the costs and benefits of participation in Division I college sports? How does participation in Division I college sports prepare student-athletes for life after college? A qualitative methodology was selected to provide richer data than that which could be…

  19. Eating disorders in the male athlete.

    PubMed

    Baum, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders do occur in male athletes. They are less prominent than in female athletes, and therefore in danger of being missed. The high-risk sports fall into the same categories as with females: aesthetic sports, sports in which low body fat is advantageous, such as cross-country and marathon running, and sports in which there is a need to "make weight", including wrestling and horse racing. Athletic involvement may foster the development of an eating disorder. Some male athletes, in their preoccupation with body image, will abuse anabolic steroids. While sports participation may contribute to the aetiology of an eating disorder, the converse is also true. Exercise may be used as therapy for some cases of eating disorder. In order to adequately treat eating disorders in the male athlete, it is first essential to identify cases. Psychoeducation of athletes, their families, coaches and trainers is an important first step. Counselling an athlete to pursue a sport appropriate to his body type, or to leave his sport behind altogether (an unpopular recommendation from a coach's perspective) can be important to treatment. Treatment of co-morbid psychiatric conditions is essential. Treatment can be structured using a biopsychosocial approach, and all appropriate modalities of therapy, including individual, family and group, as well as psychopharmacotherapy, where appropriate, should be applied. PMID:16445307

  20. Program Orientation for High School Sport Coaches. Coaches Council and the National Council for Secondary School Athletic Directors, 2005. A Position Paper from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) believes that prior to the start of each season, all high school head coaches, assistant coaches, and volunteer coaches should be required to participate in a comprehensive orientation to the sport program. This orientation should be planned and conducted by the athletic director or…

  1. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26920240

  2. Paths to expertise in portuguese national team athletes.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key pointsAlthough most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise.The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey.There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete's primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports.The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

  3. Hematological, oxidative stress, and immune status profiling in elite combat sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Dopsaj, Violeta; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Kasum, Goran; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Koropanovski, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to profile hematological, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters in male athletes who practiced combat sports and to determine whether the type of combat sport influenced the measured parameters. Eighteen karate professionals, 15 wrestlers, and 14 kickboxers participated in the study. Hematological, iron-related, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters were measured at the beginning of a precompetitive period. The general linear model showed significant differences between the karate professionals, wrestlers, and kickboxers with respect to their hematological and iron status parameters (Wilks' Lambda = 0.270, F = 2.186, p < 0.05) and oxidative stress status (Wilks' Lambda = 0.529, F = 1.940, p < 0.05). The immature reticulocyte fraction was significantly higher in wrestlers (0.30 ± 0.03) compared with kickboxers (0.24 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) and karate professionals (0.26 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Low hemoglobin density was significantly lower in wrestlers and kickboxers (p < 0.05) compared with karate professionals (karate: 3.51 ± 1.19, wrestlers: 1.95 ± 1.10, and kickboxers: 1.77 ± 0.76). Significant differences were observed between the karate professionals and wrestlers with respect to their pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (437 ± 103 vs. 323 ± 148, p < 0.05) and superoxide-dismutase activity (SOD) (73 ± 37 vs. 103 ± 30, p < 0.05). All the measured parameters (with the exception of SOD activity) fell within their physiological ranges, indicating that the study participants represented a young and healthy male population. Hematological parameters differed between kickboxers and karate professionals. The low pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance and high SOD activity in wrestlers could be associated with the long-term impact of wrestling as a type of strenuous exercise. PMID:24270459

  4. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  5. Fungal infection of the feet in soccer players and non-athlete individuals.

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Bordignon, Gisele Pesquero Fernandes; Queiroz-Telles, Flávio de

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of mycoses affecting the feet of soccer players and to compare this results with those in non-athlete individuals of the same age and sex. Initial evaluation consisted of a dermatological examination of the foot in 22 Chinese athletes, 83 Brazilian athletes and 24 Brazilian non-athletes. Scales of plantar skin, interdigital and subungual areas of the foot were collected for mycological examination (direct and culture). Nail clippings were obtained for histopathologic analysis. Tinea pedis was diagnosed more frequently among the non-athlete individuals. None of the Chinese athletes had tinea pedis alone. However, in this group onychomycosis was frequently higher when compared to the other groups. The fungal microbiota comprised Trichophyton rubrum (40%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (36.4%) and Candida spp (20%). Candida spp was isolated only from Brazilian athletes. Results obtained with KOH wet mounts agreed with the results obtained in culture and with histopathologic examinations (50.5% vs 40.9%). The frequency of tinea pedis among soccer players was lower than the other groups in this study, possibly due to health education and professional feet care. PMID:15813681

  6. Sports medicine and ethics.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

    2013-01-01

    Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

  7. Increased Compliance With Supervised Rehabilitation Improves Functional Outcome and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fucai; Banerjee, Anirban; Shen, Liang; Krishna, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful return to sport is an important outcome measure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and a reason for patients’ decisions to elect surgery. Rehabilitation programs supervised by physical therapists are routinely prescribed after ACL reconstruction surgery. However, the added advantage of supervised physical therapy after ACL reconstruction is still debatable. Hypothesis: Attending more supervised physical therapy sessions after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction in recreational athletes increases their chance of successful return to sport. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The authors analyzed 93 recreational athletes who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. After arthroscopic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, patients were advised to attend 20 supervised physical therapy sessions. Patients’ demographics, surgical details, and outcome measures (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Lysholm scale, and Short Form–36 Health Survey [SF-36]) were recorded presurgery and at 1-year follow-up. Ability to return to sports was documented through patients’ self-report. The attendance at physical therapy by each patient was obtained by examining database records and assessed as fully compliant (>15 sessions), moderately compliant (6-15 sessions), or noncompliant (<6 sessions). Results: Patients in the fully compliant group had significantly greater odds (odds ratio [OR], 18.5; 95% CI, 1.9-184.5; P = .013) of a successful return to sport as compared with the noncompliant group. Patients in the moderately compliant group also had greater odds of returning to sport as compared with the noncompliant group (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.0-16.6; P = .043). Patients in the fully compliant group had significantly greater scores on the Lysholm (P < .001), KOOS Sports and Recreation subscale (P = .021), KOOS Symptoms subscale (P = .040), and SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) (P = .012) as compared with

  8. Incidence, clinical course, and predictors of prolonged recovery time following sport-related concussion in high school and college athletes.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Randolph, Christopher; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Marshall, Stephen W; Powell, Matthew R; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Wang, Yanzhi; Kelly, James P

    2013-01-01

    Sport-related concussion (SRC) is typically followed by clinical recovery within days, but reports of prolonged symptoms are common. We investigated the incidence of prolonged recovery in a large cohort (n = 18,531) of athlete seasons over a 10-year period. A total of 570 athletes with concussion (3.1%) and 166 controls who underwent pre-injury baseline assessments of symptoms, neurocognitive functioning and balance were re-assessed immediately, 3 hr, and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 days after concussion. Concussed athletes were stratified into typical (within 7 days) or prolonged (> 7 days) recovery groups based on symptom recovery time. Ten percent of athletes (n = 57) had a prolonged symptom recovery, which was also associated with lengthier recovery on neurocognitive testing (p < .001). At 45-90 days post-injury, the prolonged recovery group reported elevated symptoms, without deficits on cognitive or balance testing. Prolonged recovery was associated with unconsciousness [odds ratio (OR), 4.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.12-8.15], posttraumatic amnesia (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28), and more severe acute symptoms (p < .0001). These results suggest that a small percentage of athletes may experience symptoms and functional impairments beyond the typical window of recovery after SRC, and that prolonged recovery is associated with acute indicators of more severe injury. PMID:23058235

  9. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  10. High-Risk Drinking Characteristics in Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James; Swanik, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to further describe the relationship of alcohol use by college athletes to variables, such as sport participation, time of year, and level of competition. Participants: There were 720 participants from Divisions I, II, and III who participated in either a team sport or an individual sport. Methods: The authors measured…

  11. The parent-coach/child-athlete relationship in youth sport: cordial, contentious, or conundrum?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maureen R; Fretwell, Susan D

    2005-09-01

    The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and two teammates. Inductive content analysis indicated that, among the benefits, sons identified perks, praise, technical instruction, understanding of ability level, insider information, involvement in decision making, special attention, quality time, and motivation. Costs of being coached by one's father included negative emotional responses, pressure/expectations, conflict, lack of understanding/empathy, criticism for mistakes, and unfair behavior. For father-coaches, positive themes included taking pride in son's achievements, reason for coaching, positive social interactions, opportunity to teach skills and values, enjoying coaching son, and quality time. Negatives included inability to separate parent-child from coach-player role, placing greater expectations and pressure on son, and showing differential attention toward son. While teammates perceived some favoritism by the parent-coach, they cited mostly positive instructional experiences. Results are discussed within motivational theories that highlight the influence of significant adults on children's psychosocial development in the physical domain. PMID:16270706

  12. Performance analysis in sport: contributions from a joint analysis of athletes' experience and biomechanical indicators.

    PubMed

    Sève, C; Nordez, A; Poizat, G; Saury, J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of combining two types of analysis to investigate sports performance with the aim of optimizing it. These two types of analysis correspond to two levels of athletes' activity: (a) their experiences during performance and (b) the biomechanical characteristics of their movements. Rowing served as an illustration, and the activity of one female crew member was studied during a race. Three types of data were collected: (a) audiovisual data recorded during the race; (b) verbalization data obtained in interviews conducted afterward; and (c) biomechanical data. The courses of experience of the two rowers during the race were reconstructed on the basis of the audiovisual and verbalization data. This paper presents a detailed analysis of a single phenomenon of the race experienced by one of the rowers. According to the coaches, it reflected a dysfunction in crew coordination. The aim of this analysis was to identify the biomechanical characteristics of the rowers' movements that might explain it. The results showed that the phenomenon could be explained principally by an amplitude differential between the two rowers' strokes. On this basis, the coaches defined new training objectives to remedy the dysfunction in crew coordination. PMID:22150999

  13. BodySense: an evaluation of a positive body image intervention on sport climate for female athletes.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annick; Mack, Heidi; McVey, Gail; Feder, Stephen; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective prevention program designed to reduce pressures to be thin in sport, and to promote positive body image and eating behaviors in young female athletes. Participants were competitive female gymnasts (aged 11 to 18 years), parents, and coaches from 7 gymnastic clubs across Ontario, Canada. Four of the seven clubs were randomized to receive the 3-month intervention program (IG) aimed at increasing awareness and positive climate change of body image pressures for athletes in their clubs. Three clubs were randomized to the control group (CG). A total of 62 female gymnasts (IG n = 31; CG n = 31) completed self-report questionnaires examining perceptions of pressure to be thin within their sports clubs, self-efficacy over dieting pressures, awareness and internalization of societal pressure to be thin, body esteem, and eating attitudes and behaviours before and following the intervention. A total of 32 mothers (IG n = 24; CG n = 8) completed measures examining their perceptions of their daughter's pressure to be thin, awareness and internalization of societal pressures to be thin, daughter's self-efficacy over dieting pressures, in addition to mothers' beliefs regarding thinness and success for women in society, before and following the intervention. The findings revealed that participation in the BodySense program resulted in athletes perceiving a reduction in pressure from their sports clubs to be thin, though no changes were found in body esteem, the EAT, or the SATAQ. No significant change was observed over time on mothers' measures. The role of climate change for prevention of eating disorders in athletes is discussed. PMID:18568921

  14. Interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency in combat sports athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. [Methods] Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping and stop. To examine the moment difference due to an interaction of ATCN3 polymorphism and muscle imbalance, all participants were divided into 4 groups (R+MB, R+MIB, X+MB, and X+MIB). [Results] There was no significant difference of hip, knee, and ankle joint moment in R allele and X allele during V-cut jumping and stop based on ACTN3 gene polymorphism. Otherwise, muscle imbalance of knee moment in X-axis and ground reaction force of knee in Z-axis showed a higher significance in muscle imbalance during V-cut jumping and stop compared to muscle balance (p<0.05). In addition, joint analysis showed that muscle imbalance in X allele group had significantly higher knee moment of V-cut ground reaction force in X-axis and higher ankle moment of jumping ground reaction force in X and Z-axis compared to muscle balance with R and/or X group (p <0.05). [Conclusion] This study confirmed that muscle imbalance in lower extremity of combat athletes might induce higher risk factors of sports injury incidence than genetic factor and training might reduce the ratio of sports injury risk incidence. PMID:27508148

  15. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  16. Sports Coaches as "Dangerous Individuals"--Practice as Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William George; Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Recent concern surrounding sports coaches' interaction with young people has reflected a fundamental change in the way coaches and others regard the role of sports. In this paper, we consider the identification and definition of the contemporary sports coach (whether acting in a professional or volunteer capacity) as, in Foucault's term, a…

  17. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

  18. Psychophysical Differences in Ventilatory Awareness and Breathlessness between Athletes and Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Faull, Olivia K.; Cox, Pete J.; Pattinson, Kyle T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Breathlessness is a complex set of symptoms that are comprised of both sensory and affective (emotional) dimensions. While ventilation is now understood to be a potential limiter to performance in highly-trained individuals, the contribution of breathlessness-anxiety in those nearing maximal ventilation during intense exercise has not yet been considered as a limiter to performance. Methods: In this study, we compared the physiology and psychology of breathlessness in 20 endurance athletes with 20 untrained age- and sex-matched sedentary controls. Subjects completed baseline spirometry and anxiety questionnaires, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion and a steady-state hypercapnic ventilatory response test, with concurrent measures of breathlessness intensity and breathlessness-anxiety. Results: Compared with sedentary subjects, athletes reported equivalent breathlessness intensity but greater breathlessness-anxiety at maximal exercise (athletes vs. sedentary (mean ± SD): breathlessness intensity (0–100%) 80.7 (22.7) vs. 72.5 (17.2), p = 0.21; breathlessness-anxiety (0–100%), 45.3 (36.3) vs. 22.3 (20.0), p = 0.02). Athletes operated at higher proportions of their maximal ventilatory capacity (MVV) (athletes vs. sedentary (mean ventilation ± SD; % MVV): 101.6 (27.2) vs. 73.7 (30.1), p = 0.003). In the athletes there was a positive linear correlation between ventilation and breathlessness score during the hypercapnic challenge that was not observed in the sedentary controls. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that whilst operating at high proportions of maximal ventilation, breathlessness-anxiety becomes increasingly prominent in athletes. Our results suggest that ventilatory perception pathways may be a target for improved athletic performance in some individuals. PMID:27378940

  19. Understanding how organized youth sport maybe harming individual players within the family unit: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bean, Corliss N; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little to date has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of papers on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. Ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

  20. THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT IN COMBAT SPORTS: AN ANALYSIS OF OLYMPIC JUDO ATHLETES, 1964-2012.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Maicon R; Franchini, Emerson; Lage, Guilherme M; Da Costa, Varley Teoldo; Costa, Israel T; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-08-01

    This study assessed the relative age effect (RAE) in judo athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from 1964 to 2012. The names and birthdates of the Olympic judo athletes were collected from open-access websites. Data from male (n=1,762) and female (n=665) competitors were analyzed separately. Chi-squared tests were performed to investigate REA in medalists, and by weight categories and sexes. When the analyses used semesters to divide the period when the athletes were born, a RAE was found in male heavyweight athletes and male medallists. Thus, in a selected group of judo athletes who had participated at the highest competitive level, RAEs were present in both athletes who won Olympic medals and heavyweight athletes in the male group. PMID:26302193

  1. Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L C; Gerrard, D F

    2005-02-01

    Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ethical matters, common to other areas of medicine. However they also raised problems unique to sports medicine. Some of these ethical difficulties arise out of the place of the sports doctor within the hierarchy of sport. Yet others arise out of the special relationship between sports doctors and individual players/athletes. This study raises some important questions regarding the governance of healthcare in sport, and what support and guidance is available to sports doctors. As medical and scientific intervention in sport escalates, there is a risk that demands for enhanced performance may compromise the health of the athlete, and the role the sports doctor plays remains a critical question. PMID:15681672

  2. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  3. Measuring the force of punches and kicks among combat sport athletes using a modified punching bag with an embedded accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Staniak, Zbigniew; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Łach, Patrycja; Michalski, Radosław; Gajewski, Jan; Górski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to design a new system to measure punching and kicking forces as well as reaction times in combat sport athletes. In addition, the study examined whether there were any intergender differences in the force of punches thrown by boxers and kicking forces delivered by taekwondo athletes. Boxers (male, n = 13; female, n = 7) were examined for the force of single straight punches and taekwondo athletes (male, n = 14; female, n = 14) for force of single Apdolio and Dwit Chagi kicks. The punching bag was equipped with acceleration transducers and gyroscopes embedded in a cylinder covered with a layer to absorb shock as well as a set of colour signal diodes. Value of the punching bag's acceleration was used for calculating: strike force; the punching location on the bag; and time of a strike. The relative error of force calculation was 3%; the relative error in acceleration measurement was less than 1%. The force of a straight rear-hand punch was greater than the force of a lead-hand punch among male and female boxers. The force of Apdolio kick delivered with a rear leg was greater compared to a lead leg among female and male taekwondo athletes. Significant gender differences were noticed in the force in both types of kicks. In boxers, intergender differences were reported only for the force of a punch thrown with the rear hand. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the modified punching bag is a good diagnostic tool for combat sports. PMID:27149957

  4. Paths to Expertise in Portuguese National Team Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key points Although most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise. The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey. There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete’s primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

  5. The Certified Athletic Trainer: Is Your School System Missing a Key Player?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dan; Winterstein, Andrew P.

    An athletic trainer (ATC) who is certified by the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) is an allied health professional with specific expertise in prevention, recognition, and care of injuries to athletes. Such individuals are college-degreed specialists in sports medicine who practice under the direction of a physician. ATCs perform six…

  6. Selected Cutaneous Disorders in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James D.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses selected cutaneous diseases seen in the athlete. These diseases may be caused by interaction with the elements, the playing surface, other athletes, or the clothing or equipment worn during sport. All of these dermatological conditions are relatively common, but the physically active individual can suffer from these maladies and their complications more often than the inactive person. The emphasis in caring for the participant is on prevention, early recognition and practical aspects of management of cutaneous diseases. PMID:21264034

  7. Systematic Review of Clinical Studies Examining Biomarkers of Brain Injury in Athletes after Sports-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Ramia, Michelle M.; Edwards, Damyan; Johnson, Brian D.; Slobounov, Semyon M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining biofluid biomarkers of brain injury for concussion in athletes. Data sources included PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and the Cochrane Database from 1966 to October 2013. Studies were included if they recruited athletes participating in organized sports who experienced concussion or head injury during a sports-related activity and had brain injury biomarkers measured. Acceptable research designs included experimental, observational, and case-control studies. Review articles, opinion papers, and editorials were excluded. After title and abstract screening of potential articles, full texts were independently reviewed to identify articles that met inclusion criteria. A composite evidentiary table was then constructed and documented the study title, design, population, methods, sample size, outcome measures, and results. The search identified 52 publications, of which 13 were selected and critically reviewed. All of the included studies were prospective and were published either in or after the year 2000. Sports included boxing (six studies), soccer (five studies), running/jogging (two studies), hockey (one study), basketball (one study), cycling (one study), and swimming (one study). The majority of studies (92%) had fewer than 100 patients. Three studies (23%) evaluated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one in both serum and CSF, and 10 (77%) in serum exclusively. There were 11 different biomarkers assessed, including S100β, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, tau, neurofilament light protein, amyloid beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, creatine kinase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein, prolactin, cortisol, and albumin. A handful of biomarkers showed a correlation with number of hits to the head (soccer), acceleration/deceleration forces (jumps, collisions, and falls), postconcussive symptoms, trauma to the body versus the head, and dynamics of

  8. Systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury in athletes after sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Papa, Linda; Ramia, Michelle M; Edwards, Damyan; Johnson, Brian D; Slobounov, Semyon M

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining biofluid biomarkers of brain injury for concussion in athletes. Data sources included PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database from 1966 to October 2013. Studies were included if they recruited athletes participating in organized sports who experienced concussion or head injury during a sports-related activity and had brain injury biomarkers measured. Acceptable research designs included experimental, observational, and case-control studies. Review articles, opinion papers, and editorials were excluded. After title and abstract screening of potential articles, full texts were independently reviewed to identify articles that met inclusion criteria. A composite evidentiary table was then constructed and documented the study title, design, population, methods, sample size, outcome measures, and results. The search identified 52 publications, of which 13 were selected and critically reviewed. All of the included studies were prospective and were published either in or after the year 2000. Sports included boxing (six studies), soccer (five studies), running/jogging (two studies), hockey (one study), basketball (one study), cycling (one study), and swimming (one study). The majority of studies (92%) had fewer than 100 patients. Three studies (23%) evaluated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one in both serum and CSF, and 10 (77%) in serum exclusively. There were 11 different biomarkers assessed, including S100β, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, tau, neurofilament light protein, amyloid beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, creatine kinase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein, prolactin, cortisol, and albumin. A handful of biomarkers showed a correlation with number of hits to the head (soccer), acceleration/deceleration forces (jumps, collisions, and falls), postconcussive symptoms, trauma to the body versus the head, and dynamics of different sports

  9. Individual differences of action orientation for risktaking in sports.

    PubMed

    Raab, Markus; Johnson, Joseph G

    2004-09-01

    The goal of this article is to explain empirical risk-taking behavior in sports from an individual cognitive modeling perspective. A basketball task was used in which participants viewed four video options that varied in the degree of associated risk. The participants were independently classified by scores on the Questionnaire for Assessing Prospective Action Orientation and State Orientation in Success, Failure, and Planning Situations as action-oriented or state-oriented decision makers. The results of the experiment show that action-oriented players shoot faster and more often to the basket and that state-oriented players prefer to pass to a playmaker more often. Four versions of a computational model of decision making, Decision Field Theory, were compared to evaluate whether behavioral differences depend on the focus of attention, the initial preferences, threshold values, or an approach-avoidance interpretation of the task. Different starting preferences explained individual choices and decision times most accurately. Risk taking in basketball shooting behavior can be best explained by different preferences for starting values for risky and safe options caused by different levels of action orientation. PMID:15487295

  10. Life is unfair, and so are racing sports: some athletes can randomly benefit from alerting effects due to inconsistent starting procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaijer, Edwin S.; Nijenhuis, Beorn G.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Olympics are the world’s largest sporting events, attracting billions of viewers worldwide. Important parts are racing sports, such as running, swimming and speed skating. In these sports, athletes compete against each other in different heats to determine who wins the gold, or who is granted a place in the final. Of course, the gold goes to whoever is the most talented and has trained the hardest. Or does it? Here we argue that subtle differences between athletes’ starts can bias the competition, and demonstrate this in the results of speed skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics. This bias could be removed by simple alterations to current starting procedures. The proposed change would greatly improve racing sport fairness, which currently suffers from an injustice that disadvantages not only athletes, but entire nations rooting for them. PMID:26579009

  11. Competition, Gender and the Sport Experience: An Exploration among College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, sport and physical activity rates of women generally lag behind those of men. One reason for this could be the way that sport cultures typically frame and value competition. This study provides an examination of the meaning and impact of "competition" on the sport participation experiences of men and women. Using…

  12. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Ponamgi, Shiva P.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes, as well as the unknown efficacy of implanted ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise, have resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. Recently, there is emerging data, derived from a few retrospective studies and a large prospective registry that demonstrates the relative safety of high-risk athletes participating in competitive sports and challenges the prohibitive nature of these guidelines. Nevertheless, the safe participation of all athletes with an ICD in competitive sports continues to be contemplated. The increased number of inappropriate shocks, damage to the ICD/pacemaker system, and the questionable efficacy of the delivered shock in the setting of vigorous physical activity are some of the main challenges faced by these athletes who choose to continue participation in competitive sports. The fear of SCD and ICD shocks faced by these athletes is also associated with a negative psychological burden and affects their quality of life, as does restricting them from all competitive sports. Therefore, shared decision making is necessary between the clinician and athlete after carefully analyzing the risks and benefits associated with competitive sports participation. PMID:26100423

  13. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  14. Sports Bounce GPAs: The Relationship between Athletic Involvement and Academic Performance in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filsinger, Lora C.

    2012-01-01

    As schools and school districts continue to face budget reductions, school officials must thoroughly evaluate and determine from which programs to decrease funding. Athletic programs are one area that has received much scrutiny for receiving these cuts. If research reveals a significant relationship between athletic involvement and academic…

  15. School Nurses Vis-a-Vis Athletic Trainers in Secondary School Sports Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews past and present views of the working relationship between a school's nurse and athletic trainer and discusses the author's own study which revealed that, compared to trainers, school nurses possess insufficient knowledge to assume adequate injury management. Offers a sample job description for a head athletic trainer. (WD)

  16. The myth of the team captain as principal leader: extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field. PMID:24660668

  17. Separation of Key Biogenic Amines by Capillary Electrophoresis and Determination of Possible Indicators of Sport Fatigue in Athlete's Urine.

    PubMed

    He, Lili; Ren, Jie; Shi, Zhihao; Xu, Zhongqi

    2016-09-01

    This article aims to build up a simple, rapid and accurate capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the separation of biogenic amines (BAs). Here, 10 key BAs (phenethylamine, histamine, tryptamine, tyramine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, octopamine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and carnosine) owning significant functions were chosen for method development. The baseline separation and identification of 10 standards of the mixture by CZE were eventually achieved in 150.0 mmol/L phosphate buffer (Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4) containing 1.0 mmol/L borax at a pH of 6.1. The addition of borax was found effective for improving the isomeric separation of octopamine and dopamine. The proposed method allowed the limits of detections of BAs to be in the range of 0.2-1.2 µmol/L at UV detection (200 nm); the relative standard deviation of the migration time and the peak area were in the ranges 0.08-0.12 and 2.74-4.63% (n = 5), respectively. Formaldehyde (a possible antiseptic in urine) and five main matrices in urine were studied for the identification of BAs. Finally, profiling of BAs in actual urine from athletes was carried out. Currently, only phenethylamine, norepinephrine and carnosine were designated by spiking the standards. In addition, their variation in athletes' urine has been checked at different states of sport fatigue with the goal of obtaining possible indicators of sport fatigue. PMID:27139740

  18. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended. PMID:26561763

  19. Passion in sport: on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Jowett, Sophia; Vallerand, Robert J; Gonahue, Eric G; Lorimer, Ross

    2008-10-01

    Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N=157), revealed that HP positively predicts a high-quality coach-athlete relationship, whereas OP was largely unrelated to such relationships. Study 2 was conducted with coaches (N=106) and showed that only HP positively predicted the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Furthermore, these effects were fully mediated by positive emotions. Finally, the quality of the coach-athlete relationship positively predicted coaches' subjective well-being. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion. PMID:18971511

  20. The accuracy and precision of DXA for assessing body composition in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann Christopher; Greenway, Kate; Opar, David; Livingstone, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron James

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the precision of pencil and fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices for assessing body composition in professional Australian Football players. Thirty-six professional Australian Football players, in two groups (fan DXA, N = 22; pencil DXA, N = 25), underwent two consecutive DXA scans. A whole body phantom with known values for fat mass, bone mineral content and fat-free soft tissue mass was also used to validate each DXA device. Additionally, the criterion phantom was scanned 20 times by each DXA to assess reliability. Test-retest reliability of DXA anthropometric measures were derived from repeated fan and pencil DXA scans. Fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content from both DXA units showed strong correlations with, and trivial differences to, the criterion phantom values. Fat mass from both DXA showed moderate correlations with criterion measures (pencil: r = 0.64; fan: r = 0.67) and moderate differences with the criterion value. The limits of agreement were similar for both fan beam DXA and pencil beam DXA (fan: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1650 ± 179 g, fat mass = -357 ± 316 g, bone mineral content = 289 ± 122 g; pencil: fat-free soft tissue mass = -1701 ± 257 g, fat mass = -359 ± 326 g, bone mineral content = 177 ± 117 g). DXA also showed excellent precision for bone mineral content (coefficient of variation (%CV) fan = 0.6%; pencil = 1.5%) and fat-free soft tissue mass (%CV fan = 0.3%; pencil = 0.5%) and acceptable reliability for fat measures (%CV fan: fat mass = 2.5%, percent body fat = 2.5%; pencil: fat mass = 5.9%, percent body fat = 5.7%). Both DXA provide precise measures of fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content in lean Australian Football players. DXA-derived fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content are suitable for assessing body composition in lean team sport athletes. PMID:24914773

  1. Health Care Delivery in Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kenneth S.

    1982-01-01

    A structural framework is provided for a responsive athletic injury control program, the Health Supervision Loop in Sport. The use of certified athletic trainers is recommended to lessen the risk of sport-related injuries. (FG)

  2. The Foundation of Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a coach, this author likes to share some thoughts on children and sports. After 42 years in athletics in all capacities--coach, athletic director, official, parent, athlete, and observer--he can easily say he has seen, heard, or experienced it all. Each experience has helped him gain some insights on youth and interscholastic sports. Parent of…

  3. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  4. A Research on Identifying the Need for Distance Education for National Athletes Who Study in School of Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkus, Taner

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured…

  5. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26917108

  6. It Takes a Team! Making Sports Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Athletes and Coaches. An Education Kit for Athletes, Coaches, and Athletic Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pat; Perrotti, Jeff; Priest, Laurie; Muska, Mike

    This educational kit focuses on the safe education of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. It includes four sections that examine: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., why it is important to address homophobia in sport, educator responsibilities, and who this educational kit is for); (2) "The Core Program: Video and Discussion"…

  7. Sports fractures.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level of function. These qualities make them good surgical candidates. Although closed treatment methods are appropriate for most sports fractures, an aggressive approach to more complicated fractures employing current techniques may optimize their subsequent performance. PMID:7719781

  8. Can genotype determine the sports phenotype? A paradigm shift in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amit; Mahajan, Preetam B

    2016-06-01

    In last two decades, there has been an evolution in sports medicine. Several researchers have worked on different domains of sports medicine, like strength, endurance, sports injury, and psychology. Besides this, several groups have explored the changes at cellular and molecular levels during exercise, which has led to the development of the new domain in sports science known as genetic medicine. Genetic medicine deals with the genotypic basis of sports phenotype. In this article, we try to provide an up-to-date review on genetic determinants of sports performance, which will be like a journey from the nostalgic past towards the traditional present and the romantic future of sports medicine. Endurance and power performance are two important domains of athletes. They vary in individuals, even among trained athletes. Researches indicate that the genetic makeup of sportsmen play a vital role in their performance. Several genetic factors are reported to be responsible for endurance, power, susceptibility to injury, and even psychology of the individual. Besides this, proper training, nutrition, and environment are also important in shaping their potential. The aim of this discussion is to understand the influence of the environment and the genetic makeup on the performance of the athletes. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that genotype determines the sports phenotype in an athlete. Choosing the right sports activity based on genetic endowment is the key for achieving excellence in sports. PMID:26812785

  9. Meet Me at the Crossroads: African American Athletic and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    How individuals define themselves has considerable implications within the realms of sport. Considering the large proportion of African Americans participating in high profile college sports, matters of identity likely become quite relevant. This article addresses issues related to athletic and racial identity contextualized in the sport domain.…

  10. Catheter ablation in competitive athletes: indication.

    PubMed

    Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Inama, G; Fernando, F

    1995-12-01

    indications for RFA are focal or reentry, permanent SVT, and particularly junctional reentrant tachycardia. For each individual athlete, we have to consider the possible side-effects of RFA, the possible recurrences with psychobiological traumatic consequences, the effective recovery period, and the natural history of the tachyarrhythmias, which frequently disappear after interruption of the sports career. PMID:10159775

  11. Individual Moral Philosophies and Ethical Decision Making of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Context: Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. Objective: To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Design: Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Setting: Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)–accredited athletic training programs. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 ± 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) × 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Results: Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 ± 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 ± 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 ± 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, η 2 = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed

  12. Academic Engagement among African American Males Who Hold Aspirations for Athletic Careers in Professional Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports…

  13. Fear of Failure and Student Athletes' Interpersonal Antisocial Behaviour in Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagar, Sam S.; Boardley, Ian D.; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex…

  14. A measure of stress for athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Seggar, J F; Pedersen, D M; Hawkes, N R; McGown, C

    1997-02-01

    The Athlete Stress Inventory of 49 items was developed. Using factor analysis on the intercorrelations of responses of 148 women student-athletes, four orthogonal factors of stress in athletes were identified-Negative Mood, Team Compatibility, Physical Well-being, and Academic Efficacy. Scales for these factors were reliable and valid. The predictive validity of these scores was investigated by correlations with the athletic performance of 32 women athletes on three intercollegiate teams-tennis, gymnastics, and basketball. Stress scores (except Emotional Mood) reported four days prior to competition tended to be significantly correlated with performance for the individual sports (tennis and gymnastics) but not for the group sport (basket-ball). The correlation involving Physical Well-being was not significant for gymnasts. PMID:9132713

  15. Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A.

    This chapter includes all cases, at either the K-12 or higher education level, that deal with student-athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic associations, and booster organizations. However, no case law is discussed that pertains to physical education instruction. The cases are discussed in the following sections: (1) eligibility; (2)…

  16. Improvement of cardiac screening in amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    Although not performing on a professional level, amateur athletes, nevertheless, are participating in competitive sports and thus underlie a relevant risk for exercise-related SCD which implicates the need for an adequate pre-competition cardiac screening. As many amateur athletes belong to the category of "older" individuals, particularly CAD among male athletes with risk factors has to be targeted by the screening. However, the detection of clinically silent underlying coronary heart disease is challenging and cannot be accurately achieved by a standard screening provided to young athletes (history, clinical status, ECG). An extended work-up, at least, mandates the detection of cholesterol levels to estimate the individual cardiovascular risk. The fact that only less than 10% of Swiss amateur athletes have undergone cardiac screening led to various promising approaches to improve the awareness of the issue. Exemplarily, we successfully invented an "on-site" prevention campaign that positively influenced the attitude of the athletes towards cardiac screening. PMID:25861857

  17. Collegiate Athletics Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,…

  18. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    PubMed

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (<35 years), SCD is mainly due to congenital/inherited cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of

  19. Review of MRI technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia".

    PubMed

    Mullens, Frank E; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C

    2012-12-01

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality. PMID:21893391

  20. Physical Education, Recreation and Sports for Individuals with Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Reviewed in the third of seven related documents are resources and research on physical education, recreation, and sports for hearing impaired persons. An annotated list of resources is supplied for each of the following topics: integration of the hearing impaired into regular physical education and recreation programs, physical education and…

  1. A cross sectional study of 100 athletes with jumper's knee managed conservatively and surgically. The Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J L; Khan, K M; Harcourt, P R; Grant, M; Young, D A; Bonar, S F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Jumper's knee causes significant morbidity in athletes of all standards. However, there are few reference data on the clinical course of this condition in a large number of patients, and the aim of this study was to rectify this. METHODS: A retrospective study of the course of jumper's knee in 100 athletes who presented to a sports medicine clinic over a nine year period was carried out. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to collect details of sport participation, symptoms, and time out of sport. Ultrasonographic results were recorded from the radiologists' reports. Histopathological results were obtained for patients who had surgery. RESULTS: Forty eight subjects recalled that symptoms of jumper's knee began before the age of 20 years. Symptoms prevented 33 from participating in sport for more than six months, and 18 of these were sidelined for more than 12 months. Forty nine of the subjects had two or more separate episodes of symptoms. Ultrasonography showed a characteristics hypoechoic region at the junction of the inferior pole of the patella and the deep surface of the patellar tendon. Histopathological examination showed separation and disruption of collagen fibres on polarisation light microscopy and an increase in mucoid ground substance consistent with damage of tendon collagen without inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Jumper's knee has the potential to be a debilitating condition for a sports person. About 33% of athletes presenting to a sports medicine clinic with jumper's knee were unable to return to sport for more than six months. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9429013

  2. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  3. A Lifetime Pursuit of a Sports Nutrition Practice.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-09-01

    Sports nutrition in Canada has significantly evolved over the years from providing fundamental training dietary advice to applied precise assessment of nutritional status in a variety of settings, especially with the establishment of Canadian Sport Institutes and Centres across Canada. This progression has enhanced the level of dietary support to manage athletes' nutrition in a holistic perspective. Athletes are now educated about food fundamentals (acquiring foods, menu planning, preparing, food safety), personal accountability of hydration and energy monitoring (urinary and body weight assessments), individualized supplementation protocols, and customized nutrition for variable daily training environments according to their Yearly Training Plan. Sport dietitians are an important member of Integrated Sport Teams where collaboration exists amongst professionals who coordinate the athletes' personalized training and performance programming. Dietitians in sport are encouraged to continue to lobby for nutrition programming at the elite, varsity, provincial, and club levels to ensure that athletes receive accurate guidance from nutrition experts. PMID:26280796

  4. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on youth athletic development.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F; Mountjoy, Margo; Armstrong, Neil; Chia, Michael; Côté, Jean; Emery, Carolyn A; Faigenbaum, Avery; Hall, Gary; Kriemler, Susi; Léglise, Michel; Malina, Robert M; Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Sanchez, Alex; Soligard, Torbjørn; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; van Mechelen, Willem; Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    The health, fitness and other advantages of youth sports participation are well recognised. However, there are considerable challenges for all stakeholders involved-especially youth athletes-in trying to maintain inclusive, sustainable and enjoyable participation and success for all levels of individual athletic achievement. In an effort to advance a more unified, evidence-informed approach to youth athlete development, the IOC critically evaluated the current state of science and practice of youth athlete development and presented recommendations for developing healthy, resilient and capable youth athletes, while providing opportunities for all levels of sport participation and success. The IOC further challenges all youth and other sport governing bodies to embrace and implement these recommended guiding principles. PMID:26084524

  5. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  6. Asthma in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  7. The coaching preferences of elite athletes competing at Universiade '83.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C

    1984-12-01

    The study investigated the coaching preferences of 95 male and 65 female elite athletes competing at Universiade '83 (Edmonton, Canada). Preferred coaching behaviour (PCB) was measured using a version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). Preference scores were analyzed on the basis of sex, age, nationality, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that males prefer significantly more Autocratic behaviour than females (p = .039). Also, athletes in team sports prefer significantly more Training behaviour (p = .001), Autocratic behaviour (p less than .001), and Rewarding behaviour (p = .017), and significantly less Democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and Social Support behaviour (p = .002) than athletes in individual sports. No significant differences in PCB attributable to the age or nationally of the athlete were found. In addition, data collected in a previous study (Terry and Howe, 1984), which examined the PCB of 'club' athletes, was included to facilitate a comparison of club v elite athletes. A MANOVA showed that elite athletes prefer significantly more Democratic behaviour (p = .01) and Social Support behaviour (p = .001), and significantly less Rewarding behaviour (p = .01) than athletes at a 'club' level. Although differences between subject groups were found, it can be concluded that athletes generally tend to favour coaches who "often" display Training behaviour and Rewarding behaviour, "occasionally" display Democratic behaviour and Social Support behaviour, and "seldom" display Autocratic behaviour. PMID:6525753

  8. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation. PMID:21500081

  9. Sporting Bodies, Ageing, Narrative Mapping and Young Team Athletes: An Analysis of Possible Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix, Cassandra; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on life history data generated from interviews with young athletes at an English university, this paper explores the narrative maps provided to them by older team members and the ways in which these influence perceptions of self-ageing. Three possible selves associated with mid-life emerged from the analysis for detailed focus. These are…

  10. Sports Involvement and Academic Achievement: A Study of Malaysian University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…

  11. Positive Transitions for Student Athletes: Life Skills for Transitions in Sport, College & Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Darin J.; Stankovich, Christopher E.; Kays, Todd M.

    This book provides concrete information and step-by-step exercises to help student athletes succeed in college and make a successful transition to the world beyond college. The book is divided into 14 units containing some or all the following elements: goals; reading materials accompanying review questions; exercises; a unit recap; unit review…

  12. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  13. Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data. Methods We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6), soccer (n = 8), handball (n = 12), kayaking (n = 9) and triathlon (n = 9) groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test. Results We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity. Conclusions Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol. PMID:26717409

  14. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  15. Player Violence in Sport: Consequences for Youth Cross-Nationally (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooley, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Individual athletes are not primarily responsible for violence in sports. It is a product of the system. Sports leaders are responsible for allowing it and for curbing it. Contributing factors and consequences are outlined, together with recommendations for overcoming violence in youth sports. (IAH)

  16. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    PubMed

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs. PMID:26545270

  17. The Quantitative Analysis on the Individual Characteristics of Urban Residents and Their Sport Consumption Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianliang, Lei; Hongying, Yu

    Using the questionnaire, mathematical statistics and entropy measurement methods, the quantitative relationship between the individual characteristics urban residents and their sports consumption motivation are studied. The results show that the most main sports consumption motivation of urban residents is fitness motivation and social motivation. Urban residents of different gender, age, education and income levels are different in regulating psychological motivation, rational consumption motivation and seeking common motivation.

  18. Renal injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Holmes, F Clarke; Hunt, Jeremy J; Sevier, Thomas L

    2003-04-01

    Hematuria is the most common presenting sign of renal injury. Its presence in athletes may indicate a benign entity such as exercise-induced hematuria or a more serious injury in the presence of trauma. Exercise-induced hematuria can originate in the kidney, bladder, urethra, or prostate. The type of activity, as well as activity duration and intensity, contributes to its development. A wide differential diagnosis must be considered if hematuria persists longer than 24 to 72 hours. Trauma to the kidney can occur from a direct blow or deceleration; contact and collision sports are most commonly involved. Fortunately, most sports-related renal trauma is mild, and can be managed expectantly. A sporting injury rarely results in nephrectomy. Determining return to play for the athlete with a single kidney remains a controversial issue that requires patient education and an individualized approach. PMID:12831667

  19. Parental attachment as a mediator between parental social support and self-esteem as perceived by Korean sports middle and high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sangwook; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho; Park, Seungha

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether parental attachment mediates the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem in Korean middle and high school athletes. 591 sports athletes attending middle and high schools that specialize in sport volunteered. Parental social support and parental attachment had a significant positive effect on self-esteem; parental attachment had a greater effect on self-esteem. In the structural relationship, direct effects of parental social support on self-esteem were weak, but indirect effects through parental attachment were strong. Therefore, parental attachment complementally mediated the relationship between parental social support and self-esteem. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by sex, region, and school level, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups. PMID:25621525

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR ATHLETES WHO SUSTAINED A LOWER EXTREMITY INJURY IN PREPARATION FOR RETURN TO SPORT: A DELPHI STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Baker, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: To develop a consensus on the critical constructs necessary to be included in a physical performance assessment checklist (PPAC) to assess an athlete's ability for return to sport following a lower extremity injury. Methods: The study used a 3‐round Delphi method to finalize the PPAI originally developed by a panel of experts. Fourteen Delphi representative sample participants were randomly derived from the authors of peer‐reviewed publications of lower extremity injuries. Nine participants completed all 3 rounds. Results: Throughout the 3 rounds, the 10 initial constructs were modified and revised to produce the finalized PPAC consisting of 12 constructs necessary to consider for an athlete's return to sport after a lower extremity injury. Conclusions: This instrument can be used as a checklist to advocate for prospective batteries of physical performance tests to incorporate the elements identified by this study. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439809

  1. Coaches' Perspectives of Eighth-Grade Athletes Playing High School Varsity Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.; Bentley, Tiffany C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-graders playing high school varsity sports from the perspective of the high school coach. The qualitative inquiry was used to allow for personal insights into this coaching phenomenon, to share coaching experiences, and to provide a guide for future coaching action. Participants included 11 high…

  2. Transitioning to an Athletic Subjectivity: First-Semester Experiences at a Corporate (Sporting) University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Bryan C.; Mower, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how eight women experience, and are incorporated into, the regulatory regimes and pedagogical practices of a corporate (sporting) university in their first semester of college. Using Foucault's conceptions of power, discipline and subjectivity, we situate women's participation on the soccer team within the context of…

  3. The Symbolic Boundary of Sports: Middle School Athletic Culture and Mexican Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents an analysis of the hidden curriculum of school sports in mediating the achievement of Mexican immigrant girls in middle schools in the southwestern United States. Using Bourdieu's theory of taste, the author shows how symbolic boundaries expressed by students and teachers legitimize cultural practices that…

  4. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  5. Understanding How Organized Youth Sport May Be Harming Individual Players within the Family Unit: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Corliss N.; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little thus far has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. A model is proposed to explain under which circumstances sport leads to positive versus negative outcomes, ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

  6. Anthropometric characteristics of young Turkish male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla; Ozener, Bariş; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-12-01

    Comparative reports on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes are certainly important in modern sports and have long been studied by sports scientists. Studies on Turkish athletes however, are limited. In the present study physical characteristics of athletes active in various sports (American football, basketball, volleyball and football) were observed and compared to each other and to those of non-athlete individuals. 153 volunteer male subjects participated in the study. All of the athletes were licensed members of teams in inter-university leagues. All subjects were given information about the objectives of the study and were advised of the manner with which the anthropometric measurements would be obtained. In addition to 17 anthropometric values, body mass index (BMI) and somatotype components were calculated and evaluated. Length, breadth, and girth values were evaluated by ANCOVA and height and weight were used as co-variate factors. The other variables were evaluated by metric and non-metric ANOVA. The results of the study indicate that basketball and volleyball players were characteristic with their longer lower limb length; American football players were with their wider biiliac breadth and higher girth values; and football players with their small structure. It was also observed that Turkish athletes have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy values when compared to athletes from other countries. PMID:20102048

  7. The Effect of Course Length on Individual Medley Swimming Performance in National and International Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000–2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10.3±0.2% versus 9.7±0.3%, p<0.01), but did not differ for Swiss swimmers (p>0.05). Sex-related differences in swimming speed decreased with increasing race distance for both short- and long-course events for Swiss athletes, and for FINA athletes in long-course events. Performance improved significantly (p<0.05) during 2000–2011 for FINA men competing in either course length and FINA females competing in short-course events, but not for Swiss swimmers. Overall, the results showed that men and women individual medley swimmers, competing at both national and international levels, have faster average swimming speeds on short courses than on long courses, for both 200 m and 400 m distances. FINA athletes demonstrate an improving performance in the vast majority of individual medley events, while performance at national level seems to have reached a plateau during 2000–2011. PMID:25414752

  8. 3D pre- versus post-season comparisons of surface and relative pose of the corpus callosum in contact sport athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yi; Gajawelli, Niharika; Haas, Lauren; Wilkins, Bryce; Hwang, Darryl; Tsao, Sinchai; Wang, Yalin; Law, Meng; Leporé, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussive injury affects 1.7 million Americans annually, of which 300,000 are due to recreational activities and contact sports, such as football, rugby, and boxing[1]. Finding the neuroanatomical correlates of brain TBI non-invasively and precisely is crucial for diagnosis and prognosis. Several studies have shown the in influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the integrity of brain WM [2-4]. The vast majority of these works focus on athletes with diagnosed concussions. However, in contact sports, athletes are subjected to repeated hits to the head throughout the season, and we hypothesize that these have an influence on white matter integrity. In particular, the corpus callosum (CC), as a small structure connecting the brain hemispheres, may be particularly affected by torques generated by collisions, even in the absence of full blown concussions. Here, we use a combined surface-based morphometry and relative pose analyses, applying on the point distribution model (PDM) of the CC, to investigate TBI related brain structural changes between 9 pre-season and 9 post-season contact sport athlete MRIs. All the data are fed into surface based morphometry analysis and relative pose analysis. The former looks at surface area and thickness changes between the two groups, while the latter consists of detecting the relative translation, rotation and scale between them.

  9. A survey of Fellows in the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences (Canada): their intervention practices and intended therapeutic outcomes when treating athletes

    PubMed Central

    Miners, Andrew L.; deGraauw, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compile baseline data regarding the treatment practices and therapeutic outcomes that fellows of the College of Chiropractic Sports Sciences Canada (CCSS(C)) strive for when treating athletes. Design Cross-sectional self-report mail out survey of CCSS(C) fellows. Participants Current registered fellows of the CCSS(C) as determined by the College at the time of survey distribution. Results The majority of questioned fellows believe that they can cause direct and specific improvements in an athlete’s sport performance. The most commonly utilized therapeutic intervention was spinal joint manipulation/mobilization. The most anticipated outcomes following the treatment of athletes with the goal of affecting athletic performance were “changing or improving aberrant body mechanics,” “restoring or improving aberrant muscle function,” and “improving joint function or reducing joint dysfunction.” Conclusion The majority of respondent fellows of the CCSS(C) believe their therapy to be effective in enhancing an athlete’s sport performance. PMID:21120021

  10. Importance of Selected Athletic Trainer Employment Characteristics in Collegiate, Sports Medicine Clinic, and High School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Gansneder, Bruce M.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Szczerba, Joseph E.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Perrin, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: We examined employer importance ratings of 35 employee characteristics in the collegiate, sports medicine clinic, and high school settings and made comparisons among these settings. Design and Setting: All prospective employers were sent a survey. Of the 472 surveys mailed, 282 (60%) were returned, with a sample error rate of 1.9%. Subjects: All prospective employers listed on the NATA position vacancy notices from January 1, 1994 to October 1, 1994. Measurements: Employers were asked to rate 35 employee characteristics as “not important” “ minimally important,” “ important.” or “very important.” Additionally, employers chose 1 of 15 job descriptors that best identified their position vacancy. These 15 descriptors were then categorized into collegiate, sports medicine clinic, and high school settings. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to determine if the 35 employee characteristics differed across the 3 settings. Results: The discriminant analysis produced 2 significant discriminant functions (P < .05) with 23 of the original 35 characteristics remaining in the analysis. The first function discriminated between the collegiate setting and the other settings, with the collegiate setting scoring the highest. The second function discriminated among all 3 groups, with the sports medicine clinic and high school settings scoring the highest and lowest, respectively. Additionally, the analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed that 21 of the characteristics remaining in the discriminant analysis differed across the 3 settings. Conclusions: Employers from all 3 settings rated educational program reputation, written recommendations, job interview performance, and NATA-BOC certification eligibility as important to very important. For the collegiate setting, 7 characteristics were rated above important and included such characteristics as possession of a master's degree and collegiate experience. For the sports medicine

  11. Does improved decision-making ability reduce the physiological demands of game-based activities in field sport athletes?

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Carius, Josh; Mulvey, Mike

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of video-based perceptual training on pattern recognition and pattern prediction ability in elite field sport athletes and determined whether enhanced perceptual skills influenced the physiological demands of game-based activities. Sixteen elite women soccer players (mean +/- SD age, 18.3 +/- 2.8 years) were allocated to either a video-based perceptual training group (N = 8) or a control group (N = 8). The video-based perceptual training group watched video footage of international women's soccer matches. Twelve training sessions, each 15 minutes in duration, were conducted during a 4-week period. Players performed assessments of speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint), repeated-sprint ability (6 x 20-m sprints, with active recovery on a 15-second cycle), estimated maximal aerobic power (V O2 max, multistage fitness test), and a game-specific video-based perceptual test of pattern recognition and pattern prediction before and after the 4 weeks of video-based perceptual training. The on-field assessments included time-motion analysis completed on all players during a standardized 45-minute small-sided training game, and assessments of passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making ability. No significant changes were detected in speed, repeated-sprint ability, or estimated V O2 max during the training period. However, video-based perceptual training improved decision accuracy and reduced the number of recall errors, indicating improved game awareness and decision-making ability. Importantly, the improvements in pattern recognition and prediction ability transferred to on-field improvements in passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making skills. No differences were detected between groups for the time spent standing, walking, jogging, striding, and sprinting during the small-sided training game. These findings demonstrate that video-based perceptual training can be used effectively to enhance the decision-making ability of field

  12. Amount of newspaper coverage of high school athletics for boys and girls on sports page and newspaper circulation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Paul M; Whisenant, Warren A

    2002-02-01

    This study analyzed the amount of coverage for high school athletics in 43 newspapers with small circulation by devoting 40% of their interscholastic athletics coverage to girls in athletics, printed significantly more articles about girls' athletics than did the newspapers with medium (33%) or large (32%) circulation. Therefore, the smaller the newspaper circulation, the more equitable the coverage of athletics for girls and boys. This finding was consistent with some prior work but not all. PMID:11883581

  13. Standards of nutrition for athletes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Diel, F; Khanferyan, R A

    2013-01-01

    The Deutscher Olympische Sportbund (DOSB) founded recently an advisory board for German elite athlete nutrition, the 'Arbeitsgruppe (AG) Ernahrungsberatung an den Olympiastutzpunkten'. The 'Performance codex and quality criteria for the food supply in facilities of German elite sports' have been established since 1997. The biochemical equivalent (ATP) for the energy demand is calculated using the DLW (Double Labeled Water)-method on the basis of RMR (Resting Metabolic Rate) and BMR (Basic Metabolic Rate) at sport type specific exercises and performances. Certain nutraceutical ingredients for dietary supplements can be recommended. However, quality criteria for nutrition, cooking and food supply are defined on the basis of Health Food and the individual physiological/social-psychological status of the athlete. Especially food supplements and instant food have to be avoided for young athletes. The German advisory board for elite athlete nutrition publishes 'colour lists' for highly recommended (green), acceptable (yellow), and less recommended (red) food stuff. PMID:24741951

  14. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  15. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  16. Sports-specific adaptation of left ventricular muscle mass in athlete's heart. II: An echocardiographic study with 400-m runners and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Urhausen, A; Monz, T; Kindermann, W

    1996-11-01

    Regarding the influence of the left ventricular (LV) adaptation by sports-specific factors the supposed endurance training have so far been compared mainly to strength conditioning. In the present study we investigated the echocardiographic LV measurements of endurance-trained athletes in different kinds of endurance sports (running and ball games) by using matched-pair procedures. We examined 22 male soccer players (S) and 22 male 400-m runners (R) on a regional up to a national level with--each similar in pairs--the following body mass (S: 75.7 +/-5.0 kg; R: 75.2 +/- 5.6), body surface area (S: 1.97 +/- 0.09 m2; R: 1.98 +/- 0.09), fat-free body mass (S: 68.4 +/- 4.6 kg; R: 68.3 +/- 5.3) and individual anaerobic threshold as a criterion to determine the running endurance (S: 14.23 +/- 0.79 km.h-1; R: 14.25 +/- 0.80). The body dimensions-related heart volume (HV/lean body mass: S: 14.2 +/- 1.5 ml.kg-1; R: 13.4 +/- 1.0) as well as the absolute and body surface-related LV internal diameter (EDD: S: 55.0 +/- 3.8 mm; R: 52.7 +/- 3.3; EDD/body-surface area: S: 27.8 +/- 1.9 mm.m-2; R: 26.6 +/- 1.3) were measured significantly higher in S as compared to R (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). In both groups, free LV wall thickness, enddiastolic diameter and LV muscle mass correlated significantly with the body dimensions (fat-free body mass: r = 0.42 - 0.48 - 0.56; p < 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, specific sport-related strain like frequent exercises in interval form (typical for ball games) and a different volume/intensity ratio could significantly influence the LV adaptation beside the endurance performance as well as constitutional and genetic factors. PMID:9119536

  17. The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Methods Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (PW), sports drink (SpD) and ScJ. In each trial 3ml/kg/BW of 6 % of carbohydrate (CHO) fluid was given at every 20 min interval of exercise and a blood sample was taken to measure the hematological parameters. During recovery 200 ml of 9% CHO fluid was given and blood sample was drawn at 5, 10, 15 min of recovery. Results Ingestion of sugarcane juice showed significant increase (P<0.05) in blood glucose levels during and after exercise compared to SpD and PW. However, no significant difference was found between PW, SpD and ScJ for total exercise time, heart rate, blood lactate and plasma volume. Conclusion ScJ may be equally effective as SpD and PW during exercise in a comfortable environment (<30°C) and a more effective rehydration drink than SpD and PW in post exercise as it enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis. PMID:24427476

  18. Sports behaviour among HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals in a Berlin cohort.

    PubMed

    Stein, L; Hechler, D; Jessen, A B; Neumann, K; Jessen, H; Beneke, R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended based on beneficial effects described in HIV-infected patients. However, such guidelines do not take into account actual sport behaviours and general attitudes towards physical activity. To evaluate actual sport activity and attitudes towards sport in HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals we conducted an anonymous questionnaire investigating the prevalence, as well as possible changes, in sports engagement and the overall attitude to physical activity. A total of 283 patients of a general care facility specialized in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Berlin, Germany, participated; 124 were HIV infected and 159 were non-infected, mostly men who have sex with men (MSM) (88%), with a median age of 35 years. The HIV-infected participants had a median CD4+ count of 554 cells/µL and 48.8% of them were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of survey. The proportion of patients actually performing physical activity was significantly lower (P = 0.028) within the HIV-infected group (61.3%) than within the non-infected group (74.2%). This difference remained significant after accounting for possible confounders such as age, gender, injecting drug use and sexual preferences. Previously reported sport activity prevalence was similar in both groups on leaving school. From our data we could not identify an association between the time of HIV diagnosis and changes in sports activity. In conclusion, fewer HIV-infected individuals report physical activity than non-infected individuals. Sociodemographic studies to evaluate potential differences in sports behaviour are required in order to inform exercise guidelines for HIV-infected patients. PMID:22362683

  19. Controversies in College Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, George H.

    1979-01-01

    The history of intercollegiate athletics is examined. Focus is on four major outside interventions and four major issues: The economics of collegiate sports; unethical practices in recruiting and on-campus treatment of athletes; equal opportunity for women in sports, and the relationship of collegiate sports to higher education. (JMD)

  20. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific licenses... incident to athletic competition by amateur or semi-professional athletes or athletic teams wishing...

  1. 31 CFR 515.567 - Public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exhibitions. (a) Amateur and semi-professional international sports federation competitions. Specific licenses... incident to athletic competition by amateur or semi-professional athletes or athletic teams wishing...

  2. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  3. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  4. Women in Athletic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

  5. Is an interest in computers or individual/team sports associated with adolescent psychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Harju, Outi; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    The Internet plays a major role in adolescents' free time activities and communication nowadays. The aim here was to investigate the possibility of an association of computers and video games or sports (team, individual) with psychiatric disorders among underage psychiatric inpatients. The series of adolescents (n = 508) had been diagnosed using semistructured interviews (K-SADS-PL). The results showed that an interest in computers and video games did not increase the risk of any specific psychiatric disorder among these adolescent inpatients, but the likelihood of a substance-related disorder was statistically significantly lower among the boys with computers as a hobby. Team sports were related to increased likelihood of conduct disorder among the boys, whereas the likelihood of an affective disorder was reduced. No such association was found in individual sports or among the girls. We conclude that social contacts and peers play an important role in preventing adolescent depression. PMID:21288072

  6. Hypertension in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Sachtleben, Thomas; Fields, Karl B

    2003-04-01

    Athletes with hypertension are frequently encountered in clinical settings and during preparticipation examinations. This common condition merits special attention in athletes, as they have particular physiologic and sport-specific demands. Awareness of the pressor response to both isometric and isotonic exercise is valuable in managing hypertensive athletes. Recommendations regarding physical activity in hypertensive patients and clearance for sports participation among competitive athletes are reviewed. Nonpharmacologic measures and the use of customary antihypertensives in athletes is essential. However, knowledge of side-effect profiles and possible negative effects on exercise tolerance guide appropriate medication choices. PMID:12831663

  7. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  8. Crime and Athletes: New Racial Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Notes subtle forms of racism in U.S. sport, suggesting that current interpretations of sport allow Whites to view athletes in ways that reinforce black stereotypes. A recent dangerous stereotype is that playing sports makes athletes violence-prone. Many college athletes come from high risk environments and need campus support in dealing with this…

  9. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ponamgi, Shiva P; DeSimone, Christopher V; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes as well as the unknown efficacy of ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise has resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. PMID:26100423

  10. Anger Expression Styles of Hearing Impaired Individuals Doing Sport and Those Not Doing Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altin, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the anger expression styles between the sportive hearing impaired individuals and the sedentary hearing impaired individuals. In the sportive hearing impaired group, there were 170 participants: 62 females and 108 males doing basketball, volleyball and football teams as licensed sportsmen in various clubs…

  11. The athlete biological passport: ticket to a fair Commonwealth Games.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, Vittoria; Rehman, Haroon; Bassindale, Thomas; Clement, Rhys Ge

    2014-08-01

    In summer 2014, the world watched as Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and athletes pushed the boundaries of human performance. Sport has developed into a multi-billion pound industry leading to the development of a 'win at any cost' mentality in some individuals. The abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has developed into a sophisticated arms race between those unfairly enhancing performance and those wishing to preserve the dignity of sport and the health of the competitors. The challenge for the Commonwealth games organising committee was to ensure that competition remained fair and that athletes were kept safe. The athlete biological passport is a system implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency directed towards enhancing the identification of those athletes accountable for the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. This article exemplifies which drugs are currently being exploited and how the athlete biological passport has evolved to improve their detection. PMID:25187193

  12. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  13. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions. PMID:26861161

  14. [Identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with overweight in athletes of winter sports].

    PubMed

    Sorokina, E Iu; Solntseva, T N; Radzhabkadiev, R M; Samoĭlov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The identification of polymorphisms rs9939609 gene FTO, Trp64Arg ADRB3 and gene -866G> A UCP2 gene using multiplex allele-specific PCR hybridization-fluorescence detection in real time has been carried out in highly skilled athletes under the age of 30 years engaged in biathlon (n = 25) and bobsleigh (n = 28). The data on the frequency of allele risk of obesity has been obtained. The study of polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene in biathletes found that 30% of them are carriers of the risk allele of obesity (A). Among the bobsledder the frequency of allele A is slightly higher than in European populations and is 55.4%. The study of gene polymorphism Trp64Arg ADRB3 shored that the frequency of risk allele of obesity 64Arg in biathletes (14%) was slightly higher than in the European population and biathletes (5.4%). The results of the identification of polymorphism -866G> A gene UCP2 in biathletes and bobsledders, found the incidence of obesity risk allele, respectively, 52 and 58.7%. PMID:24741957

  15. Understanding Athletic Trainers' Beliefs Toward a Multifacted Sport-Related Concussion Approach: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Justin; Vela, Luzita; Housman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Context: Practice guidelines recommend a multifaceted approach for managing concussions, but a relatively small percentage of athletic trainers (ATs) follow these recommendations. Understanding ATs' beliefs toward the recommended concussion practice guidelines is the first step in identifying interventions that could increase compliance. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) allows us to measure ATs' beliefs toward the recommended concussion practice guidelines. Objective: To examine the influence of ATs' beliefs toward the current recommended concussion guidelines on concussion-management practice through an application of the TPB. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A Web link with a survey was e-mailed to 1000 randomly selected members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA). Patients or Other Participants: A total of 221 certified ATs working in secondary school/clinic, high school, and college/university settings. Main Outcome Measure(s): A 66-item survey reflecting the current recommended concussion guidelines of the NATA and International Conference on Concussion in Sport was created to measure beliefs using the TPB constructs attitude toward the behavior (BA), subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), and behavioral intention (BI) of ATs. We used a linear multiple regression to determine if the TPB constructs BA, SN, and PBC predicted BI and if PBC and BI predicted behavior according to the TPB model. Results: We found that BA, SN, and PBC predicted BI (R = 0.683, R2 = 0.466, F3,202 = 58.78, P < .001). The BA (t202 = 5.53, P < .001) and PBC (t202 = 9.64, P < .001) contributed to the model, whereas SN (t202 = −0.84, P = .402) did not. The PBC and BI predicted behavior (R = 0.661, R2 = 0.437, F2,203 = 78.902, P < .001). Conclusions: In this sample, the TPB constructs predicted BI and behavior of ATs' compliance with recommended concussion-management guidelines. The BA and PBC were the most influential constructs, indicating

  16. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  17. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  18. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  19. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an

  20. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  1. Research on Effects and Compatibility Taking of Different Sports Supplements on the Biochemical Indicators and Body Functions of Elite Walking Athletes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Scientific training, elimination of fatigue, and reasonable nutrition is the three important parts of successful training. Especially in the fatigue recovery and reasonable nutrition of track and field endurance project, which is more important than other project significance? This paper is to more scientific nutritional intervention on the walking athletes to improve athletic performance and provide experimental evidence 12 male and 12 female athletes were selected from the Chinese national walking team were given the nutrition intervention of a variety of sports supplements for 9 weeks. The serum testosterone (T), blood urea (BU), and serum creative phosphokinase (CK) and other indicators were tested in several weekends. The results showed that the different exercise taking supplements can increase the T levels of male and female walking athletes, and promote the body protein synthesis and the function of rapid recovery, reduce the levels of serum CK and BU abnormalities after the intensity training, and ensure the smooth completion of the training and a normal competitive level. The different exercise taking supplements can improve the biochemical indicators and improve the level of physical function. PMID:26998179

  2. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  3. Sports Physicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... stronger athlete. previous continue When & Where Should I Go for a Sports Physical? Some people go to their own doctor for a sports physical; ... one at school. During school physicals, you may go to half a dozen or so "stations" set ...

  4. Coaches' attitudes towards placebo interventions in sport.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Müller, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Placebo-induced performance enhancement is a new controversial issue in competitive sports. Coaches have control over the use of placebos, but their practices and attitudes were barely studied to date. In this survey 96 coaches from regional, national and international levels were asked about their practices and attitudes concerning placebo use in sports. Results revealed that 90% of the respondents were aware of placebo effects. Many (44%) coaches admitted to administering a placebo to their athletes. Those working at international level have administered placebos more often than the others (P = .02). Two thirds of the coaches agreed to the wider use of placebos in sport. Respondents who have used placebos in the past reported improved athletic performance. They also agreed more to the wider use of placebos than the coaches who previously did not use a placebo (P = .001). Team sport coaches use more often placebos than coaches working with individual athletes (P = .05). Only 10% of the sample thought that their athletes would refuse a hypothetical performance enhancer supplied by them. After a successful placebo intervention, only 15% of the coaches would administer it again without consulting the athlete. Overall, the coaches are optimistic about placebo use in sports. Close to half of them, especially those coaching at higher levels of competition, may use it regularly while achieving positive results. PMID:25743412

  5. University and College Counselors as Athletic Team Consultants: Using a Structural Family Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcover, Jason A.; Mettrick, Jennifer; Parcover, Cynthia A. D.; Griffin-Smith, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, university and college counselors are sought out by their institution's sports coaches for assistance in achieving team goals. Traditional sport psychology models that have the individual athlete as their primary focus are insufficient frameworks for team-level consultations. The authors believe that systemic approaches may provide…

  6. Champions of American Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westin, Sandra

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exhibition (originating at the Smithsonian Institution) which celebrates athletes and sports-related figures who became legends in their own time. Information is presented on art works, sports memorabilia, advertising posters, and photographs. (AM)

  7. The Management of Athletes with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Molossi, Silvana; Grenier, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Although rare, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is devastating to families and communities. Screening of athletes prior to sports participation by trained professionals is useful in identifying individuals who carry known risk factors for SCD. Inclusive in this population are those athletes with congenital heart disease. Sports medicine specialists should be able to identify those at risk for adverse events surrounding vigorous activity and direct appropriate evaluation by the specialist (ie, cardiologist) as deemed appropriate. Equally importantly, they should be able to coach individuals in order to improve performance and quality of life with exercise in a safe environment. PMID:26100428

  8. Endurance Sport and “Cardiac Injury”: A Prospective Study of Recreational Ironman Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. Methods: 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female) were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Results: Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg), maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7%) and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC%) showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%). Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002–1.052, p = 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04–1.47, p = 0.019). Conclusions: Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume. PMID:25192145

  9. Heads Up to High School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  10. A closer look at the FTEM framework. Response to "More of the same? Comment on 'An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: a practitioner approach'".

    PubMed

    Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R

    2014-01-01

    The Foundations, Talent, Elite and Mastery (FTEM) framework was designed through the lens of a world leading high-performance sport agency to assist sporting stakeholders operationalise and research their whole of sport development pathways (Gulbin, J. P., Croser, M. J., Morley, E. J., & Weissensteiner, J. R. (2013). An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: A practitioner approach. Journal of Sport Sciences, 31, 1319-1331). In response to the commentary by MacNamara and Collins (2013) (Journal of Sports Sciences, doi:10.1080/02640414.2013. 855805), it was possible to document many inaccurate, false and misleading statements based on inattentive reading of the original article. We reinforce that: FTEM is a holistic framework of sport and athlete development and not a surrogate for a talent identification ( TID) model; bio-psycho-social components of development are liberally embedded throughout the FTEM framework; and the combined research and applied insights of development practitioners provide strong ecological validity for the consideration of stakeholders looking to explore applied approaches to athlete pathway management. PMID:24289172

  11. Exercise and airway injury in athletes.

    PubMed

    Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, André

    2013-01-01

    Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:23697359

  12. Does the individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jokela, M; Hanin, Y L

    1999-11-01

    According to the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model, an athlete's performance is successful when his or her pre-competition anxiety is within or near the individually optimal zone. When anxiety falls outside the optimal zone, performance deteriorates. The model also suggests that skilled athletes are aware of, and are able to accurately recall and anticipate, their pre-competition anxiety. A meta-analysis of 19 studies from 1978 to 1997 (146 effect sizes based on 6387 participants) was conducted to examine the validity of the assumptions regarding the in-out of the zone notion and the accuracy of recalls and anticipatory measures of anxiety. The findings provide fairly good empirical support for the IZOF anxiety model, with an overall effect size (d) for the in-out of the zone notion of d = +0.44 (41 effect sizes, n = 3175). In other words, the performance of athletes who were within their individually optimal zones were almost one-half a standard deviation unit better than that of athletes who were outside their zones. Furthermore, both effect sizes (r(w)) for accuracy of precompetition anxiety measures, recall (r(w) = +0.71, 24 effect sizes, n = 369) and anticipatory (r(w) = +0.69, 81 effect sizes, n = 2843), exceeded the 'large effect' suggested for correlations by Cohen. The implications for future research extending the IZOF model to a wider range of positive and negative emotions are discussed. PMID:10585167

  13. Ethics of preparticipation cardiovascular screening for athletes.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Friedman, Richard A; Caplan, Arthur

    2015-06-01

    Preparticipation screening for unsuspected cardiovascular disease is a controversial topic in the medical and lay communities. Much attention has been directed towards young competitive athletes, particularly the proposed strategy of incorporating 12-lead electrocardiograms into the screening process, even on a national or worldwide basis. However, sudden deaths of young athletes owing to genetic or congenital heart diseases have a low incidence in the general population. Furthermore, young people not engaged in competitive sports can harbour the same conditions that cause sudden death in athletes, which has gone largely unrecognized. Notably, sudden deaths from these diseases are numerically far more common in the much larger population of nonathletes. In this Perspectives article, we propose that an ethical dilemma has emerged, raising the important public-health issue of whether young individuals should be arbitrarily excluded from potentially life-saving clinical screening evaluations because they do not engage in competitive sports programmes. PMID:25707388

  14. Detecting and developing youth athlete potential: different strokes for different folks are warranted.

    PubMed

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sport talent identification and development (TI and TD) in youth continues to attract strong interest among coaches, sport scientists and sport administrators. TI for sport in youth with the anticipation of future elite level sport achievement is both an art and a science, and is strongly influenced by within athlete and extraneous-to-athlete factors (ecosystem of support or the lack of). The returns from investment on current TI and TD models of sport in youth are subpar in that few continue in the sport to achieve podium positions at the elite sport level in adulthood. Why, where and how one succeeds in sport, and what that success means to the athlete and stakeholders are dependent on the culture and context of the country. We advocate harnessing the power of sport to help in youth development, to be holistic in its nurturance, to allow for individual idiosyncratic expressions of the athletes, to provide for talent transfer across sport, and to facilitate key stakeholders to 'join' hands to work for the common interest and understanding for as many youth and adults so as to provide them with opportunities through support and coaching to compete at the different levels of competition in sport. Governments, policy makers and administrators of sport must decide, within their specific circumstances, if TI and TD in sport in youth is serving a meaningful purpose and is a viable return on investment; in short, is it mission possible or is it… a quest for the Holy Grail for a podium finish in elite level sport competition? PMID:25907182

  15. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mougios, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    Background The serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) is used widely as an index of skeletal muscle fibre damage in sport and exercise. Since athletes have higher CK values than non‐athletes, comparing the values of athletes to the normal values established in non‐athletes is pointless. The purpose of this study was to introduce reference intervals for CK in athletes. Method CK was assayed in serum samples from 483 male athletes and 245 female athletes, aged 7–44. Samples had been obtained throughout the training and competition period. For comparison, CK was also assayed in a smaller number of non‐athletes. Reference intervals (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) were calculated by the non‐parametric method. Results The reference intervals were 82–1083 U/L (37°C) in male and 47–513 U/L in female athletes. The upper reference limits were twice the limits reported for moderately active non‐athletes in the literature or calculated in the non‐athletes in this study. The upper limits were up to six times higher than the limits reported for inactive individuals in the literature. When reference intervals were calculated specifically in male football (soccer) players and swimmers, a threefold difference in the upper reference limit was found (1492 vs 523 U/L, respectively), probably resulting from the different training and competition demands of the two sports. Conclusion Sport training and competition have profound effects on the reference intervals for serum CK. Introducing sport‐specific reference intervals may help to avoid misinterpretation of high values and to optimise training. PMID:17526622

  16. Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…

  17. Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    "Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…

  18. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),…

  19. Sport-Specific Conditioning Variables Predict Offensive and Defensive Performance in High-Level Youth Water Polo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Kontic, Dean; Esco, Michael R; Zenic, Natasa; Milanovic, Zoran; Zvan, Milan

    2016-05-01

    Specific-conditioning capacities (SCC) are known to be generally important in water polo (WP), yet the independent associations to offensive and defensive performance is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether offense and defense abilities in WP were independently associated with SCC and anthropometrics. The participants were 82 high-level male youth WP players (all 17-19 years of age; body height, 186.3 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 84.8 ± 9.6 kg). The independent variables were body height and body mass, and 5 sport-specific fitness tests: sprint swimming over 15 meters; 4 × 50-meter anaerobic-endurance test; vertical in-water-jump; maximum intensity isometric force in upright swimming using an eggbeater kick; and test of throwing velocity. The 6 dependent variables comprised parameters of defensive and offensive performance, such as polyvalence, i.e., ability to play on different positions in defensive tasks (PD) and offensive tasks (PO), efficacy in primary playing position in defensive (ED) and offensive (EO) tasks, and agility in defensive (AD) and offensive (AO) tasks. Analyses showed appropriate reliability for independent (intraclass coefficient of 0.82-0.91) and dependent variables (Cronbach alpha of 0.81-0.95). Multiple regressions were significant for ED (R = 0.25; p < 0.01), EO (R = 0.21; p < 0.01), AD (R = 0.40; p < 0.01), and AO (R = 0.35; p < 0.01). Anaerobic-swimming performance was positively related to AD (β = -0.26; p ≤ 0.05), whereas advanced sprint swimming was related to better AO (β = -0.38; p ≤ 0.05). In-water-jumping performance held the significant positive relationship to EO (β = 0.31; p ≤ 0.05), ED (β = 0.33; p ≤ 0.05), and AD (β = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05). Strength and conditioning professionals working in WP should be aware of established importance of SCC in performing unique duties in WP. The SCC should be specifically developed to meet the needs of offensive and defensive performance in young WP athletes. PMID:26439788

  20. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants. PMID:25212095

  1. Applying Personal Genetic Data to Injury Risk Assessment in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Goodlin, Gabrielle T.; Roos, Andrew K.; Roos, Thomas R.; Hawkins, Claire; Beache, Sydney; Baur, Stephen; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries. PMID:25919592

  2. Specialization or Diversification in Youth Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensch, Lynn Pantuosco

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, Grant Hill published an article in Strategies that raised the issue of the "one sport high school athlete" and the tough decisions that young athletes face in terms of specializing in sport. The contents of that article were based on his study of high school athletic directors' and coaches' perspectives on sport specialization. This…

  3. A PHASED REHABILITATION PROTOCOL FOR ATHLETES WITH LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    VanGelder, Leonard H.; Vaughn, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Conservative non-surgical management of a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc (HLD) in athletes is a complex task due to the dramatic forces imparted on the spine during sport participation. The demands placed upon the athlete during rehabilitation and return to sport are unique not only from a sport specific perspective, but also regarding return to the sport strength and conditioning programs utilized for sport preparation. Many prescriptions fail to address postural and motor control faults specific to athletic development, which may prevent full return to sport after suffering a HLD or predispose the athlete to future exacerbations of a HLD. Strength exercises involving squatting, deadlifting, and Olympic power lifts are large components of the typical athlete's conditioning program, therefore some progressions are provided to address potential underlying problems in the athlete's technique that may have contributed to their HLD in the first place. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to propose a framework for rehabilitation that is built around the phases of healing of the disc. Phase I: Non-Rotational/Non-Flexion Phase (Acute Inflammatory Phase), Phase II: Counter rotation/Flexion Phase (Repair Phase), Phase III: Rotational Phase/Power development (Remodeling Phase), and Phase IV: Full return to sport. This clinical commentary provides a theoretical basis for these phases based on available literature as well as reviewing many popular current practice trends in the management of an HLD. The authors recognize the limits of any general exercise rehabilitation recommendation with regard to return to sport, as well as any general strength and conditioning program. It is vital that an individual assessment and prescription is made for every athlete which reviews and addresses movement in all planes of motion under all necessary extrinsic and intrinsic demands to that athlete. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175134

  4. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  5. Organizational socialization in team sport environments.

    PubMed

    Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2016-04-01

    Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. PMID:25913457

  6. Risk and trigger factors for the development of eating disorders in female elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1994-04-01

    This study examined risk factors and triggers for eating disorders in female athletes. Subjects included were all of the elite female athletes in Norway (N = 603), ages 12-35 yr, representing six groups of sports: technical, endurance, aesthetic, weight dependent, ball games, and power sports. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used to classify individuals at risk for eating disorders. Of the 117 athletes defined at risk, 103 were administered a structured clinical interview for eating disorders. A comparison group was also interviewed, consisting of 30 athletes chosen at random from a pool not at risk and matched to the at-risk subjects on age, community of residence, and sport. Ninety-two of the at-risk athletes met criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia athletica. The prevalence of eating disorders was higher in sports emphasizing leanness or a specific weight than in sports where these are less important. Compared with controls, eating disordered athletes began both sports-specific training and dieting earlier, and felt that puberty occurred too early for optimal performance. Trigger factors associated with the onset of eating disorders were prolonged periods of dieting, frequent weight fluctuations, a sudden increase in training volume, and traumatic events such as injury or loss of a coach. PMID:8201895

  7. Sport Heroes in Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Doris R.

    This paper reports the findings of a study of the role of sports in the lives of U.S. Congressmen and focuses attention on six gifted athletes for whom sports provided preparation for government service. The word "hero" as used in this paper refers to former members of Congress who were admired for their athletic prowess and for their political…

  8. Sports-related concussions - media, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-08-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports. PMID:27364748

  9. Mental Well-Being and Sport-Related Identities in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has linked physical activity and sports participation with improved mental and social well-being, including reduced risk of depression and suicidality. In this study we examined relationships among several dimensions of athletic involvement (team sport participation, individual sport participation, athlete identity, and jock identity), gender, and depression and suicidal behavior in a sample of 791 undergraduate students. Both participation in a team sport and athlete identity were associated with lower depression scores. Athlete identity was also associated with lower odds of a past-year suicide attempt, whereas jock identity was associated with elevated odds of a suicide attempt. The findings are discussed in light of the relationship between mental well-being and a larger constellation of health-risk behaviors linked to a “toxic jock” identity. PMID:20661467

  10. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. Data Sources PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Main Results Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Conclusions Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors. PMID:27171282

  11. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  12. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... pediatricians and adolescent medicine specialists, sports medicine doctors, nutritionists and dietitians, and mental health specialists can all ... granola bars, and fruit. Visit a dietitian or nutritionist who works with teen athletes. He or she ...

  13. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  14. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident. PMID:21568189

  15. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  16. "Emerging" Sports for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Debra E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association has recently introduced nine new sports to intercollegiate athletics: team handball, archery, badminton, bowling, crew, ice hockey, squash, synchronized swimming, and water polo. The initiative is intended to encourage colleges to create more athletic opportunities for women. It sets scholarship limits…

  17. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  18. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  19. Perceptions of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Study of NCAA Men's Sport Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among organizational justice components, overall job satisfaction, and organizational commitment within the intercollegiate athletics setting. Perceptions of three organizational justice components (procedural, distributive, and interactional), overall job satisfaction, and…

  20. Genes and athletes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Greydanus, Donald E

    2002-06-01

    Genetics plays an important role in determining characteristics desired for success in a given sport. Advances in biotechnology pose interesting and perplexing dilemmas for athletes, parents, health care providers, and society at large. Gene therapy holds great prospects for disease prevention and treatment. The same techniques also can be misused for genetic manipulation to enhance athletic prowess. This chapter reviews selective aspects of genotype influence on sport performance, uses and misuses of genetic technology, and ethical as well as legal dilemmas. PMID:11986034

  1. Athletic Identity of Community College Student Athletes: Issues for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…

  2. Nonlinear Pedagogy: An Effective Approach to Cater for Individual Differences in Learning a Sports Skill

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Komar, John; Tan, Clara Wee Keat; Button, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Learning a sports skill is a complex process in which practitioners are challenged to cater for individual differences. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach for learning a sports skill. Twenty-four 10-year-old females participated in a 4-week intervention involving either a Nonlinear Pedagogy (i.e.,manipulation of task constraints including equipment and rules) or a Linear Pedagogy (i.e., prescriptive, repetitive drills) approach to learn a tennis forehand stroke. Performance accuracy scores, movement criterion scores and kinematic data were measured during pre-intervention, post-intervention and retention tests. While both groups showed improvements in performance accuracy scores over time, the Nonlinear Pedagogy group displayed a greater number of movement clusters at post-test indicating the presence of degeneracy (i.e., many ways to achieve the same outcome). The results suggest that degeneracy is effective for learning a sports skill facilitated by a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach. These findings challenge the common misconception that there must be only one ideal movement solution for a task and thus have implications for coaches and educators when designing instructions for skill acquisition. PMID:25140822

  3. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 genotyping in Japanese athletes and evaluation of the current sports drug testing for detecting testosterone misuse.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Ueda, Toshihiko; Nishitani, Yasunori; Kano, Hiroko; Ikekita, Ayako; Kageyama, Shinji

    2013-03-01

    Ethnicity has been found to influence urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratios among athletes. Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is the most active enzyme in testosterone glucuronidation. UGT2B17 polymorphism analysis is rarely performed in Japanese athletes, and the influence of testosterone administration on steroid profiles and carbon isotope ratios, according to gene polymorphisms, in Asians remains unknown. The prevalence of UGT2B17 genotypes and urinary androgenic steroid profiles, classified according to UGT2B17 genotypes, was investigated in Japanese athletes (255 male and 256 female). Testosterone enanthate (100 mg) was administered intramuscularly to Japanese female volunteers (del/del: n = 6, del/ins: n = 3, ins/ins: n = 1). The distribution rates of the UGT2B17 del/del genotype in Japanese male and female athletes were 74.5% and 60.2%, respectively. The ins/ins genotype was detected in only three male (1.2%) and seven female (2.7%) athletes. The prevalence of the UGT2B17 deletion genotype was extremely high in Japanese athletes. The T/E ratio in the del/del group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. After testosterone was administered to female volunteers, the T/E ratios for the del/del individuals failed to reach the positivity criterion of 4. By contrast, in all of the del/del subjects, the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis successfully fulfilled the positivity criterion. The overall result has demonstrated the limited effectiveness of population-based T/E ratios in screening tests for testosterone use. Subject-based steroid profiling with UGT2B17 genotyping will be an effective strategy for detecting testosterone misuse. PMID:22887913

  4. Comparative Study of the Status of Women in Sport and Athletics Across Four Countries: Egypt, Japan, Norway, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Anne

    The purpose of this study was to assemble a profile of the status of women in four countries, including their accomplishments in international sports events. The status of women within a country must be defined and understood before equivalence in sport opportunities for males and females can be comprehended. The first hypothesis was that a lack…

  5. The School Psychologist and Sport: A Natural Interface to Promote Optimal Functioning Between, Student-Athlete, Family and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Marshall L.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a background and logical explanation for school psychologists to feel justified in the pursuit of providing sport psychology services. This perspective is useful for the school psychologist or other school administrative personnel who may question or be questioned about the value or need for the provision of sport psychology…

  6. Using Learning Preferences to Improve Coaching and Athletic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julia L.

    2009-01-01

    Each individual learns in a different manner, depending on his or her perceptual or learning preferences (visual, auditory, read/write, or kinesthetic). In sport, coaches and athletes must speak a common language of instructions, verbal cues, and appropriate motor responses. Thus, developing a clear understanding of how to use students' learning…

  7. Loyalty: Why Is It so Problematic in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2012-01-01

    What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a…

  8. Keep It Simple. Teaching Tips for Special Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Judith E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Physical educators can help Special Olympics athletes learn cross-lateral delivery techniques for bowling or throwing softballs by color coding the throwing arm and opposing foot. The article explains color coding, presenting teaching tips for both sports. A series of workshops on modifying exercise principles for individuals with physical…

  9. Sibling dynamics and sport expertise.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, M J; Farrow, D; MacMahon, C; Baker, J

    2015-10-01

    Family members are known to be highly influential in the development of sport expertise. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on parents, with less known about sibling influences on expertise. This investigation explored associations between sport expertise, sibling characteristics, and sibling participation in sport and physical activity. Athletes representing three skill levels provided details of sibling characteristics and participation in sport and physical activity via the Developmental History of Athletes Questionnaire. Elite athletes were more likely to be later-born children, while pre-elite and non-elite athletes were more likely to be first-born. Compared with siblings of non-elite athletes, siblings of elite athletes were more likely to have participated in regular physical activity and were more likely to have participated in sport at the pre-elite and elite levels. These results suggest siblings may play a key role in sport expertise development. PMID:25640295

  10. Finances and College Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…

  11. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  12. A Commentary on Collegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, William B.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of intercollegiate athletics are seen as pathological. Problems discussed include: the bad behavior of fans, players and coaches; cheating; exploitation of athletes; resistance to reforms and public policy (specifically Title IX); the myth of faculty control of athletics; and the bad behavior of the sports media. (MLW)

  13. Student Attitudes toward Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ronald P.

    1980-01-01

    University students said intercollegiate athletics helped the quality of life at the university, enhanced the personal development of athletes, and provided entertainment. Most wanted to expand women's athletic programs and maintain men's programs. Those who had attended intercollegiate sports events were more favorable than those who had not.…

  14. Coaches' Perceptions of Team Cohesion in Paralympic Sports.

    PubMed

    Falcão, William R; Bloom, Gordon A; Loughead, Todd M

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches' perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches' perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented. PMID:26113550

  15. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations. PMID:12744713

  16. The Prevalence of Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescent Student Athletes From the State of Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry; Replogle, William; McIntyre, Louis; Igboechi, Oduche; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and hypertension in the United States. The prevalence of these diagnoses among individuals participating in school-sanctioned sports has not been clearly defined. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among student athletes and investigate associations between race, sex, type and number of sports played, and the prevalence of these diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Pre–sports participation medical examinations (N = 7705) performed between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed to identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated BP and examine relationships between the type of sports played, participation in multiple sports versus a single sport, and the athlete’s body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and BMI. The risk of obesity among single-sport athletes was more than 2-fold the risk (relative risk [RR], 2.13) compared with ≥3-sport athletes and 1.42 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.42). The prevalence of elevated BP was 21.2%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and elevated BP. The risk of elevated BP among single-sport athletes was 1.59 times greater (RR, 1.59) than ≥3-sport athletes and 1.30 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.30). Finally, obese students were 2.40 times more likely to have elevated BP compared with nonobese students (P < .001). Conclusion: The result of this study confirms the progressive nature of the obesity epidemic and identifies the contribution of obesity to the worsening cardiometabolic profiles in student athletes. The study also identifies that participation in multiple sports and running sports decreases

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

  18. Gender typing of sports: an investigation of Metheny's classification.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Brenda A; Visio, Michelle E

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if children perceived certain sports to be masculine, feminine, or neutral. Students attending a University Laboratory school (grades K-12) were asked to fill out a survey about sports during a class period, Children in grades K-6 were given a sport (such as baseball) and asked if a boy named David would play it, if a girl named Jane would play it, or if both David and Jane would play the sport. Students in grades 7-12 were asked to name their favorite athlete or team and sport and indicate what sports they felt was best for a girl and a boy. Then they were given a list of sports and asked to indicate, using a 5-point Likert-type scale, whether they believed the sport was masculine, neutral, or feminine. Results from loglinear analyses indicated that students sex-typed certain sports, such as aerobics and football. Additionally, although some responses from students in grades 7-12 indicated that individuals should be able to play any sport they wanted, there were many gendered rsponses in terms of what sport(s) girls and boys should participate in. The results are discussed with reference to Metheny's categories of permissible sports for girls and in the framework of the gender typing of sport. PMID:12848232

  19. Revenue Producing Athletes: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Leroy; And Others

    An annotated bibliography on revenue producing sports is presented, with attention to: Proposition 48, exploitation of athletes, legal proceedings, research related to athletes and academic performance, psychological characteristics of athletes, and counseling programs for athletes. Introductions to each of the six topics are included. The section…

  20. Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Aoife A; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; O'Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J; Igou, Eric R; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes. PMID:27540370

  1. Environmental Influences on Elite Sport Athletes Well Being: From Gold, Silver, and Bronze to Blue Green and Gold

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Aoife A.; MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; O’Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J.; Igou, Eric R.; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes. PMID:27540370

  2. Disordered eating in male athletes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, James; Woodman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the propensity for male athletes to exhibit symptoms of disordered eating. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined overall effect size, individual effect sizes for specific sport types, standard of athletic competition and diagnostic tools from 31 studies. When all studies were considered as a homogeneous group, male athletes did not have symptoms of disordered eating that were significantly different from non-athletic controls. However, significant moderator effects emerged for sport type and measurement: (a) wrestling reported a greater incidence of disordered eating; and (b) studies that reported data from the Eating Attitudes Test yielded a significantly greater incidence of disordered eating in male athletes compared to non-athletes. Although some sports seem to present a higher risk of disordered eating compared to others, the effects are weak and heterogeneous. We make suggestions for the development of the research area, which has been severely hampered by the diagnostic tools that have been available for the study of men. PMID:25916949

  3. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport. PMID:25537139

  4. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  5. Does Choosing Autograft Hamstring vs. Patellar Tendon by Gender, Sport, Level of Competition or Laxity in High School and College Aged Athletes Improve KOOS, IKDC or Marx?

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Laura J.; Reinke, Emily; Kattan, Michael W.; Chagin, Kevin; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Physicians’ and patients’ decision-making process between autograft hamstring (HG) vs. patellar tendon (BTB) for ACL reconstruction (ACLR) may be influenced by patient gender, laxity level, sport played, and/or competition level in the young, active athlete. ACLR specific to high school and college-aged athletes with these aforementioned factors in mind has not been evaluated. Therefore, our objectives were twofold: first, to develop a simple web-based risk calculator as a decision-making aid to provide the best estimate of expected 2-year KOOS, IKDC, and Marx outcomes by gender, sport, level of competition, and knee laxity. Second, to identify whether autograft HG or BTB is the optimal graft choice given any combination of the aforementioned variables. Methods: Our inclusion criteria in the MOON cohort were patients aged 11-22 who were injured in sport (football, soccer, basketball, other), who were due to have a unilateral primary ACLR with either an autograft HG or BTB, and who had a contralateral normal knee. Excluded were revisions, allografts, those with a contralateral ACLR and concomitant MCL/LCL/PCL surgery. Laxity was graded as increased (Lachman > 10 mm or a pivot lock) or normal based on the EUA. Our modeling controlled for BMI, ethnicity, and baseline measures of patient-reported outcomes. Our two year outcomes were the KOOS knee related quality of life subscale, KOOS sports and recreation subscale, IKDC, and Marx activity level. Our multivariable modeling for risk online calculator and nomograms was generated in two ways. The performances for our models were measured using R squared, calibration curves, and bootstrapping. Results: 937 patients were eligible, 809 (86%) had 2 year follow-up data. The average age was 17, with 50% females, and the distribution of HG to BTB was 301/508 respectively. First, in evaluating our models for ACLR autograft choice, neither KOOS subscale models performed better than chance. The IKDC and Marx models

  6. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  7. Sports Facility Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

    The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…

  8. Violence in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Donald L.

    Increasing violence in sports is deplored, and a warning is issued on an apparent trend toward antisocial behavior. Contact sports such as hockey and football are cited as typically engendering aggression among athletes, but spectator sports (boxing, car racing, basketball, and baseball) are also singled out as eliciting increasing violence on the…

  9. Athletic Training: Instructors Perceived Preparedness for Teaching in an Athletic Training Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Kevin F.

    2013-01-01

    Athletic trainers work in clinical settings such as secondary schools, colleges and universities, sports medicine clinics, professional sports, hospitals, and other healthcare environments. However, with the rapid expansion of athletic training education programs (ATEP) over the years, another role for the athletic trainer has developed, the…

  10. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  11. Perception of coaching behaviors, coping, and achievement in a sport competition.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michel; Gaudreau, Patrick; Franche, Veronique

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, coping strategies during a sport competition, and sport achievement. A prospective design was used in which 80 athletes from individual sports completed measures of perceived coaching behaviors two days before a competition (Time 1) and measures of coping and sport achievement within three hours after a sport competition (Time 2). As expected, results of multiple regressions indicated that supportive coaching was a positive predictor of task-oriented coping and sport achievement whereas unsupportive coaching was a positive predictor of disengagement-oriented coping. Both types of coping were significantly associated with sport achievement. Task-oriented coping was a significant partial mediator in the relation between supportive coaching and sport achievement. This study, which contributes to both the coaching and coping literatures, highlights the role of supportive coaching behaviors in the initiation of effective stress management during sport competitions. PMID:21659673

  12. Sports Medicine: A Functional Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegerreis, Sam

    1981-01-01

    Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)

  13. Nerve Injury in Athletes Caused by Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Terry R.; Engelhardt, David L.; Kirkpatrick, John S.; Bassett, Frank H.

    1992-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently used in the treatment of athletic injuries. In very rare circumstances, inappropriate use in some individuals can lead to nerve injury resulting in temporary or permanent disability of the athlete. Six cases of cold-induced peripheral nerve injury from 1988 to 1991 at the Sports Medicine Center at Duke University are reported. Although disability can be severe and can render an athlete unable to compete for several months, each of these cases resolved spontaneously. Whereas the application of this modality is typically quite safe and beneficial, clinicians must be aware of the location of major peripheral nerves, the thickness of the overlying subcutaneous fat, the method of application (with inherent or additional compression), the duration of tissue cooling, and the possible cryotherapy sensibility of some individuals. PMID:16558167

  14. Alterations in default-mode network connectivity may be influenced by cerebrovascular changes within 1 week of sports related concussion in college varsity athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Militana, Adam R; Donahue, Manus J; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S; Gregory, Andrew J; Strother, Megan K; Morgan, Victoria L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p < 0.05) independently. The FC was increased in the concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01), with measures being linearly related to cerebrovascular reactivity in the hippocampus in the concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion. PMID:25972119

  15. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  16. African-American Male Student-Athletes in Division I Collegiate Sports: Expectations and Aspirations for Undergraduate Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Seanan

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative case study explored undergraduate degree attainment by African American males in football and basketball at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Southwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants at the institution to uncover experiences that helped or…

  17. An Examination of the Alignment of Student-Athletes' Undergraduate Major Choices and Career Field Aspirations in Life after Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Today higher education student affairs professionals are charged with not only understanding the challenges and needs of a diverse student body, they must also prepare students for careers in life after college. For this empirical study I explored the undergraduate major choices and career aspirations of 29 senior student-athletes at a large,…

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    PubMed Central

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

  19. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches. PMID:6525751

  20. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  1. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  2. Sports Medicine and Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P.; Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.; McKinney, Ross E.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club’s best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision-making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete’s decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete’s long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

  3. Campus Recreation Program Involvement, Athletic Identity, Transitional Loss and Life Satisfaction in Former High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Sports participation can result in strong associations with the athlete role for participants. While strong athletic identity can have positive implications, it can also create vulnerability to emotional difficulty following exit from sport (Brewer, 1993). Exit from sport is inevitable, resulting from a wide range of sources such as injury, aging,…

  4. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process. PMID:27544982

  5. 2016 Consensus statement on return to sport from the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy, Bern.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony; Witvrouw, Erik; Clarsen, Benjamin; Cools, Ann; Gojanovic, Boris; Griffin, Steffan; Khan, Karim M; Moksnes, Håvard; Mutch, Stephen A; Phillips, Nicola; Reurink, Gustaaf; Sadler, Robin; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thorborg, Kristian; Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Wilk, Kevin E; Bizzini, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial-an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4 main sections were initially agreed upon, then participants elected to join 1 of the 4 groups-each group focused on 1 section of the consensus statement. Participants in each group discussed and summarised the key issues for their section before the 17-member group met again for discussion to reach consensus on the content of the 4 sections. Return to sport is not a decision taken in isolation at the end of the recovery and rehabilitation process. Instead, return to sport should be viewed as a continuum, paralleled with recovery and rehabilitation. Biopsychosocial models may help the clinician make sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete's return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport. PMID:27226389

  6. Low Back Pain in Athletes Is Associated with General and Sport Specific Risk Factors: A Comprehensive Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Vahideh; Memari, Amir-Hossein; ShayestehFar, Monir; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine systematically the available evidence on risk factors of low back pain (LBP) in athletes. We performed search without language restriction in PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scopus, and CINAHL. Longitudinal studies that examined possible risk factors of LBP in athletes were included in this systematic review. Based on methodological quality of studies, a best-evidence synthesis was conducted. Seven longitudinal studies were included, four of which had high methodological quality. Results showed that previous LBP, decreased lumbar flexion, and decreased lumbar extension are positively associated with LBP. There was moderate evidence for hip flexor tightness and high body weight as a risk factor. We found insufficient evidence for association between forward bending, previous injury, and amount of training per week, active years, age, and sex with LBP. In conclusion this study would provide a list of risk factors for LBP in athletes, though it showed a strong evidence for only a few including decrease lumbar flexion or extension, previous LBP, and high body weight. This review indicated a high heterogeneity of study characteristics including assessed risk factors and statistical techniques might limit the quality of evidence. PMID:26783465

  7. Low Back Pain in Athletes Is Associated with General and Sport Specific Risk Factors: A Comprehensive Review of Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Vahideh; Memari, Amir-Hossein; ShayestehFar, Monir; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine systematically the available evidence on risk factors of low back pain (LBP) in athletes. We performed search without language restriction in PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scopus, and CINAHL. Longitudinal studies that examined possible risk factors of LBP in athletes were included in this systematic review. Based on methodological quality of studies, a best-evidence synthesis was conducted. Seven longitudinal studies were included, four of which had high methodological quality. Results showed that previous LBP, decreased lumbar flexion, and decreased lumbar extension are positively associated with LBP. There was moderate evidence for hip flexor tightness and high body weight as a risk factor. We found insufficient evidence for association between forward bending, previous injury, and amount of training per week, active years, age, and sex with LBP. In conclusion this study would provide a list of risk factors for LBP in athletes, though it showed a strong evidence for only a few including decrease lumbar flexion or extension, previous LBP, and high body weight. This review indicated a high heterogeneity of study characteristics including assessed risk factors and statistical techniques might limit the quality of evidence. PMID:26783465

  8. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  9. Implementation of a Values Training Program in Physical Education and Sport: Perspectives from Teachers, Coaches, Students, and Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Koon Teck; Ong, Shu Wen; Camiré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that under the right conditions, youth can learn values through physical education and sport (PES). Although some programs have been developed using PES as a means to foster positive development, a limited amount of research has specifically addressed how stakeholders believe this type of material can be…

  10. Risk of sudden cardiac death in young athletes: which screening strategies are appropriate?

    PubMed

    Bader, Rima S; Goldberg, Linn; Sahn, David J

    2004-10-01

    Resources are not available to comprehensively evaluate all young athletes before participation in competitive sports. Therefore, the cardiovascular evaluation of young athletes needs to be targeted at high-risk areas and focus on the individuals who are at greatest possible risk: those who have suggestive, even if minor, symptoms, and those who have a family history of sudden death or premature cardiac disease. PMID:15331292

  11. Women in Sports, Summer 1978. A WEAL Fund Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Equity Action League Educational and Legal Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This compendium of materials focuses on sex discrimination, Title IX, and women in sports, and provides information and recommendations on bringing about equity for women in athletic programs. The individual papers deal with the following topics: (1) the Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) Fund and its work; (2) equal opportunity and…

  12. Using Role Models to Help Celebrate Paralympic Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastro, James; Ahrens, Christopher; Statton, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    A role model is a person or challenge that inspires an individual to go beyond what is expected of him or her and to reach a specific goal. Role models can exemplify motivation, passion, and a genuine love of their life's work. All students need role models, and Paralympic sport athletes can be just that, especially for students with disabilities.…

  13. Pediatric Issues in Sports Concussions

    PubMed Central

    Giza, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Sports-related concussions are receiving increasing attention in both the lay press and medical literature. While most media attention has been on high-profile collegiate or professional athletes, the vast majority of individuals participating in contact and collision sports are adolescents and children. This review provides a practical approach toward youth sports-related concussion with a foundation in the recent guidelines, but including specific considerations when applying these management principles to children and adolescents. Recent Findings: Objective measurement of early signs and symptoms is challenging in younger patients, and many commonly used assessment tools await rigorous validation for younger patients. Excellent evidence-based guidelines exist for CT evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury presenting to the emergency department. Evidence suggests that recovery from sports-related concussion takes longer in high school athletes compared with collegiate or professionals; however, rigorous studies below high school age are still lacking. Summary: Proper care for concussion in youth requires a delicate balance of clinical skills, age-appropriate assessment, and individualized management to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:25470161

  14. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  15. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals. PMID:24323888

  16. Drug-related emergencies in athletes.

    PubMed

    Felter, R A; Fitzgibbon, J

    1989-01-01

    Drug use among athletes, both amateur and professional, is a problem that will remain with us. Athletes will use the drugs that are considered recreational by the general population as well as some that may help them in their individual sport. Team physicians, coaches, and trainers must be aware of the most frequently used and abused drugs, their side effects, interactions, and emergency management. In addition, they must be aware of their athletes who have a drug-related problem in order to advise them and get appropriate medical help. Remember that an athlete may have a significant drug problem yet continue to function well on the team. Early recognition and intervention may save one or many lives. The following are the responsibilities for coach, trainer, and team physician: (1) know what drugs athletes use and their pharmacology; (2) know one's limitations and how to access community resources; (3) know the laws related to drug/ETOH abuse and treatment; (4) understand the management of acute drug ingestion; and (5) know how to be supportive to the athletes. PMID:2663177

  17. Perceptions of Coach-Athlete Relationship Are More Important to Coaches than Athletes in Predicting Dyadic Coping and Stress Appraisals: An Actor-Partner Independence Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L

    2016-01-01

    Most attempts to manage stress involve at least one other person, yet coping studies in sport tend to report an athlete's individual coping strategies. There is a limited understanding of coping involving other people, particularly within sport, despite athletes potentially spending a lot of time with other people, such as their coach. Guided by the systemic-transactional model of stress and coping among couples (Bodenmann, 1995), from relationship psychology, we assessed dyadic coping, perceptions of relationship quality, and primary stress appraisals of challenge and threat among 158 coach-athlete dyads (n = 277 participants). The athletes competed at amateur (n = 123), semi-professional (n = 31), or professional levels (n = 4). Coaches and athletes from the same dyad completed a measure of dyadic coping, coach-athlete relationship, and stress appraisals. We tested an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model to account for the non-independence of dyadic data. These actor-partner analyses revealed differences between athletes and coaches. Although the actor effects were relatively large compared to partner effects, perceptions of relationship quality demonstrated little impact on athletes. The mediating role of relationship quality was broadly as important as dyadic coping for coaches. These findings provide an insight in to how coach-athlete dyads interact to manage stress and indicate that relationship quality is of particular importance for coaches, but less important for athletes. In order to improve perceptions of relationship quality among coaches and athletes, interventions could be developed to foster positive dyadic coping among both coaches and athletes, which may also impact upon stress appraisals of challenge and threat. PMID:27065917

  18. Individual, Programmatic, and Institutional Influences on Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Volberding, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine factors that influence an undergraduate athletic training student's (ATS) level of cultural competence (CC). Utilizing a CC score derived from a student survey, one-way ANOVAs to identify differences in CC scores by gender, race, and year in school and three separate correlation analyses (all students, Caucasian Students, Students of Color) to identify the relationship between CC and variables were performed. Only eight variables in the Students of Color model were significant. This suggests that race may impact factors that influence an ATS CC and could assist educators to recognize uncontrollable factors may influence students' CC. PMID:26817171

  19. The Natural Athlete: A Comfortable Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D.

    1983-01-01

    The popular notion that excellence in sports is inherited is seriously questioned by experts. The belief shared by many sports specialists as well as by some top athletes is that the characteristics that breed success in sports are developed. Sports experts offer the following advice to those who wish to improve their own performance: (1) relax;…

  20. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  1. Fluoroquinolones and Tendinopathy: A Guide for Athletes and Sports Clinicians and a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Trevor; Cook, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Context: Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been used for several decades and are effective antimicrobials. Despite their usefulness as antibiotics, a growing body of evidence has accumulated in the peer-reviewed literature that shows fluoroquinolones can cause pathologic lesions in tendon tissue (tendinopathy). These adverse effects can occur within hours of commencing treatment and months after discontinuing the use of these drugs. In some cases, fluoroquinolone usage can lead to complete rupture of the tendon and substantial subsequent disability. Objective: To discuss the cause, pharmacology, symptoms, and epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy and to discuss the clinical implications with respect to athletes and their subsequent physiotherapy. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and SPORTDiscus databases for available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture) published from 1966 to 2012. Search terms were fluoroquinolones or quinolones and tendinopathy, adverse effects, and tendon rupture. Included studies were written in or translated into English. Non—English–language and non-English translations of abstracts from reports were not included (n = 1). Study Selection: Eligible studies were any available reports of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy (tendinitis, tendon pain, or rupture). Both animal and human histologic studies were included. Any papers not focusing on the tendon-related side effects of fluoroquinolones were excluded (n = 71). Data Extraction: Data collected included any cases of fluoroquinolone-related tendinopathy, the particular tendon affected, type of fluoroquinolone, dosage, and concomitant risk factors. Any data outlining the adverse histologic effects of fluoroquinolones also were collected. Data Synthesis: A total of 175 papers, including 89 case reports and 8

  2. The IOC Centres of Excellence bring prevention to sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Cook, Jill L; Derman, Wayne; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-09-01

    The protection of an athlete's health and preventing injuries and illnesses in sport are top priorities for the IOC and its Medical Commission. The IOC therefore partners with selected research centres around the world and supports research in the field of sports medicine. This has enabled the IOC to develop an international network of expert scientists and clinicians in sports injury and disease prevention research. The IOC wants to promote injury and disease prevention and the improvement of physical health of the athlete by: (1) establishing long-term research programmes on injury and disease prevention (including studies on basic epidemiology, risk factors, injury mechanisms and intervention), (2) fostering collaborative relationships with individuals, institutions and organisations to improve athletes' health, (3) implementing and collaborating with applied, ongoing and novel research and development within the framework and long-term strategy of the IOC and (4) setting up knowledge translation mechanisms to share scientific research results with the field throughout the Olympic Movement and sports community and converting these results into concrete actions to protect the health of the athletes. In 2009, the IOC also identified four research centres that had an established track record in research, educational and clinical activities to achieve these ambitions: (1) the Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Australia; (2) the Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre (SIPRC), Canada; (3) the Clinical Sport and Exercise Medicine Research (CSEM), South Africa and (4) the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC), Norway. This paper highlights the work carried out by these four IOC Centres of Excellence over the past 6 years and their contribution to the world of sports medicine. PMID:25114181

  3. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  4. Validity and reliability of a radio positioning system for tracking athletes in indoor and outdoor team sports.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Thuraiappah; Shuttleworth, Richard; Hedley, Mark; Davids, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Radio-frequency local positioning systems (LPS) have the potential to provide accurate location information about sport players for performance analysis, making available for study the emergent nature of interpersonal coordination and collective decision-making behaviour among players in both indoor and outdoor sports. However, no available publications have validated the performance of LPS for indoor sports. The objective of this study was to validate the performance of an LPS in an indoor venue and to compare it to performance observed in an outdoor venue using static and dynamic measurements. Our results showed that the absolute positioning errors obtained from the static measurements of the LPS were comparable for both indoor and outdoor venues, with mean errors of 12.1 cm outdoors and 11.9 cm indoors. From the dynamic measurements, we analysed the relative position error and the distance estimation performance of the system. The 90th-percentile relative position errors were 28 cm for the indoor venue versus 18 cm for the outdoor venue. On average, the LPS overestimated the distance travelled, and the performance was similar for both indoor and outdoor venues. On a linear course, the mean errors of the distance estimates were 2.2% of the total distance indoors and 1.3% outdoors, and on a nonlinear course, they were 2.7% indoors and 3.2% outdoors. PMID:22477436

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  6. Sports Violence: Caveat Vendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jean

    1978-01-01

    Violence at sporting events is a self-feeding stimulus, not a useful cathartic for natural aggression; in the final analysis, it should be realized that athletic contests are games, not struggles for survival. (MM)

  7. Survey of preferences for feedback style in high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Chen, David D; Rikli, Roberta E

    2003-12-01

    This study asked high school athletes what kinds of desirable traits or styles they would like to see in coaches when they provided correct feedback. High school athletes (M age=14.5 yr., SD=2.1), 43 girls and 70 boys, in both individual and team sports were recruited from 2 junior high and 2 senior high schools. A questionnaire measuring preferences for feedback style was developed with 12 9-point Likert scale items. Each item dealt with one aspect of feedback style. The survey covered several characteristics of feedback style: character, timing, frequency, precision, intent, informational style versus controlling style, descriptive versus prescriptive, and context. Analyses of variance, performed on responses to each question to assess the effects of sex, age, and sport, indicated high uniformity in responses to the qualities of feedback style, with no significant differences for sex, age, or sport. PMID:14738338

  8. Sports dentistry: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Singamaneni, Vijaya Kumar; Rao, Saketh Rama; Karthikeyan, Jamini

    2014-01-01

    Dental trauma in sports is the major linking channel between sports and dentistry. Sports dentistry is the prevention of oral/facial athletic injuries and related oral diseases and manifestations. In children, sports activities were found to be responsible for 13% of overall oral trauma. It is emphasized that there is a great need for “Team Dentist” from high schools to professional teams. In this review, we discuss the relationship between sports and dentistry, and the importance of educating parents, teachers, and children in prevention of injuries related to the sports. PMID:25625070

  9. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis. PMID:19713179

  10. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois; Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Dugmore, Dorian L; Heidbuchel, Hein H; Mellwig, Klaus-Peter; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole M; Papadakis, Michael; Rasmusen, Hanne; Sharma, Sanjay; Solberg, Erik E; van Buuren, Frank; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full implementation of the chain of survival. PMID:21672932

  11. Pressures on Youth in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The pressures on young athletes today, many of them brought on or exacerbated by parents, drive young athletes to attain perfection and win by any means necessary. For the young athlete, the challenges of learning how to balance schoolwork, social life, family time, and sports, not to mention other interests they might have, are far more intense…

  12. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in athletes.

    PubMed

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Athletic activity may be associated with alterations in various neuroendocrine axes depending on the state of energy availability. In addition, genetic factors and an underlying predilection for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may predispose some athletes to develop functional hypothalamic amenorrhea earlier than other athletes. In conditions of low energy availability associated with athletic activity, changes that occur in various neuroendocrine axes are primarily adaptive, and aim to either conserve energy for the most essential functions, or allow the body to draw on its reserves to meet energy needs. These hormonal changes, however, then lead to changes in body composition and bone metabolism. Impaired bone accrual in younger athletes and low bone density in older athletes constitutes the major pathologic consequence of neuroendocrine changes associated with low energy availability. The female athlete triad of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone density is prevalent in certain kinds of sports and activities, particularly endurance sports, gymnastics, and ballet. It is essential to screen for this condition in athletes at every preparticipation physical and during office visits, and to put in place an effective treatment team to manage the triad early, in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25248600

  13. No association between ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite judo athletic status.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Yvert, Thomas; de Diego, Alfonso; Santiago, Catalina; Díaz de Durana, Alfonso L; Carratalá, Vicente; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo. PMID:23348074

  14. Sport Instruction for Individuals with Disabilities. The Best of Practical Pointers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA.

    This book, written for teachers by teachers, includes articles by 14 contributing authors and is divided into three sections. Section 1 is entitled "Practical Pointers for Team Sports" and contains the following chapters: "Mainstreaming the Physically Handicapped for Team Sports" (S. J. Grosse); "Program Guide to Team Soccer for the Mentally…

  15. Hydration in the Pediatric Athlete - How to Guide Your Patients.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Hydration is arguably among the foremost priorities youth athletes, parents, and coaches habitually consider as vital for sports. Insufficient hydration and a resultant measurable sweat-induced body water deficit can negatively affect performance and, in some athletic scenarios, can be a danger to a young athlete's health and safety, especially during vigorous physical activity in a warm-to-hot environment. Accordingly, it is essential to be well hydrated prior to practice, training, and competition and minimize total body water deficits incurred while being mindful of the greater sweat losses and hydration needs/challenges that accompany physical growth and maturation. Informed clinicians can play a key role as trusted resources in providing the most effective guidelines and making the best overall individual recommendations regarding hydration for youth athletes. PMID:26166053

  16. Special Medical Problems of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Joan M.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)

  17. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes. PMID:25574886

  18. Knee stability, athletic performance and sport-specific tasks in non-professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction: comparing trans-tibial and antero-medial portal techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Cosentino, Andrea; Chiozzi, Federica; Piva, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background a wrong position of bone tunnels, in particular on the femur, is one of the most frequent causes of a failed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Several studies demonstrated that drilling the femoral tunnel through the antero-medial portal (AMP) allows a more anatomical placement on the lateral femoral condyle and higher knee stability, compared to trans-tibial (TT) technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate two groups of soccer players operated on for ACL reconstruction according to either one of these two techniques. Methods two groups of non-professional soccer players operated on for a single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft using either a TT (20 patients) or an AMP (23 patients) technique were retrospectively evaluated with KT-1000 arthrometer, manual pivot shift test, isokinetic test, the incremental treadmill-running test, athletic and sport specific tasks, and knee scores (IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS). Results the AMP group showed better results at pivot shift test and KOOS, but lower flexion angles at single leg squat test. There were no differences in all the other considered outcomes. Conclusions the better rotational stability of the knee achieved in AMP group did not lead to significantly better clinical and functional results in our patients. Level of evidence III. Treatment study Case-control study. PMID:26605191

  19. Sport-Related Concussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  20. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…