#### Sample records for induced extreme hull

1. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

2010-05-01

The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account

2. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

3. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

PubMed

Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

2014-06-01

Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH. PMID:24460407

4. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

PubMed

Kim, Sung Phil; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

2014-08-01

Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against murine endotoxemia induced by Salmonella lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). Pretreatment of the mice with RHSE via dietary administration for 2 weeks resulted in the suppression (in %) of LPS/GalN-induced catalase by 70.7, superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 54.6, and transaminase (GOT/GPT) liver enzymes by 40.6/62.5, the amelioration of necrotic liver lesions, and the reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by 61.1 and nitrite serum level by 83.4, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme associated with necrotic injury of the lung and kidney by 65.7 and 63.3, respectively. The RHSE also extended the lifespan of the toxemic mice. The results using inflammation biomarkers and from the lifespan studies suggest that the RHSE can protect mice against LPS/GalN-induced liver, lung, and kidney injuries and inflammation by blocking oxidative stress and TNF-α production, thereby increasing the survival of the toxic-shock-induced mice. These beneficial effects and previous studies on the antimicrobial effects against Salmonella Typhimurium in culture and in mice suggest that the smoke extract also has the potential to serve as a new multifunctional resource in human food and animal feeds. Possible mechanisms of the beneficial effects at the cellular and molecular levels and suggested food uses are discussed. PMID:25068861

5. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

6. Extremely short pulses via resonantly induced transparency

Radeonychev, Y. V.; Polovinkin, V. A.; Kocharovskaya, O.

2011-07-01

We study a novel method to produce extremely short pulses of radiation in a resonant medium via induced transparency by means of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by far-off-resonant laser field, which causes linear Stark splitting of atomic energy levels resulting in partial transparency of an optically deep medium and drastic spectral modification of an incident resonant radiation. We find the regimes where the output spectrum corresponds to extremely short pulses and discuss several possible experimental realizations of generation of attosecond pulses in Li2+ ions and femtosecond pulses in atomic hydrogen with commercially available facilities.

7. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

1984-01-01

Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

8. Hulls for Large Seaplanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magaldi, Giulio

1925-01-01

In reality, the principle of similitude is not applicable to the hulls, the designing of which increases in difficulty with increasing size of the seaplanes. In order to formulate, at least in a general way, the basic principles of calculation, we must first summarize the essential characteristics of a hull with reference to its gradual enlargement. In this study, we will disregard hulls with wing stubs, as being inapplicable to large seaplanes.

9. Gasohol from almond hulls

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1980-12-01

Golden By-Products Inc. has awarded a contract to Bechtel Inc. to study the feasibility of converting almond hulls from California's Central Valley into two million gal/yr of alcohol for use in gasohol.

10. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

2013-12-01

Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

11. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats,...

12. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats,...

13. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats,...

14. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats,...

15. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats,...

16. Reliability analysis based on a direct ship hull strength assessment

Feng, Guoqing; Wang, Dongsheng; Garbatov, Yordan; Guedes Soares, C.

2015-12-01

A method of reliability analysis based on a direct strength calculation employing the von Mises stress failure criterion is presented here. The short term strain distributions of ship hull structural components are identified through the statistical analysis of the wave-induced strain history and the long term distributions by the weighted summation of the short term strain distributions. The wave-induced long term strain distribution is combined with the still water strain. The extreme strain distribution of the response strain is obtained by statistical analysis of the combined strains. The limit state function of the reliability analysis is based on the von Mises stress failure criterion, including the related uncertainties due to the quality of the material and model uncertainty. The reliability index is calculated using FORM and sensitivity analysis of each variable that has effects on the reliability is also discussed.

17. Extreme Thermal Noxious Stimuli Induce Pain Responses in Zebrafish Larvae

PubMed Central

Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Raffaeli, William; Balciunas, Darius; Giordano, Antonio; Bellipanni, Gianfranco

2014-01-01

Exposing tissues to extreme high or low temperature leads to burns. Burned animals sustain several types of damage, from the disruption of the tissue to degeneration of axons projecting through muscle and skin. Such damage causes pain due to both inflammation and axonal degeneration (neuropathic-like pain). Thus, the approach to cure and alleviate the symptoms of burns must be twofold: rebuilding the tissue that has been destroyed and alleviating the pain derived from the burns. While tissue regeneration techniques have been developed, less is known on the treatment of the induced pain. Thus, appropriate animal models are necessary for the development of the best treatment for pain induced in burned tissues. We have developed a methodology in the zebrafish aimed to produce a new animal model for the study of pain induced by burns. Here we show that two events linked to the onset of burn-induced inflammation and neuropathic-like pain in mammals, degeneration of axons innervating the affected tissues and over-expression of specific genes in sensory tissues, are conserved from zebrafish to mammals. PMID:23929528

18. Extreme thermal noxious stimuli induce pain responses in zebrafish larvae.

PubMed

Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Raffaeli, William; Balciunas, Darius; Giordano, Antonio; Bellipanni, Gianfranco

2014-03-01

Exposing tissues to extreme high or low temperature leads to burns. Burned animals sustain several types of damage, from the disruption of the tissue to degeneration of axons projecting through muscle and skin. Such damage causes pain due to both inflammation and axonal degeneration (neuropathic-like pain). Thus, the approach to cure and alleviate the symptoms of burns must be twofold: rebuilding the tissue that has been destroyed and alleviating the pain derived from the burns. While tissue regeneration techniques have been developed, less is known on the treatment of the induced pain. Thus, appropriate animal models are necessary for the development of the best treatment for pain induced in burned tissues. We have developed a methodology in the zebrafish aimed to produce a new animal model for the study of pain induced by burns. Here, we show that two events linked to the onset of burn-induced inflammation and neuropathic-like pain in mammals, degeneration of axons innervating the affected tissues and over-expression of specific genes in sensory tissues, are conserved from zebrafish to mammals. PMID:23929528

19. Stress-induced pellicle analysis for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

Park, Eun-Sang; Kim, Min-Ha; Hwang, Sollee; Kim, Jung Hwan; Oh, Hye-Keun

2016-03-01

The defect on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask can cause image quality degradation on the wafer and also poses a serious problem for achieving high volume manufacturing (HVM). Using a pellicle could decrease the critical size of a defect by taking the defect away from the focal plane of a mask. Considering the double pass transmission for the thickness of extreme ultraviolet lithography EUVL pellicle should be ~ nm thin. For ~ nm thin pellicle, the thermal stress by EUV light exposure may damage the pellicle. Therefore, an investigation of thermal stress is desired for reliable EUV light transmission through pellicle. Therefore, we calculated the total stress and compared with material maximum stress of the pellicle. Breaking or the safety of the pellicle could be determined by the induced total stress, however, the cyclic exposure heating could decrease the material maximum stress of the pellicle. The c-Si (crystalline silicon) has good mechanical durability than the p-Si (poly-crystalline silicon) under cyclic thermal exposure.

20. Extreme events due to human-induced climate change.

PubMed

Mitchell, John F B; Lowe, Jason; Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael

2006-08-15

A recent assessment by the intergovernmental panel on climate change concluded that the Earth's climate would be 2-6 degrees C warmer than in the pre-industrial era by the end of the twenty-first century, due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gases. In the absence of other changes, this would lead to the warmest period on Earth for at least the last 1000 years, and probably the last 100,000 years. The large-scale warming is expected to be accompanied by increased frequency and/or intensity of extreme events, such as heatwaves, heavy rainfall, storms and coastal flooding. There are also several possibilities that this large change could initiate nonlinear climate responses which lead to even more extreme and rapid (on the time-scale of decades) climate change, including the collapse of the ocean 'conveyor belt' circulation, the collapse of major ice sheets or the release of large amounts of methane in high latitudes leading to further global warming. Although these catastrophic events are much more speculative than the direct warming due to increased greenhouse gases, their potential impacts are great and therefore should be included in any risk assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. PMID:16844651

1. Spatiotemporal Chaos Induces Extreme Events in an Extended Microcavity Laser

Selmi, F.; Coulibaly, S.; Loghmari, Z.; Sagnes, I.; Beaudoin, G.; Clerc, M. G.; Barbay, S.

2016-01-01

Extreme events such as rogue waves in optics and fluids are often associated with the merging dynamics of coherent structures. We present experimental and numerical results on the physics of extreme event appearance in a spatially extended semiconductor microcavity laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. This system can display deterministic irregular dynamics only, thanks to spatial coupling through diffraction of light. We have identified parameter regions where extreme events are encountered and established the origin of this dynamics in the emergence of deterministic spatiotemporal chaos, through the correspondence between the proportion of extreme events and the dimension of the strange attractor.

2. Spatiotemporal Chaos Induces Extreme Events in an Extended Microcavity Laser.

PubMed

Selmi, F; Coulibaly, S; Loghmari, Z; Sagnes, I; Beaudoin, G; Clerc, M G; Barbay, S

2016-01-01

Extreme events such as rogue waves in optics and fluids are often associated with the merging dynamics of coherent structures. We present experimental and numerical results on the physics of extreme event appearance in a spatially extended semiconductor microcavity laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. This system can display deterministic irregular dynamics only, thanks to spatial coupling through diffraction of light. We have identified parameter regions where extreme events are encountered and established the origin of this dynamics in the emergence of deterministic spatiotemporal chaos, through the correspondence between the proportion of extreme events and the dimension of the strange attractor. PMID:26799020

3. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded,...

4. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have...

5. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hulls. 27.755 Section 27.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

6. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have...

7. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have...

8. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded,...

9. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded,...

10. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hulls. 27.755 Section 27.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

11. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded,...

12. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 27.755 Section 27.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

13. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have...

14. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hulls. 27.755 Section 27.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

15. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded,...

16. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have...

17. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hulls. 27.755 Section 27.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

18. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.

1978-01-01

Analytical methods are developed to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hulls of airships which have close coupled, relatively large and/or high disk loading propulsors for attitude control, station keeping, and partial support of total weight as well as provision of thrust in cruise. The methods comprise a surface-singularity, potential-flow model for the hull and lifting surfaces (such as tails) and a rotor model which calculates the velocity induced by the rotor and its wake at points adjacent to the wake. Use of these two models provides an inviscid pressure distribution on the hull with rotor interference. A boundary layer separation prediction method is used to locate separation on the hull, and a wake pressure is imposed on the separated region for purposes of calculating hull loads. Results of calculations are shown to illustrate various cases of rotor-hull interference and comparisons with small scale data are made to evaluate the method.

19. A hydraulic absorber for wideband vibration reduction in ship hulls

SciTech Connect

Hsueh, W.J.; Lee, Y.J. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering)

1994-02-01

A vibration reduction of ship hulls by an active absorber system is proposed. In the scheme, a tuned mass is moved according to the hull vibration as measured by a multi-mode sensing system in order to generate a suitable active force for vibration reduction of hull girder. In order to supply the large amount of required power, a hydraulic servo system is implemented. Then the dynamic characteristic of the hydraulic system is considered for system design. Based on stochastic theory and optimal theory, the control law of the system is derived in order to approach the optimal level of vibration reduction. A 10-t absorber is applied to a 87,000-t oil tanker to demonstrate the feasibility of this scheme. The results show that the multi-peak values of resonance are suppressed in frequency response. Moreover, the vibration excited by propeller and engine is reduced to an extremely efficient level by this scheme.

20. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

PubMed

Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

2016-01-01

Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls. PMID:26611073

1. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

SciTech Connect

Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

2011-06-17

Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

2. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

SciTech Connect

Jiang, Y. H.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Rudenko, A.; Foucar, L.; Herrwerth, O.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F.; Tilborg, J. van; Belkacem, A.; Ueda, K.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Ullrich, J.

2010-12-31

Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC=CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +}+CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52{+-}15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8

3. Radiation-induced decomposition of explosives under extreme conditions

SciTech Connect

Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Liermann, Peter

2008-11-03

We present high-pressure and high temperature studies of the synchrotron radiation-induced decomposition of powder secondary high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using white beam synchrotron radiation at the 16 BM-B and 16 BM-D sectors of the HP-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The radiation-induced decomposition rate TATB showed dramatic slowing with pressure up to 26.6 GPa (the highest pressure studied), implying a positive activation volume of the activated complex. The decomposition rate of PETN varied little with pressure up to 15.7 GPa (the highest pressure studied). Diffraction line intensities were measured as a function of time using energy-dispersive methods. By measuring the decomposition rate as a function of pressure and temperature, kinetic and other constants associated with the decomposition reactions were extracted.

4. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

2016-04-01

Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

5. 46 CFR 131.210 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hulls. 131.210 Section 131.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 131.210 Hulls. The hull of each vessel must be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

6. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following:...

7. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following:...

8. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following:...

9. 46 CFR 131.210 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hulls. 131.210 Section 131.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 131.210 Hulls. The hull of each vessel must be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

10. 46 CFR 131.210 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hulls. 131.210 Section 131.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 131.210 Hulls. The hull of each vessel must be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

11. 46 CFR 131.210 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hulls. 131.210 Section 131.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 131.210 Hulls. The hull of each vessel must be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

12. 46 CFR 131.210 - Hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hulls. 131.210 Section 131.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 131.210 Hulls. The hull of each vessel must be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

13. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following:...

14. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following:...

15. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

Davis, Kanika Octavia

16. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Benoit,

1926-01-01

Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

17. Will peanut hulls replace oil

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1980-12-01

A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

18. Extended study of extreme geoelectric field event scenarios for geomagnetically induced current applications

Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Wilder, Frederick D.; Crowley, Geoffrey

2013-03-01

Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) flowing in man-made ground technological systems are a direct manifestation of adverse space weather. Today, there is great concern over possible geomagnetically induced current effects on power transmission networks that can result from extreme space weather events. The threat of severe societal consequences has accelerated recent interest in extreme geomagnetic storm impacts on high-voltage power transmission systems. As a result, extreme geomagnetic event characterization is of fundamental importance for quantifying the technological impacts and societal consequences of extreme space weather. This article reports on the global behavior of the horizontal geomagnetic field and the induced geoelectric field fluctuations during severe/extreme geomagnetic events. This includes (1) an investigation of the latitude threshold boundary, (2) the local time dependency of the maximum induced geoelectric field, and (3) the influence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current on the occurrence of enhanced induced geoelectric fields over ground stations located near the dip equator. Using ground-based and satellite-borne Defense Meteorological Satellite Program measurements, this article confirms that the latitude threshold boundary is associated with the movements of the auroral oval and the corresponding auroral electrojet current system, which is the main driver of the largest perturbations of the ground geomagnetic field at high latitudes. In addition, we show that the enhancement of the EEJ is driven by the penetration of high-latitude electric fields and that the induced geoelectric fields at stations within the EEJ belt can be an order of magnitude larger than that at stations outside the belt. This has important implications for power networks located around the electrojet belt and confirms that earlier observations by Pulkkinen et al. (2012) were not isolated incidences but rather cases that can occur during certain severe

19. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

20. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo....

1. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo....

2. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

3. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. 115.645... AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.645 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders,...

4. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. 115.645... AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.645 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders,...

5. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. 115.645... AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.645 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders,...

6. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. 115.645... AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.645 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders,...

7. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with...

8. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo....

9. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo....

10. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo....

11. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. 115.645... AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.645 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders,...

12. Concrete hulls for tension-leg platforms

SciTech Connect

De Oliveira, J.G. ); Fjeld, S. )

1990-06-01

This paper describes the main features of a concrete-hull tension-leg-platform (TLP) concept developed for the Heidrun field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The hydrodynamic response and the methods adopted to optimize the hull dimensions, as well as the mooring system and hull mechanical outfitting, are discussed first. Then construction methods are briefly described. Inspection, maintenance, and repair are also addressed. Finally, the advantages of the concrete-hull TLP concept are summarized, including the concrete hull's adaptability to a large range of design requirements, low cost, and short construction time. This paper shows that the concrete-hull TLP is a very cost-efficient solution for the development of deepwater fields.

13. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of...

14. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of...

15. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of...

16. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of...

17. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of...

18. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

19. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

20. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

1. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

2. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

3. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

4. Constraint Induced Movement Techniques To Facilitate Upper Extremity Use in Stroke Patients.

PubMed

Taub, E; Wolf, S L

1997-01-01

A new therapeutic approach to the rehabilitation of movement after stroke, termed constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy, has been derived from basic research with monkeys given somatosensory deafferentation. CI movement therapy consists of a family of therapies; their common element is that they induce stroke patients to greatly increase the use of an affected upper extremity for many hours a day over a period of 10 to 14 consecutive days. The signature intervention involves motor restriction of the contralateral upper extremity in a sling and training of the affected arm. The therapies result in large changes in amount of use of the affected arm in the activities of daily living outside of the clinic that have persisted for the 2 years measured to date. Patients who will benefit from Cl therapy can be identified before the beginning of treatment. PMID:27620374

5. Surface Grafting via Photo-Induced Copper-Mediated Radical Polymerization at Extremely Low Catalyst Concentrations.

PubMed

Laun, Joachim; Vorobii, Mariia; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Trouillet, Vanessa; Welle, Alexander; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Junkers, Thomas

2015-09-01

Surface-initiated photo-induced copper-mediated radical polymerization is employed to graft a wide range of polyacrylate brushes from silicon substrates at extremely low catalyst concentrations. This is the first time that the controlled nature of the reported process is demonstrated via block copolymer formation and re-initiation experiments. In addition to unmatched copper catalyst concentrations in the range of few ppb, film thicknesses up to almost 1 μm are achieved within only 1 h. PMID:26149622

6. Nanoscale electron beam-induced deposition and purification of ruthenium for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask repair

Noh, J. H.; Stanford, M. G.; Lewis, B. B.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Plank, H.; Rack, P. D.

2014-12-01

One critical area for the adoption of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the development of appropriate mask repair strategies. To this end, we have explored focused electron beam-induced deposition of the ruthenium capping or protective layer. Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) was used to deposit a ruthenium capping/protective film using the liquid bis(ethylcyclopentyldienyl)ruthenium(II) precursor. The carbon to ruthenium atomic ratio in the as-deposited material was estimated to be ~9/1. Subsequent to deposition, we demonstrate an electron stimulated purification process to remove carbon by-products from the deposit. Results indicate that high-fidelity nanoscale ruthenium repairs can be realized.

7. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

8. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the...

9. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

10. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

11. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

12. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the...

13. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the...

14. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

15. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the...

16. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

17. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

18. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

19. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

20. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the...

1. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

2. John Hull and the Money Culture

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attfield, David

2008-01-01

John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

3. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

4. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

5. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

6. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

7. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection,...

8. Extended study of extreme geoelectric field event scenarios for geomagnetically induced current application

Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Wilder, F. D.; Crowley, G.

2012-12-01

Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) flowing in man-made ground technological systems are a direct manifestation of adverse space weather. Today there is great concern over possible GIC effects on power transmission networks that can result from extreme space weather events. The threat of severe societal consequences has accelerated recent interest in extreme geomagnetic storm impact on high-voltage power transmission systems. As a result, extreme geomagnetic event characterization is of fundamental importance for quantifying the technological impacts and societal consequences of extreme space weather. This paper reports on the global behavior of the horizontal geomagnetic field and the induced geoelectric field fluctuations during severe/extreme geomagnetic events. This includes: (1) an investigation of the latitude threshold boundary, (2) the local time dependency of the maximum geoelectric field, and (3) the influence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) on the occurrence of enhanced geoelectric fields over ground stations located near the dip equator. Using ground-based and satellite borne DMSP measurements, this paper confirms that the latitude threshold boundary is associated with the movements of the auroral oval and the associated auroral electrojet current system, which is the main driver of the largest perturbations of the ground geomagnetic field at high-latitudes. In addition, we show that the enhancement of the EEJ is associated with the penetration of high-latitude electric fields, and that the geoelectric fields around the EEJ belt can be an order of magnitude larger than stations outside the belt. This has important implications for power networks located around the electrojet belt, and confirms that earlier observations by Pulkkinen et al., (2012) were not isolated incidences, but rather cases that can occur during certain severe geomagnetic storm events.

9. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull construction. 151.10-20 Section 151.10-20 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-20 Hull construction. (a) Construction features. (1) Each barge hull shall be constructed with a suitable bow...

10. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

11. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance....

12. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance....

13. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance....

14. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

15. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

16. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

17. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance....

18. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance....

19. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

20. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

1. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to...

2. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to...

3. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to...

4. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to...

5. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

6. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

7. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards...

8. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards...

9. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... reactions (if applicable) shall be determined. The hull bending stress shall not exceed the applicable... hull. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile... such case, the hull stress shall not exceed the percentage stress values prescribed in §...

10. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... reactions (if applicable) shall be determined. The hull bending stress shall not exceed the applicable... hull. In such case, the hull stress shall not exceed either 50 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile... such case, the hull stress shall not exceed the percentage stress values prescribed in §...

11. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

PubMed Central

Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

2014-01-01

The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. PMID:25025060

12. Exploring the temporally resolved electron density evolution in extreme ultra-violet induced plasmas

van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

2014-07-01

We measured the electron density in an extreme ultra-violet (EUV) induced plasma. This is achieved in a low-pressure argon plasma by using a method called microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The measured electron density just after the EUV pulse is 2.6 × 1016 m-3. This is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction from photo-ionization, which yields a density of 4.5 × 1016 m-3. After the EUV pulse the density slightly increases due to electron impact ionization. The plasma (i.e. electron density) decays in tens of microseconds.

13. Relativistic frequency upshift to the extreme ultraviolet regime using self-induced oscillatory flying mirrors.

PubMed

Kim, I Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Yun, Hyeok; Yun, Sang Jae; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Yoon, Jin Woo; Yu, Tae Jun; Jeong, Tae Moon; Nam, Chang Hee; Lee, Jongmin

2012-01-01

Coherent short-wavelength radiation from laser-plasma interactions is of increasing interest in disciplines including ultrafast biomolecular imaging and attosecond physics. Using solid targets instead of atomic gases could enable the generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation with higher energy and more energetic photons. Here we present the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation through coherent high-harmonic generation from self-induced oscillatory flying mirrors--a new-generation mechanism established in a long underdense plasma on a solid target. Using a 30-fs, 100-TW Ti:sapphire laser, we obtain wavelengths as short as 4.9 nm for an optimized level of amplified spontaneous emission. Particle-in-cell simulations show that oscillatory flying electron nanosheets form in a long underdense plasma, and suggest that the high-harmonic generation is caused by reflection of the laser pulse from electron nanosheets. We expect this extreme ultraviolet radiation to be valuable in realizing a compact X-ray instrument for research in biomolecular imaging and attosecond physics. PMID:23187631

14. Estimation of the impact of climate change-induced extreme precipitation events on floods

Hlavčová, Kamila; Lapin, Milan; Valent, Peter; Szolgay, Ján; Kohnová, Silvia; Rončák, Peter

2015-09-01

In order to estimate possible changes in the flood regime in the mountainous regions of Slovakia, a simple physically-based concept for climate change-induced changes in extreme 5-day precipitation totals is proposed in the paper. It utilizes regionally downscaled scenarios of the long-term monthly means of the air temperature, specific air humidity and precipitation projected for Central Slovakia by two regional (RCM) and two global circulation models (GCM). A simplified physically-based model for the calculation of short-term precipitation totals over the course of changing air temperatures, which is used to drive a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, was proposed. In the paper a case study of this approach in the upper Hron river basin in Central Slovakia is presented. From the 1981-2010 period, 20 events of the basin's most extreme average of 5-day precipitation totals were selected. Only events with continual precipitation during 5 days were considered. These 5-day precipitation totals were modified according to the RCM and GCM-based scenarios for the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2075. For modelling runoff under changed 5-day precipitation totals, a conceptual rainfall-runoff model developed at the Slovak University of Technology was used. Changes in extreme mean daily discharges due to climate change were compared with the original flood events and discussed.

15. Relativistic frequency upshift to the extreme ultraviolet regime using self-induced oscillatory flying mirrors

PubMed Central

Kim, I Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Yun, Hyeok; Yun, Sang Jae; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Yoon, Jin Woo; Yu, Tae Jun; Jeong, Tae Moon; Nam, Chang Hee; Lee, Jongmin

2012-01-01

Coherent short-wavelength radiation from laser–plasma interactions is of increasing interest in disciplines including ultrafast biomolecular imaging and attosecond physics. Using solid targets instead of atomic gases could enable the generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation with higher energy and more energetic photons. Here we present the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation through coherent high-harmonic generation from self-induced oscillatory flying mirrors—a new-generation mechanism established in a long underdense plasma on a solid target. Using a 30-fs, 100-TW Ti:sapphire laser, we obtain wavelengths as short as 4.9 nm for an optimized level of amplified spontaneous emission. Particle-in-cell simulations show that oscillatory flying electron nanosheets form in a long underdense plasma, and suggest that the high-harmonic generation is caused by reflection of the laser pulse from electron nanosheets. We expect this extreme ultraviolet radiation to be valuable in realizing a compact X-ray instrument for research in biomolecular imaging and attosecond physics. PMID:23187631

16. Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon

Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Mariño-Tapia, I.; Coronado, C.; Salles, P.; Medellín, G.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Silva, R.; Candela, J.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.

2012-12-01

Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon are investigated by means of a phase-resolving non-hydrostatic wave model (SWASH). This model solves the nonlinear shallow water equations including non-hydrostatic pressure. The one-dimensional version of the model is implemented in order to investigate wave transformation in fringing reefs. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with (i) laboratory experiments conducted on a physical model (Demirbilek et al., 2007)and (ii) field observations (Coronado et al., 2007). Numerical results show good agreement with both experimental and field data. The comparison against the physical model results, for energetic wave conditions, indicates that high- and low-frequency wave transformation is well reproduced. Moreover, extreme water-level conditions measured during the passage of Hurricane Ivan in Puerto Morelos are also estimated by the numerical tool. Subsequently, the model is implemented at different along-reef locations in Puerto Morelos. Extreme water levels, wave-induced setup, and infragravity wave energy are estimated inside the reef lagoon for different storm wave conditions (Hs >2 m). The numerical results revealed a strong correlation between the offshore sea-swell wave energy and the setup. In contrast, infragravity waves are shown to be the result of a more complex pattern which heavily relies on the reef geometry. Indeed, the southern end of the reef lagoon provides evidence of resonance excitation, suggesting that the reef barrier may act as either a natural flood protection morphological feature, or as an inundation hazard enhancer depending on the incident wave conditions.

17. Hull's Diploma in Teaching of Adults

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Styler, W. E.

1971-01-01

A diploma in the Teaching of Adults for part-time students was introduced in the University of Hull in 1966 as a fully recognized university diploma. Article discusses the three major parts of the course, examinations, and requirements. (RB)

18. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

2013-11-01

There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

19. Characterization of the Tropical-Cyclone-Induced Multi-Hazard Extreme Distribution of Coastal Flooding

Diez Sierra, J.; Toimil, A.; del Jesus, M.; Méndez Incera, F. J.; Medina, R.

2014-12-01

Coastal areas are among the most populated regions on Earth. They constitute the interface between continental land and the ocean. For this reason they are subject to complex flooding dynamics that arise from the interaction of coastal and continental dynamics. This complexity complicates the analysis of the changes induced by climate change on the distribution of extreme events. In this work, we develop a methodology to characterize the extreme distribution of flooding induced by tropical cyclones in coastal environments under different climates, considering marine dynamics (storm surge and wave run-up) and continental dynamics (precipitation and runoff).The approach followed in this work begins by selecting the tropical cyclones that affected the study area in the past; augmenting it with synthetically-generated cyclones. The maximum dissimilarity algorithm is then used on the dataset to select for dynamical downscaling the K tropical cyclones that best represent the variability on the data. Numerical simulations are carried out for these K tropical cyclones to derive the spatial fields of wind (by means of the Hydromet-Rankine Vortex model) and rainfall (using R-Clipper model) induced by the cyclone. SWAN model is used to derive the wave fields, H2D to derive the storm surge fields and a CUENCAS-like model (IH-Mole) to derive runoff fields. All the flood-inducing dynamics are the input to the RFSM-EDA model that computes flood depths for the study area.Having completed the dynamical downscaling database, a Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate synthetic time series of tropical cyclone occurrence. Tropical cyclone climate is related to the spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) fields, which are used in turn as the main driver of a Monte Carlo simulation. Flood time series are derived from cyclone time series using the dynamical downscaling database and interpolation, for those cyclones that have not been simulated.Our hybrid approach (mixing

20. The effect of rigid-body motions on the whipping response of a ship hull subjected to an underwater bubble

Zhang, N.; Zong, Z.

2011-11-01

The dynamic elastic response of a floating ship hull girder to an underwater explosion bubble is normally composed of two parts: rigid-body motion and elastic deformation. However, the effects of rigid-body motion have consistently been neglected in the current literature based on the assumption that they are small. In this paper, our focus is on the study of rigid-body motion effects on the hull girder's elastic deformation, also known as the ‘whipping response’. A theory of interaction between a gas bubble and a hull girder is presented. The bubble dynamic equations combined with the bubble migration, free surface effect and drag force considerations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method. The rigid-body and elastic responses of the hull that are induced by the impulsive pressure of a bubble are calculated using the methods presented herein. Two different examples of real ships are given to demonstrate the effect of rigid-body motion on whipping responses. The numerical results show that rigid-body motions reduce the amplitudes and vibration natural periods of the bending moments of the hull girder. These effects can be ignored for slender hulls, but must be taken into consideration for shorter/wider hulls so as not to underestimate the longitudinal strength.

1. The provenance of extreme flood induced submarine gravity flow deposits off Southwestern Taiwan

Chen, Y.; Su, C.

2012-12-01

Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC) is the major pathway for sediments disperse from Gaoping River (GPR) into deep sea. In previous studies (Su et al., 2012), the cores collected from GPSC show the catastrophic events induced by typhoon may lead to extreme export of terrestrial sediment into GPSC and temporally quick buried in the upper reach or further caused gravity flows in the canyon. For understanding the provenance of the terrestrial sediments deposited in the GPSC during the extreme flooding period, core samples collected in cruise OR1-785, OR1-851 and OR1-923 were used for clay mineral analysis. Clay minerals are one of the most useful indicators to decipher the provenance and transport of sediments in marine environments. The composition and distribution of clay minerals in sediments are related to the climate and the nature of their parent rocks. Our result shows illite is the most abundant clay mineral in the GPSC (over 70%), chlorite and kaolinite are minor (around 20%), and nearly no smectite in core samples. According to the 550°C treatment X-ray diffraction patterns, the diffraction peaks at 7Å and 3.5Å partly preserved in OR1-785-GC5A, OR1-851-GCC and OR1-923-K11A core samples and implies the existence of Mg-chlorite which is widespread in green rocks in the Central Mountain Range. We suggested the extreme flooding event may fast transport the sediment from the Central Mountain Range through GPSC into deep sea environment.

2. Characterizing multi-hazard extreme distributions of coastal flooding induced by tropical cyclones

Díez-Sierra, Javier; Toimil, Alexandra; del Jesus, Manuel; Méndez, Fernando; Medina, Raúl

2015-04-01

Coastal areas, which are among the most populated regions on Earth, are the interface between continental land and the ocean. As a consequence of their location, they are subject to complex flooding dynamics, arising from the interaction between coastal and continental dynamics. This complexity is translated to the characterization of extreme distributions and the effects induced by climate change in the distribution of extreme events. In this work, we develop a methodology that serves to characterize the extreme distribution of flooding in a coastal environment. We focus in the dynamics induced by tropical cyclones that are both marine (storm surge and wave run-up) and continental (precipitation and runoff). Our approach makes uses of historical cyclones that have affected the study area in the past. This ensemble is augmented by synthetically generated cyclones in order to better cover the range of possible tracks. A maximum dissimilarity algorithm is used on the augmented database to select a reduced subset of tracks best representing the variability on the data (Camus et al. 2014). This subset is used to carry out a dynamical downscaling. Numerical simulations are carried out for these subset of tropical cyclones to derive the spatial fields of wind (by means of the Hydromet-Rankine Vortex model) and rainfall (using R-Clipper model) induced by the cyclone. SWAN model is used to derive the wave fields (Díaz et al. 2014), H2D to derive the storm surge fields and a CUENCAS-like model (IH-Mole) to derive runoff fields. All the flood-inducing dynamics are the input to the RFSM-EDA model that computes flood depths for the study area. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate synthetic time series of tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone climate is related to the spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) fields using a non-linear clustering technique, which are used in turn as the main driver of a Monte Carlo simulation. Flood time series are derived from

3. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions

PubMed Central

Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

2014-01-01

Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted. PMID:24937550

4. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions.

PubMed

Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

2014-01-01

Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted. PMID:24937550

5. Cyclone-induced rapid creation of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions

Wang, Zhaomin; Turner, John; Sun, Bo; Li, Bingrui; Liu, Chengyan

2014-06-01

Two polar vessels, Akademik Shokalskiy and Xuelong, were trapped by thick sea ice in the Antarctic coastal region just to the west of 144°E and between 66.5°S and 67°S in late December 2013. This event demonstrated the rapid establishment of extreme Antarctic sea ice conditions on synoptic time scales. The event was associated with cyclones that developed at lower latitudes. Near the event site, cyclone-enhanced strong southeasterly katabatic winds drove large westward drifts of ice floes. In addition, the cyclones also gave southward ice drift. The arrival and grounding of Iceberg B9B in Commonwealth Bay in March 2011 led to the growth of fast ice around it, forming a northward protruding barrier. This barrier blocked the westward ice drift and hence aided sea ice consolidation on its eastern side. Similar cyclone-induced events have occurred at this site in the past after the grounding of Iceberg B9B. Future events may be predictable on synoptic time scales, if cyclone-induced strong wind events can be predicted.

6. Extreme UV induced dissociation of amorphous solid water and crystalline water bilayers on Ru(0001)

Liu, Feng; Sturm, J. M.; Lee, Chris J.; Bijkerk, Fred

2016-04-01

The extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ = 13.5 nm) induced dissociation of water layers on Ru(0001) was investigated. We irradiated amorphous and crystalline water layers on a Ru crystal with EUV light, and measured the surface coverage of remaining water and oxygen as a function of radiation dose by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The main reaction products are OH and H with a fraction of oxygen from fully dissociated water. TPD spectra from a series of exposures reveal that EUV promotes formation of the partially dissociated water overlayer on Ru. Furthermore, loss of water due to desorption and dissociation is also observed. The water loss cross sections for amorphous and crystalline water are measured at 9 ± 2 × 10- 19 cm2 and 5 ± 1 × 10- 19 cm2, respectively. Comparison between the two cross sections suggests that crystalline water is more stable against EUV induced desorption/dissociation. The dissociation products can oxidize the Ru surface. For this early stage of oxidation, we measured a smaller (compared to water loss) cross section at 2 × 10- 20 cm2, which is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the photon absorption cross section (at 92 eV) of gas phase water. The secondary electron (SE) contributions to the cross sections are also estimated. From our estimation, SE only forms a small part (20-25%) of the observed photon cross section.

7. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.; Mendenhall, M. R.

1977-01-01

Theoretical methods are being developed to predict the mutual interference between rotor wakes and the hull for semibuoyant vehicles. The objective of the investigation is to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hull in the presence of rotors whose locations, tilt angles, and disk loading are arbitrarily specified. The methods involve development of potential flow models for the hull alone in a nonuniform onset flow, a rotor wake which has the proper features to predict induced flow outside the wake, and a wake centerline specification technique which accounts for the reactions of the wake to a nonuniform crossflow. The flow models are used in sequence to solve for the mutual influence of the hull and rotor(s) on each other and the resulting loads. A flow separation model is included to estimate the influence of separation on hull loads at high sideslip angles. Only limited results have been obtained to date. These were obtained on a configuration which was tested in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Low Speed Tunnel under Goodyear Aircraft Corporation sponsorship and indicate the nature of the interference pressure distribution on a configuration in hover.

8. 19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE OF HULL, APPARENTLY ADDED TO PREVENT HOGGING. - Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

9. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

10. Composite hull for full-ocean depth

SciTech Connect

Garvey, R.E.; Hawkes, G.S.

1990-01-01

A lightweight and economical modular design concept for a manned submersible is proposed to give two passengers repeated access to the deepest parts of the ocean in a safe, comfortable, and efficient manner. This versatile craft will allow work and exploration to be accomplished at moderate to maximum depths without any compromise in terms of capabilities or operating cost. Its design follows the experience acquired from the numerous existing minimum volume'' pressure hull submersible, and represents a radical departure from conventional designs. This paper addresses issues of gaining effective, safe working access for full ocean depth. Cylindrical composite hulls have the potential to achieve positive buoyancy sufficient to carry personnel and equipment swiftly back to the surface after completing exploration of the deepest ocean. Buoyancy for a submersible is similar to lift for an airplane, except that without lift, the airplane remains on the surface, but without buoyancy, the submersible never returns to the surface. There are two means of achieving buoyancy. The traditional method used to steel, titanium, or aluminium alloy deep-ocean vehicles is to add a very large buoy to compensate for the negative buoyancy of the hull. The alternate method is for the hull to displace more than its weight in water. This requires at least twice compression strength per unit mass of hull than steel, titanium, or aluminum alloys can provide. Properly constructed organic-matrix composites are light and strong enough to form a dry, 1-atm cabin with buoyancy to carry research staff and equipment to any depth in the ocean. Three different composite hull configurations are presented. Each is capable of serving as a cabin for a two-person crew. None would displace more than 4 tons of seawater. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

11. Rice hull energy uses in the Philippines

SciTech Connect

1985-01-01

As a rice producing country, the Philippines produces a tremendous amount of rice hulls which when converted to energy could displace a substantial amount of imported energy. Realizing this possibility needs a thorough evaluation of both resources and demand characteristics of particular industry where immediate applicability of technical option awaits. This document presents the Philippines' past activities in fuelizing rice hulls and future action plans where its economic relevance could be enhanced. Descriptions of four power plants are included with the author's analysis of their probable market impact and projections of future applications.

12. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

13. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

14. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

15. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

16. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

17. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

18. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

19. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

20. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

1. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

2. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

3. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

4. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

5. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

6. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

7. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

8. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

9. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull... identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements...

10. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

11. 46 CFR 71.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull equipment. 71.25-25 Section 71.25-25 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull equipment: (1) All subdivision bulkheads shall be examined...

12. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for...

13. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected...

14. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 169.231... hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a... and all through-hull fittings, sea chests, sea valves, sea strainers, and valves for the...

15. 46 CFR 71.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 71.25-25 Section 71.25-25 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull equipment: (1) All subdivision bulkheads shall be examined...

16. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

17. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-1 Barge hull classifications. (a) Each barge constructed or converted in conformance with this subpart shall be assigned a...

18. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for...

19. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

20. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for...

1. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

2. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

3. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected...

4. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected...

5. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

6. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D. ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A...

7. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

8. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 169.231... hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a... and all through-hull fittings, sea chests, sea valves, sea strainers, and valves for the...

9. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-1 Barge hull classifications. (a) Each barge constructed or converted in conformance with this subpart shall be assigned a...

10. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

11. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected...

12. 33 CFR 181.25 - Hull identification number format.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification number format... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.25 Hull identification number format. Each of the hull identification numbers required by § 181.23 must consist of...

13. 46 CFR 71.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull equipment. 71.25-25 Section 71.25-25 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull equipment: (1) All subdivision bulkheads shall be examined...

14. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for...

15. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

16. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected...

17. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 169.231... hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a... and all through-hull fittings, sea chests, sea valves, sea strainers, and valves for the...

18. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull... identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements...

19. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D. ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A...

20. 46 CFR 71.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull equipment. 71.25-25 Section 71.25-25 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull equipment: (1) All subdivision bulkheads shall be examined...

1. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D. ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A...

2. 46 CFR 71.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull equipment. 71.25-25 Section 71.25-25 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull equipment: (1) All subdivision bulkheads shall be examined...

3. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-1 Barge hull classifications. (a) Each barge constructed or converted in conformance with this subpart shall be assigned a...

4. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for...

5. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D. ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A...

6. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... conditions. (4) Welding systems with hull return except vessels subject to 46 CFR Subchapter D. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A...

7. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

8. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

9. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

10. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

11. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests...

12. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

13. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

14. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

15. Satellite Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Reveals Drought Onset Mechanisms: Insights from Two Contrasting Extreme Events

Sun, Y.; Fu, R.; Dickinson, R. E.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Gu, L.; Xia, Y.; Fernando, N.

2015-12-01

This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the US Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root-zone soil moisture caused by year-long below-normal precipitation. In contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and ample precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root-zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.

16. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field

Terhune, Kurt J.; King, Lyon B.; He, Kai; Cumings, John

2016-09-01

An extreme electric field on the order of 1010 V m‑1 was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid.

17. Photoionized argon plasmas induced with intense soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet pulses

Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

2016-01-01

In this work, photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of gaseous argon with soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) intense radiation pulses. Two different laser-produced plasma sources, employing a low energy Nd:YAG laser and a high energy iodine laser system (PALS), were used for creation of photoionized plasmas. In both cases the EUV or SXR beam irradiated the Ar stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Emission spectra, measured for the Ar photoionized plasmas indicated strong differences in ionization degree for plasmas produced using low and high energy systems. In case of the the EUV driving pulses, emission lines corresponding to neutral atoms and singly charged ions were observed. In case of the SXR pulses utilized for the photoionized plasma creation, only Ar V–VIII emission lines were recorded. Additionally, electron density measurements were performed by laser interferometry employing a femtosecond laser system synchronized with the irradiating system. Maximum electron density for the Ar photoionized plasma, induced using the high energy system, reached 1.9 · 1018 cm‑3. Interferometric measurements performed for the moment of maximum intensity of the main laser pulse (t  =  0) revealed no fringe shift. Detection limit for the interferometric measurements was estimated. It allowed to estimate the upper limit for electron density at t  =  0 as 5 · 1016 cm‑3.

18. Impact of landslides induced by 2014 northeast monsoon extreme rain in Malaysia

Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Koay, Swee Peng; Sakai, Naoki; Lateh, Habibah

2016-04-01

In December 2014, northeast monsoon brought extreme rainfalls to Malaysia, mainly in the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia and coastal area in Sabah and Sarawak. In this month, many of the rain gauge records in this area exceeded 1,000 mm, which is about 1/3 of average annual rainfall precipitation (2,850mm/year) in Malaysia. This unexpected heavy rainfall induced landslides and floods which brought about large-scale losses in Malaysia equivalent to several hundred million USD as thousands of residents had evacuated from hometown for months, and factories, schools and business activities were shut down for weeks. Among the major infrastructure of the nation, East-west Highway was subjected to damages by 21 landslides. Two large-scale landslides cut off the highway for a week. Authors had installed landslide monitoring instruments at reactivated landslide sites along the highway at N05° 36.042' E101° 35.546'. Records by in-situ inclinometers showed clear deformation from 17th December to 26th December, associated with certain change in piezometeres record for groundwater level monitoring. Several cracks occurred in the slope.

19. Thermalization of electrons in decaying extreme ultraviolet photons induced low pressure argon plasma

Beckers, J.; van der Horst, R. M.; Osorio, E. A.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Banine, V. Y.

2016-06-01

We monitored—in the pressure range: 0.5–15 Pa—the electron temperature in decaying plasmas induced in argon gas by pulsed irradiation with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons with wavelengths closely around 13.5 nm. For this purpose, temporal measurements of the space-averaged and electric field weighted electron density after pulsed EUV irradiation are combined with an ambipolar diffusion model of the plasma. Results demonstrate that electrons are thermalized to room temperature before the plasma has fully expanded to the chamber walls for pressures of 3 Pa and higher. At pressures below 3 Pa, the electron temperature was found to be up to 0.1 eV above room temperature which is explained by the fact that plasma expansion is too quick for the electrons to fully thermalize. The comparison between plasma expansion duration towards a surface, plasma decay at a surface and time needed for thermalization and cooling of electrons is essential for designers of EUV lithography tools and EUV sources since the temperature of electrons dictates many fundamental physical processes.

20. A mathematical model of extremely low frequency ocean induced electromagnetic noise

Dautta, Manik; Faruque, Rumana Binte; Islam, Rakibul

2016-07-01

Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system uses the principle that ferromagnetic objects disturb the magnetic lines of force of the earth. These lines of force are able to pass through both water and air in similar manners. A MAD system, usually mounted on an aerial vehicle, is thus often employed to confirm the detection and accomplish localization of large ferromagnetic objects submerged in a sea-water environment. However, the total magnetic signal encountered by a MAD system includes contributions from a myriad of low to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources. The goal of the MAD system is to detect small anomaly signals in the midst of these low-frequency interfering signals. Both the Range of Detection (Rd) and the Probability of Detection (Pd) are limited by the ratio of anomaly signal strength to the interfering magnetic noise. In this paper, we report a generic mathematical model to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio or SNR. Since time-variant electro-magnetic signals are affected by conduction losses due to sea-water conductivity and the presence of air-water interface, we employ the general formulation of dipole induced electromagnetic field propagation in stratified media [1]. As a first step we employ a volumetric distribution of isolated elementary magnetic dipoles, each having its own dipole strength and orientation, to estimate the magnetic noise observed by a MAD system. Numerical results are presented for a few realizations out of an ensemble of possible realizations of elementary dipole source distributions.

1. Radiation-induced solidification of ionic liquid under extreme electric field.

PubMed

Terhune, Kurt J; King, Lyon B; He, Kai; Cumings, John

2016-09-16

An extreme electric field on the order of 10(10) V m(-1) was applied to the free surface of an ionic liquid to cause electric-field-induced evaporation of molecular ions from the liquid. The point of ion emission was observed in situ using a TEM. The resulting electrospray emission process was observed to create nanoscale high-aspect-ratio dendritic features that were aligned with the direction of the electric field. Upon removal of the stressing field the features were seen to remain, indicating that the ionic liquid residue was solidified or gelled. Similar electrospray experiments performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the features are created when the high-energy electron beam damages the molecular structure of the ionic liquid. While the electric field does not play a direct role in the fluid modification, the electric stress was critical in detecting the liquid property change. It is only because the electric stress mechanically elongated the fluid during the electrospray process and these obviously non-liquid structures persisted when the field was removed that the damage was evident. This evidence of ionic liquid radiation damage may have significant bearing on electrospray devices where it is possible to produce high-energy secondary electrons through surface impacts of emitted ions downstream of the emitter. Any such impacts that are in close proximity could see reflected secondary electrons impact the emitter causing gelling of the ionic liquid. PMID:27487731

2. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

3. Nonthermal phase transitions in semiconductors induced by a femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse

Medvedev, Nikita; Jeschke, Harald O.; Ziaja, Beata

2013-01-01

In this paper, we present a novel theoretical approach, which allows the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of both electrons and atoms/ions within free-electron laser excited semiconductors at femtosecond time scales. The approach consists of the Monte-Carlo method treating photoabsorption, high-energy-electron and core-hole kinetics and relaxation processes. Low-energy electrons localized within the valence and conduction bands of the target are treated with a temperature equation, including source terms, defined by the exchange of energy and particles with high-energy electrons and atoms. We follow the atomic motion with the molecular dynamics method on the changing potential energy surface. The changes of the potential energy surface and of the electron band structure are calculated at each time step with the help of the tight-binding method. Such a combination of methods enables investigation of nonequilibrium structural changes within materials under extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond irradiation. Our analysis performed for diamond irradiated with an XUV femtosecond laser pulse predicts for the first time in this wavelength regime the nonthermal phase transition from diamond to graphite. Similar to the case of visible light irradiation, this transition takes place within a few tens of femtoseconds and is caused by changes of the interatomic potential induced by ultrafast electronic excitations. It thus occurs well before the heating stimulated by electron-phonon coupling starts to play a role. This allows us to conclude that this transition is nonthermal and represents a general mechanism of the response of solids to ultrafast electron excitations.

4. Active control of coupled dynamic response of TLP hull and tendon

SciTech Connect

Yoshida, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nam, D.; Hineno, Motohiro; Ishida, Shigeki

1994-12-31

This paper presents an active control of coupled dynamic responses of the hull and the tendon of TLP. In a deepwater TLP, the restoring force becomes smaller and the natural frequency of the system decreases with increasing water depth. There is a possibility that the dynamic response of tendon, which is induced by the hull motion, can be significant. Furthermore the motion of TLP due to wave drifting force can be comparable or larger than wave induced motion. This low-frequency response can be controlled by conventional DPS thrusters. The operability is improved and the tendon and the riser are protected from structural damage. The low-frequency motion is induced by small wave drifting force and can be controlled by small control force. The first order wave force is very large and control of this high-frequency response is not practical. The control method is optimal control and the low-frequency hull motion and the bending strain of the tendon are controlled. The high-frequency response is removed from the control system by low pass filters. The effectiveness of control is verified by experiment with a 1/100 scale model of JOIA (Japan Ocean Industries Association)-TLP. The hull motion is measured by an ultrasonic ranging sensor and the control force is generated by two thrusters built in the TLP model. Average control force required for the control is about 1/200 of the hull weight, which is slightly larger than the value of the conventional DPS thrust of a semi-submersible.

5. Regional-Scale High-Latitude Extreme Geoelectric Fields Pertaining to Geomagnetically Induced Currents

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, Emanuel; Eichner, Jan; Viljanen, Ari; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

2015-01-01

Motivated by the needs of the high-voltage power transmission industry, we use data from the high-latitude IMAGE magnetometer array to study characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields at regional scales. We use 10-s resolution data for years 1993-2013, and the fields are characterized using average horizontal geoelectric field amplitudes taken over station groups that span about 500-km distance. We show that geoelectric field structures associated with localized extremes at single stations can be greatly different from structures associated with regionally uniform geoelectric fields, which are well represented by spatial averages over single stations. Visual extrapolation and rigorous extreme value analysis of spatially averaged fields indicate that the expected range for 1-in-100-year extreme events are 3-8 V/km and 3.4-7.1 V/km, respectively. The Quebec reference ground model is used in the calculations.

6. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.70-5 Section 32.70..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.70-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship,...

7. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.75-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship, and...

8. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.70-5 Section 32.70..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.70-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship,...

9. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.70-5 Section 32.70..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.70-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship,...

10. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.75-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship, and...

11. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.70-5 Section 32.70..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.70-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship,...

12. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.75-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship, and...

13. Characterising the Geomorphic Response of a Tropical Mega-River to an Extreme, Cyclone Induced, Flood Event.

Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

2014-12-01

Extreme events have the ability to induce extensive geomorphic change in fluvial systems as a result of elevated discharge levels, increased sediment transport capacity and associated changes in sheer stresses along channel boundaries. Understanding how rapid rises in water levels change flow structures and channel boundary roughness is key to understanding the relative significance of large events in terms of driving local and system wide geomorphic change. However, capturing the fluvial process dynamics in operation during such events is technically and logistically difficult, especially in the world's largest rivers. During September 2013, on the peak of the monsoon, a series of tropical cyclones induced a large flood event within the Mekong basin. At the peak of the flood wave, discharge measured ~60000 m3/s; the 11th largest flood on record. Pre and post event high resolution topographic surveys of parts of the bed and bank were captured using a combination of contiguous multibeam echo sounding (MBES) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) during the event. Simultaneously detailed measurements of cross sectional and near bank flow structure were acquired using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp). Together, these unique datasets can be used to characterise and assess the geomorphic impact of a cyclone induced extreme flood event on the Mekong. We show how flow structures in the near bank region evolve with stage during the extreme event and how the associated geomorphic response is modulated by the distinctive process dynamics of a mega-river.

14. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munk, M. M.

1979-01-01

The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

15. Carry-over fluency induced by extreme prolongations: A new behavioral paradigm.

PubMed

Briley, P M; Barnes, M P; Kalinowski, J S

2016-04-01

Extreme prolongations, which can be generated via extreme delayed auditory feedback (DAF) (e.g., 250-500 ms) or mediated cognitively with timing applications (e.g., analog stopwatch) at 2 s per syllable, have long been behavioral techniques used to inhibit stuttering. Some therapies have used this rate solely to establish initial fluency, while others use extremely slowed speech to establish fluency and add other strategic techniques such as easy onsets and diaphragmatic breathing. Extreme prolongations generate effective, efficient, and immediate forward flowing fluent speech, removing the signature behaviors of discrete stuttering (i.e., syllable repetitions and audible and inaudible postural fixations). Prolonged use of extreme prolongations establishes carry-over fluency, which is spontaneous, effortless speech absent of most, if not all, overt and covert manifestations of stuttering. The creation of this immediate fluency and the immense potential of extreme prolongations to generate long periods of carry-over fluency have been overlooked by researchers and clinicians alike. Clinicians depart from these longer prolongation durations as they attempt to achieve the same fluent results at a near normal rate of speech. Clinicians assume they are re-teaching fluency and slow rates will give rise to more normal rates with less control, but without carry-over fluency, controls and cognitive mediation are always needed for the inherently unstable speech systems of persons who stutter to experience fluent speech. The assumption being that the speech system is untenable without some level of cognitive and motoric monitoring that is always necessary. The goal is omnipresent "near normal rate sounding fluency" with continuous mediation via cognitive and motoric processes. This pursuit of "normal sounding fluency" continues despite ever-present relapse. Relapse has become so common that acceptance of stuttering is the new therapy modality because relapse has come to be

16. Numerical study of induced current perturbations in the vicinity of excitable cells exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields

Hassan, Noha; Chatterjee, Indira; Publicover, Nelson G.; Craviso, Gale L.

2003-10-01

Realistic three-dimensional cell morphologies were modelled to determine the current density induced in excitable cell culture preparations exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields and to identify important factors that can influence the responses of cells to these fields. Cell morphologies representing single spherical adrenal chromaffin cells, single elongated smooth muscle cells and chromaffin cell aggregates in a Petri dish containing culture medium were modelled using the finite element method. The computations for a spherical cell revealed alterations in the magnitude and spatial distribution of the induced current density in the immediate vicinity of the cell. Maxima occurred at the equatorial sides and minima at the poles. Proximity of cells to each other as well as cell aggregate shape, size and orientation with respect to the induced current influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution of the induced current density. For an elongated cell, effects on the induced current density were highly dependent on cell orientation with respect to the direction of the induced current. These results provide novel insights into the perturbations in induced current that occur in excitable cell culture preparations and lay a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of interaction with extremely low frequency magnetic fields at the tissue level.

17. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE-INDUCED CHANGES IN EXTREME EVENTS ON OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER AIR QUALITY

EPA Science Inventory

Historical data records of air pollution meteorology from multiple datasets will be compiled and analyzed to identify possible trends in extreme events. Changes in climate and air quality between 2010 and 2050 will be simulated with a suite of models. The consequential effe...

18. Modeling climate change induced hydrological extremes in the Kafue River Basin in Southern Africa

Ngongondo, C.; Li, L.; Gong, L.; Xu, C.-Y.

2012-04-01

Climate change impact projections in southern Africa suggest significant declines in flows in the major river basins. However, impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes (floods) in the region remain a grey area despite the threat they pose to human life and property. In this study, the impacts of climate change on extreme flows in the upper Kafue River basin, a major tributary of the Zambezi River, were investigated. Catchment hydrography was determined using the Hydro1k at a spatial resolution of 1 km resulting in an approximate registered area of 23,000 km2. The daily global WASMOD-M model was calibrated and validated during 1971 to 2001 with the WATCH Forcing Data (WFD) against observed discharge at Machiya gauging station from the Gridded River Discharge Data Centre(GRDC). Future climate change scenarios for extreme flows were derived by forcing the model with outputs from three GCM's (ECHAM, CMCC3 and IPSL) under the IPCC's SRES A2 and B1 scenarios from 2020 to 2100 at daily timescale. During calibration and validation, the NS coefficient value was above 0.80 and the Pearson correlation coefficient between observed and simulated flows of 0.9, suggesting acceptable model performance. Current and future extremes for each scenario were analyzed using the Peak Over Threshold (POT) analysis fitted to the Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPA), which provided less RMSE values as compared to Annual Maximum Series (AMS) fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The results show considerable departures from the reference period extremes for most of GCM scenarios considered, with both the A2 and B1 scenarios of the IPSL resulting in higher projected flows as compared to the other two models. On average, floods with return periods T=5,10,50,100,1000 years increased from Q (m3 s-1) = 626.6, 673.9, 767.1, 802.3, 903.7 during the reference period to Q (m3s-1) = 793.5, 873.4, 1046.2, 1119.2, 1364.8 respectively. The approach in our study has a

19. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

SciTech Connect

Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

1980-04-01

A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

20. [The nootropic correction of disorders in learning and memory processes induced by extreme exposures].

PubMed

Iasnetsov, V V; Krylova, I N; Popov, V M

1996-01-01

Experiments on rats demonstrated that the low-intensity electromagnetic field (12.6 cm, 2375 MHz, power density 1 mW/cm2), motion sickness, and electroconvulsive shock provoked the retrograde amnesia in the passive avoidance test. The oxyracetam (100 mg/kg, i.p.), aniracetam (50 mg/kg, i.p.), nooglutil (50 mg/kg, i.p.), meclofenoxate (50 mg/kg, i.p.), pyracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p.), and GABA (200 mg/kg, i.p) prevented the memory-impairing effect of all these extreme factors. On the contrary, the N-acetylglycinamide, semax, and other nootropic drugs were effective only under one or two extreme conditions. PMID:8974577

1. Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam

SciTech Connect

Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria; Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6 Zuppella, Paola; Barkusky, Frank; KLA-Tencor, 5 Technology Dr., Milpitas, California 95035 ; Mann, Klaus; Mueller, Matthias

2013-05-28

Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

2. Global-warming-induced Increases in Extreme Precipitation are Smallest over Mountains

Shi, X.; Durran, D. R.

2015-12-01

Climate-model simulations predict an intensification of extreme precipitation in almost all areas of the world under global warming. Geographical variations in the magnitude of this intensification are clearly evident in the simulations, but most previous efforts to understand the factors responsible for the changes in extreme precipitation have focused on zonal averages, neglecting the variations that occur in different regions at the same latitude. Here we present climate-model simulations for an ocean-covered earth having simple idealized continents with north-south mountain barriers in its northern midlatitudes. We show that the sensitivity of extreme precipitation to increases in the global mean surface temperature is 3 %/K lower over the mountains than over the oceans and the plains. Fundamental factors responsible for changes in precipitation intensity may be divided between thermodynamic effects, arising through changes in temperature and moisture, and dynamical effects, produced by changes in the ascent rates of saturated air parcels. The difference in sensitivity among these regions is not due to thermodynamic effects, but rather to differences between the gravity-wave dynamics governing vertical velocities over the mountains and the cyclone dynamics governing vertical motions over the oceans and plains.

3. Studying Laser-Induced Spin Currents Using Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Light

Turgut, Emrah

Next-generation magnetic-memory devices and heat-assisted magnetic-recording applications will require a better understanding of magnetic multilayers and their interactions with optical-laser pulses. In this thesis, by combining the advantages of ultrabroad-band extreme-ultraviolet light including ultrafast time resolution, element selectivity and tabletop easy access, I report three findings in the study of ultrafast magnetization dynamics in itinerant ferromagnets. First, I experimentally prove that the transverse magneto-optical Kerr response with extreme-ultraviolet light has a purely magnetic origin and that our experimental technique is an artifact-free ultrafast magnetic probe. Second, I demonstrate the first ultrafast magnetization enhancement driven by ultrafast spin currents in Ni/Ru/Fe multilayers. Third, I engineer the sample system by choosing either insulating or spin-scattering spacer layers between the Ni and Fe magnetic layers and by structural ordering. Then, I control the competition between ultrafast spin-flip scattering and superdiffusive spin-current mechanisms; either of these processes may to be the dominant mechanism in ultrafast demagnetization. Finally, I report two continuing experiments that are promising for future ultrafast magnetization studies with extreme-ultraviolet sources. These experiments are resonant-magnetic small-angle-scattering and the generation of bright circularly polarized high harmonics accompanied by a demonstration of the first x-ray magnetic circular dichroism with a tabletop system.

4. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

5. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

6. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of...

7. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings...

8. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

9. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

10. 46 CFR 91.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull equipment. 91.25-25 Section 91.25-25 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the inspectors shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

11. 46 CFR 91.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull equipment. 91.25-25 Section 91.25-25 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the inspectors shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

12. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

13. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

14. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

15. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

16. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of...

17. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

18. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

19. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

20. 46 CFR 91.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull equipment. 91.25-25 Section 91.25-25 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the inspectors shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

1. 46 CFR 91.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull equipment. 91.25-25 Section 91.25-25 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the inspectors shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

2. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of...

3. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

4. 46 CFR 91.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 91.25-25 Section 91.25-25 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the inspectors shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

5. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

6. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

7. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

8. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

9. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings...

10. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of...

11. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings...

12. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

13. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

14. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings...

15. 4. View of port side forebody of hull, showing turn ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of port side forebody of hull, showing turn of bilge and sponson deck construction (white rectangles on hull were applied by HAER recording team to number vessel's frames and are not an original feature). - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

16. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

17. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings...

18. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

19. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of...

20. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of...

1. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter....

2. Iron-59 absorption from soy hulls: intrinsic vs extrinsic labeling

SciTech Connect

Lykken, G.I.; Mahalko, J.R.; Nielsen, E.J.; Dintzis, F.R.

1986-03-05

As part of an evaluation of the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for measuring iron absorption, absorption from soy hulls extrinsically labeled (/sup 59/Fe added to bread dough) was compared with that from soy hulls intrinsically labeled (/sup 59/Fe incorporated into the soy plant during growth). Century soybeans were grown in a greenhouse. After pods had formed and were filling, each plant was stem injected twice, at 3 day intervals, with 22 ..mu..Ci /sup 59/Fe as FeCl/sub 2/ in 25 ..mu..l of 0.5 M HCl solution. After the plants had senesced, the soybeans were harvested, dried, shelled and the hulls removed. Standard meals containing 3.5 mg Fe/meal and up to 0.06 ..mu..Ci /sup 59/Fe in a soy hull bun were fed on 2 consecutive days to free-living volunteers in a crossover design. Absorption of /sup 59/Fe was greater from intrinsically labeled soy hulls than from extrinsically labeled soy hulls, 20 +/- 20% vs 15 +/- 11% (n=14, p > 0.05 by paired t-test). Apparent absorption ranged from 1.3% to 77% from intrinsically labeled soy hulls and .5% to 29% from extrinsically labeled soy hulls with the highest absorption occurring in persons with low serum ferritin (S.F. < 8 ng/ml). These findings provide additional evidence that the extrinsic labeling method is a valid measure of iron bioavailability to humans.

3. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

PubMed

Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

2016-01-01

Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use. PMID:27177559

4. A first global-scale hindcast of extreme sea levels induced by extra-tropical storms

Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

2015-04-01

Flood risk in coastal areas has been increasing in past years. This can be partly attributed to climate change and rising sea levels that increase the likelihood of coastal flood hazards, but also to increasing flood exposure because the global population and capital is increasingly concentrated in coastal zones. Without action, the increasing trends in flood hazard and exposure will be associated with catastrophic flood losses in the future. The adequate allocation of global investments and prioritization of adaptation actions requires an accurate understanding of the current and future coastal flood risk on a global-scale. Despite this, global data on extreme sea levels are scarce. A few studies have assessed coastal flood risk at the global-scale. To date, these have been either based on extreme water levels in the DIVA database or on observations from tide gauges. Both datasets have limitations when assessing flood risk, including low-probability events, on a fully global scale. Hence, there is a need for an improved estimation of extreme sea level on a global-scale. Therefore, we are developing the first global hindcast of coastal water levels which covers the period 1979-2013. To do this, we apply a global hydrodynamic model which is based on the Delft3D Flexible Mesh software from Deltares. By forcing the model with the tidal potential and meteorological fields derived from the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, we are able to simulate the water levels resulting from tides and surges. Subsequently, we apply extreme value statistics to estimate exceedance probabilities. Similar hydrodynamic modelling efforts have been carried out at the regional scale, but as the modelling of surges in shallow coastal areas requires a high-resolution model grid, generally this approach is computationally too costly on a global-scale. However, the recent application of unstructured grids (or flexible mesh) in hydrodynamic models, allowing local refinement of the grid, has enabled

5. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

2015-11-01

This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but also from distant upwind sources. Transport from remote sources is usually in the mid-tropospheric layers and associated with specific features and patterns of the larger-scale circulations. The synoptic systems (tropical and extratropical) that account for most of the major extreme precipitation events and the coupling of circulation and extreme rainfall patterns are presented. Heavy rainfall over the Mediterranean Basin is caused at times in concert by several atmospheric processes working at different atmospheric scales, such as local convection, upper synoptic-scale-level troughs, and mesoscale convective systems. Under tropical air-mass intrusions, convection generated by static instability seems to play a more important role than synoptic-scale vertical motions. Locally, the occurrence of torrential rains and their intensity is dependent on factors such as temperature profiles and implied instability, atmospheric moisture, and lower-level convergence.

6. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

Dayan, U.; Nissen, K. M.; Ulbrich, U.

2015-06-01

This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes producing heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the Western and Eastern Mediterranean in order to point at specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but also from distant upwind sources. Transport from remote sources is usually in the mid-tropospheric layers and associated with specific features and patterns of the larger scale circulations. The synoptic systems (tropical and extra-tropical) accounting for most of the major extreme precipitation events and the coupling of circulation and extreme rainfall patterns are presented. Heavy rainfall over the Mediterranean Basin is caused at times in concert by several atmospheric processes working at different atmospheric scales, such as local convection, upper-level synoptic-scale troughs, and meso-scale convective systems. Under tropical air mass intrusions, convection generated by static instability seems to play a more important role than synoptic-scale vertical motions. Locally, the occurrence of torrential rains and their intensity is dependent on factors such as temperature profiles and implied instability, atmospheric moisture, and lower-level convergence.

7. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat.

PubMed

Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Ferreira Filho, Moisés Bonifacio Alves; Jimenez, George Chaves; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

2014-06-01

Male infertility is often related to reproductive age couples experiencing fertility-related issues. Men may have fertility problems associated with reversible testicular damage. Considering that men have been increasingly exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the production, distribution and use of electricity, this study analyzed whether 60 Hz and 1 mT magnetic field exposure may impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat shock using rats as an experimental model. Adult male rats were subjected to a single testicular heat shock (HS, 43 °C for 12 min) and then exposed to the magnetic field for 15, 30 and 60 d after HS. Magnetic field exposure during the spermatogenesis recovery induced changes in testis components volume, cell ultrastructure and histomorphometrical parameters. Control animals had a reestablished and active spermatogenesis at 60 d after heat shock, while animals exposed to magnetic field still showed extensive testicular degeneration. Magnetic field exposure did not change the plasma testosterone. In conclusion, extremely low-frequency magnetic field may be harmful to fertility recovery in males affected by reversible testicular damage. PMID:23781997

8. Neuroprotective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

PubMed

Yin, Chunchun; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

2016-08-01

The present study investigated the protective effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) on extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF)-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons and the underlying molecular mechanism. The results of MTT, morphological observation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays showed that compared with control, incubating neurons under ELF-EMF exposure significantly decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells, whereas LSPCs evidently protected the hippocampal neurons against ELF-EMF-induced cell damage. Moreover, a certain concentration of LSPCs inhibited the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) level, as well as prevented the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by ELF-EMF exposure. In addition, supplementation with LSPCs could alleviate DNA damage, block cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibit apoptosis and necrosis of hippocampal neurons under ELF-EMF exposure. Further study demonstrated that LSPCs up-regulated the activations of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl proteins and suppressed the expressions of Bad, Bax proteins caused by ELF-EMF exposure. In conclusion, these findings revealed that LSPCs protected against ELF-EMF-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27470406

9. Electron-Impact-Induced Emission Cross Sections of Neon in the Extreme Ultraviolet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.

1996-01-01

We have measured the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of neon produced by electron excitation. The measurements were obtained under optically thin conditions, and at a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM). The most prominent features of the EUV spectrum between 45-80 nm are the resonance lines of Ne I at 73.6 and 74.4 nm and a multiplet of Ne II at 46.14 nm (the average value for the line center of the two closely spaced ion lines at 46.07 and 46.22 nm). Absolute emission cross sections of these lines at 300 eV were measured and compared to other previous measurements.

10. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

2010-05-01

Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

11. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying Certain Dangerous Bulk Cargoes § 32.63-5 Barge hull...

12. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23... Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float....00213; K2=hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of this part;...

13. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull...

14. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull...

15. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23... Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float....00213; K2=hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of this part;...

16. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of...

17. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull...

18. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of...

19. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull...

20. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23... Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float....00213; K2=hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of this part;...

1. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23... Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float....00213; K2=hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of this part;...

2. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of...

3. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November...

4. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

5. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

6. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

7. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

8. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

9. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

10. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

11. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

12. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verduzio, R

1924-01-01

Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

13. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

14. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

15. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tropical cyclone-induced storm surges

Haigh, Ivan D.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Mason, Matthew S.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

2014-01-01

The incidence of major storm surges in the last decade have dramatically emphasized the immense destructive capabilities of extreme water level events, particularly when driven by severe tropical cyclones. Given this risk, it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood and erosion management, engineering and for future land-use planning and to ensure the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. Australia has a long history of coastal flooding from tropical cyclones. Using a novel integration of two modeling techniques, this paper provides the first estimates of present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia, and the first estimates that combine the influence of astronomical tides, storm surges generated by both extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, and seasonal and inter-annual variations in mean sea level. Initially, an analysis of tide gauge records has been used to assess the characteristics of tropical cyclone-induced surges around Australia. However, given the dearth (temporal and spatial) of information around much of the coastline, and therefore the inability of these gauge records to adequately describe the regional climatology, an observationally based stochastic tropical cyclone model has been developed to synthetically extend the tropical cyclone record to 10,000 years. Wind and pressure fields derived for these synthetically generated events have then been used to drive a hydrodynamic model of the Australian continental shelf region with annual maximum water levels extracted to estimate exceedance probabilities around the coastline. To validate this methodology, selected historic storm surge events have been simulated and resultant storm surges compared with gauge records. Tropical cyclone induced exceedance probabilities have been combined with

16. Long-term variability and changes in thunderstorm induced extreme precipitation in Slovakia over 1951-2010

Pecho, J.; Faško, P.; Bližák, V.; Kajaba, P.; Košálová, J.; Bochníček, O.; Lešková, L.

2012-04-01

It is well known that extreme precipitation associated with intensive rains, in summer induced mostly by local thunderstorm activity, could cause very significant problems in economical and social spheres of the countries. Heavy precipitation and consecutive flash-floods are the most serious weather-related hazards over the territory of Slovakia. The extreme precipitation analyses play a strategic role in many climatological and hydrological evaluations designed for the wide range of technical and engineering applications as well as climate change impact assessments. A thunderstorm, as a violent local storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and accompanied by thunder and lightning, represents extreme convective activity in the atmosphere depending upon the release of latent heat, by the condensation of water vapor, for most of its energy. Under the natural conditions of Slovakia the incidence of thunderstorms has been traditionally concentrated in the summer or warm half-year (Apr.-Sept.), but increasing air temperature resulting in higher water vapor content and more intense short-term precipitation is associated with more frequent thunderstorm occurrence in early spring as well as autumn. It is the main reason why the studies of thunderstorm phenomena have increased in Slovakia in recent years. It was found that thunderstorm occurrence, in terms of incidence of storm days, has profoundly changed particularly in spring season (~ 30 % in April and May). The present contribution is devoted to verifying the hypothesis that recently the precipitation has been more intense and significant shifts in seasonal incidence have occurred in particular regions in Slovakia. On the basis of the 60-year (1951-2010) meteorological observation series obtained from more than 20 synoptic stations, the analysis of trends and long-term variability of the days with thunderstorms and the accompanying precipitation for seasons was undertaken. Contribution also attempts to explain the main

17. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

PubMed

Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

2015-02-01

Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage. PMID:25500616

18. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

DOEpatents

Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

2010-12-21

The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

19. Self-Propulsion Simulation of a Tanker Hull

Pacuraru, Florin; Lungu, Adrian; Marcu, Oana

2011-09-01

The paper proposes a numerical investigation based on RANS computations for solving the viscous flow around a self-propelled tanker hull. A general numerical technique to estimate the propulsive performance is presented. For practical reasons, the technique couples a body forces method and a RANS-based finite volume solver to account for the hull-propeller interaction. This approach allows the quantification of the performance for a propeller working behind the ship hull, fully accounting for the effective wake conditions. The coupling of the methods therfore gives a combined numerical design and analysis tool. Numerical calculations and model tests have been compared to validate the technique used in the current work.

20. Notes on aerodynamic forces on airship hulls

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tuckerman, L B

1923-01-01

For a first approximation the air flow around the airship hull is assumed to obey the laws of perfect (i.e. free from viscosity) incompressible fluid. The flow is further assumed to be free from vortices (or rotational motion of the fluid). These assumptions lead to very great simplifications of the formulae used but necessarily imply an imperfect picture of the actual conditions. The value of the results depends therefore upon the magnitude of the forces produced by the disturbances in the flow caused by viscosity with the consequent production of vortices in the fluid. If these are small in comparison with the forces due to the assumed irrotational perfect fluid flow the results will give a good picture of the actual conditions of an airship in flight.

1. Time dependent changes in extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of Ru mirrors from electron-induced surface chemistry

Kanjilal, A.; Catalfano, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Rice, B.

2012-03-01

Time dependent changes in 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity of Ru mirrors due to variations in surface composition were investigated. The surface properties of Ru films were analyzed in situ by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and further verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Moreover, the impact on EUV reflectivity (EUVR) with time was examined in situ via continuous and/or discrete EUV exposures. The rapid decrease in EUVR was observed in the presence of photoelectrons (PEs) from Ru mirror of the EUV setup, whereas no significant variation was recorded by screening out additional PEs. Detailed XPS and AES analyses suggest that carbon deposition via dissociation of residual hydrocarbons plays a dominant role in the presence of additional PEs, and thus reduces the reflectivity rapidly. Using EUV photoelectron spectroscopy, systematic reduction of the secondary electron yield from the Ru mirror surface was observed in consecutive scans, and therefore supports the formation of carbonaceous Ru surface in the presence of additional PEs.

2. Extreme sensitivity of the electric-field-induced band gap to the electronic topological transition in sliding bilayer graphene

PubMed Central

Lee, Kyu Won; Lee, Cheol Eui

2015-01-01

We have investigated the effect of electronic topological transition on the electric field-induced band gap in sliding bilayer graphene by using the density functional theory calculations. The electric field-induced band gap was found to be extremely sensitive to the electronic topological transition. At the electronic topological transition induced by layer sliding, four Dirac cones in the Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene reduces to two Dirac cones with equal or unequal Dirac energies depending on the sliding direction. While the critical electric field required for the band gap opening increases with increasing lateral shift for the two Dirac cones with unequal Dirac energies, the critical field is essentially zero with or without a lateral shift for the two Dirac cones with equal Dirac energies. The critical field is determined by the Dirac energy difference and the electronic screening effect. The electronic screening effect was also found to be enhanced with increasing lateral shift, apparently indicating that the massless helical and massive chiral fermions are responsible for the perfect and imperfect electronic screening, respectively. PMID:26635178

3. Extremely sensitive light-induced reorientation in nondoped nematic liquid crystal cells due to photoelectric activation of the interface

Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.

2003-06-01

We report an investigation of the extremely sensitive molecular reorientation in pure nematic liquid crystal film induced by the combined application of low dc electric field (less than 0.1 V/μm) and very low intensity optical irradiation (few mW/cm2). The effect is observed in planar cells of well-known commercial nematic mixture (E7) aligned with rubbed polyvinyl alcohol layers, which exhibit photorefractive-like effect. We analyze the dependence of the photoinduced changes in birefringence upon the applied dc voltage and the light intensity. According to our results we believe that the effect is due to photoinduced recombination of the opposite charged carriers accumulated near the interface. In the low dc voltage regime (a few volts) the voltage mainly drops on the electric double layers at the interfaces as a consequence of dc field collected charge carriers from liquid crystalline and polymeric films to the border surfaces. Irradiation with appropriate wavelength reduces the interfacial charges density, because of photoinduced carrier injection and recombination processes, and consequently, induces a relocation of the electric field from the surface to the liquid crystal bulk. The light-induced additional electric field component in the nematic film results in a lowering of the Fréedericksz threshold or an enhanced molecular reorientation.

4. How extreme are extremes?

Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

2016-04-01

High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

5. Correlation method for the measure of mask-induced line-edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography

SciTech Connect

Naulleau, Patrick

2009-05-25

As critical dimensions for leading-edge semiconductor devices shrink, line-edge roughness (LER) requirements are pushing well into the single digit nanometer regime. At these scales many new sources of LER must be considered. In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown the lithographic mask to be a source of significant concern. Here we present a correlation-based methodology for experimentally measuring the magnitude of mask contributors to printed LER. The method is applied to recent printing results from a 0.3 numerical aperture EUV microfield exposure tool. The measurements demonstrate that such effects are indeed present and of significant magnitude. The method is also used to explore the effects of illumination coherence and defocus and has been used to verify model-based predictions of mask-induced LER.

6. Frequent Extreme Cold Exposure and Brown Fat and Cold-Induced Thermogenesis: A Study in a Monozygotic Twin

PubMed Central

Vosselman, Maarten J.; Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Kingma, Boris R. M.; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

2014-01-01

Introduction Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as ‘the Iceman’, who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a ‘normal’ sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. Methods The Iceman (subject A) and his brother (subject B) were studied during mild cold (13°C) and thermoneutral conditions (31°C). Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. Results Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal), within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G). CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%), but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. Conclusion No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the low

7. Radiation-Induced Decomposition of PETN and TATB under Extreme Conditions

SciTech Connect

Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael

2008-11-03

We conducted a series of experiments investigating decomposition of secondary explosives PETN and TATB at varying static pressures and temperatures using synchrotron radiation. As seen in our earlier work, the decomposition rate of TATB at ambient temperature slows systematically with increasing pressure up to at least 26 GPa but varies little with pressure in PETN at ambient temperature up to 15.7 GPa, yielding important information pertaining to the activation complex volume in both cases. We also investigated the radiation-induced decomposition rate as a function of temperature at ambient pressure and 26 GPa for TATB up to 403 K, observing that the decomposition rate increases with increasing temperature as expected. The activation energy for the TATB reaction at ambient temperature was experimentally determined to be 16 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

8. Exploring the electron density in plasmas induced by extreme ultraviolet radiation in argon

van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; Banine, V. Y.

2015-07-01

The new generation of lithography tools use high energy EUV radiation which ionizes the present background gas due to photoionization. To predict and understand the long term impact on the highly delicate mirrors, it is essential to characterize these kinds of EUV-induced plasmas. We measured the electron density evolution in argon gas during and just after irradiation by a short pulse of EUV light at 13.5 nm by applying microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Dependencies on EUV pulse energy and gas pressure have been explored over a range relevant for industrial applications. Our experimental results show that the maximum reached electron density depends linearly on pulse energy. A quadratic dependence caused by photoionization and subsequent electron impact ionization by free electrons is found from experiments where the gas pressure is varied. This is demonstrated by our theoretical estimates presented in this manuscript as well.

9. Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings for steering rods. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

10. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

SciTech Connect

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

11. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.231 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing...

12. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.231 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing...

13. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

14. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

15. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

16. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

17. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... years). If approved and you use an underwater ROV as the predominant means to examine the...

18. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING RIBS AND KEELSON OF HULL IN CENTER OF PICTURE ON SHINGLE BEACH Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 84, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

19. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

20. Pretreatment of rice hulls by ionic liquid dissolution.

PubMed

Lynam, Joan G; Reza, M Toufiq; Vasquez, Victor R; Coronella, Charles J

2012-06-01

As a highly available waste product, rice hulls could be a starting block in replacing liquid fossil fuels. However, their silica covering can make further use difficult. This preliminary study investigates effects of dissolving rice hulls in the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, (HMIM Cl), and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIM Cl), and what lignocellulosic components can be precipitated from the used ionic liquid with water and ethanol. EMIM Ac dissolution at 110 °C for 8 h was found to completely remove lignin from rice hulls, while ethanol was capable of precipitating lignin out of the used EMIM Ac. With 8h dissolution at 110 °C using HMIM Cl, approximately 20% of the cellulose in the rice hull sample can be precipitated out using water as co-solvent, while more than 60% of the hemicellulose can be precipitated with ethanol. PMID:22446050

1. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

PubMed

Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

2014-10-01

Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm. PMID

2. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montgomery, Judy K.

2006-01-01

Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

3. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

Matveev, Konstantin I.

2015-05-01

High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

4. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

Matveev, Konstantin I.

2015-09-01

High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

5. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit.

PubMed

Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

2016-01-01

The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

6. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

PubMed Central

Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

2016-01-01

The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

7. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

PubMed

Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

2016-01-01

In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221

8. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

PubMed

Honenberger, Phillip

2015-04-01

Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature. PMID:25791576

9. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

Park, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Chun, Ho-Hwan

2015-01-01

This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-V type, DLWL type), bulb shape (bulb height and size); and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-V type, DLWL type). WAVIS version 1.3 code is used for the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

10. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

SciTech Connect

Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

2009-01-01

Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

11. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221

12. Statistical coupling between solar wind conditions and extreme geomagnetically induced current events

Pulkkinen, A. A.; Pirjola, R.; Viljanen, A.

2007-12-01

Recent advances in global MHD-based modeling of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) from upstream solar wind (L1 observations) to the ground have opened new avenues for physics-based space weather forecasting. More specifically, Pulkkinen et al . (2007, Annales Geophysicae) showed that global MHD was able to generate realistic, in terms of spatiotemporal structure, GIC fluctuations having amplitudes comparable to the observed values. However, the situation is significantly more demanding if heliospheric models instead of L1 observations are used to generate the magnetospheric/GIC activity. Although current MHD-based solar wind models are capable of producing realistic large-scale behavior of the solar wind, for example, the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) fluctuations are missing to a large degree. This obviously poses a problem for GIC modeling as the turbulent nature of IMF is possibly one of the main sources for large GIC. In this work a model for statistical coupling between hourly solar wind parameters and maximum GIC values observed on the ground is constructed. OMNI and IMAGE magnetometer array data from 1995-2006 are facilitated in the construction of the model. It is shown that there is a clear statistical coupling between the solar wind parameters, most importantly solar wind convective electric field and maximum GIC. The established connection between GIC and large-scale solar wind features enables new strategies for GIC forecasting even in the (partial) absence of information about turbulent IMF. In one possible strategy one would use heliospheric MHD models to generate large-scale solar wind features at L1, which would then be used to generate statistical estimate for GIC. In this paper the generation and the usage of the statistics in space weather forecasting and in other contexts is discussed.

13. Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina

SciTech Connect

Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R.

1996-12-31

The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

14. Induced gravitational collapse at extreme cosmological distances: the case of GRB 090423

Ruffini, R.; Izzo, L.; Muccino, M.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.; Wang, Y.; Barbarino, C.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Kovacevic, M.

2014-09-01

Context. The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) scenario has been introduced in order to explain the most energetic gamma ray bursts (GRBs), Eiso = 1052-1054 erg, associated with type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). It has led to the concept of binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) originating in a tight binary system composed by a FeCO core on the verge of a SN explosion and a companion neutron star (NS). Their evolution is characterized by a rapid sequence of events: 1) the SN explodes, giving birth to a new NS (νNS). The accretion of SN ejecta onto the companion NS increases its mass up to the critical value; 2) the consequent gravitational collapse is triggered, leading to the formation of a black hole (BH) with GRB emission; 3) a novel feature responsible for the emission in the GeV, X-ray, and optical energy range occurs and is characterized by specific power-law behavior in their luminosity evolution and total spectrum; 4) the optical observations of the SN then occurs. Aims: We investigate whether GRB 090423, one of the farthest observed GRB at z = 8.2, is a member of the BdHN family. Methods: We compare and contrast the spectra, the luminosity evolution, and the detectability in the observations by Swift of GRB 090423 with the corresponding ones of the best known BdHN case, GRB 090618. Results: Identification of constant slope power-law behavior in the late X-ray emission of GRB 090423 and its overlapping with the corresponding one in GRB 090618, measured in a common rest frame, represents the main result of this article. This result represents a very significant step on the way to using the scaling law properties, proven in Episode 3 of this BdHN family, as a cosmological standard candle. Conclusions: Having identified GRB 090423 as a member of the BdHN family, we can conclude that SN events, leading to NS formation, can already occur, namely at 650 Myr after the Big Bang. It is then possible that these BdHNe stem from 40-60 M⊙ binaries. They are probing the

15. Chemoprotective action of lotus seedpod procyanidins on oxidative stress in mice induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

PubMed

Luo, Xiaoping; Chen, Meng; Duan, Yuqing; Duan, Wenyi; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Yin, Chunchun; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

2016-08-01

With the increasing use of electromagnetic technology, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on biological systems, central neurotransmitter systems, and human health have attracted extensive attention worldwide. In this study, lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) were evaluated for their protective effects on ELF-EMF induced oxidative stress injury in mice. Sixty male ICR mice were used for the experiment. The mice were randomly divided into five equal groups. The control group did not receive LSPCs or ELF-EMF but orally received normal saline. The ELF-EMF group received ELF-EMF exposure plus normal saline orally. The other three groups received ELF-EMF exposure plus LSPCs orally (60, 90, or 120mg kg(-1).bw, respectively). Each group exposed to ELF-EMF at 8 mT, 4h day(-1) for 28 consecutive days after administration daily of LSPCs or normal saline to mice for 15 consecutive days with the exception of the control group. Thereafter, blood and cerebral cortex of the mice were analyzed for antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA). LSPCs administration at different doses significantly inhibited oxidative stress damage of mice induced by ELF-EMF. LSPCs treatment augmented SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST activity. Furthermore, administration significantly lowered MDA level in LSPCs treatment groups LSPCs. All results indicated LSPCs can effectively prevent oxidative stress injury induced by ELF-EMF exposure, which may be related to its ability of scavenging free radicals and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27470407

16. Measurements of HIFU-induced Lesions in BSA Gel Phantoms for HIFU Treatment of Varicose Veins of Lower Extremity

Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Senoo, Naohiko; Suzuki, Jun; Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

2011-09-01

HIFU treatment has been developed for various diseases because of its minimal invasiveness, and we are now developing a HIFU treatment for varicose veins of the lower extremity. Previous studies have succeeded in occluding rabbit's veins with HIFU, but the success rate was low (about 10%). Failures were mainly caused by skin burns. When the heating lesion comes close to skin, the absorbed ultrasound energy may cause skin burns. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationships between HIFU lesions and skin burns to improve the success rate. To visualize heating lesions from HIFU, we used tissue-mimicking BSA gel phantoms. We tried various concentrations of BSA in gels, and determined 14% BSA as the most suitable for phantoms for experiments. The attenuation coefficient of the gel was 0.73 dB/cm, and the denaturation temperature was 70 °C. We put the BSA gel phantom in a water tank in which the temperature was kept at 39 °C, and used HIFU exposures at various intensities and irradiation times. After irradiation, we measured the sizes and positions of HIFU-induced lesions, and the results indicate that the sizes of lesion become larger when the intensitiy rises or irradiation time becomes longer. Furthermore, when the intensity rises and irradiation time becomes longer, the heating lesions move closer to upper surface of the gel, which means skin easily gets burned. Thus we have investigated relationships between HIFU parameters and heated lesions that can be used for further research into HIFU treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremity.

17. Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field.

PubMed

Zhang, Haihui; Cheng, Yanxiang; Luo, Xiaoping; Duan, Yuqing

2016-08-01

This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPCs) from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure (50Hz, 8mT, 28 days) and their protective mechanism against radiation damage. The results showed that LSPCs increased the organ index of mice and made the damaged blood-producing function and cytokine(INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in spleen) levels by ELF-EMF-irradiation recovered to normal appearance. And experimental results proved that dosing LSPCs inhibit more stagnation of splenocytes in G0/G1 phase caused by ELF-EMF, thus the spleen cells from G0/G1 phase to S phase shift, restore normal cell metabolism, promote the splenocytes proliferation, reduced the apoptosis of spleen cells, effective protect the damage induced by the ELF-EMF radiation. In addition, LSPCs prevented the decline of DNA content caused by ELF-EMF. Western blot determinated the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-cl, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in splenic cells in ELF-EMF group. However, LSPCs restored these changes. Taking these results together, it may be summarized that LSPCs could protect hematopoietic tissues and the immune system from ELF-EMF. And it may be hypothesized that ELF-EMF-induced apoptosis in splenocytes might occur via triggers the trans-activation of Bax and activates caspases-3 and -9, which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis in splenocytes of mice treated with ELF-EMF. PMID:27470374

18. Drought onset mechanisms revealed by satellite solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from two contrasting extreme events

Sun, Ying; Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert; Joiner, Joanna; Frankenberg, Christian; Gu, Lianhong; Xia, Youlong; Fernando, Nelun

2015-11-01

This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the U.S. Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root zone soil moisture caused by yearlong below-normal precipitation. In contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and relatively normal precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation fPAR and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.

19. Ship resistance of quadramaran with various hull position configurations

Yanuar; Gunawan; Muhyi, A.; Jamaluddin, A.

2016-03-01

Multihull ships are widely used for sea transportation, and those with four hulls are known as quadramarans. Hull position configurations of a quadramaran include the diamond, tetra, and slice. In general, multihull vessels traveling at high speeds have better hydrodynamic efficiency than monohull ships. This study aims to identify possible effects of various quadramaran hull position configurations on ship resistance for hull dimensions of 2 m length, 0.21 m breadth, and 0.045 m thickness. We conducted a towing test in which we varied the hull spacing and speed at Fr values between 0.08 and 0.62 and measured the total resistance using a load cell transducer. The experimental results reveal that the lowest total resistance was achieved with a diamond quadramaran configuration at Fr = 0.1-0.6 and an effective interference factor of up to 0.35 with S/L = 3/10 and R/L = 1/2 at Fr = 0.62.

20. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

SciTech Connect

Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

2010-10-14

A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

1. Swarm slide - debris flow disaster induced by extreme rainfall in Hiroshima, August 2014 and lessons learnt in urban designing

Fukuoka, H.; Wang, C.

2015-12-01

Hiroshima city was hit by swarm debris flows along a narrow, and linear-shaped rain band of 2 km x 10 km which appeared in the early morning of August 20, 2014. Most of the flows were induced by shallow slide in the upstream. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows:1. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow byundrained loading onto the torrent deposits.2. Apparently long-term land-use change since 1945 affected and raised the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan.3. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave large societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill to promote rapid completion of the designation over the national territory. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Tranportation and Tourism) decided to install X-band rain radars at more sites to cover whole city zones

2. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

3. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

4. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

5. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

6. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... includes, as a minimum, either hull coatings and a cathodic protection (CP) system consisting of sacrificial anodes, or an impressed current CP system. Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program means...

7. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

PubMed

Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

2012-12-01

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning. PMID:21929729

8. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

SciTech Connect

Rudisill, T.

2010-09-29

9. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

SciTech Connect

Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

1983-11-01

Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

10. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

PubMed

Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

2015-01-01

Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. PMID:25231793

11. Vibration Transmission from Deck to Hull via a Bulkhead

Leung, R. C. N.

1998-06-01

Machines on board a ship are mounted on decks, which are supported by bulkheads from the hull. This paper studies the vibration transmission characteristics along the transmission path of deck-bulkhead-hull. The model used in this study consists of two infinite parallel plates, representing a deck and a hull, connected by a single bulkhead. The excitation force is applied on the top plate, in the plane of the bulkhead. Thus, only in-plane waves exist in the bulkhead. The two infinite plates are assumed to have pure bending waves only. The analyses show that at low frequencies the two parallel plates are strongly coupled. At frequencies above the first resonance of the bulkhead due to shear waves, the two plates become uncoupled. The top plate, which the excitation is acted upon, exhibits the behaviour of a single infinite plate. The bottom plate, however, can be treated as a series of independent beam elements running perpendicular to the bulkhead.

12. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

PubMed Central

Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

2010-01-01

This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results. PMID:22163590

13. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

14. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

15. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

16. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 23.527... Water Loads § 23.527 Hull and main float load factors. (a) Water reaction load factors nw must be...=seaplane landing weight in pounds. (6) K1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with...

17. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.527 Hull and main... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r...

18. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

19. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To continue to participate...

20. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

1. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.630 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the...

2. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. 71.50-25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-25 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (a) To complete the underwater survey you must— (1) Perform a general examination of the underwater hull...

3. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

4. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To continue to participate...

5. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

6. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. 71.50-25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-25 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (a) To complete the underwater survey you must— (1) Perform a general examination of the underwater hull...

7. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.630 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the...

8. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program. (a) To continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators...

9. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a)...

10. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

11. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

12. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the... the 12-character hull identification number (HIN), that information must be separated from the HIN...

13. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a)...

14. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a)...

15. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

16. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.630 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the...

17. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

18. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

19. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

20. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

1. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. 71.50-25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-25 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (a) To complete the underwater survey you must— (1) Perform a general examination of the underwater hull...

2. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the... the 12-character hull identification number (HIN), that information must be separated from the HIN...

3. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. 71.50-25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-25 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (a) To complete the underwater survey you must— (1) Perform a general examination of the underwater hull...

4. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

5. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

6. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program. (a) To continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators...

7. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the... the 12-character hull identification number (HIN), that information must be separated from the HIN...

8. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.527 Hull and main... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r...

9. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 23.527... Water Loads § 23.527 Hull and main float load factors. (a) Water reaction load factors nw must be...=seaplane landing weight in pounds. (6) K1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with...

10. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.527 Hull and main... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r...

11. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull structure-B/ALL. 32.63-20 Section 32.63-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1,...

12. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 23.527... Water Loads § 23.527 Hull and main float load factors. (a) Water reaction load factors nw must be...=seaplane landing weight in pounds. (6) K1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with...

13. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 23.527... Water Loads § 23.527 Hull and main float load factors. (a) Water reaction load factors nw must be...=seaplane landing weight in pounds. (6) K1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with...

14. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program. (a) To continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators...

15. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the... the 12-character hull identification number (HIN), that information must be separated from the HIN...

16. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

17. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the... the 12-character hull identification number (HIN), that information must be separated from the HIN...

18. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a)...

19. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

20. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. 71.50-25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-25 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (a) To complete the underwater survey you must— (1) Perform a general examination of the underwater hull...

1. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings....

2. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program. (a) To continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators...

3. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull structure-B/ALL. 32.63-20 Section 32.63-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1,...

4. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and...

5. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To continue to participate...

6. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To continue to participate...

7. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

8. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat...

9. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.527 Hull and main... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r...

10. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Van Brummelen, Harro

2009-01-01

In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

11. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

SciTech Connect

Forrest, G.T.

1992-02-11

This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

12. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

13. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... completed after December 31, 1993; or (4) That is otherwise required to have a double hull by 46...

14. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... completed after December 31, 1993; or (4) That is otherwise required to have a double hull by 46...

15. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

16. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... completed after December 31, 1993; or (4) That is otherwise required to have a double hull by 46...

17. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... completed after December 31, 1993; or (4) That is otherwise required to have a double hull by 46...

18. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

19. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

20. 33 CFR 157.10d - Double hulls on tank vessels.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Double hulls on tank vessels. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10d Double hulls on tank vessels. (a) With the... completed after December 31, 1993; or (4) That is otherwise required to have a double hull by 46...

1. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as...

2. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying...

3. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying...

4. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying...

5. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying...

6. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

7. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

8. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

9. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

10. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

11. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

12. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

13. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

14. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

15. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

16. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

17. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

18. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

19. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

20. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change.

PubMed

Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M

2012-06-01

Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T(pill)) was compared with the rectal temperature (T(re)) and esophageal temperature (T(es)). T(pill) corresponded well to T(re) during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T(es) during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT(pill)-T(re) and ΔT(pill)-T(es) were 0.13 ± 0.26 and -0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T(pill) and T(re.) T(es) responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T(pill). In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T(pill) is still a representative of T(re). The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T(pill) and T(es) (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T(pill) is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. PMID:22551669

1. Identification of salt-induced genes from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte through expressed sequence tags analysis.

PubMed

Jha, Bhavanath; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Lal, Sanjay; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K

2009-04-01

Salinity severely affects plant growth and development causing crop loss worldwide. We have isolated a large number of salt-induced genes as well as unknown and hypothetical genes from Salicornia brachiata Roxb. (Amaranthaceae). This is the first description of identification of genes in response to salinity stress in this extreme halophyte plant. Salicornia accumulates salt in its pith and survives even at 2 M NaCl under field conditions. For isolating salt responsive genes, cDNA subtractive hybridization was performed between control and 500 mM NaCl treated plants. Out of the 1200 recombinant clones, 930 sequences were submitted to the NCBI database (GenBank accession: EB484528 to EB485289 and EC906125 to EC906292). 789 ESTs showed matching with different genes in NCBI database. 4.8% ESTs belonged to stress-tolerant gene category and approximately 29% ESTs showed no homology with known functional gene sequences, thus classified as unknown or hypothetical. The detection of a large number of ESTs with unknown putative function in this species makes it an interesting contribution. The 90 unknown and hypothetical genes were selected to study their differential regulation by reverse Northern analysis for identifying their role in salinity tolerance. Interestingly, both up and down regulation at 500 mM NaCl were observed (21 and 10 genes, respectively). Northern analysis of two important salt tolerant genes, ASR1 (Abscisic acid stress ripening gene) and plasma membrane H+ATPase, showed the basal level of transcripts in control condition and an increase with NaCl treatment. ASR1 gene is made full length using 5' RACE and its potential role in imparting salt tolerance is being studied. PMID:19556705

2. Numerical modeling on tertiary creep behavior of extreme rainfall-induced landslides with TRMM application for landslide early warning

Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Katsumi, T.; Inui, T.

2012-12-01

In help issue warning of extreme rainfall-induced landslide in tropical soils of Southeast Asian countries, it requires the study of landslide mechanism induced by generated excess pore water pressure at the sliding surface due to groundwater table rise under rainfall storm, and examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence (precipitation analysis). To investigate the tertiary creep behavior in soils found by Fukuzono, 1985 (d2x/dt2=A(dx/dt)α, where x is surface displacement, t is time, and A and α are constant), a series of pore-pressure-controlled tests on saturated sands were undertaken in the ring shear apparatus. The tests were conducted under combined condition of predefined normal stress and shear stress with pore water pressure changes to simulate the potential sliding surface condition in heavy rainfall. Sand, its mixture with clay material, and soil samples taken at actual landslide sliding surface were used for specimen. Repeated shear test for a specimen was also additionally conducted to produce reactivated motion landslides. Numerical model simulating the Tertiary creep behavior (or progressive failure) is constructed to develop a most appropriate method for landslide early warning combined with TRMM satellite rainfall data. TRMM data were selected to apply to the Japanese Soil Water Index (SWI) in distributing threshold of highly nonlinear rainfall patterns for estimating the landslide occurrence in developing regions: Southeast Asian countries, where very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. It is through the plot of total water of 3 serial tank models and daily precipitation with case example of landslide disasters took place in Beichuan city, (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault) and Hofu city, Japan which were hit by heavy rainfall attacked in 2009. Consequently, it is

3. Neighborhood Centre Project, Hull, September 1982 - October 1983.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rice, Margaret; Doyle, Patrick

Brief reports provided in this paper document aspects of a neighborhood-center project in Hull, England. The project was aimed primarily at facilitating parent/community involvement in the education of very young children through the establishment of parent activity groups. Beginning with activity groups such as mother/toddler clubs, a community…

4. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

2011-01-01

A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

5. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 33 CFR part 173, Appendix A for the boat's State of principal operation and permanently affix the HIN... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23...

6. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 33 CFR part 173, Appendix A for the boat's State of principal operation and permanently affix the HIN... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23...

7. Supporting Schools with Loss: 'Lost for Words' in Hull.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holland, John

2003-01-01

This paper reports on efforts in Hull, England, to better train teachers to manage bereaved children. Evaluation following training shows an increased level of trained staff in schools, more use of policies and procedures, and a higher level of individuals in schools having responsibility for responses to bereavement. (Contains eight references.)…

8. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 33 CFR part 173, Appendix A for the boat's State of principal operation and permanently affix the HIN... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23...

9. Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Mesquite's Hull is lowered to its final resting place in Lake Superior. The tender ran aground on rocks several months earlier and was battered by winter storms. The wrecked vessel became part of an underwater preserve and is regularly visited by recreational divers - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter MESQUITE, Charlevoix, Charlevoix County, MI

10. 1. The finished hull of a 180 is launched in ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. The finished hull of a 180 is launched in Duluth, Minnesota. Note the men holding onto the rail and riding the vessel during its launch. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

11. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

12. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL..., the following: (1) The name of the additive. (2) The maximum percentage of equivalent crude...

13. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL..., the following: (1) The name of the additive. (2) The maximum percentage of equivalent crude...

14. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated...

15. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL..., the following: (1) The name of the additive. (2) The maximum percentage of equivalent crude...

16. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL..., the following: (1) The name of the additive. (2) The maximum percentage of equivalent crude...

17. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to have the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to provide 100% of the required heat load and distribution determined under paragraph (a); and (c) Meet Parts...

18. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... higher specific gravity necessitates a reevaluation of the intact and damage stability requirements in... subdivision and damage stability, as specified in subpart E of part 172 of this chapter; and (ii) Hull... modified one compartment standard of subdivision and damage stability, as specified in subpart E of...

19. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... higher specific gravity necessitates a reevaluation of the intact and damage stability requirements in... subdivision and damage stability, as specified in subpart E of part 172 of this chapter; and (ii) Hull... modified one compartment standard of subdivision and damage stability, as specified in subpart E of...

20. Hulled wheats: Origin, nutritional value and future prospects

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild and domesticated hulled (or non-free threshing) wheat species are among the most ancient cereals of the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Region. They include wild emmer, the progenitor of most cultivated wheat species; wild and domesticated einkorn; and domesticated emmer and spelt wheat....

1. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

2. Cements obtained from rice hull: encapsulation of heavy metals.

PubMed

Romano, Jonatas Silva; Rodrigues, Flávio Aparecido

2008-06-15

Rice hull is an agricultural residue containing organic materials (carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.) and about 10% of silica, as inorganic component. Usually rice hull is burned at the fields generating small silica particles that may cause respiratory and environmental damage. On the other hand, beta-Ca2SiO4 is the second most important component of commercial portland cement. The utilization of beta-Ca2SiO4 brings many environmental benefits, such as reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and the saving of raw materials and energy. This work describes the synthesis of beta-Ca2SiO4 and related cements prepared from rice hull and the insertion of heavy metals (copper and cadmium). The insertion of these metals, chemically bounded to dicalcium silicate may represent a useful method to permanent encapsulation of hazardous chemicals. Silica was obtained from burning rice hull at 600 degrees C. The synthesis was carried out by a combination of sonochemical and solid-state chemical reactions and is completed at 800 degrees C. It was found that copper and cadmium can be inserted into beta-Ca2SiO4 structure in proportions up to 10%. PMID:18162307

3. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system;...

4. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system;...

5. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system;...

6. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system;...

7. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

PubMed

Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

2011-02-01

The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance. PMID:20040893

8. Effect of Yeast Hulls on Stuck and Sluggish Wine Fermentations: Importance of the Lipid Component

PubMed Central

Munoz, Eeva; Ingledew, W. M.

1989-01-01

The effect of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts) on sluggish or stuck white wine fermentations was studied. The enhancing effect on yeast growth and fermentation rate displayed by the hulls was shown to be similar to the effect provided by lipid extract from the same hulls. Unsaturated fatty acids and sterols were incorporated into the yeast from lipid extracts during fermentation carried out under oxygen-limited conditions. Adsorption of toxic medium-chain fatty acid (decanoic acid) onto the yeast hulls took place through a dialysis membrane. However, when the hulls were placed inside a dialysis bag, the increase in yeast growth and fermentation rate seen when freely suspended hulls were used did not occur. Accordingly, the effect of yeast hulls in preventing stuck fermentations cannot be attributed only to the adsorption and consequent removal of medium-chain fatty acids from the juice. PMID:16347950

9. Scaling of Convex Hull Volume to Body Mass in Modern Primates, Non-Primate Mammals and Birds

PubMed Central

Brassey, Charlotte A.; Sellers, William I.

2014-01-01

The volumetric method of ‘convex hulling’ has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (volCH) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within volCH has remained unclear. Specifically, when volCH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97–0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11–20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r2 = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to volCH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01–1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the ‘missing mass’ of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat

10. Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway

PubMed Central

Taketa, Shin; Amano, Satoko; Tsujino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomohiko; Saisho, Daisuke; Kakeda, Katsuyuki; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Toshisada; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

2008-01-01

In contrast to other cereals, typical barley cultivars have caryopses with adhering hulls at maturity, known as covered (hulled) barley. However, a few barley cultivars are a free-threshing variant called naked (hulless) barley. The covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by a single locus (nud) on chromosome arm 7HL. On the basis of positional cloning, we concluded that an ethylene response factor (ERF) family transcription factor gene controls the covered/naked caryopsis phenotype. This conclusion was validated by (i) fixation of the 17-kb deletion harboring the ERF gene among all 100 naked cultivars studied; (ii) two x-ray-induced nud alleles with a DNA lesion at a different site, each affecting the putative functional motif; and (iii) gene expression strictly localized to the testa. Available results indicate the monophyletic origin of naked barley. The Nud gene has homology to the Arabidopsis WIN1/SHN1 transcription factor gene, whose deduced function is control of a lipid biosynthesis pathway. Staining with a lipophilic dye (Sudan black B) detected a lipid layer on the pericarp epidermis only in covered barley. We infer that, in covered barley, the contact of the caryopsis surface, overlaid with lipids to the inner side of the hull, generates organ adhesion. PMID:18316719

11. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for upper extremity in stroke patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

PubMed

2016-09-01

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a neurorehabilitation technique designed to improve upper extremity motor functions after stroke. This review aimed to investigate evidence of the effect of CIMT on upper extremity in stroke patients and to identify optimal methods to apply CIMT. Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and PEDro) and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews were searched. Randomized clinical trials that studied the effect of CIMT on upper extremity outcomes in stroke patients compared with other rehabilitative techniques, usual care, or no intervention were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro score. The following data were extracted for each trial: patients' characteristics, sample size, eligibility criteria, protocols of CIMT and control groups, outcome measurements, and the PEDro score. A total of 38 trials were identified according to the inclusion criteria. The trials included were heterogeneous in CIMT protocols, time since stroke, and duration and frequency of treatment. The pooled meta-analysis of 36 trials found a heterogeneous significant effect of CIMT on upper extremity. There was no significant effect of CIMT at different durations of follow-up. The majority of included articles did not fulfill powered sample size and quality criteria. The effect of CIMT changed in terms of sample size and quality features of the articles included. These meta-analysis findings indicate that evidence for the superiority of CIMT in comparison with other rehabilitative interventions is weak. Information on the optimal dose of CIMT and optimal time to start CIMT is still limited. PMID:27123790

12. Extreme Decompression-induced Crystallization During the 2004-present Eruption of Mount St. Helens Implications for Shallow Deformation Mechanisms

Cashman, K. V.; Pallister, J. S.; Thornber, C. R.

2006-12-01

Decompression-induced crystallization may control both the ascent rate and eruption style of hydrous magmas. While rapid magma evacuation accompanying plinian eruptions can transfer magma from storage regions to the surface with little modification other than degassing, slow to moderate rates of magma ascent permit efficient degassing and crystallization of both phenocryst (particularly plagioclase) and groundmass phases. In the extreme, very slow magma ascent leads to complete solidification of magma within the conduit, forming either plugs or large spines. Seven such spines extruded from Mount St. Helens from 2004 to present are remarkable for their carapaces of striated fault gouge. Examination of individual outcrops shows transitions from competent flow banded dacite to breccia, cataclasite, to finely comminuted and variably consolidated gouge. Field, hand specimen, and thin section observations of these cataclastic dome facies provide new constraints on interactions between rates of magma ascent, degassing, crystallization, and brittle fragmentation, interactions that control the dynamics of lava extrusion. Within the gouge zone, dome fragments are holocrystalline as the result of complete solidification along conduit margins prior to brittle fragmentation. Sequential breakage along the margin then created zones of breccia, cataclasite, and powdery fault gouge. Continued slip created narrow slickenside planes within the gouge that comprise thin (1 mm) zones of foliated ultracataclasite. The grain size reduction along these slip zones, the entrainment of shattered grains into foliated bands, and the rounding and abrasion of larger clasts outside the slickenside planes, show that the gouge zone developed as the result of large shear strains along the conduit margin. This inference is reasonable given a solidification depth of 400-500 m (estimated from experimental phase relations), above which brittle deformation was concentrated along the conduit margin. Near

13. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

PubMed

Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

2016-01-01

Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

14. Comparison of pistachio hull essential oils from different Tunisian localities.

PubMed

Chahed, Thouraya; Dhifi, Wissal; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Msaada, Kamel; Bellila, Amor; Kchouk, Mohamed E; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-03-01

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit is well known for its oleaginous and edible seed. Less information is available about the hull constituted by the epicarp and the mesocarp. This part of the fruit contains an essential oil that can be valorized. Tunisia is one of the countries cultivating pistachio trees. This work presents essential oil composition of pistachio hulls (Mateur variety) from different geographical localities: Grombalia (North-East), Kairouan (Middle) and Sfax (Middle-East). Yields were more important in Sfax samples (0.53% on a dry weight basis). Alpha-terpinolene was the major compound for Grombalia fruits (35.7%), whereas Kairouan and Sfax samples where characterized by alpha-pinene (42.5 and 43.8% respectively). For all samples, monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated (more than 79.8% of the essential oil). PMID:17511352

15. Terrestrial laser scanning used to detect asymmetries in boat hulls

Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; López-Alvarez, Francisco; Ordóñez, Celestino; Menéndez, Agustín; Bernardo-Sánchez, Antonio

2012-01-01

We describe a methodology for identifying asymmetries in boat hull sections reconstructed from point clouds captured using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A surface was first fit to the point cloud using a nonparametric regression method that permitted the construction of a continuous smooth surface. Asymmetries in cross-sections of the surface were identified using a bootstrap resampling technique that took into account uncertainty in the coordinates of the scanned points. Each reconstructed section was analyzed to check, for a given level of significance, that it was within the confidence interval for the theoretical symmetrical section. The method was applied to the study of asymmetries in a medium-sized yacht. Identified were differences of up to 5 cm between the real and theoretical sections in some parts of the hull.

16. Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings.

PubMed

Zargiel, Kelli A; Coogan, Jeffrey S; Swain, Geoffrey W

2011-10-01

Diatoms are primary colonizers of both antifouling and fouling-release ship hull coatings. There are few published studies which report on diatom community development on modern ship hull coatings. This study reports diatom communities on eight commercial marine ship hull coatings exposed at three static immersion sites along the east coast of Florida, viz. Daytona, Sebastian, and Miami. The coatings tested were three ablative copper systems (Ameron ABC-3, International BRA-640, and Hempel Olympic 76600), two copper-free biocidal systems (E-Paint SN-1, Sherwin Williams HMF), and three fouling-release (FR) systems (International Intersleek 700, International Intersleek 900, and Hempel Hempasil). One hundred and twenty-seven species comprising 44 genera were identified, including some of the more commonly known foulers, viz. Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis, Licmophora, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, and Toxarium. A significant difference was seen among sites, with the more estuarine site, Sebastian, having lower overall diatom abundance and higher diversity than Daytona and Miami. Copper coatings were primarily fouled by Amphora delicatissima and Entomoneis pseudoduplex. Copper-free coatings were fouled by Cyclophora tenuis, A. delicatissima, Achnanthes manifera, and Amphora bigibba. FR surfaces were typified by C. tenuis, and several species of Amphora. The presence of C. tenuis is new to the biofouling literature, but as new coatings are developed, this diatom may be one of many that prove to be problematic for static immersion. Results show coatings can be significantly influenced by geographical area, highlighting the need to test ship hull coatings in locations similar to where they will be utilized. PMID:21932984

17. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... (ii) For any waters in the world except Alaskan waters, the ambient cold condition of: (A) Five knots... cold condition of: (A) Five knots air at −29 °C (−20 °F); and (B) Still sea water at −2 °C (28 °F); or (2) Maintained by the heating system under § 154.178, if, without heat, the contiguous hull...

18. Impacts of Extreme Events on Phenology: Drought-Induced Changes in Productivity of Mixed Woody-Herbaceous Ecosystems

Rich, P. M.; Breshears, D. D.; White, A. B.

2006-12-01

Ecosystem responses to key climate drivers are reflected in phenological dynamics such as the timing and degree of "greenup" that integrate responses over spatial scales from individual plants to ecosystems. This integration is clearest in ecosystems dominated by a single species or life form, such as seasonally dynamic grasslands or more temporally constant evergreen forests. Yet many ecosystems have substantial contribution of cover from both herbaceous and woody evergreen plants. Responses of mixed woody- herbaceous ecosystems to climate are of increasing concern due to their extensive nature, the potential for such systems to yield more complex responses than those dominated by a single life form, and projections that extreme climate and weather events will increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. We present responses of a mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystem type to an extreme event: regional scale piñon pine mortality following an extended drought and the subsequent herbaceous greenup following the first wet period after the drought. This example highlights how reductions in greenness of the slower, more stable evergreen woody component can rapidly be offset by increases associated with resources made available to the relatively more responsive herbaceous component. We hypothesize that such two-phase phenological responses to extreme events are characteristic of many mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystems.

19. Brush development for underwater ship hull coating maintenance

Tribou, Melissa Eileen

Ship hull grooming has been proposed as an environmentally friendly method of maintaining ship hull coatings in a fouling-free condition. It is defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating to prevent the establishment of fouling. This research investigated the grooming tool properties and operational requirements needed to implement the method. The grooming tool needs to provide sufficient force to remove incipient fouling without damaging the surface and consume minimal energy. Research showed that a vertical rotating brush design containing brushes filled with angled polypropylene bristles provided an effective method. This brush system was able to successfully prevent incipient fouling from becoming established on a copper ablative and two silicone fouling release coatings when groomed on a weekly basis; however, biofilm was not completely controlled. Brush design and operational parameters in relation to brush normal forces were investigated and models were developed to understand the relationship between bristle stiffness, dimensions, and angular velocity. A preliminary look at wear found that bristle stiffness has an effect on the degree of marring of the surface of a silicone fouling release coating. The knowledge gained by this research may be used to optimize grooming brush design and operational parameters that can be applied to the design and deployment of low power autonomous underwater vehicles that will groom the ship while in port.

20. Low-temperature synthesis of cements from rice hull ash

SciTech Connect

Rodrigues, Flavio A

2003-10-01

Rice hull is an agricultural by-product containing about 20% of silica. Usually, this material is burned at the rice fields generating small silica particles, which may cause respiratory and environmental damage. This work describes the use of rice hull ash as a raw material to prepare Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}-related cements, which is a component of commercial Portland cement. Rice hull was heated at 600 deg. C rendering silica with a surface area of 21 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. This material was mixed with CaO and BaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O in several proportions, added stoichiometricaly in order to keep a ratio (Ca+Ba)/Si=2. The solids were mixed with water 1:20 (w/w) and sonicated for 60 min. The suspensions were dried and heated at several temperatures (from 500 to 1100 deg. C). The resulting solids were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Cements with structure similar to that of {beta}-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} were obtained at temperatures as low as 700 deg. C, according to the composition.