Objective To investigate whether pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) may increase oxidative stress in women with PIH, and to explore the mechanisms by which PIH may increase oxidative stress and potential free radical damage. Methods Seventy women with PIH and seventy women with uncomplicated normotensive pregnancy (UNP) whose age, nutritional conditions, levels of hemoglobin and albumin were all matched, were enrolled in
JUN-FU ZHOU; XIN-YU WANG; XUE-JUN SHANGGUAN; ZU-MING GAO; SHU-MEI ZHANG
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in the third trimester pregnant women. Methods: The study included 126 women who were in the third trimester pregnancy. All subjects completed a standard sleep questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and ultrasonic testing. Results: Pregnant women with NC ?34.7?cm had significantly higher frequency of PIH than pregnant women with NC <34.7?cm (35.6% versus 2.5%, ?(2?)=?25.863, p?=?0.000). Conclusions: The increase of NC was independent risk factor for PIH in the third trimester pregnant women. PMID:24392861
Shao, Jun-Tao; Yu, Jie; Qi, Jun-Qiao; Liu, Xiao-Dong
The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio (C/PL) was measured in platelet plasma membrane in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension [with proteinuria (PE), and without proteinuria (PIH)] and in matched normotensive gestational controls (NT). The C/PL was raised in the platelet membrane from PE (1.52 +/- 0.50, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.90) and PIH (1.38 +/- 0.34, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.67) compared with that from NT controls (0.88 +/- 0.13, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.95) (p less than 0.01, ANOVA test). No correlation was found when C/PL was regressed against total serum cholesterol levels. The abnormality of lipid composition of the platelet plasma membrane could account for some of the changes in platelet function that have been described in PIH. PMID:1501054
Coata, G; Frusca, T; Baranzelli, D; Cosmi, E V; Di Renzo, G C; Anceschi, M M
In view of the high anti-oxidative potential oftocotrienol, the role of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil in preventing pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) was explored in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in an urban teaching hospital. Healthy primigravidae were randomized to receive either oral TRF 100 mg daily or placebo, from early second trimester until delivery. Out of 299 women, 151 were randomized into the TRF arm and 148 into the placebo arm. A total of 15 (5.0%) developed PIH. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of PIH (4/151 or 2.6% in the TRF arm vs. 11/148 or 7.4% in the placebo arm, p = 0.058) between the two arms, there was a tendency towards a lower incidence of PIH in the TRF arm compared to the placebo arm. With TRF supplementation, the relative risk (RR) of PIH was 0.36 (95% CI 0.12-1.09). In conclusion, although TRF from palm oil does not statistically significantly reduce the risk of development of PIH in the population studied, the 64% reduction in incidence of PIH is substantial. The findings warrant further clinical trials, particularly in high risk populations. PMID:24592747
Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini Abdul; Azwar, Muhammad Hatta; Wahab, Marianah Abdul; Dali, Ahmad Zailani Hatta Md; Jaafar, Rohana; Ismail, Nor Azlin Mohd; Jamil, Muhammad Abdul; Adeeb, Nafisah
Objective: This study was conducted was to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in peripheral blood of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) syndrome and to investigate VEGF correlation with PIH occurrence. Methods: Double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect VEGF levels in the peripheral blood of non-pregnant women (normal group, 30 cases), normal pregnant women (pregnancy group, 30 cases) and PIH patients (PIH group, 30 cases). Results: VEGF level in the pregnancy group was significantly higher than in the normal group, and the difference between these two groups was significant (P < 0.001). In the pregnancy group, VEGF reached the maximum level at the metaphase stage of pregnancy and started to decrease at advanced pregnancy. VEGF level in the PIH group was significantly lower than in the pregnancy group at advanced pregnancy (P < 0.01), and VEGF level significantly and gradually decreased with PIH aggravation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The significant decrease of VEGF level after pregnancy was possibly an important factor of PIH pathogenesis.
Ren, Yanfang; Wang, Huiling; Qin, Haixia; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuhong; Jiang, Shan; Pan, Ying
Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy carries a major risk of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present a case of hypocellular bone marrow with severe thrombocytopenia with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) for emergency lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). This disease is characterized by pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow with impaired morphology and maturation. Causes of death due to this disease include hemorrhage and infection secondary to thrombocytopenia and neutropenia especially following surgery. We report successful management of emergency LSCS with severe thrombocytopenia with severe PIH.
Harde, Minal; Dave, Sona; Vasave, Rahul Ramji; Gujjar, Pinakin; Bhadade, Rakesh
Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5–10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved through the ability of fetal genes to increase maternal blood pressure as this enhances general nutrient supply. However, such mechanisms for inducing hypertension in pregnancy would need to incur sufficient offspring health benefits to compensate for the obvious risks for maternal and fetal health towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show that offspring exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in trimester 1 had significantly reduced overall later-life disease risks, but increased risks when PIH exposure started or developed as preeclampsia in later trimesters. Similar patterns were found for first-year mortality. These results suggest that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health.
Lykke, Jacob; Boomsma, Jacobus J.
Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension is characterized by an increased sympathetic activity and probably by a decreased synthesis\\/activity of nitric oxide. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether the beneficial action of the sympathetic antagonist methyldopa (a first-choice hypotensive agent in the treatment of PIH) may be associated to changes in nitric-oxide synthesis. Methods: Forty pregnant Wistar rats received
Eduardo Podjarny; Sydney Benchetrit; Bernard Katz; Janice Green; Jacques Bernheim
Maternal endothelial dysfunction is one of the main features of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). It is generally accepted that circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflect the state of the endothelium, its injury and/or repair possibilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether the CECs and EPCs numbers in the circulation of women with PIH reflect the presence of this pathology. Peripheral blood cells of PIH and normotensive pregnant women were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies. For CECs evaluation, samples were labeled with anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies; for EPCs with anti-VEGFR2/KDR and anti-CD34 antibodies. Cells were quantified by flow cytometry. The levels of both CECs (CD31(+), CD45(-)) and EPCs (CD34(+), VEGFR2/KDR(+)) in the peripheral blood of women with PIH were significantly lower compared with those of control pregnant women with normal blood pressure level. Lowered accessibility of maternal CECs and EPCs may diminish general regenerative potential of the patient endothelia, contributing to PIH symptoms and to the risk of subsequent coronary and arterial disease. PMID:24563102
Heimrath, Jerzy; Paprocka, Maria; Czekanski, Andrzej; Ledwozyw, Agata; Kantor, Aneta; Dus, Danuta
Objectives. To evaluate pregnancy outcomes and its determinants in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. Two-hundred and twenty pregnant PCOS and 594 healthy women were followed from early pregnancy. Incidences of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preterm birth, twinning, and fetal growth restriction (FGR) were determined. Results. The incidence of GDM was notably higher among all PCOS combined (54.9%; OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.0–4.1) and PCOS subgroups, whether they conceived spontaneously (51.5%; OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.0–5.4), or via IVF-ET or ovarian stimulation, compared with controls (14.3%; P < 0.001). The incidence of PIH was also higher among all PCOS (10.4%; OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1–4.4) and the subgroup conceiving spontaneously (11.8%; OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.2; P < 0.001) but not for those conceiving with IVF-ET (9.1%) or ovarian stimulation (9.4%). Lean women with PCOS (BMI <24 kg/m2) had higher incidences of GDM (51.1% versus 14.5%; OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 3.4–9.0) and PIH (8.9% versus 3.2%; OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3–7.1) than lean controls. PCOS woemn with normal glucose tolerance had higher risk for PIH than their comparable control group (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3–11.7). Conclusion. This study suggested that PCOS is an independent risk factor for the development of GDM and PIH. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-RCC-11001824.
Wang, Yunhui; Zhao, Huidan; Ding, Hong; Tan, Jianping; Chen, Jingte; Zhang, Rui; Azziz, Ricardo; Yang, Dongzi
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major contributor to maternal and fetal mortality. The cause of preeclampsia remains unclear, but oxidative stress on the endothelium leading to endothelial dysfunction is said to be the root cause of the disease. The aim of this study was to measure and determine the plasma levels of key angiogenic factors in pregnancy as an indicator for the early onset of preeclampsia in pregnancy. Plasma levels of circulating a soluble fms like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF), both pro-angiogenic factors were analyzed in normal pregnant Malaysian women (control group, n = 34), women with pregnant induced hypertension (PIH, n = 34) and women with preeclampsia (PE, n = 34) all at three gestational ages, 24–28 weeks (early pregnancy: EP), 32–36 weeks (late pregnancy: LP) and 6 weeks after delivery (postpartum: PN). The plasma levels of angiogenic factors were determined by ELISA. sFlt-1 levels were elevated in PIH and PE patients as compared to controls. PIGF and VEGF were significantly decreased in PIH and PE as compared to the controls. These results suggest that elevated concentration of sFlt-1 and suppressed levels of PIGF and VEGF may contribute to the development of hypertension in pregnancy which precedes preeclampsia.
Yelumalai, Suseela; Muniandy, Sekaran; Zawiah Omar, Siti; Qvist, Rajes
Dahl hypertension-resistant (R) and hypertension-sensitive (S) rats, with opposite genetically controlled propensities for hypertension, were used to determine if cadmium-induced hypertension was also dependent upon genetic predisposition. When intraperit...
E. V. Ohanian L. K. Dahl J. Iwai
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature, resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification, PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly appetite suppressant drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used but are also considered as possible risk factors for PAH. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, in part reversible after its withdrawal. Recently several studies raised the potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. Other possible risk factors for PAH include: nasal decongestants, like phenylpropanolamine, dietary supplement - L-Tryptophan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, pergolide and other drugs that could act on 5HT2B receptors. Interestingly, PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drugs induced PAH. PMID:23972547
Seferian, Andrei; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Savale, Laurent; Günther, Sven; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David
This slide presentation is an overview of the some of the known results of spaceflight induced intracranial hypertension. Historical information from Gemini 5, Apollo, and the space shuttle programs indicated that some vision impairment was reported and a...
W. J. Traver
It has been recently hypothesized that in PIH a placental oxidant-antioxidant imbalance might cause the release of lipoperoxidation products into the circulation, with subsequent damage of endothelial cell membranes. In this hypothesis the endothelial cell and further increase in circulating lipoperoxide levels, which are by themselves able to induce smooth muscle constriction and increased pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II. In
N. Cester; R. Staffolani; R. A. Rabini; R. Magnanelli; E. Salvolini; R. Galassi; L. Mazzanti; C. Romanini
Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies established the association between high alcohol consumption and hypertension. However the mechanism through which alcohol raises blood pressure remains elusive. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed such as an imbalance of the central nervous system, impairment of the baroreceptors, enhanced sympathetic activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased cortisol levels, increased vascular reactivity due to increase in intracellular calcium levels, stimulation of the endothelium to release vasoconstrictors and loss of relaxation due to inflammation and oxidative injury of the endothelium leading to inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production. Loss of relaxation due to inflammation and oxidative injury of the endothelium by angiotensin II leading to inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production is the major contributors of the alcohol-induced hypertension. For the prevention of alcohol-induced hypertension is to reduce the amount of alcohol intake. Physical conditioning/exercise training is one of the most important strategies to prevent/treat chronic alcohol-induced hypertension on physiological basis. The efficacious pharmacologic treatment includes the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) which have antioxidant activity and calcium channel blockers. The most effective prevention and treatment of alcohol-induced hypertension is physical exercise and the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the clinic. PMID:24891935
Husain, Kazim; Ansari, Rais A; Ferder, Leon
Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies established the association between high alcohol consumption and hypertension. However the mechanism through which alcohol raises blood pressure remains elusive. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed such as an imbalance of the central nervous system, impairment of the baroreceptors, enhanced sympathetic activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased cortisol levels, increased vascular reactivity due to increase in intracellular calcium levels, stimulation of the endothelium to release vasoconstrictors and loss of relaxation due to inflammation and oxidative injury of the endothelium leading to inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production. Loss of relaxation due to inflammation and oxidative injury of the endothelium by angiotensin II leading to inhibition of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide production is the major contributors of the alcohol-induced hypertension. For the prevention of alcohol-induced hypertension is to reduce the amount of alcohol intake. Physical conditioning/exercise training is one of the most important strategies to prevent/treat chronic alcohol-induced hypertension on physiological basis. The efficacious pharmacologic treatment includes the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) which have antioxidant activity and calcium channel blockers. The most effective prevention and treatment of alcohol-induced hypertension is physical exercise and the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the clinic
Husain, Kazim; Ansari, Rais A; Ferder, Leon
This article reviews the current understanding of the mechanisms of calcineurin inhibitor–induced hypertension. Already early after the introduction of cyclosporine in the 1980s, vasoconstriction, sympathetic excitation and sodium retention by the kidney had been shown to play a role in this form of hypertension. The vasoconstrictive effects of calcineurin inhibitors are related to interference with the balance of vasoactive substances, including endothelin and nitric oxide. Until recently, the renal site of the sodium-retaining effect of calcineurin inhibitors was unknown. We and others have shown that calcineurin inhibitors increase the activity of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter through an effect on the kinases WNK and SPAK. Here, we review the pertinent literature on the hypertensinogenic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, including neural, vascular and renal effects, and we propose an integrated model of calcineurin inhibitor–induced hypertension.
Hoorn, Ewout J.; Walsh, Stephen B.; McCormick, James A.; Zietse, Robert; Unwin, Robert J.; Ellison, David H.
Venlafaxine is a newly introduced antidepressant that is clinically different from other antidepressants, possesses a slightly different mechanism of action and may have unique efficacy properties and a faster onset of action. A case of venlafaxine induced severe hypertension is reported to highlight the need for caution while using this drug. PMID:21407890
Pardal, P K; John, T R; Rathee, S P
Exercise stresses the pulmonary circulation through increases in cardiac output (Q.) and left atrial pressure. Invasive as well as noninvasive studies in healthy volunteers show that the slope of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP)–flow relationships ranges from 0.5 to 3 mm Hg?min?L?1. The upper limit of normal mPAP at exercise thus approximates 30 mm Hg at a Q. of less than 10 L?min?1 or a total pulmonary vascular resistance at exercise of less than 3 Wood units. Left atrial pressure increases at exercise with an average upstream transmission to PAP in a close to one-for-one mm Hg fashion. Multipoint PAP–flow relationships are usually described by a linear approximation, but present with a slight curvilinearity, which is explained by resistive vessel distensibility. When mPAP is expressed as a function of oxygen uptake or workload, plateau patterns may be observed in patients with systolic heart failure who cannot further increase Q. at the highest levels of exercise. Exercise has to be dynamic to avoid the increase in systemic vascular resistance and abrupt changes in intrathoracic pressure that occur with resistive exercise and can lead to unpredictable effects on the pulmonary circulation. Postexercise measurements are unreliable because of the rapid return of pulmonary vascular pressures and flows to the baseline resting state. Recent studies suggest that exercise-induced increase in PAP to a mean higher than 30 mm Hg may be associated with dyspnea-fatigue symptomatology.
Vanderpool, Rebecca; Dhakal, Bishnu P.; Saggar, Rajeev; Saggar, Rajan; Vachiery, Jean-Luc; Lewis, Gregory D.
Background: The authors assessed proximal renal tubular dysfunction and/or damage in pregnant women with various types of hypertension by measuring the three urinary lysosomal enzyme levels: N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), arylsulfatase A and ?-glucuronidase. Methods: The study consisted of 120 pregnant women divided into four groups: 41 women in 20th week of gestation or more, with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH group), 28 pregnant women after 20 weeks of pregnancy with pre-eclampsia (PE group), 21 pregnant women with chronic hypertension, identified before 20th week of pregnancy (CH group) and 30 healthy, pregnant women (healthy controls (HC) group). Results: Statistical analysis showed significantly higher levels of all the three of lysosomal enzymes in the urine of patients with PE compared with the healthy pregnant women, pregnant women with PIH and the ones with chronic hypertension. Additionally, significantly higher values of NAG were found in the group of pregnant women with PIH compared with healthy pregnancies. No correlation was found between the concentration of enzymes in urine and values of blood pressure in any of the analyzed groups of pregnant women. Conclusions: The authors conclude that higher values of all the studied enzymes in PE group, in the comparison with the other groups, indicate proximal tubular damage at the cellular level. The lack of correlation between the concentration of lysosomal enzymes and blood pressure suggests that the damage to these parts of kidney is complex. In addition, mechanisms other than hypertension realizing intracellular enzymes may be involved in this process. PMID:24724946
Torbé, Andrzej; Ch?apowska, Ewelina; Szyma?ska-Pasternak, Jolanta; Sulecka, Aneta; Bober, Joanna; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Rzepka, Rafa?; Konstanty-Kurkiewicz, Wioletta; Torbé, Bogdan
Obesity, hypertension and hyperinsulinism are frequently related and constitute morbid elements of human athero-thrombogenic syndrom. To elucidate physiopathologic mechanisms linking these symptoms, we have developped an experimental model reproducing the morbid triptyque: obesity-hypertension-insulin resistance were induced by hyperlipidic hypercaloric diet. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiovascular modifications elicited by high fat diet. Four male Beagle-Harrier dogs were used in this preliminary study. We investigated before and 7 weeks after the beginning of the hypercaloric hyperlipidic diet morphologic measures, systemic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), pulmonary blood pressure, cardiac output (CO), systolic ejection volume (SEV), peripheral arterial resistance (PAR) and HR variability on 24 hours' electrocardiogram obtained by Holter method. Echocardiographic modifications of left ventricule was also studied after 20 weeks. Body weight increased (+15.4%) after 7 weeks and remained stable the whole experimental period. This gain was associated with an increase of thoracic and abdominal circonferences (respectively +5.9% and 14.3% at the 7th week). The abdominal increase was significantly more elevated than the thoracic one. This abdominal obesity was associated with an increase in diastolic (+17.9%) and mean (+16.4%) (but not systolic) BP. High fat diet failed to modify arterial pulmonary blood pressures but induced an increase in both CO (3.0 +/- 5.2 vs 4.3 +/- 0.4 ml/min) and SEV (32.4 +/- 5.2 vs 40.8 +/- 2.7 ml/beat). PAR decreased (43.1 +/- 5.9 vs 33.0 +/- 3.2 UW; p = 0.08). Holter method showed a non significant increase of HR (82.0 +/- 7.8 vs 99.5 +/- 5.6 beat/min; p = 0.1) explained by a significant decrease of parasympathetic HR variability (PNN50: 53.5 +/- 4.1 vs 40.9 +/- 4.1%). No echocardiographic modification of left ventricule was found after 20 weeks of high fat diet. This preliminary study shows that, like in humans, high fat diet in dogs induced abdominal obesity with systemic hypertension but failed to provoke left cardiovascular hypertrophy after 20 weeks. This model will allow to characterize the links between cardiovascular and endocrinometabolic alterations occurring during the development of obesity and hypertension. PMID:8949371
Verwaerde, P; Galinier, M; Rougé, P; Massabuau, P; Galitzky, J; Sénard, J M; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L
Exposing rodents to brief episodes of hypoxia mimics the hypoxemia and the cardiovascular and metabolic effects observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a condition that affects between 5% and 20% of the population. Apart from daytime sleepiness, OSA is associated with a high incidence of systemic and pulmonary hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, stroke and sudden cardiac death. The development of animal models to study sleep apnoea has provided convincing evidence that recurrent exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) has significant vascular and haemodynamic impact that explain much of the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in patients with sleep apnoea. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of how IH causes these changes is unclear and under investigation. This review focuses on the most recent findings addressing these mechanisms. It includes a discussion of the contribution of the nervous system, circulating and vascular factors, inflammatory mediators and transcription factors to IH-induced cardiovascular disease. It also highlights the importance of reactive oxygen species as a primary mediator of the systemic and pulmonary hypertension that develops in response to exposure to IH. PMID:19818095
Bosc, Laura V González; Resta, Thomas; Walker, Benjimen; Kanagy, Nancy L
The clinical efficiency and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia Miltiorrhizae Bge (SMB) and Ligustrazine (L) on pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) were studied in 30 patients. Before and after the administration of SMB and L, the following parameters: mean arterial pressure (MAP), proteinuria, levels of Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and Prostacyclin (PGI2) were observed. TXA2 and PGI2 were measured by their stable hydration products Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) by an established radioimmunoassay. The results of treatment were compared with the base line values and showed as follows: MAP and proteinuria decreased significantly (P < 0.05); no marked difference existed in TXB2; the level of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha increased significantly (P < 0.05); the rate of TXB2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SMB and L can invigorate blood circulation by decreasing vasoconstriction. PMID:7712882
Liu, S Y; Xu, Y Y; Zhu, J Y
An endogenous sodium pump inhibitor, or digitalis-like factor (DLF), has been postulated to mediate essential hypertension. It may also play a role in preeclampsia. However, studies of this factor in hypertensive pregnancy have not provided consistent findings. Part of this may be due to the absence of subclassification of pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) when assessing these parameters. In this study we explored serum DLF and digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) in insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) women with normotensive pregnancies or PIH, comparing them to each other and to nondiabetic pregnant women. Our results demonstrated that nondiabetic women with preeclampsia (PE, PIH with proteinuria) had significantly increased serum DLF and DLIF compared to normotensive pregnant women (NL BP). Women with transient hypertension of pregnancy (THP, PIH without proteinuria) had intermediate values (DLF. NL BP: 3.3 +/- 0.6, THP: 4.8 +/- 1.1, PE: 7.6 +/- 1.3% inhibition [Na,K]-ATPase, P < .05 ANOVA; DLIF. NL BP: 0.22 +/- 0.02, THP: 0.28 +/- 0.03, PE: 0.35 +/- 0.02 ng digoxin equivalents/mL, P < .05 ANOVA). Pregnant normotensive IDDM women had significantly higher serum DLF and DLIF activity than their nondiabetic counterparts (DLF. non-IDDM NL BP: 3.3 +/- 0.6 v IDDM NL BP: 8.8 +/- 1.2% inhibition [Na,K]-ATPase, P = .0008; DLIF. non-IDDM NL BP: 0.22 +/- 0.02 v IDDM NL BP: 0.31 +/- 0.02 ng digoxin equivalents/mL, P = .005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7734097
Graves, S W; Lincoln, K; Cook, S L; Seely, E W
This slide presentation is an overview of the some of the known results of spaceflight induced intracranial hypertension. Historical information from Gemini 5, Apollo, and the space shuttle programs indicated that some vision impairment was reported and a comparison between these historical missions and present missions is included. Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, Hyperopic Shifts and Raised Intracranial Pressure has occurred in Astronauts During and After Long Duration Space Flight. Views illustrate the occurrence of Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, and Choroidal Folds. There are views of the Arachnoid Granulations and Venous return, and the question of spinal or venous compliance issues is discussed. The question of increased blood flow and its relation to increased Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is raised. Most observed on-orbit papilledema does not progress, and this might be a function of plateau homeostasis for the higher level of intracranial pressure. There are seven cases of astronauts experiencing in flight and post flight symptoms, which are summarized and follow-up is reviewed along with a comparison of the treatment options. The question is "is there other involvement besides vision," and other Clinical implications are raised,
Traver, William J.
AIM: To investigate the intestinal barrier changes in rats with CCl4-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: The permeability of intestinal barrier detected by Lanthanum as a tracer was evaluated in rats. Bacterial translocation and plasma endotoxin were also determined. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial translocation was 85% in rats with CCl4-induced portal hypertension, which was significantly higher than that in control rats (20%, P<0.01). Plasma endotoxin level was significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Permeability of the epithelial mucosa and pathological alteration were increased in the ileum and the microvilli became shorter and thinner in rats with portal hypertension. CONCLUSION: Bacterial translocation occurs in rats with CCl4-induced portal hypertension and increased permeability between epithelial cells contributes to the translocation.
Yao, Guo-Xiang; Shen, Zhong-Yi; Xue, Xin-Bo; Yang, Zhen
Background. To evaluate the association of migraine and asthma and to estimate the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in relation to maternal comorbid migraine and asthma. Methods. Reproductive age women (N = 3.731) were interviewed during early pregnancy. At the time of interview, we ascertained participants' migraine and asthma status. From medical records, we collected information to allow the diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression procedures. Results. After adjusting for confounders, migraineurs had 1.38-fold increased odds of asthma as compared with nonmigraineurs (95% CI 1.09–1.38). The odds of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were highest among women with comorbid migraine-asthma. The ORs for PIH preeclampsia and the two disorders combined were 2.53 (95% CI 1.39–4.61), 3.53 (95% CI 1.51–8.24), and 2.64 (95% CI 1.56–4.47), respectively, for women with comorbid migraine-asthma as compared with those who had neither disorder. Conclusion. These findings confirm prior reports and extend the literature by documenting particularly high odds of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia among women with comorbid migraine-asthma. Increased knowledge about the prevalence and sequelae of comorbidities during pregnancy may lead to improved symptom management and perinatal outcomes.
Czerwinski, Stefanie; Gollero, Jolana; Qiu, Chunfang; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Williams, Michelle A.
Wistar rats given a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, iVc-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), for 4 weeks develop time- and dose-dependent hypertension without cardiac hypertrophy. This initial study of the relation between left ventricular weight and L-NAME-induced hypertension has now been extended by giving 50 mg\\/kg per day L-NAME to Wistar rats (n=30) for 8 weeks and comparing results with those from control
Jean-Francois Arnal; Abdel-Ilah El Amrani; Gilles Chatellier; Joel Menard; Jean-Baptiste Michel
An abnormality of sodium handling has been suggested as one of the mechanisms responsible for the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension. We analysed the plasma and urinary concentrations, and the intraerythrocyte activities of Na and K, and the RBC membrane Na+/K+-ATPase activity of 77 hypertensive and 133 normal pregnant women. Umbilical cord blood of infants from 21 hypertensive and 28 control women was studied. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity was determined by measuring the inorganic phosphate released by incubation in a reaction medium in the presence and absence of K ions or ouabain. The intra-erythrocyte sodium and potassium activities were measured by ion-selective electrode analysis of the haemolysates, after washing the RBCs in 110 mmol/l MgCl2. We found a significant increase in intracellular sodium and a reduction in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hypertensive women in comparison with the control subjects during pregnancy. No difference was observed in early puerperium. Cord blood from infants of pregnancy-induced hypertensive women showed an increase in intracellular Na+ activity and a decrease in the erythrocyte membrane Na+/K+-ATPase activity in comparison with cord blood samples from control subjects. The observed abnormalities in the plasma membrane sodium transport may play a major role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-induced hypertension. PMID:2851165
Testa, I; Rabini, R A; Danieli, G; Tranquilli, A L; Cester, N; Romanini, C; Bertoli, E; Mazzanti, L
The present study investigates the relationship of different sound levels with hypertension and prehypertension in Pakistani population. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension due to exposure of sound level ?80 dBA (A weighted sound pressure level), 81-94 dBA and ?95 dBA in November 11, 2005 to January 30, 2007. Sites were selected with stable sound ranges according to the above mentioned criteria. After selecting sampling sites, workers living in that area for at least 8 hours per day were categorized on the basis of blood pressure in groups called as normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive. Persons with diabetes, chronic bacterial or viral infections, alcohol addiction, kidney problems were excluded from the study. For getting homogenous groups, age range of 30-50 years was selected. Out of 566 samples, 90 excluded samples were consisted of 8% diabetic patients, 5% hepatitis C patients, 3% hepatitis B patients and 0% AIDS patients. Out of 476 participants, 389 samples were found with age 40±10 years. High noise increased the risks of hypertension (Odds ratio: 4.41; Confidence interval: 2,123-9,196) and prehypertension (Odds ratio: 3,809; Confidence Interval: 1,804-8,042) as compared to the normal sound level. However increased chances of hypertension (Odds ratio: 2,271; Confidence interval: 1,043-4,946) and prehypertension (Odds ratio: 3,028; Confidence Interval: 1,440-6,367) were observed on median noise exposure also. These findings suggest that sound level more than 81 dBA increases the chances for development of hypertension and prehypertension in Pakistani population. PMID:20846132
Nawaz, Syed Kashif; Hasnain, Shahida
Sleep apnea, defined as intermittent respiratory arrest during sleep, is associated with increased incidence of hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Exposure of rodents to brief periods of intermittent hypercarbia/hypoxia (H-IH) during sleep mimics the cyclical hypoxia-normoxia of sleep apnea. Endothelin-1, an upstream activator of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), is increased during H-IH. Therefore, we hypothesized that NFATc3 is activated by H-IH and is required for H-IH-induced hypertension. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that H-IH (20 brief exposures per hour to 5% O2-5% CO2 for 7 h/day) induces systemic hypertension in mice [mean arterial pressure (MAP) = 97 ± 2 vs. 124 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05, n = 5] and increases NFATc3 transcriptional activity in aorta and mesenteric arteries. Cyclosporin A, an NFAT inhibitor, and genetic ablation of NFATc3 [NFATc3 knockout (KO)] prevented NFAT activation. More importantly, H-IH-induced hypertension was attenuated in cyclosporin A-treated mice and prevented in NFATc3 KO mice. MAP was significantly elevated in wild-type mice (? = 23.5 ± 6.1 mmHg), but not in KO mice (? = –3.9 ± 5.7). These results indicate that H-IH-induced increases in MAP require NFATc3 and that NFATc3 may contribute to the vascular changes associated with H-IH-induced hypertension.
de Frutos, Sergio; Duling, Laura; Alo, Dominique; Berry, Tammy; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Walker, Mary; Kanagy, Nancy; Bosc, Laura Gonzalez
Summary Client protein recruitment to the Hsp90 system depends on cochaperones that bind the client and Hsp90 simultaneously and facilitate their interaction. Hsp90 involvement in the assembly of snoRNPs, RNA polymerases, PI3-kinase-like kinases, and chromatin remodeling complexes depends on the TTT (Tel2-Tti1-Tti2), and R2TP complexes—consisting of the AAA-ATPases Rvb1 and Rvb2, Tah1 (Spagh/RPAP3 in metazoa), and Pih1 (Pih1D1 in humans)—that together provide the connection to Hsp90. The biochemistry underlying R2TP function is still poorly understood. Pih1 in particular, at the heart of the complex, has not been described at a structural level, nor have the multiple protein-protein interactions it mediates been characterized. Here we present a structural and biochemical analysis of Hsp90-Tah1-Pih1, Hsp90-Spagh, and Pih1D1-Tel2 complexes that reveal a domain in Pih1D1 specific for binding CK2 phosphorylation sites, and together define the structural basis by which the R2TP complex connects the Hsp90 chaperone system to the TTT complex.
Pal, Mohinder; Morgan, Marc; Phelps, Sarah E.L.; Roe, S. Mark; Parry-Morris, Sarah; Downs, Jessica A.; Polier, Sigrun; Pearl, Laurence H.; Prodromou, Chrisostomos
Client protein recruitment to the Hsp90 system depends on cochaperones that bind the client and Hsp90 simultaneously and facilitate their interaction. Hsp90 involvement in the assembly of snoRNPs, RNA polymerases, PI3-kinase-like kinases, and chromatin remodeling complexes depends on the TTT (Tel2-Tti1-Tti2), and R2TP complexes-consisting of the AAA-ATPases Rvb1 and Rvb2, Tah1 (Spagh/RPAP3 in metazoa), and Pih1 (Pih1D1 in humans)-that together provide the connection to Hsp90. The biochemistry underlying R2TP function is still poorly understood. Pih1 in particular, at the heart of the complex, has not been described at a structural level, nor have the multiple protein-protein interactions it mediates been characterized. Here we present a structural and biochemical analysis of Hsp90-Tah1-Pih1, Hsp90-Spagh, and Pih1D1-Tel2 complexes that reveal a domain in Pih1D1 specific for binding CK2 phosphorylation sites, and together define the structural basis by which the R2TP complex connects the Hsp90 chaperone system to the TTT complex. PMID:24794838
Pal, Mohinder; Morgan, Marc; Phelps, Sarah E L; Roe, S Mark; Parry-Morris, Sarah; Downs, Jessica A; Polier, Sigrun; Pearl, Laurence H; Prodromou, Chrisostomos
Inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in the serum and lungs of patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Several animal models of PAH cite the potential role of inflammatory mediators. We investigated role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease. Indices of pulmonary vascular remodeling were measured in lung-specific IL-6-overexpressing transgenic mice (Tg) and compared to wild-type (Tg)
M. Kathryn Steiner; Olga L. Syrkina; Eugene J. Mark; Charles A. Hales; Aaron B. Waxman
Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension. PMID:24060894
Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca
Abstract Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. l-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal l-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% l-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal l-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, l-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by l-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of l-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. PMID:24555785
Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T
22 cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome with exudative retinal detachment were studied. Fluorescein angiography performed in 5 patients 7-14 days post-parturition revealed choroidal circulatory disturbances and retinal pigment epithelial damages, while the retinal capillaries also showed damages of varying degrees. The authors regarded the former as the primary pathological basis for the retinal detachment, with the latter also playing a pathogenic role. The incidence and the source of fluid of the retinal detachment in relation to general edema, proteinuria, and hypertension were discussed. PMID:1425037
Wang, C L
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasodilator produced by vascular endothelium. Its enzymatic formation is derived from three different synthases: neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) synthases. While relatively small amounts of NO produced by eNOS are important to cardiovascular homeostasis, high NO levels produced associated with iNOS activity may have detrimental consequences to the cardiovascular system and contribute to hypertension. In this article, we reviewed current literature and found mounting evidence indicating that increased iNOS expression and activity contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its complications. Excessive amounts of NO produced by iNOS up-regulation can react with superoxide anions forming peroxynitrite, thereby promoting nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, abnormal iNOS activity can up-regulate arginase activity, allowing it to compete with eNOS for L-arginine, thereby resulting in reduced NO bioavailability. This may also lead to eNOS uncoupling with enhanced production of superoxide anions instead of NO. All these alterations mediated by iNOS apparently contribute to hypertension and its complications. We also reviewed current evidence showing the effects of iNOS inhibitors on different animal models of hypertension. iNOS inhibition apparently exerts antihypertensive effects, decreases oxidative and nitrosative stress, and improves vascular function. Together, these studies highlight the possibility that iNOS is a potential pharmacological target in hypertension. PMID:24102471
Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E
We investigated the antihypertensive effect of lutein on NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Daily oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg)-induced a rapid progressive increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). L-NAME significantly increased MAP from the first week compared to that in the control and reached 193.3±9.6 mmHg at the end of treatment. MAP in the lutein groups was dose-dependently lower than that in the L-NAME group. Similar results were observed for systolic and diastolic blood pressure of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The control group showed little change in heart rate for 3 weeks, whereas L-NAME significantly reduced heart rate from 434±26 to 376±33 beats/min. Lutein (2 mg/kg) significantly prevented the reduced heart rate induced by L-NAME. L-NAME caused hypertrophy of heart and kidney, and increased plasma lipid peroxidation four-fold but significantly reduced plasma nitrite and glutathione concentrations, which were significantly prevented by lutein in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that lutein affords significant antihypertensive and antioxidant effects against L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats.
Sung, Ji Hoon; Jo, Young Soo; Kim, Su Jin; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Kim, Myung Chul; Ko, Hyun Ju
The Persistent Issues in History Laboratory for Virtual Field Experience (PIH-LVFE) combines a database of video cases of authentic classroom practices with multiple resources and tools to enable pre-service social studies teachers to virtually observe teachers implementing problem- based learning activities. In this paper, we present the results of two studies designed to provide formative evaluation results from our initial
Thomas A. Brush; John Saye; Ugur Kale; Jung Won Hur; Jada Kohlmeier; Theano Yerasimou; Lijiang Guo
Recent studies have shown that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, is increased in hypertension and chronic kidney disease. However, little is known about the effects of hypertension per se on ADMA metabolism. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ANG II-induced hypertension, in the absence of renal injury, is associated with increased oxidative stress and plasma and renal cortex ADMA levels in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ANG II at 200 ng·kg?1·min?1 sc (by minipump) for 1 or 3 wk or at 400 ng·kg?1·min?1 for 6 wk. Mean arterial pressure was increased after 3 and 6 wk of ANG II; however, renal injury (proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis) was only evident after 6 wk of treatment. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration and renal cortex p22phox protein abundance were increased early (1 and 3 wk), but urinary excretion of isoprostane and H2O2 was only increased after 6 wk of ANG II. An increased in plasma ADMA after 6 wk of ANG II was associated with increased lung protein arginine methyltransferase-1 abundance and decreased renal cortex dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity. No changes in renal cortex ADMA were observed. ANG II hypertension in the absence of renal injury is not associated with increased ADMA; however, when the severity and duration of the treatment were increased, plasma ADMA increased. These data suggest that elevated blood pressure alone, for up to 3 wk, in the absence of renal injury does not play an important role in the regulation of ADMA. However, the presence of renal injury and sustained hypertension for 6 wk increases ADMA levels and contributes to nitric oxide deficiency and cardiovascular disease.
Moningka, Natasha C.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Croker, Byron; Baylis, Chris
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been shown to act as a local regulator of vascular tone and remodeling. We investigated whether CNP ameliorates monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmo- nary hypertension in rats. Rats received a continuous infusion of CNP or placebo. Significant pulmonary hypertension developed 3 weeks after MCT. However, infusion of CNP significantly attenuated the development of pulmonary hypertension and vascular
Takefumi Itoh; Noritoshi Nagaya; Shinsuke Murakami; Takafumi Fujii; Takashi Iwase; Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda; Chikao Yutani; Masakazu Yamagishi; Hiroshi Kimura; Kenji Kangawa
The R2TP cochaperone complex plays a critical role in the assembly of multisubunit machines, including small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs), RNA polymerase II, and the mTORC1 and SMG1 kinase complexes, but the molecular basis of substrate recognition remains unclear. Here, we describe a phosphopeptide binding domain (PIH-N) in the PIH1D1 subunit of the R2TP complex that preferentially binds to highly acidic phosphorylated proteins. A cocrystal structure of a PIH-N domain/TEL2 phosphopeptide complex reveals a highly specific phosphopeptide recognition mechanism in which Lys57 and 64 in PIH1D1, along with a conserved DpSDD phosphopeptide motif within TEL2, are essential and sufficient for binding. Proteomic analysis of PIH1D1 interactors identified R2TP complex substrates that are recruited by the PIH-N domain in a sequence-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner suggestive of a common mechanism of substrate recognition. We propose that protein complexes assembled by the R2TP complex are defined by phosphorylation of a specific motif and recognition by the PIH1D1 subunit. PMID:24656813
Ho?ejší, Zuzana; Stach, Lasse; Flower, Thomas G; Joshi, Dhira; Flynn, Helen; Skehel, J Mark; O'Reilly, Nicola J; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Smerdon, Stephen J; Boulton, Simon J
Summary The R2TP cochaperone complex plays a critical role in the assembly of multisubunit machines, including small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs), RNA polymerase II, and the mTORC1 and SMG1 kinase complexes, but the molecular basis of substrate recognition remains unclear. Here, we describe a phosphopeptide binding domain (PIH-N) in the PIH1D1 subunit of the R2TP complex that preferentially binds to highly acidic phosphorylated proteins. A cocrystal structure of a PIH-N domain/TEL2 phosphopeptide complex reveals a highly specific phosphopeptide recognition mechanism in which Lys57 and 64 in PIH1D1, along with a conserved DpSDD phosphopeptide motif within TEL2, are essential and sufficient for binding. Proteomic analysis of PIH1D1 interactors identified R2TP complex substrates that are recruited by the PIH-N domain in a sequence-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner suggestive of a common mechanism of substrate recognition. We propose that protein complexes assembled by the R2TP complex are defined by phosphorylation of a specific motif and recognition by the PIH1D1 subunit.
Horejsi, Zuzana; Stach, Lasse; Flower, Thomas G.; Joshi, Dhira; Flynn, Helen; Skehel, J. Mark; O'Reilly, Nicola J.; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W.; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Boulton, Simon J.
This study investigated the possible beneficial effect of intraperitoneal proteolytic enzyme administration on the development of hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat model of 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension. Male Wistar rats (120–150 g) underwent either sham surgery (control, n = 5) or clipping of the left renal artery. From day one 2K1C rats were randomized into 2 groups, placebo
Katarina Šebeková; Jobst Dämmrich; Wolfgang Fierlbeck; Zora Krivosiková
Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death.(1) Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension.(2,3) In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system.(4) The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of people 60 to 69 years of age and at least three-fourths of those 70 years of age and older are affected.(5) Most individuals with hypertension do not have it adequately controlled.(1,6) Medication noncompliance due to avoidance of side effects is suggested to be a primary factor.(6) The epidemic incidence of hypertension and its significant cost to society indicate that a well-tolerated, cost-effective approach to treatment is urgently needed. PMID:24278815
Fitzgerald, Kara; Lepine, Todd
Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the management of preexisting hypertension is still controversial in the treatment of acute stroke in hypertensive patients. The present study evaluates the influence of preserving hypertension during focal cerebral ischemia on stroke outcome in a rat model of chronic hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by transient (1-hour) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, during which mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at normotension (110-120 mmHg, group 1, n=6) or hypertension (160-170 mmHg, group 2, n=6) using phenylephrine. T2-, diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI were performed serially at five different time points: before and during ischemia, and at 1, 4 and 7 days after ischemia. Lesion volume and brain edema were estimated from apparent diffusion coefficient maps and T2-weighted images. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured within and outside the perfusion deficient lesion and in the corresponding regions of the contralesional hemisphere. Neurological deficits were evaluated after reperfusion. Infarct volume, edema, and neurological deficits were significantly reduced in group 2 versus group 1. In addition, higher values and rapid restoration of rCBF were observed in group 2, while rCBF in both hemispheres was significantly decreased in group 1. Maintaining preexisting hypertension alleviates ischemic brain injury in SHR by increasing collateral circulation to the ischemic region and allowing rapid restoration of rCBF. The data suggest that maintaining preexisting hypertension is a valuable approach to managing hypertensive patients suffering from acute ischemic stroke.
Kang, Byeong-Teck; Leoni, Renata F.; Kim, Dong-Eog; Silva, Afonso C.
Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the management of preexisting hypertension is still controversial in the treatment of acute stroke in hypertensive patients. The present study evaluates the influence of preserving hypertension during focal cerebral ischemia on stroke outcome in a rat model of chronic hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by transient (1h) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, during which mean arterial blood pressure was maintained at normotension (110-120mm Hg, group 1, n=6) or hypertension (160-170mm Hg, group 2, n=6) using phenylephrine. T2-, diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI were performed serially at five different time points: before and during ischemia, and at 1, 4 and 7 days after ischemia. Lesion volume and brain edema were estimated from apparent diffusion coefficient maps and T2-weighted images. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured within and outside the perfusion deficient lesion and in the corresponding regions of the contralesional hemisphere. Neurological deficits were evaluated after reperfusion. Infarct volume, edema, and neurological deficits were significantly reduced in group 2 vs. group 1. In addition, higher values and rapid restoration of rCBF were observed in group 2, while rCBF in both hemispheres was significantly decreased in group 1. Maintaining preexisting hypertension alleviates ischemic brain injury in SHR by increasing collateral circulation to the ischemic region and allowing rapid restoration of rCBF. The data suggest that maintaining preexisting hypertension is a valuable approach to managing hypertensive patients suffering from acute ischemic stroke. PMID:22954904
Kang, Byeong-Teck; Leoni, Renata F; Kim, Dong-Eog; Silva, Afonso C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic treatment with prazosin, a selective ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist, on the development of hypertension in fructose-fed rats (FFR). High-fructose feeding and treatment with prazosin (1 mg/kg/day via drinking water) were initiated simultaneously in male Wistar rats. Systolic blood pressure, fasted plasma parameters, insulin sensitivity, plasma norepinephrine (NE), uric acid, and angiotensin II (Ang II) were determined following 9 weeks of treatment. FFR exhibited insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension, as well as elevations in plasma NE and Ang II levels. Treatment with prazosin prevented the rise in blood pressure without affecting insulin levels, insulin sensitivity, uric acid, or Ang II levels, while normalizing plasma NE levels in FFR. These data suggest that over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system, specifically ?1-adrenoceptors, contributes to the development of fructose-induced hypertension, however, this over-activation does not appear to an initial, precipitating event in FFR. PMID:24682694
Tran, Linda T; MacLeod, Kathleen M; McNeill, John H
An imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors has been hypothesized to have a major role in hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, which account for significant morbidity and mortality for the mother and neonate in India. There is a paucity of information on soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, anti-angiogenic factor) concentrations in different subgroups of pregnancy-induced hypertensive (PIH) disorders particularly in gestational hypertension (GH) and eclampsia during pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was conducted in order to test the above hypothesis and to get more insight into the role of sVEGFR-1 in these disorders. The concentrations of sVEGFR-1 in serum were measured from women with 22-39 weeks of gestation in the control (n=180) and gestationally matched hypertensive (n=360) pregnant mothers by ELISA. These sVEGFR-1 concentrations were found to be significantly elevated in the study groups as the severity of disease increases from GH to eclampsia (24 076 pg ml(-1); 42000 pg ml(-1), P=0.0001) as compared with controls (3360 pg ml(-1)). According to Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, at ? 34 weeks, the concentration cutoff, sensitivity, specificity for sVEGFR-1 in differentiating GH, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were ? 7619.2 pg ml(-1), 75%, 75%; ? 16726.6 pg ml(-1), 89.1%, 89.1%; ? 26222.8 pg ml(-1), 91.6%, 91.6%, respectively. The gradual upregulation of sVEGFR-1 concentrations in these groups may be due to its intimate involvement in the etiopathogenesis of severity of various hypertensive disorders by antagonizing effects of VEGF during the placental development. These observations indicate the clinical utility of sVEGFR-1 in differentiating PIH disorders and also will be helpful for the evaluation of increased monitoring system for successful pregnancy. PMID:22357551
Tripathi, R; Ralhan, R; Saxena, S; Salhan, S; Rath, G
1. Accurate measurement of blood pressure using a regularly serviced sphygmomanometer is essential. 2. Severe hypertension requires early treatment. Uncomplicated mild to moderate hypertension requires repeated blood pressure measurements up to three or four months before the diagnosis is confirmed. 3. Personal and family histories, relevant examination and investigations precede treatment. 4. Initial management should aim at reducing weight, improving diet and exercise, and stopping cigarette and excess alcohol consumption. 5. Patients with other risk factors require drug treatment at an earlier stage and at lower blood pressure levels. Essential hypertension is associated with an increased prevalence of risk factors which may need attention. 6. Treatment of asymptomatic hypertension should be considered in patients up to the age of 80. 7. First-line treatment: thiazide diuretics and beta blockers, used in the lowest effective doses, are of proven value and acceptability. The former are by far the cheapest antihypertensive drugs. 8. Second-line treatment: if thiazides and beta blockers are contra-indicated or ineffective, ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists and alpha blockers should be used. With drugs of these classes the absence of adverse cardiovascular metabolic effects is a theoretical advantage but of uncertain magnitude. 9. Follow-up of patients with borderline levels of raised blood pressure as well as for those on treatment is essential. PMID:1345151
Hoffbrand, B; Ross, M
Hypertension is a forum for the presentation of scientific investigation of the highest quality in the broad field of cardiovascular regulation as it may affect high blood pressure research. The editors are interested in receiving original articles that deal with either basic or clinical research in the fields of biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, immunology, physiology, pharmacology, and epidemiology. In
Allyn L. Mark; Francois M. Abboud; Gerald F. DiBona; Donald D. Heistad; Larry S. Tobacman; Victor J. Dzau; Carlos Ferrario; Eduardo Marban; Suzanne Oparil; Henry W. Overbeck; Stephen M. Schwartz; Karen Potvin Klein; Connie J. Nelson; John D. Baxter; Kathleen H. Berecek; Edward H. Blaine; Mordecai P. Blaustein; Barry M. Brenner; Michael J. Brody; Hans R. Brunner; Aram V. Chobanian; Robert J. Cody; Allen W. Cowley Jr.; Michael J. Dunn; Alvan R. Feinstein; D. Fink; S. Floras; Ronald H. Freeman; Edward D. Frohlich; Detlev Ganten; Haralambos P. Gavras; Celso E. Gomez-Sanchez; W. Gross; Oregon Willa Hsueh; Tadashi Inagami; I. Johnston; Stevo Julius; Norman M. Kaplan; Paul I. Korner; Theodore A. Kotchen; Eduardo M. Krieger; Brazil Kai Lau; Ronald M. Lauer; Jean-Francois Liard; Marshall D. Lindheimer; Friedrich C. Luft; Giuseppe Mancia; Harry S. Margolius; David A. McCarron; Oregon John; C. McGiff; Trefor O. Morgan; Michael J. Mulvany; Kazuo Murakami; Gary Nicholls; Michael J. Peach; Marc A. Pfeffer; V. Postnov; Morton P. Printz; John P. Rapp; John L. Reid; Donald J. Reis; J. Carlos Romero; E. Safar; A. Guillermo Scicli; T. Shepherd; Thomas Unger; Paul M. Vanhoutte; Stephen F. Vatner; Ronald G. Victor; B. Gunnar Wallin; Gordon H. Williams; Roger R. Williams; Vermont Margaret Foti; Mary Jane Jesse; Clyde E. Johnson; Ben G. Zimmerman
Previous studies have shown that preconditioning rats with a non-pressor dose of angiotensin II (AngII) sensitizes the pressor response produced by later treatment with a higher dose of AngII and that AngII and aldosterone (Aldo) can modulate each other’s pressor effects through actions involving the central nervous system (CNS). The current studies tested whether Aldo can cross-sensitize the pressor actions of AngII to enhance hypertension by employing an Induction-Delay-Expression (I-D-E) experimental design. Male rats were implanted for telemetered BP recording. During I, sub-pressor doses of either sc or icv Aldo were delivered for 1 week. Rats were then rested for 1 week (D) to assure that any exogenous Aldo was metabolized. After this, AngII was given sc for 2 weeks (E). During I and D Aldo had no sustained effect on BP. However, during E AngII-induced hypertension was greater in the groups receiving sc or icv Aldo during I in comparison to those groups receiving vehicle. Central administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist blocked sensitization. Brain tissue collected at the end of D and E showed increased mRNA expression of several renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components in cardiovascular-related forebrain regions of cross-sensitized rats. Cultured subfornical organ neurons preincubated with Aldo displayed greater increases in [Ca2+]i after AngII, and there was greater Fra-like immunoreactivity present at the end of E in cardiovascular-related forebrain structures. Taken together, these results indicate that Aldo pretreatment cross-sensitizes the development of AngII-induced hypertension probably by mechanisms that involve the CNS.
Xue, Baojian; Zhang, Zhongming; Roncari, Camila F.; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim
Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol and constituent of several Brazilian aromatic medicinal plants, popularly used against hypertension. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool were evaluated. In normotensive rats, (+/-)-linalool [1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW); intravenous (i.v.)]-induced hypotension was associated with tachycardia, which was attenuated by atropine (2 mg/kg BW) and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (20 mg/kg BW), but was not modified after indomethacin (5 mg/kg BW) administration. In hypertensive rats, linalool [200 mg/kg BW; oral (v.o.)] reduced blood pressure without changing the heart rate. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery precontracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, linalool (from 6.4 x 10(-6) to 6.4 x 10(-3) M) induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner [E(max) = (115 +/- 13)%] that were not changed after atropine administration [E(max) = (105 +/- 2)%], and were not different from those obtained in endothelium-denuded rings precontracted with phenylephrine [E(max) = (108 +/- 7)%] or 80 mM KCl [E(max) = (113 +/- 7)%] or tetraethylammonium incubation [E(max) = (105 +/- 12)%]. Linalool (1.9 x 10(-3) M) antagonized the contractions induced by CaCl2 (3 x 10(-6)-10(-2) M) (maximal inhibition, 81%). Furthermore, linalool inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that linalool reduces blood pressure probably due to a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation. PMID:23923614
Anjos, Paulo J C; Lima, Aline O; Cunha, Patrícia S; De Sousa, Damião P; Onofre, Alexandre S C; Ribeiro, Thais P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santosa, Márcio R V
Hypertension is a major cause of chronic kidney disease. A key component of treatment is lifestyle modification, especially\\u000a dietary change. A number of nutrients and food groups have been touted to reduce blood pressure, including sodium, potassium,\\u000a calcium and dairy foods, magnesium, protein, certain types of fatty acids, vitamin C, and fruits and vegetables. However,\\u000a the studies examining the associations
Kristie J. Lancaster
Essential hypertension in humans may develop through a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Diet has long been under investigation as a potential effector of blood pressure. A diet high in sucrose or fructose can give rise to hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension. Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and oxidative stress are common features of hypertension. If glucose metabolism through the
Sudesh Vasdev; Linda Longerich; Vicki Gill
Background: Gender differences have been found in the development of hypertension. The role of estrogen in the association between hyperinsulinemia\\/insulin resistance and hypertension was investigated in an insulin-induced, insulin-resistant, and hypertensive model.Methods: Ovariectomized or sham operated female Wistar rats were chronically treated with insulin and\\/or estrogen via subcutaneous implants (insulin, 2 U\\/day; 17?-estradiol 0.5 mg\\/pellet, 60-day release). Systolic blood pressure
Dongzhe Song; Emi Arikawa; Denise M. Galipeau; Jennifer N. Yeh; Mary L. Battell; Violet G. Yuen; John H. McNeill
Background Altered renal function is an essential component of the pathophysiological process in pre-eclampsia. Kidneys play an important role in the turnover of low molecular weight substances such as creatinine, uric acid and cystatin C. The present study was undertaken if these serum markers were characteristically altered in Indian pregnant women. Methods Serum levels were therefore determined in samples from 69 healthy women at term as well as in 27 samples of patients with Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and in 20 patients with pre-eclampsia (PE). Results The levels of all three components were significantly higher in pre-eclamptic patients when compared to healthy controls with the mean ± SD being 1.47 ± 0.9 vs. 1.06 ± 0.2 for cystatin C, 0.95 ± 0.2 vs. 0.67 ± 0.1 for creatinine and 6.13 ± 1.8 vs. 4.28 ±1.1 for uric acid respectively. In PIH cystatin C was significantly higher, 1.25 ± 0.9 unlike creatinine, 0.67 ± 0.14 and uric acid, 4.30 ± 1.0. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of serum creatinine was superior to serum uric acid and serum cystatin C and serum uric acid was better than serum cystatin C. Conclusion The maternal serum cystatin C, creatinine and uric acid were all significantly elevated at the end of pregnancy in pre-eclampsia compared to those of healthy pregnant women. If this rise in the above markers during early pregnancy could predict the onset of PIH/PE, needs to be investigated.
Padma, Y; Aparna, V B; Kalpana, B; Ritika, V; Sudhakar, P R
Various diagnostic methods have been used to evaluate hypertensive patients under physical and pharmacological stress. Several studies have shown that exercise hypertension has an independent, adverse impact on outcome; however, other prognostic studies have shown that exercise hypertension is a favorable prognostic indicator and associated with good outcome. Exercise hypertension may be encountered as a warning signal of hypertension at rest and future hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. The results of diagnostic stress tests support that hypertensive response to exercise is frequently associated with high rate-pressure product in hypertensives. In addition to the observations on high rate-pressure product and enhanced ventricular contractility in patients with hypertension, evaluation of myocardial contractility by Doppler tissue imaging has shown hyperdynamic myocardial function under pharmacological stress. These recent quantitative data in hypertensives suggest that hyperdynamic myocardial function and high rate-pressure product response to stress may be related to exaggerated hypertension, which may have more importance than that it has been already given in clinical practice.
Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) induces biliary cirrhosis and pulmonary vasodilatation. We tested whether CBDL ameliorates monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. Five groups of rats were studied: controls; rats dosed with MCT (60 mg.kg(-1) subcutaneously); CBDL; rats dosed with MCT followed by CBDL on day 7; and rats dosed with MCT followed by CBDL (day 7) and L-NAME therapy between days 24 and 28. 28-day survival was 26% in the MCT group and 72% in the MCT+CBDL group. Pulmonary vascular resistance measured on days 21 and 28 increased in the MCT and MCT+CBDL+L-NAME groups, but returned to normal in the MCT+CBDL group on day 28. Pulmonary artery (PA) medial hypertrophy persisted in MCT+CBDL rats. PA inflammation increased in MCT+CBDL rats, with accumulation of both intra- and perivascular macrophages. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels decreased in the MCT group and increased in the MCT+CBDL group, which showed upregulation of inducible NO synthase and normal endothelial NO synthase. Blood endothelin (ET)-1 increased in CBDL, MCT, and MCT+CBDL rats. Levels of ET(B) receptors increased and ET(A) receptors decreased in the MCT+CBDL group, whereas the opposite changes occurred in the MCT group. Biliary cirrhosis induces pulmonary vasodilation that ameliorates MCT-induced PH and improves survival. Upregulation of inducible NO synthase and ET(B) receptor and downregulation of ET(A) receptor may be involved. PMID:19324959
Le Pavec, J; Perros, F; Eddahibi, S; Decante, B; Dorfmuller, P; Sitbon, O; Lebrec, D; Humbert, M; Mazmanian, M; Herve, P
Objective To evaluate the preoperative relationships of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in severe obesity and the effects of gastric bypass (GBP)-induced weight loss. Summary Background Data Severe obesity is associated with multiple comorbidities, particularly hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, that may affect life expectancy. Methods The database of patients who had undergone GBP by one general surgeon at a university hospital between September 1981 and January 2000 was queried as to weight, body mass index (BMI), pre- and postoperative diabetes, hypertension, and other comorbidities, including sleep apnea, hypoventilation, gastroesophageal reflux, degenerative joint disease, urinary incontinence, venous stasis, and pseudotumor cerebri. Results Of 1,025 patients treated, 15% had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 51% had hypertension. Of those with diabetes, 75% also had hypertension. There was a progressive increase in age between patients who had neither diabetes nor hypertension, either diabetes or hypertension, or both diabetes and hypertension. At 1 year after GBP (91% follow-up), patients lost 66 ± 18% excess weight (%EWL) or 35 ± 9% of their initial weight (%WL). Hypertension resolved in 69% and diabetes in 83%. Patients who resolved their hypertension or diabetes had greater %EWL and %WL than those who did not. African-American patients had a higher risk of hypertension than whites before GBP and were less likely to correct their hypertension after GBP. There was significant resolution of other obesity comorbidity problems. At 5 to 7 years after GBP (50% follow-up), %EWL was 59 ± 24 and %WL was 31 ± 13; resolution of hypertension was 66% and diabetes 86%. Conclusions These data suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension may be indirectly related to each other through the effects of obesity, but not directly as to cause and effect. The longer a person remains severely obese, the more likely he or she is to develop diabetes, hypertension, or both. GBP-induced weight loss is effective in correcting diabetes, hypertension, and other comorbidities but is related to the %EWL achieved. Severely obese African-Americans were more likely to have hypertension and respond less well to GBP surgery than whites. These data suggest that GBP surgery for severe obesity should be provided earlier to patients to prevent the development of diabetes and hypertension and their complications.
Sugerman, Harvey J.; Wolfe, Luke G.; Sica, Domenic A.; Clore, John N.
Hypertension in the elderly substantially contributes to cerebromicrovascular damage and promotes the development of vascular cognitive impairment. Despite the importance of the myogenic mechanism in cerebromicrovascular protection, it is not well understood how aging affects the functional adaptation of cerebral arteries to high blood pressure. Hypertension was induced in young (3 months) and aged (24 months) C57/BL6 mice by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII). In young hypertensive mice, the range of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was extended to higher pressure values, and the pressure-induced tone of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was increased. In aged hypertensive mice, autoregulation was markedly disrupted, and MCAs did not show adaptive increases in myogenic tone. In young mice, the mechanism of adaptation to hypertension involved upregulation of the 20-HETE (20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid)/transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C (TRPC6) pathway and this mechanism was impaired in aged hypertensive mice. Downstream consequences of cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction in aged AngII-induced hypertensive mice included exacerbated disruption of the blood-brain barrier and neuroinflammation (microglia activation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines), which were associated with impaired hippocampal dependent cognitive function. Collectively, aging impairs autoregulatory protection in the brain of mice with AngII-induced hypertension, potentially exacerbating cerebromicrovascular injury and neuroinflammation. PMID:23942363
Toth, Peter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Mitschelen, Matthew; Tarantini, Stefano; Deak, Ferenc; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan
Background To examine whether depression is associated with pre-existing hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension in a large sample of women attending a university-based obstetrics clinic. Methods In this prospective study, participants were 2398 women receiving ongoing prenatal care at a university-based obstetrics clinic from January 2004 through January 2009. Prevalence of depression was measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as the self-reported use of antidepressant medication. Evidence of pre-existing hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia was determined by obstetrician ICD-9 codes. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between hypertension in pregnancy and antenatal depression. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, chronic medical conditions, smoking and prior pregnancy complications, women with pre-existing hypertension had an increased risk of Any Depression (minor, major, use of antidepressants) (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.08, 2.23) and Major Depression and/or use of antidepressants) (OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.10, 2.48) compared to women without hypertension. No differences were seen in risk of depression in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia/eclampsia compared to those without hypertension. Conclusion Women with pre-existing hypertension, but not pregnancy induced hypertension are more likely to meet criteria for an antenatal depressive disorder and/or to be treated with antidepressants and could be targeted by obstetricians for screening for depression and enhanced treatment.
Katon, Wayne J.; Russo, Joan E.; Melville, Jennifer L.; Katon, Jodie; Gavin, Amelia
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly to appetite suppressant intake drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used, but are considered possible risk factors, for PAH. Dasatinib, dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, potentially in part reversible after dasatinib withdrawal. Recently, several studies have raised the issue of potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and a few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility, and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drug-induced PAH. PMID:23997051
Montani, David; Seferian, Andrei; Savale, Laurent; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)-II signaling and pulmonary vascular inflammation. We evaluated the effects of dexamethasone on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats for potential reversal of PAH at late time-points. Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and dexamethasone-treated rats (5 mg·kg?¹·day?¹, 1.25 mg·kg?¹ and 2.5 mg·kg?¹·48 h?¹) were evaluated at day 28 and day 35 following MCT for haemodynamic parameters, right ventricular hypertrophy, morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and IL6 and BMPR2 expression. Dexamethasone improved haemodynamics and pulmonary vascular remodelling, preventing PAH development at early (day 1-14 and 1-28) and reversing PAH at late (day 14-28 and 21-35) time-points following MCT, as well as improving survival in MCT-exposed rats compared with controls. Both MCT-induced pulmonary IL6 overexpression and interleukin (IL)-6-expressing adventitial inflammatory cell infiltration were reduced with dexamethasone. This was associated with pulmonary BMPR2 downregulation following MCT, which was increased with dexamethasone, in whole lung and control pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone also reduced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in vitro. Experimental PAH can be prevented and reversed by dexamethasone, and survival is improved. In this model, mechanisms may involve reduction of IL-6-expressing inflammatory cells, restoration of pulmonary BMPR2 expression and reduced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:20693255
Price, L C; Montani, D; Tcherakian, C; Dorfmüller, P; Souza, R; Gambaryan, N; Chaumais, M-C; Shao, D M; Simonneau, G; Howard, L S; Adcock, I M; Wort, S J; Humbert, M; Perros, F
The effects of angiotensin receptor blocker, diuretic, a calcium antagonist, and their combination were evaluated on the progression of cardiovascular and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) given excess salt. To this end, 8-week male SHRs were divided into 7 groups. The control group (C) received normal NaCl (0.6%) diet. All other groups were given 8% NaCl rat chow. In addition, group 2 was given placebo (tap water alone), group 3 the angiotensin receptor antagonist telmisartan (10 mg/kg per d), group 4 received the diuretic chlorothiazide (80 mg/kg per d), group 5 was given telmisartan plus the diuretic, group 6 was given the calcium antagonist amlodipine (10 mg/kg per d), and group 7 was given telmisartan plus amlodipine. All treatments lasted for 8 weeks. Compared with controls, mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow, coronary flow reserve, minimal coronary vascular resistance, diastolic time constant, and maximal rate of ventricular pressure fall were all adversely affected by salt loading. Increased left ventricular mass with marked cardiac fibrosis was also found in the salt-overloaded SHR group. Telmisartan normalized all indices except MAP, whereas diuretic and amlodipine only partially restored cardiac functional and mass indexes. Combination therapy with telmisartan and either diuretic or amlodipine also normalized all indices including arterial pressure. These data suggest that (1) cardiovascular damage induced by excess salt in the SHRs was not pressure dependent; (2) compared with the calcium antagonist and diuretic, blockade of angiotensin receptors was extremely effective in this model. PMID:22927675
Susic, Dinko; Fares, Hassan; Frohlich, Edward D
Experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effects of adrenalectomy on the incidence, severity, and rate of progression of radiation-induced hypertension and nephrosclerosis in male rats. Adrenalectomized and non-adrenalectomized rats received...
A. G. Lurie
Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial resistance due to endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting in chronic obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. There is evidence that inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of human and experimental pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the study was to address the role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in the
F. Perros; P. Dorfmuller; R. Souza; I. Durand-Gasselin; V. Godot; F. Capel; S. Adnot; S. Eddahibi; M. Mazmanian; E. Fadel; P. Herve; G. Simonneau; D. Emilie; M. Humbert
Safety of losartan in hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced hyperuricemia.BackgroundLosartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, has been shown to decrease serum uric acid and to increase urinary excretion of uric acid.MethodsTo determine if this effect can increase the risk of acute urate nephropathy, 63 hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced asymptomatic hyperuricemia (serum uric acid 7.0 to 12.0 mg\\/dl) were randomized double-blind to
Shahnaz Shahinfar; Roger L. Simpson; Alexandra D. Carides; Balasamy Thiyagarajan; Yasushi Nakagawa; Jason G. Umans; Joan H. Parks; Fredric L. Coe
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition characterized by an imbalance of circulating angiogenic factors and new-onset hypertension. Although current treatment options are limited, recent studies suggest pravastatin may improve angiogenic profile and reduce blood pressure in preeclampsia. We hypothesized pravastatin would restore angiogenic balance and reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) in rats with reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP)-induced hypertension. Pravastatin was administered i.p. (1 mg/kg/day) in RUPP (RUPP+P) and normal pregnant rats (NP+P) from day 14-19 of pregnancy. On day 19, MAP was measured via catheter, conceptus data was recorded and tissues collected. MAP was increased (p<0.05) in RUPP compared to NP dams and pravastatin ameliorated this difference. Pravastatin attenuated decreased fetal weight and plasma VEGF and the RUPP-induced increased sFlt-1 when compared to NP dams. Pravastatin treatment did not improve angiogenic potential in RUPP serum and decreased (P<0.05) endothelial tube formation in NP rats. RUPP rats presented with indices of oxidative stress such as increased placental catalase activity and plasma TBARS along with decreased plasma total antioxidant capacity compared to NP controls and pravastatin attenuated these effects. MAP, fetal weight, plasma VEGF, and plasma sFlt-1 were unchanged in NP+P compared to NP controls. The present data indicate that treatment with pravastatin attenuates oxidative stress and lowers MAP in placental ischemia-induced hypertension, but may have negative effects on circulating angiogenic potential during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to determine if there are long-term deleterious effects on maternal or fetal health following pravastatin treatment during pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia.
Bauer, Ashley J; Banek, Christopher T; Needham, Karen; Gillham, Haley; Capoccia, Susan; Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S
Advanced gastric cancer usually presents with symptoms due to direct extension into adjacent viscera, distant metastases from lymphatic or hematogenic dissemination and peritoneal seeding. However, portal hypertension as a presentation of metastatic gastric cancer is rare and usually seen in association with other malignancies, e.g. hepatocellular and pancreatic carcinoma. We report a case of signet ring adenocarcinoma of the stomach that presented with esophageal and duodenal varices and bleeding due to portal hypertensive gastropathy. Pagetoid spread of cancer cells likely caused early metastasis and the unusual presentation. We also discussed the pathophysiology of development of portal hypertension in association with malignancies.
Ghosh, Pradipta; Miyai, Katsumi; Chojkier, Mario
1. Male Wistar rats develop systolic arterial hypertension when housed in glass metabolism cages. The present experiments were designed to investigate the involvement of the adrenal glands in this form of hypertension. 2. Rats were bilaterally adrenalectomized and maintained by either salt supplementation (1% sodium chloride solution instead of tap water to drink) or steroid replacement (corticosterone solution in the drinking water). 3. Adrenalectomized rats treated as above did not develop hypertension in response to isolation, whereas sham-operated rats (drinking either 1% saline or tap water) did. 4. Hypertension in the sham-operated rats was not accompanied by a renal retention of sodium and water. 5. It is concluded that increased adrenal activity is involved in the development of isolation-induced hypertension, but not by causing a fluid retention and hence volume expansion. The relative contributions of adrenal medullary and cortical activity remain to be determined. PMID:7285500
Gardiner, S M; Milmer, K E; Bennett, T
Background: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the incidence and severity of kidney disease in an additive manner. Inflammatory and oxidative stress mechanisms contribute to renal damage in both diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, we investigated whether renal macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress events are additive from the beginning in diabetic animals with coexisting hypertension. Methods: Diabetes was induced in
Subrata K. Biswas; Jose B. Lopes de Faria
Hypertension and osteoporosis are characteristic clinical features in patients with Cushing's syndrome or in those on glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. These two distinct complications of GC excess share one common denominator: an abnormal handling of cations, sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+), either primarily or in part by the kidney tubule. The principal mechanism of GC-induced hypertension is overstimulation of the non-selective
Aldosterone\\/salt induces renal inflammation and fibrosis in hypertensive rats.BackgroundWe evaluated the role of aldosterone as a mediator of renal inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of aldosterone\\/salt hypertension using the selective aldosterone blocker, eplerenone.MethodsUnnephrectomized, Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1% NaCl (salt) to drink and randomized to receive treatment for 28 days: vehicle infusion (control); 0.75 ?g\\/hour aldosterone subcutaneous infusion;
Eileen R Blasi; Ricardo Rocha; Amy E Rudolph; Eric A G Blomme; Melissa L Polly; Ellen G Mcmahon
AIM Due to their effect on altering physiological interactions between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor autacoids in normal pregnancies, antidepressants may be associated with the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. We evaluated the impact of antidepressant use during pregnancy on the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. METHODS We conducted a nested case–control study within the Quebec Pregnancy Registry, built by linkage of provincial medical, pharmaceutical, hospital and birth databases. We identified 1216 women with a diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension with or without pre-eclampsia and with no history of hypertension before pregnancy. We randomly selected 10 controls for each case, matched on case index date (date of diagnosis) and gestational age. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, maternal depression, anxiety, other chronic conditions, medication use and health service utilization. RESULTS Among cases, 45 (3.7%) had used antidepressants during pregnancy compared with 300 (2.5%) in the control group (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10, 2.09). After adjusting for potential confounders, use of antidepressants during pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.01, 2.33). In stratified analyses, use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.00, 2.55), and more specifically, paroxetine (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02, 3.23) was associated with risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Women who use antidepressants during pregnancy are at increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension with or without pre-eclampsia above and beyond the risk that could be attributed to their depression or anxiety disorders.
De Vera, Mary A.; Berard, Anick
Umbilical arteries carry the blood from the fetus to the placenta and are typically connected by Hyrtl's anastomosis, a connection that is located near where the umbilical cord meets the placenta. The investigation of the anastomosis in pathological conditions, including pregnancy-induced hypertension is limited. Hence, 200 placenta and umbilical cords, 100 from normotensive and 100 from pregnancy-induced hypertensive subjects, were dissected and measurements were recorded. A single anastomosis between the umbilical arteries was observed in 167 specimens. In 16 cases, the two umbilical arteries were fused, in 15 cases there was no anastomosis, and in two cases there was a single umbilical artery. In one specimen from a normotensive case, a double anastomosis was observed. To our knowledge this is only the second report of this rare anatomical variant. When an anastomosis is present, the connecting vessel can be transverse to or form an oblique angle with the umbilical arteries. We observed a striking increase in the number of artery pairs connected by a transverse vessel in specimens from hypertensive subjects relative to those from normotensive subjects. Moreover, placentas from hypertensive donors were small if the umbilical arteries were connected by an oblique anastomosis. In addition, the length of the anastomosis and its distance from the cord insertion was shorter in specimens from hypertensive compared to normotensive subjects. We conclude that pregnancy-induced hypertension alters the anatomy of Hyrtl's anastomosis, and in some circumstances, the placenta. PMID:24591344
Bhutia, Karma Lakhi; Sengupta, Ratnabali; Upreti, Benoy; Tamang, Binod K
Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This study investigated the impact of hypertension, a component of metabolic syndrome, on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis using SHRSP/Izm (SHRSP) non-diabetic/hypertensive rats and SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) diabetic/hypertensive rats. Male 6-week-old SHRSP, SHRSP-ZF, and control non-diabetic/normotensive Wister Kyoto/Izm (WKY) rats were given 2 weekly intraperitoneal injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks after the last injection of AOM, the SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats became hypertensive compared to the control WKY rats. Serum levels of angiotensin-II, the active product of the renin-angiotensin system, were elevated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats, but only the SHRSP-ZF rats developed insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia and exhibited an increase in adipose tissue. The development of AOM-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions and aberrant crypts foci, was significantly accelerated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF hypertensive rats, compared to WKY normotensive rats. Furthermore, induction of oxidative stress and exacerbation of inflammation were observed in the colonic mucosa and systemically in SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats. Our findings suggest that hypertension plays a role in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis by inducing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which might be associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:23860206
Kochi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Ohno, Tomohiko; Baba, Atsushi; Sumi, Takafumi; Kubota, Masaya; Shirakami, Yohei; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka
Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This study investigated the impact of hypertension, a component of metabolic syndrome, on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis using SHRSP/Izm (SHRSP) non-diabetic/hypertensive rats and SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) diabetic/hypertensive rats. Male 6-week-old SHRSP, SHRSP-ZF, and control non-diabetic/normotensive Wister Kyoto/Izm (WKY) rats were given 2 weekly intraperitoneal injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks after the last injection of AOM, the SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats became hypertensive compared to the control WKY rats. Serum levels of angiotensin-II, the active product of the renin-angiotensin system, were elevated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats, but only the SHRSP-ZF rats developed insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia and exhibited an increase in adipose tissue. The development of AOM-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions and aberrant crypts foci, was significantly accelerated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF hypertensive rats, compared to WKY normotensive rats. Furthermore, induction of oxidative stress and exacerbation of inflammation were observed in the colonic mucosa and systemically in SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats. Our findings suggest that hypertension plays a role in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis by inducing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which might be associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system.
Kochi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Ohno, Tomohiko; Baba, Atsushi; Sumi, Takafumi; Kubota, Masaya; Shirakami, Yohei; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka
The effect of dermcidin isoform 2 (dermcidin), an environmentally induced stress protein, was investigated on the genesis of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the two major atherosclerotic risk factors. The role of dermcidin as an atherosclerotic risk factor related to the impaired systemic insulin level was investigated. Dermcidin was prepared by electrophoresis using plasma from the subjects with acute ischemic heart disease. Injection of 0.2??M dermcidin in mice increased the blood glucose level from 98 ± 2.45?mg/dL to 350? ± 10.2?mg/dL which was normalized by the oral administration of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) after 24?h. Hypertensive subjects with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 165?mm and 95?mm of Hg, respectively, had plasma dermcidin level of 95?nM. Ingestion of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) (150?mg/70?kg body weight) decreased the systolic and diastolic pressures to 125?mm and 80?mm of Hg, respectively, with decrease of dermcidin level to 15?nM. Incubation of kidney cortex cells with 0.2??M dermcidin-inhibited synthesis of (r)-cortexin, an antihypertensive protein, and the basal (r)-cortexin level was reduced from 33?nM to 15?nM. Addition of 25??units of insulin/mL was found to reverse the inhibition of cortexin synthesis. The effect of dermcidin as a diabetogenic and a hypertensive agent could be controlled either by aspirin or by insulin. PMID:24649391
Ghosh, Rajeshwary; Bank, Sarbashri; Bhattacharya, Rabindra; Khan, Nighat N; Sinha, A Kumar
Background The expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) was hitherto thought to be confined to the nervous system. However, a recent genome-wide analysis indicated an association between hypertension and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs10491334) of the human CaMKIV gene (CaMK4), which suggests a role for this kinase in the regulation of vascular tone. Methods and Results To directly assess the role of CaMKIV in hypertension, we characterized the cardiovascular phenotype of CaMK4?/? mice. They displayed a typical hypertensive phenotype, including high blood pressure levels, cardiac hypertrophy, vascular and kidney damage, and reduced tolerance to chronic ischemia and myocardial infarction compared with wild-type littermates. Interestingly, in vitro experiments showed the ability of this kinase to activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Eventually, in a population study, we found that the rs10491334 variant associates with a reduction in the expression levels of CaMKIV in lymphocytes from hypertensive patients. Conclusions Taken together, our results provide evidence that CaMKIV plays a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation through the control of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001081 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001081.)
Santulli, Gaetano; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Sorriento, Daniela; Del Giudice, Carmine; Anastasio, Antonio; Monaco, Sara; Maione, Angela Serena; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Puca, Annibale; Trimarco, Bruno; Illario, Maddalena; Iaccarino, Guido
The effect of industrial noise on the prevalence of hypertension was studied in a group of 1101 female workers in a textile mill in Beijing in 1985. Essentially the entire group had worked in specific workshops in this mill for all their working lives and all had worked for at least five years. The noise levels within the plant were
Y M Zhao; S Z Zhang; S Selvin; R C Spear
This study was designed to characterize potassium-induced relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in two kidney-one clip (2K-1C), renal hypertensive rats. Potassium-induced relaxation was evaluated in the isolated tail artery and in the isolated pump perfused renal vasculature. Both preparations relaxed in response to potassium after contraction induced by norepinephrine in potassium-free solution. Arterial preparations from hypertensive rats showed greater relaxation than did those from normotensive rats. Potassium-induced relaxation in tail arteries from hypertensive rats was more sensitive to ouabain inhibition than those from normotensive rats; the renal vasculature of hypertensive rats did not differ from controls with respect to ouabain sensitivity. Relaxation in response to potassium in isolated tail artery segments varied with the: 1. length of incubation in potassium-free solution; 2. concentration of added potassium; and 3. concentration of norepinephrine added during the potassium-free interval. The amplitude of potassium relaxation is believed to be a functional measure of the electrogenic sodium pump. These experiments support the hypothesis that vascular smooth muscle from 2K-1C renal hypertensive rats has increased electrogenic sodium pump activity, in vitro. PMID:6835809
Webb, R C; Cohen, D M; Bohr, D F
Background and Purpose In focal ischemic cortex, cerebral blood flow autoregulation is impaired, and perfusion passively follows blood pressure variations. Although it is generally agreed that profound hypotension is harmful in acute stroke, the hemodynamic and metabolic impact of increased blood pressure on the ischemic core and penumbra are less well understood. We, therefore, tested whether pharmacologically induced hypertension improves cerebral blood flow and metabolism and tissue outcome in acute stroke using optical imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution. Methods Cerebral blood flow, oxyhemoglobin, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen were measured noninvasively using simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Hypertension was induced by phenylephrine infusion starting 10 or 60 minutes after ischemia to raise blood pressure by 30% for the duration of ischemia; control groups received saline infusion. Results Mild induced hypertension rapidly increased cerebral blood flow, oxyhemoglobin, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in both the core and penumbra and prevented the expansion of cerebral blood flow deficit during 1 hour distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Induced hypertension also diminished the deleterious effects of periinfarct depolarizations on cerebral blood flow, oxyhemoglobin, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen without altering their frequency. Consistent with this, mild induced hypertension reduced infarct volume by 48% without exacerbating tissue swelling when measured 2 days after 1 hour transient distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Conclusions Our data suggest that mild induced hypertension increases collateral cerebral blood flow and oxygenation and improves cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the core and penumbra, supporting its use as bridging therapy in acute ischemic stroke until arterial recanalization is achieved.
Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Nishimura, Masaki; Jones, Phillip B.; Ay, Hakan; Boas, David A.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Ayata, Cenk
Previous studies suggested that ?-blockers with adjunctive ?1-blocking activities warrant renoprotective function other than the therapeutic effect on hypertension. The current report is designed to dissect the role of TJ0711, a novel ?-blocker with a 1:1 ratio for the ?1/?1 blocking activities, in renoprotection in SHR rats. It was noted that TJ0711 possesses similar potency for control of blood pressure as that of Carvedilol. However, TJ0711 is much more potent in terms of protecting SHR rats against hypertension induced renal injury. Specifically, SHR rats treated with 20mg/kg/day of TJ0711 manifested significantly lower levels for urine albumin and total protein. In line with these result, TJ0711 treated rats displayed much less severe pathological changes in the kidneys. Mechanistic studies revealed that TJ0711 improves kidney perfusion during the course of hypertensive insult by enhancing eNOS expression through suppressing inflammatory cytokine secretion. TJ0711 also attenuates Vasohibin-1 expression to prevent HIF-1? from signal-induced degradation, and by which it promotes HO-1 expression to protect SHR rats against oxidative stress induced by hypertension in the kidneys. Together, our data suggest that TJ0711 possesses higher potency for renoprotection while manifesting the similar effect on hypertension therapy as Carvedilol.
Yang, Juan; Ning, Yong; Qiu, Jun; He, Jin-Seng; Li, Wei; Ma, Zu-Fu; Shao, Ju-Fang; LI, Yue-Qiang; Zeng, Rui; Zhang, Meng; Cheng, Jia; Chen, Su-Fang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Cong-Yi; Yao, Ying
Objective To determine whether the use of inhaled corticosteroids during pregnancy increases the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia among asthmatic women. Design Nested case-control study. Setting Three administrative health databases from Quebec: RAMQ, MED-ECHO, and Fichier des événements démographiques. Participants 3505 women with asthma, totalling 4593 pregnancies, between 1990 and 2000. Main outcome measures Pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Results 302 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension and 165 cases of pre-eclampsia were identified. Use of inhaled corticosteroids from conception until date of outcome was not associated with an increased risk of pregnancy induced hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.34) or pre-eclampsia (1.06, 0.74 to 1.53). No significant dose-response relation was observed between inhaled corticosteroids and pregnancy induced hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Oral corticosteroids were significantly associated with the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 1.02 to 2.41), and a trend was seen for pre-eclampsia (1.72, 0.98 to 3.02). Conclusion No significant increase of the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension or pre-eclampsia was detected among users of inhaled corticosteroids during pregnancy, while markers of uncontrolled and severe asthma were found to significantly increase the risks of pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia.
Martel, Marie-Josee; Rey, Evelyne; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Perreault, Sylvie; Lefebvre, Genevieve; Forget, Amelie; Blais, Lucie
By using a model DXC-300 erythrocyte deformability (ED) test apparatus, we determined the indices of filtration (IF) in 34 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension, 27 normal pregnancies and 36 healthy women as control to reflect the deformability of their erythrocyte. The result showed that the IF of hypertensive pregnant women from 37 to 40 weeks was strikingly higher than that in the control and the ED was much less erythrocyte deformability defects the viscosity of blood, the blood flow, and the microcirculation. Therefore, we think that observations on the erythrocyte deformability may be of value in monitoring hydrokinetic and detecting altered microcirculation. ED may be used as a new index for monitoring pregnancy induced hypertension. PMID:2805937
Ma, F X
Background\\/Aims: The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become an epidemiological problem in Western countries. We developed a diet-induced obese rat model that mimics all the symptoms of MS in humans, but whose insulin resistance, hyperphagia and hyperleptinemia are caused by nutrition rather than genetic modifications. Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allowed for 12 weeks to choose between a cafeteria diet
Anja Miesel; Helge Müller; Margot Thermann; Marc Heidbreder; Peter Dominiak; Walter Raasch
BACKGROUND: In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient (a 72-year-old man) had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced
Sota Hayashida; Takakazu Oka; Sadatoshi Tsuji
Systemic hypertension is common in individuals with non–insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD) and, in this population, markedly increases the risk for cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were to develop a rat model of combined NaCl-induced hypertension and NIDD, and to determine the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to the development of the manifest hypertension. Two-day old male Wistar-Kyoto rats
Mahmood S. Mozaffari; Champa Patel; Brett K. Warren; Stephen W. Schaffer
Essential hypertension is associated with changes in central catecholaminergic pathways which might also be reflected in the pituitary response to stress stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine whether the response of pituitary hormones, cortisol, plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamines to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia is changed in hypertension. We studied 22 young lean male patients with newly diagnosed untreated essential hypertension and 19 healthy normotensive, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. All subjects underwent an insulin tolerance test (0.1 IU insulin/kg body weight intravenously) with blood sampling before and 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min after insulin administration. Increased baseline levels of norepinephrine (P<0.05), increased response of norepinephrine (P<0.001) and decreased response of growth hormone (P<0.001), prolactin (P<0.001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (P<0.05) and cortisol (P<0.001) were found in hypertensive patients when compared to normotensive controls. Increased norepinephrine levels and a decreased pituitary response to metabolic stress stimuli may represent another manifestation of chronically increased sympathetic tone in early hypertension. PMID:16617309
Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Huckova, M; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Koska, J
Background: It is well known that the development of brain oxidative stress is one of the most serious complications of arterial hypertension that evokes brain tissue damage. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of atorvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/day), as an antioxidant, to prevent the brain tissue oxidative stress in the hypertensive (HTN) rats. Methods: Experiments were performed in four groups of rats (n = 5 each group): sham, sham-treated, HTN and HTN treated. Rats were made HTN by aortic constriction above the renal arteries. After 30 days, rats were slaughtered under deep anesthesia to remove brain hemispheres. After tissue homogenization, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were determined by biochemical methods. Results: In HTN rats, arterial blood pressure was increased about 40% and brain enzyme activities of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased compared with sham group. Induction of hypertension significantly decreased GSH content and increased MDA level of brain tissue. Treatment with atorvastatin enhanced the activity of SOD and prevented from GSH decrement during hypertension. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, treatment with atorvastatin might have saved the brain tissue of HTN rats from hypertension-induced oxidative stress.
Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Amini, Reza; Jahanbakhsh, Zahra; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz
Metabolic syndrome, as manifested by visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, is reaching epidemic proportions in the Western World, specifically the United States. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome directly correlates with an increase in the consumption of fructose, mainly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. This inexpensive alternative to traditional sugar has been increasingly utilized by the food industry as a sweetener since the 1960s. While augmented caloric intake and sedentary lifestyles play important roles in the increasing prevalence of obesity, the pathogenesis of hypertension in metabolic syndrome remains controversial. One intriguing observation points to the role of salt in fructose-induced hypertension. Recent studies in rodents demonstrate that increased dietary fructose intake stimulates salt absorption in the small intestine and kidney tubules, resulting in a state of salt overload, thus setting in motion a cascade of events that will lead to hypertension. These studies point to a novel interaction between the fructose-absorbing transporter, Glut5, and the salt transporters, NHE3 and PAT1, in the intestine and kidney proximal tubule. This paper will focus on synergistic roles of fructose and salt in the pathogenesis of hypertension resulting from salt overload.
Soleimani, Manoocher; Alborzi, Pooneh
The sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are both thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension in experimental models such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We demonstrated that periarterial nerve stimulation (NS) increased the perfusion pressure (PP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) overflow from perfused mesenteric arterial beds of SHRs at 4–6, 10–12, and 18–20 wk of age, which correspond to prehypertensive, developing hypertensive, and maintained hypertensive stages, respectively, in the SHR. NS also increased PP and NPY overflow from mesenteric beds of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats. NS-induced increases in PP and NPY were greater in vessels obtained from SHRs of all three ages compared with WKY rats. ANG II produced a greater increase in PP in preparations taken from SHRs than WKY rats. ANG II also resulted in a greater increase in basal NPY overflow from 10- to 12-wk-old and 18- to 20-wk-old SHRs than age-matched WKY rats. ANG II enhanced the NS-induced overflow of NPY from SHR preparations more than WKY controls at all ages studied. The enhancement of NS-induced NPY overflow by ANG II was blocked by the AT1 receptor antagonist EMD-66684 and the angiotensin type 2 receptor antagonist PD-123319. In contrast, ANG II greatly enhanced norepinephrine overflow in the presence of PD-123319. Both captopril and EMD-66684 decreased neurotransmitter overflow from SHR mesenteric beds; therefore, we conclude that an endogenous renin-angiotensin system is active in this preparation. It is concluded that the ANG II-induced enhancement of sympathetic nerve stimulation may contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension in the SHR.
Byku, Mirnela; Macarthur, Heather; Westfall, Thomas C.
In healthy anaesthetized Friesian-Holstein calves, pulmonary hypertension was induced by means of a continuous intravenous administration of serotonin (0.025 mg/kg body/weight/min). Afterwards, the anaesthetized calves inhaled 40 and 80 ppm of nitric oxide using an open system. The influences of the administration of serotonin and the inhalation of nitric oxide on the haemodynamic and blood gas parameters were investigated. The inhalation of 40 and 80 ppm of nitric oxide during serotonin-induced pulmonary hypertension in calves resulted in a significant fall of the mean pulmonary artery pressure. The inhalation of nitric oxide also induced an amelioration of intrapulmonary oxygen transport. The intravenous administration of serotonin in calves resulted in severe systemic hypotension. Hence, the influence of the inhalation of nitric oxide on the systemic arterial pressure could not be evaluated. PMID:8968160
Sustronck, B; Van Loon, G; Gasthuys, F; Foubert, L; Deprez, P; Muylle, E
Pulmonary hypertension occurs with prolonged exposure to chronic hypoxia in both adults and neonates. The Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3 (NFATc3), has been implicated in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial remodeling in adult mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that NFATc3 is required for chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in adult and neonatal mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1) NFATc3 mediates chronic hypoxia-induced increases in right ventricular systolic pressure in adult mice; 2) NFATc3 is activated in neonatal mice exposed to chronic hypoxia; and 3) NFATc3 is involved in chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal mice. Adult mice were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 2, 7, and 21 days. Neonatal mouse pups were exposed for 7 days to hypobaric chronic hypoxia within 2 days after delivery. Hypoxia-induced increases in right ventricular systolic pressure were absent in NFATc3 knockout adult mice. In neonatal mice, chronic hypoxia caused NFAT activation in whole lung and nuclear accumulation of NFATc3 in both pulmonary vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In addition, heterozygous NFATc3 neonates showed less right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery wall thickness in response to chronic hypoxia than did wild-type neonates. Our results suggest that NFATc3 mediates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in both adult and neonatal mice. PMID:21908592
Bierer, R; Nitta, C H; Friedman, J; Codianni, S; de Frutos, S; Dominguez-Bautista, J A; Howard, T A; Resta, T C; Bosc, L V Gonzalez
Hypertension induces left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by mechanisms involving oxidative stress and unbalanced cardiac matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We hypothesized that ?1-adrenergic receptor blockers with antioxidant properties (nebivolol) could reverse hypertension-induced LVH more effectively than conventional ?1-blockers (metoprolol) when used at doses that exert similar antihypertensive effects. Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertension was induced in male Wistar rats. Six weeks after surgery, hypertensive and sham rats were treated with nebivolol (10mgkg(-1)day(-1)) or metoprolol (20mgkg(-1)day(-1)) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. LV structural changes and fibrosis were studied in hematoxylin/eosin- and picrosirius-stained sections, respectively. Cardiac MMP levels and activity were determined by in situ zymography, gel zymography, and immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidium and lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence assays were used to assess cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nitrotyrosine levels were determined in LV samples by immunohistochemistry and green fluorescence and were evaluated using the ImageJ software. Cardiac protein kinase B/Akt (AKT) phosphorylation state was assessed by Western blot. Both ?-blockers exerted similar antihypertensive effects and attenuated hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. Both drugs reduced myocyte hypertrophy and collagen deposition in 2K1C rats. These effects were associated with lower cardiac ROS and nitrotyrosine levels and attenuation of hypertension-induced increases in cardiac MMP-2 levels and in situ gelatinolytic activity after treatment with both ?-blockers. Whereas hypertension increased AKT phosphorylation, no effects were found with ?-blockers. In conclusion, we found evidence that two ?1-blockers with different properties attenuate hypertension-induced LV hypertrophy and cardiac collagen deposition in association with significant cardiac antioxidant effects and MMP-2 downregulation, thus suggesting a critical role for ?1-adrenergic receptors in mediating those effects. Nebivolol is not superior to metoprolol, at least with respect to their capacity to reverse hypertension-induced LVH. PMID:24933619
Rizzi, Elen; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Ceron, Carla S; Prado, Cibele M; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E
The human SLC4A5 gene has been identified as a hypertension susceptibility gene based on the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension status. The biochemical basis of this association is unknown particularly since no single gene variant was linked to hypertension in humans. SLC4A5 (NBCe2, NBC4) is expressed in the collecting duct of the kidney and acts as an electrogenic ion-transporter that transports sodium and bicarbonate with a 1:2 or 1:3 stoichiometry allowing bicarbonate reabsorption with relatively minor concurrent sodium uptake. We have mutated the Slc4a5 gene in mice, which caused a persistent increase in systolic and diastolic BP. Slc4a5 mutant mice also displayed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Analysis of kidney physiology revealed elevated fluid intake and urine excretion and increased glomerular filtration rate. Transcriptome analysis uncovers possible compensatory mechanisms induced by SLC4A5 mutation, including upregulation of SLC4A7 and pendrin as well as molecular mechanisms associated with hypertension. Induction of metabolic alkalosis eliminated the BP difference between wild-type and Slc4a5 mutant mice. We conclude that the impairment of the function of SLC4A5 favors development of a hypertensive state. We reason that the loss of sodium-sparing bicarbonate reabsorption by SLC4A5 initiates a regulatory cascade consisting of compensatory bicarbonate reabsorption via other sodium-bicarbonate transporters (e.g. SLC4A7) at the expense of an increased sodium uptake. This will ultimately raise BP and cause hypoaldosteronism, thus providing a mechanistic explanation for the linkage of the SLC4A5 locus to hypertension in humans. PMID:22082831
Gröger, Nicole; Vitzthum, Helga; Fröhlich, Henning; Krüger, Marcus; Ehmke, Heimo; Braun, Thomas; Boettger, Thomas
Although the mechanisms of cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension have been studied extensively, the role of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in the development of portal hypertension has never been explicitly explored. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of TXA(2) in bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced portal hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats. After 1 wk of BDL or sham operation, the liver was isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer at a constant flow rate. After 30 min of nonrecirculating perfusion, the buffer was recirculated in a total volume of 100 ml. The perfusate was sampled for the enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), the stable metabolite of TXA(2). Although recirculation of the buffer caused no significant change in sham-operated rats, it resulted in a marked increase in portal pressure in BDL rats. The increase in portal pressure was found concomitantly with a significant increase of TXB(2) in the perfusate (sham vs. BDL after 30 min of recirculating perfusion: 1,420 +/- 803 vs. 10,210 +/- 2,950 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Perfusion with a buffer containing indomethacin or gadolinium chloride for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) or Kupffer cells, respectively, substantially blocked the recirculation-induced increases in both portal pressure and TXB(2) release in BDL group. Hepatic detection of COX gene expression by RT-PCR revealed that COX-2 but not COX-1 was upregulated following BDL, and this upregulation was confirmed at the protein level by Western blot analysis. In conclusion, these results clearly demonstrate that increased hepatic TXA(2) release into the portal circulation contributes to the increased portal resistance in BDL-induced liver injury, suggesting a role of TXA(2) in liver fibrosis-induced portal hypertension. Furthermore, the Kupffer cell is likely the source of increased TXA(2), which is associated with upregulation of the COX-2 enzyme. PMID:12431905
Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Xu, Hongzhi; Kresge, Nicole; Keller, Steve; Sarmadi, Amir H; Baveja, Rajiv; Clemens, Mark G; Zhang, Jian X
Although resting hemodynamic load has been extensively investigated as a determinant of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, little is known about the relationship between provoked hemodynamic load and the risk of LV hypertrophy. We studied central pressure-flow relations among 40 hypertensive and 19 normotensive adults using carotid applanation tonometry and Doppler echocardiography at rest and during a 40% maximal voluntary forearm contraction (handgrip) maneuver. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) was measured at rest. Hypertensive subjects demonstrated various abnormalities in resting and induced pulsatile load. Isometric exercise significantly increased systemic vascular resistance, aortic characteristic impedance (Zc), induced earlier wave reflections, increased augmentation index, and decreased total arterial compliance (TAC; all P < or = 0.01). In hypertensive subjects, CF-PWV was the strongest resting predictor of LV mass index (LVMI) and remained an independent predictor after adjustment for age, gender, systemic vascular resistance, reflection magnitude, aortic Zc, and TAC (beta = 2.52 m/s; P < 0.0001). Age, sex, CF-PWV, and resting hemodynamic indexes explained 48% of the interindividual variability in LVMI. In stepwise regression, TAC (beta = -17.85; P < 0.0001) during handgrip, Zc during handgrip (beta = -150; P < 0.0001), and the change in the timing of wave reflections during handgrip (beta = -0.63; P = 0.03) were independent predictors of LVMI. A model that included indexes of provoked hemodynamic load explained 68% of the interindividual variability in LVMI. Hemodynamic load provoked by isometric exercise strongly predicts LVMI in hypertension. The magnitude of this association is far greater than for resting hemodynamic load, suggesting that provoked testing captures important arterial properties that are not apparent at rest and is advantageous to assess dynamic arterial load in hypertension. PMID:19966060
Chirinos, Julio A; Segers, Patrick; Raina, Amresh; Saif, Hassam; Swillens, Abigail; Gupta, Amit K; Townsend, Raymond; Emmi, Anthony G; Kirkpatrick, James N; Keane, Martin G; Ferrari, Victor A; Wiegers, Susan E; St John Sutton, Martin G
Objectives The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their less active dihydroxy derivatives. Because EETs have anti-inflammatory properties, we determined whether or not inhibition of sEH attenuates disease development in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats. Methods sEH inhibition was achieved using 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (25 mg/l) and cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (5 mg/l) administered via drinking water starting 3 days prior to monocrotaline injection (60 mg/kg). Results Monocrotaline induced the development of progressive pulmonary hypertension. sEH inhibition increased the plasma ratio of EETs to DHETs and attenuated the monocrotaline-induced increase in pulmonary artery medial wall thickness as well as the degree of vascular muscularization. Moreover, right ventricular pressure was significantly lower in the group treated with sEH inhibitors. Pulmonary sEH protein expression and sEH activity, as well as pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxygenase activity were all impaired in monocrotaline-treated rats as compared with control animals. sEH inhibitors, however, increased the plasma ratio of EETs to dihydroxy epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Monocrotaline induced the proliferation of pulmonary endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo as determined by 5-Bromo-2?-deoxy-Uridine incorporation, and this effect was significantly blunted in animals treated with sEH inhibitors. Proliferation of cultured pulmonary smooth muscle cell, however, was not affected by EETs or sEH inhibitors suggesting that the in-vivo effects are a consequence of a direct EET-mediated protection against the inflammation induced by monocrotaline. Conclusion sEH inhibition reduces pulmonary vascular remodeling and the development of pulmonary hypertension in the monocrotaline model of primary pulmonary hypertension in rats.
Revermann, Marc; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Dony, Eva; Schermuly, Ralph T.; Morisseau, Christophe; Geisslinger, Gerd; Fleming, Ingrid; Hammock, Bruce D.; Brandes, Ralf P.
Background—Angiotensin II may contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions because of its growth and proinflammatory effects. We sought to determine whether angiotensin II-induced hypertension would augment and accelerate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-deficient mice. Methods and Results—Angiotensin II (0.7 mg z kg21 z d21 SC) was administered to apoE-deficient mice via osmotic minipumps. The animals
Daiana Weiss; John J. Kools; W. Robert Taylor
Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H2S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H2S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Methods and Findings Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, and DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), were applied to the rats to investigate the effects of H2S on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal hypertension by measuring serum levels of H2S, hepatic H2S producing activity and CSE expression, liver function, activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, oxidative and inflammatory parameters, liver fibrosis and portal pressure. CCl4 significantly reduced serum levels of H2S, hepatic H2S production and CSE expression. NaHS attenuated CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity by supplementing exogenous H2S, which displayed anti-oxidative activities and inhibited the CYP2E1 activity. NaHS protected liver function, attenuated liver fibrosis, inhibited inflammation, and reduced the portal pressure, evidenced by the alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronic acid (HA), albumin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, liver histology, hepatic hydroxyproline content and ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression. PAG showed opposing effects to NaHS on most of the above parameters. Conclusions Exogenous H2S attenuates CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension by its multiple functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, cytoprotection and anti-fibrosis, indicating that targeting H2S may present a promising approach, particularly for its prophylactic effects, against liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
Tan, Gang; Pan, Shangha; Li, Jie; Dong, Xuesong; Kang, Kai; Zhao, Mingyan; Jiang, Xian; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying
The pulmonary arteries (PA) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are constricted and remodeled;. They have suppressed apoptosis, partly attributable to suppression of the bone morphogenetic protein axis and selective downregulation of PA smooth muscle cell (PASMC) voltage-gated K channels, including Kv1.5. The Kv downregulation-induced increase in (K)i, tonically inhibits caspases, further suppressing apoptosis. Mitochondria control apoptosis and produce activated oxygen
M. Sean McMurtry; Sebastien Bonnet; Xichen Wu; Jason R. B. Dyck; Alois Haromy; Kyoko Hashimoto; Evangelos D. Michelakis
Perinatal hypoxia has been observed to cause more aggressive pulmonary hypertension in human. Several mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and substance P are believed to be crucial in the mechanism of inducing pulmonary hypertension. This study was designed to test whether substance P and ROS play a role in perinatal hypoxia-exaggerated, monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension. Normoxic Wistar rats (weighing 258 ± 9 g, n = 31) were divided into two groups: control (n = 16) and MCT (n = 15). Perinatal hypoxia Wistar rats (weighing 260 ± 19 g, n = 49) were divided into six groups: Hypoxia (n = 8), Hypoxia+MCT (n = 8), Hypoxia+capsaicin (CP)+MCT (n = 7), Hypoxia+MCT+1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (DMTU)E (n = 10), Hypoxia+MCT+DMTUL (n = 9), and Hypoxia+MCT+ hexa(sulfobutyl) fullerenes (HSF) (n = 7). Rats in the control group received saline injections. MCT (60 mg/kg, s.c.) was given three weeks prior to the functional examination. Chronic capsaicin pretreatment was performed to deplete substance P. Hydroxyl radical scavenger DMTU (500 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected early (DMTUE ) or late (DMTUL ) after MCT. Antioxidant HSF (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was given once daily for three weeks following MCT. MCT treatment caused significant increases in pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) and substance P level in lung tissue in normoxic rats. The MCT-induced increase in pulmonary arterial blood pressure was exaggerated by perinatal hypoxia, but this exaggeration was attenuated by either capsaicin pretreatment or antioxidant administrations. These results suggest that both ROS and substance P are involved in perinatal hypoxia-augmented, MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22559732
Chen, Kang-Hua; Lai, Yih-Loong; Chen, Mei-Jung
A total of 52 pharmacologically untreated subjects with essential hypertension were randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of contemplative meditation combined with breathing techniques (CMBT) or no intervention in this observer-blind controlled pilot trial. CMBT induced clinically relevant and consistent decreases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure if measured during office readings, 24-h ambulatory monitoring and mental stress test. Longer-term studies should evaluate CMBT as an antihypertensive strategy. PMID:17823597
Manikonda, J P; Störk, S; Tögel, S; Lobmüller, A; Grünberg, I; Bedel, S; Schardt, F; Angermann, C E; Jahns, R; Voelker, W
Contribution of renal angiotensin II type I receptor to gene expressions in hypertension-induced renal injury. Recent evidence indicates that transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) plays an important role in renal fibrosis via stimulation of extracellular matrix synthesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1 receptor) in hypertension-induced renal injury. Twenty-two-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously
Shokei Kim; Kensuke Ohta; Akinori Hamaguchi; Takashi Omura; Tokihito Yukimura; Katsuyuki Miura; Yoshiyuki Inada; Takeo Wada; Yoshimasa Ishimura; Fumio Chatani; Hiroshi Iwao
Purpose. To assess the suitability of spiral Z-stents for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and the influence of portal hypertension on shunt patency in young swine. Methods. TIPS were established using spiral Z-stents in 14 domestic swine. In 7 animals, the portal venous pressure was normal; in the other 7, acute portal hypertension was induced by embolization of portal vein branches. Follow-up portal venography and histologic evaluations were done from 1 hr to 12 weeks after TIPS. Results. Follow-up transhepatic portal venograms showed progressive narrowing of the shunt, most priminent in the midportion of the tract. Ingrowth of liver parenchyma between the stent wires found after 3 weeks led to progressive shunt narrowing and shunt occlusion by 12 weeks. A pseudointima grew rapidly inside the stent, peaked in thickness around 4 weeks, and decreased later. Acutely created portal hypertension rapidly returned to normal and there was no difference in TIPS patency between the two groups of animals. Conclusion. Although the spiral Z-stent can be used as a device for creation of TIPS in patients with cirrhotic livers, it is associated with extensive liver ingrowth in swine that leads to rapid shunt occlusion. Portal hypertension was only transient in this model.
Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Saxon, Richard R.; Nishimine, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Norifumi; Uchida, Barry T. [Oregon Health Sciences University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States)
Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd)—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L) in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd.
Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Donpunha, Wanida; Sompamit, Kwanjit; Surawattanawan, Praphassorn
Excess weight gain contributes up to 65% of the risk of primary hypertension, and the increase in blood pressure in response to high-fat diet (HFD) is preceded by significant increases in renal tubular sodium (Na(+)) reabsorption. In normal rats, intrarenal ghrelin infusion increases distal nephron-dependent Na(+) reabsorption via activation of the intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GHSR). This study focusses on the role of intrarenal GHSR-mediated Na(+) reabsorption in HFD-induced hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive rats received standard diet or HFD for 6 weeks. Rats underwent uninephrectomy and osmotic minipump implantation for chronic intrarenal delivery of vehicle (0.25 ?L/h × 28 d), selective GHSR antagonist [D-Lys-3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (0.2?M/d), or GHSR inverse agonist [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P (SUB-P) (3.6?M/d). HFD rats with vehicle pumps had significantly increased renal GHSR expression compared with standard diet (0.092 ± 0.005 vs 0.065 ± 0.004 arbitrary units; P < .05), whereas acyl ghrelin levels were similar (16.3±6.2 vs 15.7±8.7 pg/g tissue). HFD rats with vehicle pumps became hypertensive after 2 weeks (P < .05) and showed a significant reduction in 24-hour urine Na(+) before hypertension. At this time, these rats showed an increase in collecting duct ?-epithelial Na(+) channel, thereby providing a potential mechanism for the excess Na(+) reabsorption. In contrast, HFD rats with [D-Lys-3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 or SUB-P pumps never became hypertensive and did not show the reduction in urine Na(+). Because SUB-P blocks the constitutive, but not ghrelin-dependent, activity of the GHSR, and HFD-induced ?-epithelial Na(+) channel up-regulation was abolished during GHSR antagonism, these data suggest that HFD increases the constitutive activity of renal GHSR to increase Na(+) reabsorption and induce hypertension in rats. PMID:24797629
Kemp, Brandon A; Howell, Nancy L; Gildea, John J; Padia, Shetal H
One major precursor of carbonyl stress, methylglyoxal (MG), is elevated in the plasma of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this precursor contributes to the progression of vascular injury, hypertension and renal injury in diabetic nephropathy patients. This molecule induces salt-sensitive hypertension via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. We examined the role of MG in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardio–renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats, which is a rat model of CKD. Nine-week-old Dahl S rats were fed a 1% NaCl diet, and 1% MG was added to their drinking water for up to 12 weeks. Blood pressure and cardio–renal injuries were compared with rats treated with tap water alone. The angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan (10?mg?kg?1?day?1), was administered to MG Dahl S rats to determine the impact of this drug on the pathogenesis of MG-induced CKD. A progressive increase in systolic blood pressure was observed (123±1–148±5?mm?Hg) after 12 weeks of MG administration. MG administration significantly increased urinary albumin excretion, glomerular sclerosis, tubular injury, myocardial collagen content and cardiac perivascular fibrosis. MG also enhanced the renal expression of N?-carboxyethyl-lysine (an advanced glycation end product), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative stress), macrophage (ED-1) positive cells (a marker of inflammation) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase activity. Candesartan treatment for 4 weeks significantly reduced these parameters. These results suggest that MG-induced hypertension and cardio–renal injury and increased inflammation and carbonyl and oxidative stress, which were partially preventable by an ARB.
Chen, Xianguang; Mori, Takefumi; Guo, Qi; Hu, Chunyan; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Yoneki, Yoshimi; Zhu, Wanjun; Jiang, Yue; Endo, Satoshi; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu; Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyata, Toshio; Ito, Sadayoshi
1. To search for a possible role for endothelin-1 (ET-1) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension, we examined changes in concentration of ET-1 in vascular and renal tissue in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and evaluated the antihypertensive effect of the ETA receptor antagonist, FR139317. 2. There was an increase in aortic immunoreactive-ET (IR-ET) concentrations in association with hypertension-induced treatment. There were no significant changes in ET-1 levels in the kidney with DOCA-salt treatment. 3. In DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, a significant correlation (r = 0.83, P < 0.01) was found between aortic IR-ET concentrations and systolic blood pressure. 4. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the aortic extract from DOCA-salt rats revealed one major component corresponding to the elution position of synthetic ET-1. 5. The intravenous bolus injection of FR139317 (10 mg kg-1) produced a slight decrease in blood pressure in the control rats and in the DOCA-salt hypertensive rat, FR139317 had a more pronounced hypotensive effect. 6. We propose that ET-1 production in vascular tissues is increased in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. In addition, our study indicates the pathophysiological importance of increased endogenous ET-1 in the maintenance of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension, through interaction of the peptide with ETA receptors.
Fujita, K; Matsumura, Y; Kita, S; Miyazaki, Y; Hisaki, K; Takaoka, M; Morimoto, S
Background In addition to systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation in the brain, which enhances sympathetic drive, plays a significant role in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) that augments sympathetic outflow to blood vessels is involved in neural mechanism of hypertension. We investigated whether neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in RVLM contribute to hypertension following chronic systemic inflammation. Methods In normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, systemic inflammation was induced by infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the peritoneal cavity via an osmotic minipump. Systemic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured under conscious conditions by the non-invasive tail-cuff method. The level of the inflammatory markers in plasma or RVLM was analyzed by ELISA. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. Tissue level of superoxide anion (O2·-) in RVLM was determined using the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe dihydroethidium. Pharmacological agents were delivered either via infusion into the cisterna magna with an osmotic minipump or microinjection bilaterally into RVLM. Results Intraperitoneal infusion of LPS (1.2?mg/kg/day) for 14?days promoted sustained hypertension and induced a significant increase in plasma level of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), or interleukin-1? (IL-1?). This LPS-induced systemic inflammation was accompanied by activation of microglia, augmentation of IL-1?, IL-6, or TNF-? protein expression, and O2·- production in RVLM, all of which were blunted by intracisternal infusion of a cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, NS398; an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline; or a cytokine synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline. Neuroinflammation in RVLM was also associated with a COX-2-dependent downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Finally, the LPS-promoted long-term pressor response and the reduction in expression of voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv4.3 in RVLM were antagonized by minocycline, NS398, pentoxifylline, or a superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, either infused into cisterna magna or microinjected bilaterally into RVLM. The same treatments, on the other hand, were ineffective against LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Conclusion These results suggest that systemic inflammation activates microglia in RVLM to induce COX-2-dependent neuroinflammation that leads to an increase in O2·- production. The resultant oxidative stress in RVLM in turn mediates neurogenic hypertension.
Monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension is characterized by alterations in vascular extracellular matrix and neomuscularization of small blood vessels. Tenascin (TN) is a matrix glycoprotein which modulates cellular attachment, proliferation, and migration. The present study used immunohistochemistry and Northern analyses to examine the hypothesis that treatment of rats with the potent pneumotoxin MCT induces temporal alterations in TN synthesis/deposition in the affected lungs. MCT produced progressive pathological alterations in the cardiopulmonary system, including increased dry lung weight, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary hypertension by days 7, 14, and 21, respectively. TN positive foci were first observed in the parenchyma surrounding small muscularized pulmonary arteries in MCT-treated rats at day 4; these foci became both more pronounced and frequent as the disease progressed. TN was also observed in the media of the intrapulmonary artery at day 21. Northern analysis demonstrated increases in TN transcripts in MCT-treated rats as early as day 1. Furthermore, a unique transcript, apparently lacking some fibronectin type III-like units, was observed in mRNA extracted from these rats. These data demonstrate alterations in TN synthetic capacity and focal increases in TN deposition in lungs from MCT-treated rats and suggest that TN may be associated with the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:8770058
Lipke, D L; Aziz, S M; Fagerland, J A; Majesky, M; Arcot, S S
Abstract Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS?R) signaling has been associated with growth hormone release, increases in food intake and pleiotropic cardiovascular effects. Recent data demonstrated that acute GHS?R antagonism leads to increases in mean arterial pressure mediated by the sympathetic nervous system in rats; a highly undesirable effect if GHS?R antagonism was to be used as a therapeutic approach to reducing food intake in an already obese, hypertensive patient population. However, our data in conscious, freely moving GHS?R deficient mice demonstrate that chronic absence of GHS?R signaling is protective against obesity?induced hypertension. GHS?R deficiency leads to reduced systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV); in response to acute high?fat diet (HFD)?feeding, increases in the sympathetic control of SBPV are suppressed in GHS?R KO mice. Our data further suggest that GHS?R signaling dampens the immediate HFD?mediated increase in spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. In diet?induced obesity, absence of GHS?R signaling leads to reductions in obesity?mediated hypertension and tachycardia. Collectively, our findings thus suggest that chronic blockade of GHS?R signaling may not result in adverse cardiovascular effects in obesity.
Harris, Louise E.; Morgan, David G.; Balthasar, Nina
Hypertension is associated with the structural remodeling and stiffening of arteries and is known to increase cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we investigated the effects of overexpression and knock down of profilin-1 on the vascular structural remodeling in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) using an adenovirus injection to knock down or overexpress profilin-1 mRNA. As a control, blank adenovirus was injected into age-matched SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). We quantified arterial structural remodeling through morphological methods, with thoracic aortas stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picosirius red. Western blotting was performed to measure the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and peroxynitrite was quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Overexpression of profilin-1 significantly promoted aortic remodeling, including an increase in vessel size, wall thickness, and collagen content, whereas the knockdown of profilin-1 could reverse these effects. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated p38, iNOS and peroxynitrite was significantly upregulated in SHRs with profilin-1 overexpression along with an increased level of interleukin- 6 (IL-6). These changes could be reversed by knockdown of profilin-1. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for profilin-1 in hypertension-induced arterial structural remodeling at least in part through the p38-iNOS-peroxynitrite pathway. PMID:24399041
Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Haiqing; Zhao, Shaohua; Ji, Xiang; Liu, Xiangju; You, Beian; Li, Xiao; Qiu, Jie
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY). Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (p<0.05, n?=?14/13). The respiratory effort increased by 53±6 mmHg in SHR and by 34±5 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell by 209±19 bpm in SHR and by 155±16 bpm in WKY. The carotid chemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.
Angheben, Juliana M. M.; Schoorlemmer, Guus H. M.; Rossi, Marcio V.; Silva, Thiago A.; Cravo, Sergio L.
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY). Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (p<0.05, n?=?14/13). The respiratory effort increased by 53±6 mmHg in SHR and by 34±5 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell by 209±19 bpm in SHR and by 155±16 bpm in WKY. The carotid chemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea. PMID:24466272
Angheben, Juliana M M; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M; Rossi, Marcio V; Silva, Thiago A; Cravo, Sergio L
The mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasodilator signaling involves three components such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Although EDHF is distinct from nitric oxide and prostacyclin, it requires activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels (K(Ca)) and cytochrome P(450) metabolites. However, the physiological role of EDHF in the pulmonary circulation is unclear. Thus, we tested if EDHF would regulate vascular tone in rat lungs of control and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension. Inhibition of EDHF with a combination of K(Ca) blockers, charybdotoxin (50 nM) plus apamin (50 nM), increased baseline vascular tone in MCT-induced hypertensive lungs. Thapsigargin (TG; 100 nM), an inhibitor of Ca-ATPase, caused greater EDHF-mediated vasodilation in MCT-induced hypertensive lungs. TG-induced vasodilation was abolished with the charybdotoxin-apamin combination. Sulfaphenazole (10 muM), a cytochrome P(450) inhibitor, reduced the TG-induced vasodilation in MCT-induced hypertensive lungs. RT-PCR analysis exhibited an increase in K(Ca) mRNA in MCT-treated lungs. These results indicate the augmentation of tonic EDHF activity, at least in part, through the alteration in cytochrome P(450) metabolites and the upregulation of K(Ca) expression in MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension. PMID:17438361
Morio, Yoshiteru; Homma, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Akihito; Nagaoka, Tetsutaro; Sato, Koichi; Muramatsu, Masashi; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke
Pulmonary hypertension provokes right heart failure and arrhythmias. Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these arrhythmias is needed to facilitate new therapeutic approaches for the hypertensive, failing right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to identify the mechanisms generating arrhythmias in a model of RV failure induced by pulmonary hypertension. Rats were injected with monocrotaline to induce either RV hypertrophy or failure or with saline (control). ECGs were measured in conscious, unrestrained animals by telemetry. In isolated hearts, electrical activity was measured by optical mapping and myofiber orientation by diffusion tensor-MRI. Sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ handling was studied in single myocytes. Compared with control animals, the T-wave of the ECG was prolonged and in three of seven heart failure animals, prominent T-wave alternans occurred. Discordant action potential (AP) alternans occurred in isolated failing hearts and Ca2+ transient alternans in failing myocytes. In failing hearts, AP duration and dispersion were increased; conduction velocity and AP restitution were steeper. The latter was intrinsic to failing single myocytes. Failing hearts had greater fiber angle disarray; this correlated with AP duration. Failing myocytes had reduced sarco(endo)plasmic reticular Ca2+-ATPase activity, increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+-release fraction, and increased Ca2+ spark leak. In hypertrophied hearts and myocytes, dysfunctional adaptation had begun, but alternans did not develop. We conclude that increased electrical and structural heterogeneity and dysfunctional sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ handling increased the probability of alternans, a proarrhythmic predictor of sudden cardiac death. These mechanisms are potential therapeutic targets for the correction of arrhythmias in hypertensive, failing RVs.
Benoist, David; Stones, Rachel; Drinkhill, Mark J.; Benson, Alan P.; Yang, Zhaokang; Cassan, Cecile; Gilbert, Stephen H.; Saint, David A.; Cazorla, Olivier; Steele, Derek S.; Bernus, Olivier
Exercise training lowers blood pressure and is a recommended nonpharmacological strategy and useful adjunctive therapy for hypertensive patients. Studies demonstrate that physical activity attenuates progression of hypertension. However, underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of hypertension. The present study investigated whether long-term physical exercise starting during the prehypertensive period prevents the development of hypertension via improving vascular insulin sensitivity. Young (4 wk old) prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats were subjected to a 10-wk free-of-loading swim training session (60 min/day, 5 days/wk). Blood pressure, mesenteric arteriolar vasorelaxation, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) expression and activity, and insulin-stimulated Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation were determined. SHRs had higher systolic blood pressure, systemic insulin resistance, and impaired vasodilator actions of insulin in resistance vessels when compared with WKY rats. Systolic blood pressure in SHRs postexercise was significantly lower than that in sedentary rats. Vascular insulin sensitivity in mesenteric arteries was improved after exercise training as evidenced by an increased vasodilator response to insulin. In addition, exercise downregulated vascular GRK2 expression and activity, which further increased insulin-stimulated vascular Akt/eNOS activation in exercised SHRs. Specific small interfering RNA knockdown of GRK2 in endothelium mimicked the effect of exercise-enhanced vascular insulin sensitivity. Likewise, upregulation of GRK2 by Chariot-mediated delivery opposed exercise-induced vascular insulin sensitization. Taken together, our results suggest that long-term exercise beginning at the prehypertensive stage improves vascular insulin sensitivity via downregulation of vascular GRK2 that may help to limit the progression of hypertension. PMID:23913704
Xing, Wenjuan; Li, Youyou; Zhang, Haifeng; Mi, Chunjuan; Hou, Zuoxu; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng
This study tested the hypothesis that P2Y12 receptor blockade with clopidogrel preserves renal autoregulatory ability during ANG II-induced hypertension. Clopidogrel was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically infused with ANG II. After 14 days of treatment, whole kidney autoregulation of renal blood flow was assessed in vivo in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. In ANG II-vehicle-treated rats, decreasing arterial pressure over a range from 160 to 100 mmHg resulted in a 25 ± 5% decrease in renal blood flow, demonstrating a significant loss of autoregulation with an autoregulatory index of 0.66 ± 0.15. However, clopidogrel treatment preserved autoregulatory behavior in ANG II-treated rats to levels indistinguishable from normotensive sham-operated (sham) rats (autoregulatory index: 0.04 ± 0.14). Compared with normotensive sham-vehicle-treated rats, ANG II infusion increased renal CD3-positive T cell infiltration by 66 ± 6%, induced significant thickening of the preglomerular vessels and glomerular basement membrane and increased glomerular collagen I deposition, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, damage to the proximal tubular brush border, and protein excretion. Clopidogrel significantly reduced renal infiltration of T cells by 39 ± 9% and prevented interstitial artery thickening, ANG II-induced damage to the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of collagen type I, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, despite the maintenance of hypertension. These data demonstrate that systemic P2Y12 receptor blockade with clopidogrel protects against impairment of autoregulatory behavior and renal vascular injury in ANG II-induced hypertension, possibly by reducing renal T cell infiltration. PMID:24477682
Osmond, David A; Zhang, Shali; Pollock, Jennifer S; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; De Miguel, Carmen; Inscho, Edward W
In hypertension, a decrease of the vascular ?-adrenergic relaxation has been described. However, the specific involvement of each ?-adrenoceptor (?-AR) subtype, in particular the low-affinity state of ?1-AR, has not yet been evaluated. We investigated whether the low-affinity state of ?1-AR-induced relaxation was impaired in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). The relaxant responses to CGP 12177 and cyanopindolol, low-affinity state ?1-AR agonists (with ?1-/?2-AR antagonistic and partial ?3-AR agonistic properties) were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from 12-weeks-old Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR. In WKY, CGP 12177 and cyanopindolol produced an endothelium and nitric oxide (NO)-independent relaxation. CGP 12177-induced endothelium-independent relaxation was not modified either by ?1-, ?2-AR (nadolol) or ?3-AR (L-748337 or SR 59230A) antagonists but was significantly reduced by high concentrations of CGP 20712A (P<0.05). This relaxation was also reduced by adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, SQ 22536 or MDL 12330A. In SHR, CGP 12177 produced mainly an endothelium and NO-dependent relaxation. This effect was not modified by nadolol, but was strongly reduced by ?3-AR blockade. Endothelium-independent relaxation to CGP 12177 was not altered by adenylyl cyclase inhibition, but was amplified in preparations from pertussis toxin-pretreated SHR. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed an upregulation of ?3-AR in the endothelial layer of SHR aorta, whereas the ?3-AR-induced relaxation was not modified. In conclusion, we demonstrated an impaired low-affinity state of the ?1-AR-induced relaxation and an upregulation of the ?3-AR in hypertension. Some clinical implications of those findings are discussed.
Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Serpillon, Sabrina; Gautier, Freddy; Gogny, Marc; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Gauthier, Chantal
Background Pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) and adventitial fibroblast proliferation, small vessel occlusion, and inflammatory cell accumulation. The underlying molecular mechanisms driving progression remain poorly defined. We have focused on loss of the phosphatase PTEN in SMCs as a major driver of pathological vascular remodeling. Our goal was to define the role of PTEN in human PH and in hypoxia?induced PH using a mouse model with inducible deletion of PTEN in SMCs. Methods and Results Staining of human biopsies demonstrated enhanced inactive PTEN selectively in the media from hypertensive patients compared to controls. Mice with induced deletion of PTEN in SMCs were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for up to 4 weeks. Under normoxia, SMC PTEN depletion was sufficient to induce features of PH similar to those observed in wild?type mice exposed to chronic hypoxia. Under hypoxia, PTEN depletion promoted an irreversible progression of PH characterized by increased pressure, extensive pulmonary vascular remodeling, formation of complex vascular lesions, and increased macrophage accumulation associated with synergistic increases in proinflammatory cytokines and proliferation of both SMCs and nonSMCs. Conclusions Chronic inactivation of PTEN selectively in SMC represents a critical mediator of PH progression, leading to cell autonomous events and increased production of factors correlated to proliferation and recruitment of adventitial and inflammatory cells, resulting in irreversible progression of the disease.
Horita, Henrick; Furgeson, Seth B.; Ostriker, Allison; Olszewski, Kyle A.; Sullivan, Timothy; Villegas, Leah R.; Levine, Michelle; Parr, Jane E.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.; Weiser-Evans, Mary C. M.
Available evidence indicates that brown algae may be beneficial for the treatment of high blood pressure. Our recent study demonstrated that low molecular mass potassium alginate (L-PA), one of the major polysaccharides extracted from brown algae, decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneous hypertensive rats. The present study investigated the effects of L-PA on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced hypertension in
Yu-Yun Chen; Wei Ji; Jun-Rong Du; Dong-Ke Yu; Yao He; Chuan-Xing Yu; De-Shan Li; Chang-yi Zhao; Kui-yun Qiao
Pulmonary hypertension has been induced in rats by 2 weeks' exposure to hypoxia, equivalent to an altitude of approximately 5500 m, in a hypobaric chamber. The rats were removed from the chamber and allowed to recover for up to 8 weeks at atmospheric pressure. Precise quantitative microscopic techniques after injection of the pulmonary artery have been used to estimate the regression in the pulmonary artery of the structural changes associated with pulmonary hypertension. During recovery the degree of muscularization of the pulmonary arteries decreases by disappearance of muscle cells from the small arteries and a drop in arterial wall thickness of larger vessels. These changes do not seem to reflect pulmonary artery pressure directly, since right ventricular hypertrophy regresses at a faster rate. In hypertensive rats there is a "loss" of small arteries in the alveolar region and little filling of precapillary vessels. On recovery, some of the vessels fill, suggesting that encroachment on the lumen by muscle and endothelial cells has lessened. Even after 8 weeks' recovery, however, some arteries do not return, suggesting they have completely disappeared and that regions are left with relatively little perfusion. This reduction of vascular reserve presents without there being right ventricular hypertrophy. Images Fig. 1
Hislop, A.; Reid, L.
Severe pulmonary hypertension is irreversible and often fatal. Abnormal proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) and hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells in this disease are linked to decreased mitochondria and preferential energy generation by glycolysis. We hypothesized this metabolic shift of pulmonary hypertensive ECs is due to greater hypoxia inducible-factor1? (HIF-1?) expression caused by low levels of nitric oxide combined with low superoxide dismutase activity. We show that cultured ECs from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH-ECs) have greater HIF-1? expression and transcriptional activity than controls under normoxia or hypoxia, and pulmonary arteries from affected patients have increased expression of HIF-1? and its target carbonic anhydrase IX. Decreased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in IPAH-ECs paralleled increased HIF-1? levels and small interfering (SI) RNA knockdown of MnSOD, but not of the copper-zinc SOD, increased HIF-1 protein expression and hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase activity in normoxic ECs. MnSOD siRNA also reduced nitric oxide production in supernatants of IPAH-ECs. Conversely, low levels of a nitric oxide donor reduced HIF-1? expression in normoxic IPAH-ECs. Finally, mitochondria numbers increased in IPAH-ECs with knockdown of HIF-1?. These findings indicate that alterations of nitric oxide and MnSOD contribute to pathological HIF-1? expression and account for lower numbers of mitochondria in IPAH-ECs.
Fijalkowska, Iwona; Xu, Weiling; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Janocha, Allison J.; Mavrakis, Lori A.; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Zhen, Lijie; Mao, Thianzi; Richter, Amy; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Tuder, Rubin M.
Ayurveda, one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports that the seeds of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Linn. (Tilaceae) can be used for the treatment of hypertension. The main aim is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha) seeds. Powdered seeds were extracted by maceration, overnight, using water, in copper (E1) and glass vessel (E2) and analyzed for antihypertensive activity in cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, for a period of 15 days) induced hypertensive male Wistar rats at three dose levels. E1 was administered at the dose of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg and E2 at dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg. All the data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. E1 and E2 did not show any toxicity at the dose of 5 g/kg in rats. It was found that 15 mg/kg of E1 and 30 mg/kg of E2 decreases the blood pressure by 30.20 mmHg and 28.96 mmHg, respectively, in hypertensive rats. Thus, it can be said that 15 mg/kg of E1 produced similar decrease in blood pressure as was observed with 30 mg/kg of E2. Copper ions in E1 might be additively affecting the reduction in blood pressure with the usage of Elaeocarpus ganitrus extracts.
Barve, Kalyani H; Chodankar, Rahul
This study aimed to clarify the possible therapeutic benefit of preferential nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition and catalytic antioxidant Mn (III) meso-tetrakis (N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTnHex-2-PyP5+) treatment in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). Rats were randomly divided into different experimental groups which received either intraperitoneal MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (0.1 mg/kg/day), intragastric NOS inhibitor (S-methylthiourea: SMT; 5 mg/kg/day) or both agents for a period of 6 weeks. Ocular hypertension was induced by unilaterally cauterizing three episcleral vessels and the unoperated eye served as control. Neuroprotective effects of given treatments were determined via electrophysiological measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP) while retina and vitreous levels of MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ were measured via LC-MS/MS. Latencies of all VEP components (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) were significantly prolonged (p<0.05) in EIOP and returned to control levels following all three treatment protocols. Ocular hypertension significantly increased retinal protein nitration (p<0.001) which returned to baseline levels in all treated groups. NOS-2 expression and nitrate/nitrite levels were significantly greater in non-treated rats with EIOP. Retinal TUNEL staining showed apoptosis in all ocular hypertensive rats. The presented data confirm the role of oxidative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ treatment and NOS inhibition in ocular hypertension.
Dogan, Serdar; Unal, Mustafa; Ozturk, Nihal; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Cort, Aysegul; Spasojevic, Ivan; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Aslan, Mutay
Heart failure (HF) is a chronic syndrome in which pathological cardiac remodeling is an integral part of the disease and mast cell (MC) degranulation-derived mediators have been suggested to play a role in its progression. Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling is a key event in the signal transduction pathway of MC degranulation. We recently found that inhibition of ?PKC slows down the progression of hypertension-induced HF in salt-sensitive Dahl rats fed a high-salt diet. We therefore determined whether ?PKC inhibition affects MC degranulation in this model. Six week-old male Dahl rats were fed with a high-salt diet to induce systemic hypertension, which resulted in concentric left ventricular hypertrophy at the age of 11 weeks, followed by myocardial dilatation and HF at the age of 17 weeks. We administered ?V1-2 an ?PKC-selective inhibitor peptide (3 mg/Kg/day), ?V1-1, a ?PKC-selective inhibitor peptide (3 mg/Kg/day), TAT (negative control; at equimolar concentration; 1.6 mg/Kg/day) or olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB] as a positive control; 3mg/Kg/day) between 11 weeks and 17 weeks. Treatment with ?V1-2 attenuated cardiac MC degranulation without affecting MC density, myocardial fibrosis, microvessel patency, vascular thickening and cardiac inflammation in comparison to TAT- or ?V1-1-treatment. Treatment with ARB also attenuated MC degranulation and cardiac remodeling, but to a lesser extent when compared to ?V1-2. Finally, ?V1-2 treatment inhibited MC degranulation in isolated peritoneal MCs. Together, our data suggest that ?PKC inhibition attenuates pathological remodeling in hypertension-induced HF, at least in part, by preventing cardiac MC degranulation.
Palaniyandi, Suresh Selvaraj; Inagaki, Koichi; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Heart failure and related cardiac complications remains a great health challenge. We investigated the effects of upregulating heme-oxygenase (HO) on myocardial histo-pathological lesions, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, oxidative mediators and important markers of heart failure such as osteopontin and osteoprotergerin in N(?)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Treatment with the HO-inducer, heme-arginate improved myocardial morphology in L-NAME hypertensive rats by attenuating subendocardial injury, interstitial fibrosis, mononuclear-cell infiltration and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These were associated with the reduction of several inflammatory/oxidative mediators including chemokines/cytokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1?), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, endothelin-1, 8-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine, and aldosterone. Similarly, heme-arginate abated the elevated levels of extracellular matrix/remodeling proteins including transforming-growth factor beta (TGF-?1) and collagen-IV in the myocardium. These were accompanied by significant reduction of proteins of heart failure such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin. Interestingly, the cardio-protective effects of heme-arginate were associated with the potentiation of adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), HO-1, HO-activity, cyclic gnanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and the total-anti-oxidant capacity, whereas the HO-inhibitor, chromium-mesoporphyrin nullified the effects of heme-arginate, exacerbating inflammatory injury and oxidative insults. We conclude that heme-arginate therapy protects myocardial damage by potentiating the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis, which in turn suppressed the elevated levels of aldosterone, pro-inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, mononuclear-cell infiltration and oxidative stress, with concomitant reduction of extracellular matrix/remodeling proteins and heart failure proteins. These data suggest a cardio-protective role of the HO system against L-NAME-induced hypertension that could be explored in the design of novel strategies against cardiomyopathy. PMID:24726875
Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Chibbar, Rajni; Lane, Nina
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of syringic acid (SA), a phenolic acid, on N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in adult male albino rats by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) dissolved in drinking water daily for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with different doses of SA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Systolic blood pressure of control and experimental rats was recorded. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid peroxidative products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were estimated in erythrocytes, plasma, and tissues of experimental rats. Hepatic marker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and renal functional markers such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine were also estimated in serum. The increased levels of blood pressure, lipid peroxidation products, hepatic and renal function markers, and the decreased level of NOx and antioxidants in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats were reversed upon SA treatment. The protective effect at the dose of the three tested doses (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of SA at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. exerts optimum protection. Biochemical findings are substantiated by the histological observation. The protective effects of SA are mediated by reducing oxidative stress and retaining the bioavailability of NO in the cardiovascular system. PMID:23079793
Kumar, Subramanian; Prahalathan, Pichavaram; Raja, Boobalan
OBJECTIVE? To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension. METHODS? A randomized? double-blind? placebo-controlled prospective study was performed. Sixty patients with diastolic dysfunction ?mitral flow velocity E/A <1? and exercise-induced hypertension ?SBP>200 mm Hg? treated with atorvastatin ?20 mg q.d? or placebo for 1 year. Cardiopulmonary exercise test and exercise blood pressure measurement were performed. Plasma B-natriuretic peptide ?BNP? concentration at rest and at peak exercise? plasma high sensitive-C reaction protein ?hs-CRP? and endothelin ?ET? concentration were determined at baseline and after treatment. RESULTS? After treatment by atorvastatin? the resting SBP? pulse pressure? the peak exercise SBP and BNP were significantly decreased; and the exercise time? metabolic equivalent? maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold were increased. All of these parameters had significant differences with baseline levels ?P<0.05?? and the rest pulse pressure? the peak exercise SBP and BNP? and the exercise time had significant differences compared with placebo treatment ?P<0.05?. Plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and ET were markedly reduced by atorvastatin treatment compared with baseline and placebo ?P<0.05?. No difference in above parameters was found before and after placebo treatment ?P>0.05?. CONCLUSION? In patients with diastolic dysfunction at rest and exercise-induced hypertension? atorvastatin can effectively reduce plasma hs-CRP and ET level? lower blood pressure and peak exercise SBP? decrease peak exercise plasma BNP concentration? and ultimately improve exercise tolerance? PMID:24998653
Ye, Ping-Xian; Ye, Ping-Zhen; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Chen, Wei; Gao, Dan Chen
In our previous study, moderate increases in plasma leptin levels achieved via administration of recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA were shown to correct the abnormal metabolic profile in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting that these animals had developed resistance to the metabolic effects of leptin, which could be reversed by leptin gene over-expression. However, the effect of this therapeutic strategy on blood pressure was not investigated. The present study aimed to determine whether a moderate increase of endogenous plasma leptin levels affected arterial blood pressure in rats with diet-induced obesity and hypertension. The major finding from the present study was that the natural rise in plasma leptin with weight-gain is insufficient to counterbalance high blood pressure associated with obesity, additional increases of circulating leptin levels with adenoviral leptin gene therapy led to normalisation of blood pressure in high-fat diet-induced obese and hypertensive rats. Mechanistically, the reduction of blood pressure by leptin in obese rats was likely independent of alpha-adrenergic and acetylcholinergic receptor mediation. This is the first study to demonstrate that further increases in circulating leptin levels by leptin gene transfer during obesity could reduce blood pressure. PMID:20059648
Zhang, W; Telemaque, S; Augustyniak, R A; Anderson, P; Thomas, G D; An, J; Wang, Z; Newgard, C B; Victor, R G
Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable disease that often leads to right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure. This study investigated single versus combined therapy with sildenafil and erythropoietin on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Mice were randomized into 5 groups and exposed to either hypoxia (10% oxygen) or normoxia for a total of 5 weeks. Hypoxic mice were treated with saline solution, erythropoietin (500 IU/kg 3 times weekly), sildenafil (10 mg/kg daily), or a combination of the two drugs for the last 2 weeks of hypoxic exposure. We measured right ventricular pressures using right heart catheterization, and the ventilatory response to hypoxia was recorded via whole-body plethysmography. Histological analyses were performed to elucidate changes in pulmonary morphology and appearance of right heart hypertrophy. Plasma levels of cardiotrophin-1 and atrial natriuretic peptide were quantified. Treatment with either erythropoietin or sildenafil alone lowered the hypoxia-induced increase of pulmonary pressure and reduced pulmonary edema formation, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Notably, the combination of the two drugs had the most prominent effect. Changes in cardiotrophin-1 and atrial natriuretic protein levels confirmed these observations. The combination treatment with erythropoietin and sildenafil demonstrated an attenuation of the development of hypoxia-induced PH in mice that was superior to that observed for either drug when given alone.
Samillan, Victor; Haider, Thomas; Vogel, Johannes; Leuenberger, Caroline; Brock, Matthias; Gassmann, Max
Iron chelating agents are essential for treating iron overload in diseases such as ?-thalassemia and are potentially useful for therapy in non-iron overload conditions, including free radical mediated tissue injury. Deferoxamine (DFO), the only drug available for iron chelation therapy, has a number of disadvantages (e.g., lack of intestinal absorption and high cost). The tridentate chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH)
Marcelo Hermes-Lima; Prem Ponka; Herbert M. Schulman
Chronic exposure to cold caused pulmonary arterial hypertension (CIPH) and increased phosphodiesterase-1C (PDE-1C) expression in pulmonary arteries (PAs) in rats. The purpose of this study is to investigate a hypothesis that inhibition of PDE-1 would decrease inflammatory infiltrates and superoxide production leading to attenuation of CIPH. Three groups of male rats were exposed to moderate cold (5±1°C) continuously while 3 groups were maintained at room temperature (23.5±1°C, warm) (6 rats/group). Following 8-week exposure to cold, 3 groups in each temperature condition received continuous i.v. infusion of 8-IBMX (PDE-1 inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or vehicle, respectively, for one week. Cold exposure significantly increased right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure compared to warm groups (33.8±3.2 vs 18.6±0.3 mmHg), indicating that animals developed pulmonary arterial hypertension (CIPH). Notably, treatment with 8-IBMX significantly attenuated the cold-induced increase in RV pressure (23.5±1.8 mmHg). Cold exposure also caused RV hypertrophy while 8-IBMX reversed cold-induced RV hypertrophy. Cold exposure increased PDE-1C protein expression, macrophage infiltration, NADPH oxidase activity, and superoxide production in PAs and resulted in PA remodeling. 8-IBMX abolished cold-induced upregulation of PDE1C in PAs. Interestingly, inhibition of PDE1 eliminated cold-induced macrophage infiltration, NADPH oxidase activation, and superoxide production in PAs and reversed PA remodeling. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin abolished cold-induced superoxide production and attenuated CIPH and PA remodeling. Conclusions Inhibition of PDE-1 attenuated CIPH and reversed cold-induced PA remodeling by suppressing macrophage infiltration and superoxide production, suggesting that upregulation of PDE-1C expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of CIPH.
Crosswhite, Patrick; Sun, Zhongjie
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P-450 (Cyp)-derived arachidonic acid metabolite that has been shown to increase smooth muscle contractions and proliferation, stimulate endothelial dysfunction and activation, and promote hypertension. We examined if 20-HETE contributes to microvascular remodeling in hypertension. In Sprague-Dawley rats, administration of the 20-HETE biosynthesis inhibitor HET0016 or the 20-HETE antagonist N-20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid (20-HEDE) prevented 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in blood pressure as well as abrogated DHT-induced increases in the media-to-lumen ratio (M/L), media thickness, and collagen IV deposition in renal interlobar arteries. Reserpine prevented blood pressure elevation in DHT-treated rats but did not affect microvascular remodeling (M/L, media thickness, and collagen deposition); under these conditions, treatment with the 20-HETE antagonist attenuated microvascular remodeling, suggesting that 20-HETE contributes to DHT-induced vascular remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation. In Cyp4a14(-/-) mice, which display androgen-driven and 20-HETE-dependent hypertension, treatment with the 20-HETE antagonist abolished remodeling of renal resistance arteries measured as media thickness (24 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 1 ?m) and M/L (0.29 ± 0.03 vs. 0.17 ± 0.01). Moreover, in Cyp4a12 transgenic mice in which the expression of Cyp4a12-20-HETE synthase is driven by a tetracycline-sensitive promoter, treatment with doxycycline resulted in blood pressure elevation (140 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 5 mmHg) and a significant increase in remodeling of renal resistance arteries (media thickness: 23 ± 1 vs. 16 ± 1 ?m; M/L: 0.39 ± 0.04 vs. 0.23 ± 0.02); these increases were abrogated by cotreatment with 20-HEDE. This study demonstrated that 20-HETE is a key regulator of microvascular remodeling in hypertension; its effect is independent of blood pressure elevation and androgen levels. PMID:23825080
Ding, Yan; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Garcia, Victor; Dimitrova, Irina; Weidenhammer, Adam; Joseph, Gregory; Zhang, Frank; Manthati, Vijay L; Falck, John R; Capdevila, Jorge H; Schwartzman, Michal L
Background Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor that can lead to complication of peripheral vascular disease due, in part, to endothelial dysfunction. Because sodium nitrite (SN) can be converted to nitric oxide (NO), which counteracts endothelial dysfunction, we explored the effect of nitrite on neovascularization following hind-limb ischemia in different models of hypertension (HT). Methods and results Chronic delivery of angiotensin-II (Ang-II, 400ng/Kg/min) or N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, 0.1g/L) were used for a two week period to induce hypertension. Mice were subjected to femoral artery ligation induced-ischemia in the hind-limb followed by treatment with SN (50mg/L) for 2-weeks. SN significantly reduced systolic arterial blood pressure in mice receiving Ang-II and L-NAME, but had no effect in sham animals. After 2 weeks, blood flow and microangiography showed 60%±1.0 recovery in sham compared to 40%±1.3 in HT mice. Importantly, sham and HT mice treated with SN showed a 100% blood flow recovery associated with normalization in capillary density. The inhibition of xanthine-oxido-reductase (allopurinol) or VEGFR (SU-5416) prevented the neovascularization in HT mice treated with SN. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) content in the hind-limb was significantly increased in mice treated with SN compared to non-treated mice. Nitrite/nitrate content was only increased in the sham group treated with SN. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed an increase in eNOS/Akt/VEGFR phosphorylation in skeletal muscle from mice treated with SN compared to non-treated mice. Conclusion Our findings indicate that SN therapy rescues the neovascularization and blood flow recovery in ischemic hind-limb of sham and HT mice likely through the Akt/NO/cGMP and VEGFR pathways.
Amin, Ali; Choi, Sookyoung; Osman-Elazeik, Yehia; El-Din, Nariman Badr; Kevil, Christopher G.; Navar, Louis G.; Kadowitz, Philip; Trebak, Mohamed; Matrougui, Khalid
Previous studies have shown that preconditioning rats with a nonpressor dose of angiotensin II (Ang II) sensitizes the pressor response produced by later treatment with a higher dose of Ang II and that Ang II and aldosterone (Aldo) can modulate each other's pressor effects through actions involving the central nervous system. The current studies tested whether Aldo can cross-sensitize the pressor actions of Ang II to enhance hypertension by employing an induction-delay-expression experimental design. Male rats were implanted for telemetered blood pressure recording. During induction, subpressor doses of either subcutaneous or intracerebroventricular Aldo were delivered for 1 week. Rats were then rested for 1 week (delay) to assure that any exogenous Aldo was metabolized. After this, Ang II was given subcutaneously for 2 weeks (expression). During induction and delay, Aldo had no sustained effect on blood pressure. However, during expression, Ang II-induced hypertension was greater in the groups receiving subcutaneous or intracerebroventricular Aldo during induction in comparison with those groups receiving vehicle. Central administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist blocked sensitization. Brain tissue collected at the end of delay and expression showed increased mRNA expression of several renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components in cardiovascular-related forebrain regions of cross-sensitized rats. Cultured subfornical organ neurons preincubated with Aldo displayed greater increases in [Ca2+]i after Ang II treatment, and there was a greater Fra-like immunoreactivity present at the end of expression in cardiovascular-related forebrain structures. Taken together, these results indicate that Aldo pretreatment cross-sensitizes the development of Ang II-induced hypertension probably by mechanisms that involve the central nervous system. PMID:22949534
Xue, Baojian; Zhang, Zhongming; Roncari, Camila F; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim
Aims. To examine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant with mitochondrial superoxide inhibitory properties, on adrenocorticotrophic hormone- (ACTH-HT) and dexamethasone-induced hypertensions (DEX-HT) in rats and if any antihypertensive effect is mediated via mitochondrial superoxide inhibition. Methods. In a prevention study, rats received ground food or alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food (10?mg/rat/day) for 15 nights. Saline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, 0.2?mg/kg/day), or dexamethasone (DEX, 10??g/rat/day) was injected subcutaneously from day 5 to day 11. In a reversal study, rats received alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food 4 days after commencement of saline or DEX. Tail-cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured second daily. Kidney mitochondrial superoxide was examined using (MitoSOX) Red (MitoSOX) via flow cytometry. Results. SBP was increased by ACTH (P < 0.0005) and DEX (P < 0.0005). Alpha-lipoic acid alone did not alter SBP. With alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment, SBP was increased by ACTH (P? < 0.005) but not by DEX. Alpha-lipoic partially prevented ACTH-HT (P? < 0.0005) and fully prevented DEX-HT (P? < 0.0005) but failed to reverse DEX-HT. ACTH and DEX did not increase MitoSOX signal. In ACTH-hypertensive rats, high-dose alpha-lipoic acid (100?mg/rat/day) did not decrease SBP further but raised MitoSOX signal (P < 0.001), suggesting prooxidant activity. Conclusion. Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension in rats is prevented by alpha-lipoic acid via mechanisms other than mitochondrial superoxide reduction.
Ong, Sharon L. H.; Vohra, Harpreet; Zhang, Yi; Sutton, Matthew; Whitworth, Judith A.
Dysfunction of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components is implicated in the development of hypertension. We previously showed that angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension is mediated by increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (PIC), including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in brain cardiovascular regulatory centers such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Presently, we tested the hypothesis that central TNF blockade prevents dysregulation of brain RAS components and attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radio-telemetry transmitters to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and subjected to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of etanercept (10 µg/kg/day) with/without concurrent subcutaneous 4-week Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) infusion. Chronic Ang II infusion resulted in a significant increase in MAP and cardiac hypertrophy, which was attenuated by inhibition of brain TNF with etanercept. Etanercept treatment also attenuated Ang II-induced increases in PIC and decreases in IL-10 expression in the PVN. Additionally, Ang II infusion increased expression of pro-hypertensive RAS components (ACE and AT1R), while decreasing anti-hypertensive RAS components (ACE2, Mas, and AT2 receptors), within the PVN. I.c.v. etanercept treatment reversed these changes. Ang II-infusion was associated with increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity and super oxide production in the PVN, which was prevented by inhibition of TNF. Moreover, brain targeted TNF blockade significantly reduced Ang II-induced NOX-2 and NOX-4 mRNA and protein expression in the PVN. These findings suggest that chronic TNF blockade in the brain protects rats against Ang II-dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring the balance between pro- and anti-hypertensive RAS axes and inhibiting PIC and oxidative stress genes and proteins in the PVN. PMID:23691105
Sriramula, Srinivas; Cardinale, Jeffrey P; Francis, Joseph
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease associated with increased constriction and remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid and has a variety of pharmacological effects including improvement of endothelial cell function. However, its pharmacological effects on pulmonary hypertension have been rarely reported. We sought to observe the protective effect of quercetin in rats with monocrotaline induced PAH. We divided 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly into three groups with ten rats in each group: the monocrotaline group, the quercetin group and the control group. We found that, compared with the controls, the mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and the right ventricular hypertrophy index in the monocrotaline group were significantly higher (P < 0.01). Quercetin caused a significant reduction both in the mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy index compared with the monocrotaline group (P < 0.01) while no difference was found between the quercetin group and the control group (P > 0.05). Monocrotaline induced a marked increase in the wall thickness (WT) in small and mid-sized pulmonary arteries compared with the controls (P < 0.01). Monocrotaline also induced a marked increase in the wall area (WA) in small [(56.38±6.65)% in monocrotaline vs. (19.80±4.63)% in control] and mid-sized [(43.71±5.38)% in monocrotaline vs. (14.24±3.66)% in control] pulmonary arteries (P < 0.01). Quercetin treatment markedly reduced monocrotaline induced increase in both WT and WA (P < 0.01), which, however, still remained significantly elevated compared with those of the controls (P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with controls, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the pulmonary artery tissues was markedly increased by monocrotaline [(45.59±1.27) in monocrotaline vs. (9.64±0.69) in controls], which was significantly attenuated by quercetin. Our animal experiment indicated that quercetin could have protective effects on monocrotaline-induced PAH. PMID:23554737
Gao, Hanhua; Chen, Can; Huang, Shi'an; Li, Bo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to explore the role of imidapril on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety chickens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30): a control group, a low-temperature group and an imidapril group. Chickens in the low-temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature from 14 days of age until 45 days of age; chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. The pulmonary arterial pressure, main pulmonary arterial diameter and pulmonary arterial wall thickness were measured, and lung tissue ACE, ACE2 mRNA expression, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and Ang II, Ang (1-7) concentration were evaluated. RESULTS: The pulmonary arterial pressure was higher, the main pulmonary arterial diameter was wider and the pulmonary arterial wall was thicker in the low-temperature group than those in the control group and the imidapril group. ACE mRNA and PCNA-positive cells increased significantly in the low-temperature group compared with the control group and imidapril group; lung tissue Ang II concentration in the low-temperature group was higher, but Ang (1-7) content was lower than that in the control group and imidapril group. CONCLUSION: Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. PMID:23161146
Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Li, Meng; Yang, Zhen; Niu, Ming-Fu; Sun, Tong-Wen; Yang, Dan-Li; Kong, Tao; Li, Jian
Arachidonic acid is metabolized by means of P450 isoenzyme(s) to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their corresponding dihydroxy derivatives (DHETs). In the present study, we established the presence in human urine of 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EETs and their corresponding DHETs by developing quantitative assays and using negative ion, chemical ionization GC/MS and octadeuterated internal standards. Urinary excretion of 8,9- and 11,12-DHET increased in healthy pregnant women compared with nonpregnant female volunteers. By contrast, excretion of 11,12-DHET and 14,15-DHET, but not the 8,9-DHET regioisomer, increased even further in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Intravenous administration of [3H]14,15-EET to three dogs markedly increased its DHET in plasma. The terminal half-life ranged from 7.9-12.3 min and the volume of distribution (3.5-5.3 liters) suggested limited distribution outside the plasma compartment. Negligible radioactivity was detected in urine; this fact infers that under physiological circumstances, urinary DHETs largely derive from the kidney. That P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid are formed in humans supports the hypothesis that these metabolites contribute to the physiological response to normal pregnancy and the pathophysiology of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Catella, F; Lawson, J A; Fitzgerald, D J; FitzGerald, G A
Abstract There is significant evidence that Th2 (T helper 2)-mediated inflammation supports the pathogenesis of both human and experimental animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A key immune regulator is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is produced by Th2 inflammation and can itself contribute to Th2 pulmonary responses. In this study, we interrogated the role of VEGF signaling in a murine model of schistosomiasis-induced PH with a phenotype of significant intrapulmonary Th2 inflammation, vascular remodeling, and elevated right ventricular pressures. We found that VEGF receptor blockade partially suppressed the levels of the Th2 inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 in both the lung and the liver after Schistosoma mansoni exposure and suppressed pulmonary vascular remodeling. These findings suggest that VEGF positively contributes to schistosomiasis-induced vascular inflammation and remodeling, and they also provide evidence for a VEGF-dependent signaling pathway necessary for pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in this model.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disorder that without treatment is progressive and often fatal within 3 years. The treatment of PH involves the use of a diverse group of drugs and lung transplantation. Although nitrite was once thought to be an inactive metabolite of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO), there is increasing evidence that nitrite may be useful in the treatment of PH, but the mechanism by which nitrite exerts its beneficial effect remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic sodium nitrite treatment in a PH model in the rat. Following induction of PH with a single injection of monocrotaline, 60 mg; daily ip injections of sodium nitrite (3 mg/kg) starting on day 14 and continuing for 21 days, resulted in a significantly lower pulmonary arterial pressure on day 35 when compared to values in untreated animals with monocrotaline-induced PH. In monocrotaline-treated rats, daily treatment with ip nitrite injections for 21 days decreased right ventricular mass and pathologic changes in small pulmonary arteries. Nitrite therapy did not change systemic arterial pressure or cardiac output when values were measured on day 35. The decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure in response to iv injections of sodium nitroprusside, sodium nitrite, and BAY 41-8543 were not different in rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and rats with chronic nitrite therapy when compared to responses in animals in which pulmonary arterial pressure was increased with U46619. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms that convert nitrite to vasoactive NO, activate soluble guanylyl cyclase and mediate the vasodilator response to NO or an NO derivative are not impaired. The present data are consistent with the results of a previous study in monocrotaline-induced PH in which systemic arterial pressure and cardiac output were not evaluated and are consistent with the hypothesis that nitrite is effective in the treatment of monocrotaline-induced PH in the rodent.
Pankey, Edward A.; Badejo, Adeleke M.; Casey, David B.; Lasker, George F.; Riehl, Russel A.; Murthy, Subramanyam N.; Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.
The chemical signaling pathways which orchestrate lung cell responses in hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease are poorly understood. The present study examined temporal alterations in lung basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in a well characterized rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension. By immunohistochemical analysis, there were progressive increases in bFGF in airway, vascular and gas exchange regions of MCT-treated rat lungs. Increases in bFGF preceded the onset of right ventricular hypertrophy at day 21 after MCT administration. Enhanced bFGF immunostaining was observed as early as day 4 in focal areas of the parenchyma, and by day 14 there was enhanced bFGF staining in alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and alveolar septa, which persisted through day 21. In conducting airways, there was elevated bFGF immunostaining in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer by days 4 and 7 and in the ciliated epithelium and its basement membrane at days 14 and 21. Cells morphologically similar to Clara cells in the luminal surfaces of bronchioles stained intensely on days 14 and 21. In the nucleus and cytoplasm of medial SMCs within pulmonary arteries, there was a progressive increase in bFGF staining starting at day 4. Lung bFGF mRNA was increased slightly at days 1, 4 and 7, while lung bFGF protein, as judged by western blot analysis, was increased at days 14 and 21 compared to controls. The present results, considered in teh light of teh documented roles of bFGF in vascular cell migration, growth and synthesis of extracellular matrix components, suggest that bFGF may contribute to the structural remodeling processes underlying the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension in MCT-treated rats. PMID:8679246
Arcot, S S; Fagerland, J A; Lipke, D W; Gillespie, M N; Olson, J W
The present study investigated the effects of a 6-week swimming training on blood pressure, nitric oxide (NO) levels and oxidative stress parameters such as protein and lipid oxidation, antioxidant enzyme activity and endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidant content in kidney and circulating fluids, as well as on serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine) from N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertension treated rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 10): Control, Exercise, L-NAME and Exercise L-NAME. Results showed that exercise prevented a decrease in NO levels in hypertensive rats (P < 0·05). An increase in protein and lipid oxidation observed in the L-NAME-treated group was reverted by physical training in serum from the Exercise L-NAME group (P < 0·05). A decrease in the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the L-NAME group was observed when compared with normotensive groups (P < 0·05). In kidney, exercise significantly augmented the CAT and SOD activities in the Exercise L-NAME group when compared with the L-NAME group (P < 0·05). There was a decrease in the non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels in the L-NAME-treated group when compared with the normotensive groups (P < 0·05). In the Exercise L-NAME group, there was an increase in NPSH levels when compared with the L-NAME group (P < 0·05). The elevation in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine levels observed in the L-NAME group were reverted to levels close to normal by exercise in the Exercise L-NAME group (P < 0·05). Exercise training had hypotensive effect, reducing blood pressure in the Exercise L-NAME group (P < 0·05). These findings suggest that physical training could have a protector effect against oxidative damage and renal injury caused by hypertension. PMID:22961602
Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Martins, Caroline Curry; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Schmatz, Roberta; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Gutierres, Jessié; Zanini, Daniela; Fiorenza, Amanda Maino; Stefanello, Naiara; Serres, Jonas Daci da Silva; Carvalho, Fabiano; Castro, Verônica Paiva; Mazzanti, Cinthia Melazzo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Goularte, Jeferson Ferraz; Morsch, Vera Maria; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina
We examined the dose-related effects of landiolol on hemodynamics during emergence from anesthesia of elderly patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Thirty-three normotensive, 34 controlled hypertensive, and 31 uncontrolled hypertensive elderly patients were divided into three groups: control (saline infusion), 0.125 landiolol group, and 0.25 landiolol group. Landiolol or saline infusion was administered at 0.125 (0.125 landiolol group) or 0.25 (0.25 landiolol group) mg/kg/min for 1 min and thereafter decreased to 0.04 or 0.08 mg/kg/min, respectively, until extubation, under regular heart rate and blood pressure monitoring. In normotensive patients, the 0.125 mg/kg/min landiolol infusion was suitable for stabilization of systolic blood pressure and heart rate during tracheal extubation. Controlled hypertensive patients required a 0.25 mg/kg/min landiolol infusion for stabilization of systolic blood pressure and heart rate during tracheal extubation. In uncontrolled hypertensive patients the 0.25 mg/kg/min landiolol infusion could stabilize heart rate, but not systolic blood pressure. In conclusion, the adequacy of preoperative hypertensive control could affect landiolol infusion-induced hemodynamic stability during emergence of elderly patients from anesthesia. PMID:21234767
Kadoi, Yuji; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shinya; Saito, Shigeru
Previous studies have demonstrated that environmentally or genetically induced changes in the intracellular proteins that compose the cytoskeleton can contribute to heart failure. Because neonatal right ventricular myocytes are immature and are in the process of significant cytoskeletal change, we hypothesized that they may be particularly susceptible to pressure stress. Newborn calves exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressure = 430 mmHg) for 14 days developed severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure = 101 +/- 6 vs. 27 +/- 1 mmHg) and right heart failure compared with age-matched controls. Light microscopy showed partial loss of myocardial striations in the failing neonatal right but not left ventricles and in neither ventricle of adolescent cattle dying of altitude-induced right heart failure. In neonatal calves, immunohistochemical analysis of the cytoskeletal proteins (vinculin, metavinculin, desmin, vimentin, and cadherin) showed selectively, within the failing right ventricles, patchy areas characterized by loss and disorganization of costameres and intercalated discs. Within myocytes from the failing ventricles, vinculin and desmin were observed to redistribute diffusely within the cytosol, metavinculin appeared in disorganized clumps, and vimentin immunoreactivity was markedly decreased. Western blot analysis of the failing right ventricular myocardium showed, compared with control, vinculin and desmin to be little changed in total content but redistributed from insoluble (structural) to soluble (cytosolic) fractions; metavinculin total content was markedly decreased, tubulin content increased, particularly in the structural fraction, and cadherin total content and distribution were unchanged. We conclude that hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive-induced neonatal right ventricular failure is associated with disorganization of the cytoskeletal architecture. PMID:10993804
Lemler, M S; Bies, R D; Frid, M G; Sastravaha, A; Zisman, L S; Bohlmeyer, T; Gerdes, A M; Reeves, J T; Stenmark, K R
Introduction Chronic lead exposure is known to be a risk factor for hypertension (HTN). No specific medication is recommended for the treatment of lead-induced hypertension (LIHTN). Case Presentation Our patient was a male admitted with the chief complaint of chronic abdominal pain. His whole blood lead level was reported to be 1961 µg/L. He also mentioned a previous history of HTN managed by propranolol (10 mg, TDS). He discharged himself by giving written consent and 19 days later, he was re-admitted due to high blood pressure of 220/140 mmHg. His Blood pressure (BP) was decreased to 180/110 mmHg with sublingual captopril; but, in maintenance therapy, higher doses of captopril could not further decrease BP. Amlodipine was tried which was discontinued due to the patient intolerance. Prazosin was then administered in gradual increasing doses up to 1 mg twice a day and captopril was tapered. Conclusions We would like to suggest that LIHTN may better be managed by alpha blockers compared with converting enzyme inhibitors
Dadpour, Bita; Mehrpour, Omid; Etemad, Leila; Moshiri, Mohammad
The objective of the study was to examine changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) undergoing anesthesia in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) with Laser-induced Ocular Hypertension. Twenty male rhesus macaques (hypertensive glaucoma eye in OD; normal eye in OS) between 6 and 20 years of age were used for the study. The monkeys were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg intramuscularly) and 1% isoflurane, and then IOP in both eyes was measured by a single investigator using a calibrated Tonopen(TM) applanation tonometer (Mentor, Norwell, MA, U.S.A.). The mean IOP with ketamine anesthesia was 36.70 ± 12.04 (right eye: OD) and 15.88 ± 2.84 (left eye: OS). The mean IOP with isoflurane anesthesia was 19.98 ± 6.67 (right eye: OD) and 15.32 ± 2.15 (left eye: OS). Undergoing isoflurane anesthesia, the IOP of OD was significantly decreased. Conclusively, careful examination of IOP is required to prevent unexpected contraindication on glaucoma patient with isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:22673087
Kim, Jury; Sapp, Harold L; Plummer, Caryn E; Brooks, Dennis E; Kim, Daeyoung; Kim, Min-Su
Apoptosis (programmed cell death) of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in blood vessels is an essential process involved in the control of vessel wall structure. Several antihypertensive drugs currently used in therapy may exert their pharmacological effects by promoting SMC apoptosis. The biochemical events which regulate SMC apoptosis in the vessel wall are complex, and not well understood. We therefore investigated whether treatment of cultured SMC from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with selected antihypertensive drugs would induce SMC apoptosis. We treated aortic SMC from WKY and SHR in vitro with the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine; with the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNAP); with forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase); or with thapsigargin (a selective inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), Ca2+-ATPase); and compared their apoptosis-promoting effects in SMC derived from the two strains of rats. SMC were derived from the thoracic aorta of 3-4-week-old WKY and SHR, and were used in passages 7-10. Apoptotic cells were detected by in-situ end labeling using the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method, and by morphological examination. We found that: 1) Treatment of cultured aortic SMC with the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine (5 X 10(-5) M) for 24 hours induced a significantly higher level of apoptosis in SHR cells than in SMC from WKY. Cells from WKY, following exposure to nifedipine for 72 hours, exhibited a similar response to the cells from SHR treated for 24 hours. This was detectable by both morphological criteria as well as DNA labeling by the TUNEL technique. 2) Similar treatment of these cells with thapsigargin (1 x 10(-7) M) led to morphological alterations characteristic of apoptotic cells in SMC from both WKY and SHR, and cells from SHR but not WKY were labeled by the TUNEL technique at 24 hours. The TUNEL method did however identify cells from both WKY and SHR as apoptotic after 48 and 72 hours of treatment. 3) The addition of SNAP, or forskolin to the cultured SMC induced significant, but low levels of apoptosis in WKY SMC only. This selective apoptosis-promoting effect of nifedipine in SHR SMC may result from differences in the control of intracellular Ca2+ between the two strains of cells, or it may indicate that the signaling pathways which regulate apoptosis are different in SMC from the normotensive and the hypertensive rats. Our findings imply that SMC apoptosis may be a selective target for pharmacological intervention in hypertension. PMID:10946849
Stead, S; Werstiuk, E S; Lee, R M
Abstract Endothelin-1 is a potent mediator of sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pulmonary vascular effects of selective blockade of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETAR) during endotoxemia remain unknown. We hypothesized that selective ETAR antagonism attenuates endotoxin-induced PH and improves pulmonary artery (PA) vasoreactivity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–450 g) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Salmonella typhimurium; 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle 6 hours before hemodynamic assessment and tissue harvest. The selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan (10 or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intravenously 3 hours after receipt of LPS. Right ventricular systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygenation (P/F ratio), and serum bicarbonate were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differential and lung wet-to-dry ratios were obtained. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxations were determined in isolated PA rings. PA interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. LPS caused PH, decreased MAP, CO, and serum bicarbonate, and increased PA IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and iNOS mRNA. Sitaxsentan attenuated sepsis-induced PH and increased MAP. The P/F ratio, CO, serum bicarbonate, and BAL neutrophilia were not affected by sitaxsentan. In isolated PA rings, while not affecting phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction or endothelium-dependent relaxation, sitaxsentan dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced alterations in endothelium-independent relaxation. PA cytokine mRNA levels were not significantly attenuated by ETAR blockade. We conclude that ETAR blockade attenuates endotoxin-induced alterations in systemic and PA pressures without negatively affecting oxygenation. This protective effect appears to be mediated not by attenuation of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, acidosis, or alveolar inflammation but rather by improved endothelium-independent vasorelaxation.
Diabetes and hypertension are closely associated with impaired endothelial function. Studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of edible palm oil may reverse endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigates the effect of palm oil fractions: tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF), ?-tocopherol and refined palm olein (vitamin E–free fraction) on the vascular relaxation responses in the aortic rings of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and spontaneously
Syed Putra Muharis; Dharmani Murugan
Chronic fructose treatment in rats has repeatedly been shown to elevate blood pressure in association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the leaf methanol extract of Bidens pilosa on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Wistar rats
Théophile Dimo; Silvere V Rakotonirina; Paul V Tan; Jacqueline Azay; Etienne Dongo; Gérard Cros
It has previously been reported that hypertension induced by the chronic blockade of NO production is characterized by a proinflammatory phenotype of the arterial wall associated with a periarterial accumulation of inflammatory cells. In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the luminal and perivascular accumulation of inflammatory cells were evaluated in the aortas of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl
Walter Gonzalez; Vincent Fontaine; Maria E. Pueyo; Nathalie Laquay; David Messika-Zeitoun; Monique Philippe; Jean-Francois Arnal; Marie-Paule Jacob; Jean-Baptiste Michel
Several pieces of evidence indicate that the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is probably one of the key neural structures mediating the pressor effects of orexins in the brain. Nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (NOS/NO) system in the RVLM modulates cardiovascular activities. Our experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that orexin-A (OXA) is involved in the mechanism of stress-induced hypertension (SIH) by adjusting NOS/NO system in the RVLM. The stress-induced hypertensive rats (SIHR) model was established by electric foot-shocks and noises. Here we examined the expression of OXA immunoreactive (OXA-IR) cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the protein level of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) in the RVLM of SIHR, and we found that the expressions of OXA-IR and OX1R were higher than those of the control group. The double-staining immunohistochemical evidence showed that OX1R immunoreactive (OX1R-IR) cells and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive (IR) cells were co-localizated in the RVLM. Microinjection of OXA (10, 50, 100 pmol/100 nl) into the unilateral (right) RVLM of control rats or SIHR produced pressor and tachycardiac effects in a dose-dependent manner. SB-408124 (100 pmol/100 nl, an antagonist of OX1R) or TCS OX2 29 (100 pmol/100 nl, an antagonist of OX2R) partly abolished the cardiovascular effects of exogenously-administrated OXA into the RVLM of control rats and SIHR, and lowered the increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) of SIHR, with no difference in statistical significance between the two antagonists' effects. Microinjection into the RVLM of both control and SIHR groups of 7-Ni (0.05 pmol/100 nl, nNOS inhibitor) or Methylene Blue [100 pmol/100 nl, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)] suppressed the OXA-induced increase of SBP and HR, whereas microinjection of AG (1, 10, 100 pmol/100 nl) had no obvious effects on the OXA-induced increase of SBP and HR. Our results indicate that OXA in the RVLM may participate in the central regulation of cardiovascular activities in SIHR, and OX1R and OX2R both have important roles in it. The cardiovascular effects of OXA in the RVLM may be induced by nNOS-derived NO, which activated sGC-associated signaling pathway. PMID:23147417
Xiao, Fen; Jiang, Meiyan; Du, Dongshu; Xia, Chunmei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Yinxiang; Shen, Linlin; Zhu, Danian
Previous studies in human patients and animal models have suggested that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is upregulated in pulmonary hypertension (PH), a phenomenon that appears to be associated with the effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in this disease. Using chemical tools to interrogate and inhibit TG2 activity in vivo, we have shown that pulmonary TG2 undergoes marked post-translational activation in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced PH. We have also identified irreversible fluorinated TG2 inhibitors that may find use as non-invasive positron emission tomography probes for diagnosis and management of this debilitating, lifelong disorder. Pharmacological inhibition of TG2 attenuated the elevated right ventricular pressure but had no effect on hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart. A longitudinal study of pulmonary TG2 activity in PH patients is warranted. PMID:24152195
DiRaimondo, Thomas R; Klöck, Cornelius; Warburton, Rod; Herrera, Zachary; Penumatsa, Krishna; Toksoz, Deniz; Hill, Nicholas; Khosla, Chaitan; Fanburg, Barry
Patients with hypertension have higher mortality rates from hemorrhagic shock (HS) than normotensive patients. Several inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) can be produced by HS and lead to multiple organ dysfunction and death. We investigated the effects of high dose (10 mg/kg/hr) and low dose (1 mg/kg/hr) propofol treatment after HS in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). By withdrawing 40% of total blood volume from a femoral arterial catheter (6 ml/100 g body weight [BW]) for more than 30 min, HS was induced. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously for 24 hr after the start of blood withdrawal. Levels of biochemical parameters, including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured 30 min before and 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 hr after the 30-min blood withdrawal period. Cytokine levels, including TNF-alpha and IL-10 in the serum, were measured 1 hr after HS. The kidney, liver, and lung were removed for pathology assessment at 48 hr after HS. HS significantly increased blood GOT, GPT, BUN, LDH, CPK, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 levels in conscious SHRs. Posttreatment propofol decreased serum TNF-alpha level, increased serum IL-10 level, attenuated the severity of organ damage, and improved survival rate after HS. This treatment protected SHRs against HS-induced organ damage. Moreover, high-dose propofol had a more protective effect than low-dose propofol against HS in conscious SHRs. PMID:19419978
Lee, Chung-Jen; Lee, Ru-Ping; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Chia-Chi; Peng, Tai-Chu; Hsu, Bang-Gee
Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Several observations indicate that growth factors play a key role in PH by modulating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PA-SMC) function. In rats, established monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT-PH) can be reversed by blocking platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R), or fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGF-R). All these receptors belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. Methods and Results We evaluated whether RTK blockade by the nonspecific growth factor inhibitor, suramin, reversed advanced MCT-PH in rats via its effects on growth-factor signaling pathways. We found that suramin inhibited RTK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured human PA-SMCs. Suramin inhibited PA-SMC proliferation induced by serum, PDGF, FGF2, or EGF in vitro and ex vivo. Treatment with suramin from day 1 to day 21 after monocrotaline injection attenuated PH development, as shown by lower values for pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal vessel muscularization on day 21 compared to control rats. Treatment with suramin from day 21 to day 42 after monocrotaline injection reversed established PH, thereby normalizing the pulmonary artery pressure values and vessel structure. Suramin treatment suppressed PA-SMC proliferation and attenuated both the inflammatory response and the deposition of collagen. Conclusions RTK blockade by suramin can prevent MCT-PH and reverse established MCT-PH in rats. This study suggests that an anti-RTK strategy that targets multiple RTKs could be useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
Izikki, Mohamed; Mercier, Olaf; Lecerf, Florence; Lubert Guin, Lauriane; Hoang, Eric; Dorfmuller, Peter; Perros, Frederic; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Dartevelle, Philippe; Fadel, Elie; Eddahibi, Saadia
Circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) activates a central aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor neuromodulatory pathway, which mediates most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. This study examined whether specific central infusion of Ang II also activates this central aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway. Intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II at 1.0, 2.5, and 12.5 ng/min for 2 weeks caused dose-related increases in water intake, Ang II concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, and blood pressure. Intracerebroventricular Ang II, at 2.5 and 12.5 ng/min, increased hypothalamic aldosterone and corticosterone, as well as plasma aldosterone and corticosterone without affecting plasma Ang II levels. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the aldosterone synthase inhibitor FAD286-but not the mineralocorticoid receptor blocker eplerenone-inhibited by ?60% the Ang II-induced increase in hypothalamic aldosterone. Both blockers attenuated by ?50% the increase in plasma aldosterone and corticosterone with only minimal effects on hypothalamic corticosterone. By telemetry, intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II maximally increased blood pressure within the first day with no further increase over the next 2 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of FAD286 or eplerenone did not affect the initial pressor responses but similarly prevented 60% to 70% of the chronic pressor responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II. These results indicate distinctly different patterns of blood pressure increase by circulating versus central Ang II and support the involvement of a brain aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor-activated neuromodulatory pathway in the chronic hypertension caused by both circulating and central Ang II. PMID:23856493
Huang, Bing S; White, Roselyn A; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H
We have examined the role of plasma Na+-K+ pump inhibitor (SPI) in the hypertension of streptozotocin induced insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in reduced renal mass rats. The increase in blood pressure (BP) was associated with an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and SPI and a decrease in myocardial Na+,K+ATPase (NKA) activity, suggesting that increased SPI, which inhibits cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell NKA activity, may be involved in the mechanism of IDDM-hypertension. In a second study, using prolonged suspension resulted in a decrease in cardiac NKA activity, suggesting that cardiovascular deconditioning following space flight might in part result from insufficient SPI.
Pamnani, M. B.; Chen, S.; Haddy, F. J.; Yuan, C.; Mo, Z.
Alveolar hypoxia elicits increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in pulmonary arterial (PA) smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), triggering hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Mice deficient in sirtuin (Sirt) 3, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent mitochondrial deacetylase, demonstrate enhanced left ventricular hypertrophy after aortic banding, whereas cells from these mice reportedly exhibit augmented hypoxia-induced ROS signaling and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 activation. We therefore tested whether deletion of Sirt3 would augment hypoxia-induced ROS signaling in PASMCs, thereby exacerbating the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular hypertrophy. In PASMCs from Sirt3 knockout (Sirt3(-/-)) mice in the C57BL/6 background, we observed that acute hypoxia (1.5% O2; 30 min)-induced changes in ROS signaling, detected using targeted redox-sensitive, ratiometric fluorescent protein sensors (roGFP) in the mitochondrial matrix, intermembrane space, and the cytosol, were indistinguishable from Sirt3(+/+) cells. Acute hypoxia-induced cytosolic calcium signaling in Sirt3(-/-) PASMCs was also indistinguishable from Sirt3(+/+) cells. During sustained hypoxia (1.5% O2; 16 h), Sirt3 deletion augmented mitochondrial matrix oxidant stress, but this did not correspond to an augmentation of intermembrane space or cytosolic oxidant signaling. Sirt3 deletion did not affect HIF-1? stabilization under normoxia, nor did it augment HIF-1? stabilization during sustained hypoxia (1.5% O2; 4 h). Sirt3(-/-) mice housed in chronic hypoxia (10% O2; 30 d) developed PH, PA wall remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that was indistinguishable from Sirt3(+/+) littermates. Thus, Sirt3 deletion does not augment hypoxia-induced ROS signaling or its consequences in the cytosol of PASMCs, or the development of PH. These findings suggest that Sirt3 responses may be cell type specific, or restricted to certain genetic backgrounds. PMID:24047466
Waypa, Gregory B; Osborne, Scott W; Marks, Jeremy D; Berkelhamer, Sara K; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Schumacker, Paul T
This study aimed to identify receptors mediating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced vasoconstriction in the normotensive and chronic hypoxia-induced hypertensive rat pulmonary circulation. In isolated perfused lungs from normoxic rats, infusion of S1P caused a sustained vasoconstriction, which was not reduced by combinational pretreatment with the dual S1P(1 and 3) receptor antagonist VPC23019 and the S1P(2) receptor antagonist JTE013. The S1P(4) receptor agonists phytosphingosine-1-phospate and VPC23153, but not the dual S1P(1 and 3) receptor agonist VPC24191, caused dose-dependent vasoconstrictions. In hypertensive lungs from chronically hypoxic rats, the vasoconstrictor responses to S1P and VPC23153 were markedly enhanced. The S1P(4) receptor agonist VPC 23153 caused contraction of isolated pulmonary but not of renal or mesenteric arteries from chronically hypoxic rats. S1P(4) receptor protein as well as mRNA were detected in both normotensive and hypertensive pulmonary arteries. In contrast to what has been reported in the systemic circulation and mouse lung, our findings raise the possibility that S1P(4) receptor plays a significant role in S1P-induced vasoconstriction in the normotensive and hypertensive rat pulmonary circulation. PMID:22140630
Ota, Hiroki; Beutz, Michelle A; Ito, Masako; Abe, Kohtaro; Oka, Masahiko; McMurtry, Ivan F
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative vasculopathy characterized by high circulating CD34+CD133+ proangiogenic progenitors, and endothelial cells that have pathologic expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ? (HIF-1?). Here, CD34+CD133+ progenitor cell numbers are shown to be higher in PAH bone marrow, blood, and pulmonary arteries than in healthy controls. The HIF-inducible myeloid-activating factors erythropoietin, stem cell factor (SCF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are also present at higher than normal levels in PAH blood, and related to disease severity. Primary endothelial cells harvested from human PAH lungs produce greater HGF and progenitor recruitment factor stromal-derived factor 1 ? (SDF-1?) than control lung endothelial cells, and thus may contribute to bone marrow activation. Even though PAH patients had normal numbers of circulating blood elements, hematopoietic alterations in myeloid and erythroid lineages and reticulin fibrosis identified a subclinical myeloproliferative process. Unexpectedly, evaluation of bone marrow progenitors and reticulin in nonaffected family members of patients with familial PAH revealed similar myeloid abnormalities. Altogether, the results show that PAH is linked to myeloid abnormalities, some of which may be related to increased production of HIF-inducible factors by diseased pulmonary vasculature, but findings in nonaffected family suggest myeloid abnormalities may be intrinsic to the disease process.
Asosingh, Kewal; Xu, Weiling; Sharp, Jacqueline; George, Deepa; Comhair, Suzy; Park, Margaret; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Loyd, James E.; Theil, Karl; Tubbs, Raymond; Hsi, Eric; Lichtin, Alan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease with a poor prognosis characterized by a vascular remodeling process and an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. While a variety of reports demonstrated that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on exercise performance and quality of life in PH patients, it is not known how physical exercise affects vascular remodeling processes occurring in hypoxia-induced PH. Therefore, we investigated the effect of individualized exercise training on the development of hypoxia-induced PH in mice. Training effects were compared with pharmacological treatment with the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil or a combination of training plus Sildenafil. Trained mice who received Sildenafil showed a significantly improved walking distance (from 88.9 ± 8.1 to 146.4 ± 13.1 m) and maximum oxygen consumption (from 93.3 ± 2.9 to 105.5 ± 2.2% in combination with Sildenafil, to 102.2 ± 3.0% with placebo) compared with sedentary controls. Right ventricular systolic pressure, measured by telemetry, was at the level of healthy normoxic animals, whereas right heart hypertrophy did not benefit from training. Most interestingly, the increase in small pulmonary vessel muscularization was prevented by training. Respective counterregulatory processes were detected for the nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase system. We conclude that individualized daily exercise can prevent vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced PH. PMID:24705723
Weissmann, Norbert; Peters, Dorothea M; Klöpping, Christina; Krüger, Karsten; Pilat, Christian; Katta, Susmitha; Seimetz, Michael; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Witzenrath, Martin; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Mooren, Frank C
Hypertension (HT) is the common adverse event associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKI). The present study was performed to identify the predictive factors of TKI-induced HT and to determine the classes of antihypertensive agents (AHTA) that demonstrate optimal efficacy against this type of HT. The charts of 50 cases of patients that had received VEGFR-TKI treatment were retrospectively examined. The association between patient background and TKI-induced HT, and the effect of administering AHTA were analyzed. High systolic blood pressure at baseline was identified to be a predictive factor for HT. In addition, there was no difference observed between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) as first-line AHTA for the control of HT. The findings of the present study may aid with predicting the onset of TKI-induced HT, as well as for its management via the primary use of either CCBs or ARBs.
IZUMI, KOUJI; ITAI, SHINGO; TAKAHASHI, YOSHIKO; MAOLAKE, AERKEN; NAMIKI, MIKIO
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by the progressive narrowing and occlusion of small pulmonary arteries. Current therapies fail to fully reverse this vascular remodeling. Identifying key pathways in disease pathogenesis is therefore required for the development of new-targeted therapeutics. We have previously reported tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) immunoreactivity within pulmonary vascular lesions from patients with idiopathic PAH and animal models. Because TRAIL can induce both endothelial cell apoptosis and smooth muscle cell proliferation in the systemic circulation, we hypothesized that TRAIL is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of PAH. We demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL is a potent stimulus for pulmonary vascular remodeling in human cells and rodent models. Furthermore, antibody blockade or genetic deletion of TRAIL prevents the development of PAH in three independent rodent models. Finally, anti-TRAIL antibody treatment of rodents with established PAH reverses pulmonary vascular remodeling by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis, improves hemodynamic indices, and significantly increases survival. These preclinical investigations are the first to demonstrate the importance of TRAIL in PAH pathogenesis and highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target to direct future translational therapies.
Hameed, Abdul G.; Arnold, Nadine D.; Chamberlain, Janet; Pickworth, Josephine A.; Paiva, Claudia; Dawson, Sarah; Cross, Simon; Long, Lu; Zhao, Lan; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Crossman, David C.; Newman, Christopher M.H.; Kiely, David G.; Francis, Sheila E.
Background Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chymase has been shown to function in the enzymatic production of angiotensin II (AngII) and the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of chymase in cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary artery remodeling and PAH. Methods Hamsters were exposed to cigarette smoke; after 4 months, lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were examined using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, radioimmunoassay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Our results show that chronic cigarette smoke exposure significantly induced elevation of right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP) and medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in hamsters, concurrent with an increase of chymase activity and synthesis in the lung. Elevated Ang II levels and enhanced TGF-?1/Smad signaling activation were also observed in smoke-exposed lungs. Chymase inhibition with chymostatin reduced the cigarette smoke-induced increase in chymase activity and Ang II concentration in the lung, and attenuated the RVSP elevation and the remodeling of pulmonary arterioles. Chymostatin did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hamster lungs. Conclusions These results suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure can increase chymase activity and expression in hamster lungs. The capability of activated chymase to induce Ang II formation and TGF-?1 signaling may be part of the mechanism for smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, our study implies that blockade of chymase might provide benefits to PAH smokers.
Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine transporter blocker, could increase blood pressure by elevating norepinephrine concentration in peripheral sympathetic neurons. This effect may be masked in healthy subjects by central sympatholytic mechanisms. To test this hypothesis we studied the pressor effect of 18 mg of atomoxetine (pediatric dose) in 21 patients with damage of the central (10 subjects) and peripheral (11 subjects) autonomic nervous system. Atomoxetine was administered in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled fashion, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline and for 60 minutes after drug intake. Atomoxetine acutely increased seated and standing systolic blood pressure in patients with central autonomic failure by 54+/-26 (mean+/-standard deviation; P=0.004) and 45+/-23 mm Hg (P=0.016), respectively, as compared with placebo. At the end of the observation period the mean seated systolic blood pressure in the atomoxetine group was in the hypertensive range (149+/-26, range 113 to 209 mm Hg). However, in patients with peripheral autonomic failure, atomoxetine did not elicit a pressor response; seated and standing systolic blood pressure increased by 4+/-18 mm Hg (P=0.695) and 0.6+/-8 mm Hg (P=0.546) with atomoxetine as compared with placebo. In conclusion, atomoxetine induces a dramatic increase in blood pressure in patients with central autonomic failure even at very low doses. These findings suggest that a functional central sympatholytic pathway is essential to avoid hypertension in patients treated with this drug. Caution should be exercised when this medication is used in patients with milder form of autonomic impairment. PMID:17515448
Shibao, Cyndya; Raj, Satish R; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Choi, Leena; Black, Bonnie K; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo
Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but is also a critical component of pulmonary artery remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Using multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, and primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive pulmonary arteries (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL-6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBP? signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation, complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, and deficiency in C/EBP? or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast-driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6-mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH, and uncover a cross-talk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL-6-activated STAT3, HIF1?, and C/EBP? signaling are critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL-6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBP? or HIF1? or by partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL-6 and absent IL-4/IL-13 signaling. PMID:24928992
El Kasmi, Karim C; Pugliese, Steven C; Riddle, Suzette R; Poth, Jens M; Anderson, Aimee L; Frid, Maria G; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A; Fini, Mehdi A; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M; Friedman, Jacob E; Eltzschig, Holger K; Sokol, Ronald J; Stenmark, Kurt R
Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man) had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT), a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca) channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.
Hayashida, Sota; Oka, Takakazu; Tsuji, Sadatoshi
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are closely associated with hypertension in humans and in animal models. Gender differences have been found in the development of hypertension in fructose-fed rats. The objectives of the present study were, first, to clarify whether androgens are required in the development of hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension in fructose-fed rats, and second, to determine if cyclooxygenase-1
Dongzhe Song; Emi Arikawa; Denise Galipeau; Mary Battell; John H. McNeill
Objectives: Although blood pressure is considered the major determinant of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension, genetic variability is increasingly being considered among the factors influencing this complication. ?2-Adrenergic receptors (?2ARs) are up-regulated in hypertension and largely polymorphic within the human population. Recently, we have shown that the Glu27 ?2AR variant is strongly associated with cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension. The objective
Guido Iaccarino; Raffaele Izzo; Valentina Trimarco; Ersilia Cipolletta; Francesca Lanni; Daniela Sorriento; Gianni Luigi Iovino; Francesco Rozza; Nicola De Luca; Ornella Priante; Gianfranco Di Renzo; Bruno Trimarco
Fibrosis is an important component of large conduit artery disease in hypertension. The endogenous tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in the heart and kidney. However, it is not known whether Ac-SDKP has an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect on conduit arteries such as the aorta. We hypothesize that in ANG II-induced hypertension Ac-SDKP prevents aortic fibrosis and that this effect is associated with decreased protein kinase C (PKC) activation, leading to reduced oxidative stress and inflammation and a decrease in the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylation of its second messenger Smad2. To test this hypothesis we used rats with ANG II-induced hypertension and treated them with either vehicle or Ac-SDKP. In this hypertensive model we found an increased collagen deposition and collagen type I and III mRNA expression in the aorta. These changes were associated with increased PKC activation, oxidative stress, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNA expression, and macrophage infiltration. TGF-?1 expression and Smad2 phosphorylation also increased. Ac-SDKP prevented these effects without decreasing blood pressure or aortic hypertrophy. Ac-SDKP also enhanced expression of inhibitory Smad7. These data indicate that in ANG II-induced hypertension Ac-SDKP has an aortic antifibrotic effect. This effect may be due in part to inhibition of PKC activation, which in turn could reduce oxidative stress, ICAM-1 expression, and macrophage infiltration. Part of the effect of Ac-SDKP could also be due to reduced expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-?1 and inhibition of Smad2 phosphorylation.
Lin, Chun-Xia; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Liao, Tang-Dong; D'Ambrosio, Martin A.; Carretero, Oscar A.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) still cannot be cured, warranting the search for novel treatments. Fasudil (a Rho kinase inhibitor) was compared with bosentan (an endothelin receptor blocker) and sildenafil (a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor), with emphasis on right ventricular (RV) function, in a reversal rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH. In addition, the effects of combining bosentan or sildenafil with fasudil were studied. MCT (40 mg·kg body weight(-1)) induced clear PAH in male Wistar rats (n = 9). After 28 days, echocardiography, RV catheterisation and histochemistry showed that cardiac frequency, stroke volume and RV contractility had deteriorated, accompanied by RV dilatation and hypertrophy, and marked pulmonary arterial wall thickening. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance increased significantly compared to healthy rats (n = 9). After 14 days, MCT-treated rats received a 14-day oral treatment with bosentan, sildenafil, fasudil or a combination of fasudil with either bosentan or sildenafil (all n = 9). All treatments preserved cardiac frequency, stroke volume and RV contractility, and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance and RV dilatation. Fasudil lowered RV systolic pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure significantly, by reducing pulmonary arterial remodelling, which reduced RV hypertrophy. Combining bosentan or sildenafil with fasudil had no synergistic effect. Fasudil significantly improved PAH, to a greater degree than did bosentan and sildenafil. PMID:20351034
Mouchaers, K T B; Schalij, I; de Boer, M A; Postmus, P E; van Hinsbergh, V W M; van Nieuw Amerongen, G P; Vonk Noordegraaf, A; van der Laarse, W J
Endothelium-derived factors play an important role in vascular tone control. This study aimed to evaluate how endothelium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) and normotensive (2K) rats aortas. The effects of the superoxide scavenger Tiron (0.1mM and 1mM) or catalase (30 U/ml, 90 U/ml, 150 U/ml and 300 U/ml) on the PE-induced contraction were evaluated in both intact endothelium (E+) and denuded (E-) aortas. Endothelium removal increased the PE-induced contractions. The maximum contractile response decreased only in 2K-1C rat E+ aorta, and catalase (30 U/ml, 90 U/ml, 150 U/ml) partially reversed this effect. Endothelium increased the basal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in 2K and 2K-1C rats aortas. PE-stimulated H2O2 production was higher in 2K-1C (E+/E-) than in 2K (E+/E-). Inhibition of the enzymes cyclooxygenase, NADPH-oxidase, xanthine-oxidase, and superoxide dismutase reduced the PE-stimulated H2O2 production in 2K-1C rat aorta. The decreased contraction to PE in 2K-1C rat aorta is partially due to endothelial H2O2 production; however, in denuded aorta, it contributes to maintaining the contractile response. Superoxide plays an important role on the PE-induced contraction in 2K rat denuded aorta, whereas in 2K-1C rat aorta, it is H2O2 that plays an important role in this effect. PMID:24091168
Silva, Bruno R; Pernomian, Laena; Grando, Marcella D; Amaral, Jefferson H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Bendhack, Lusiane M
The present study evaluates the response to the L-type voltage gated calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 in two forms of experimental hypertension (mineralocorticoid- and hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (N-Nitro arginine)) and under conditions of acute stretch. These studies test the hypothesis that increased L-type calcium channel activity in vasculature is a hallmark or general characteristic of hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were made hypertensive by subcutaneous implantation of deoxycorticosterone acetate (200 mg/kg DOCA) and given normal or high salt water (1% NaCl + 0.2% KCl); other rats were made hypertensive by ingestion of N-Nitro arginine (2% in water). Systolic blood pressures (SBP) were taken by the standard tail cuff method. Following development of hypertension, rats were anesthetized, and aortae or mesenteric arteries were isolated for measurement of isometric contractile force. Cumulative concentration response curves to Bay K 8644 (10(-10) to 10(-6) M), KCl (6 to 100 mM), or phenylephrine (10(-10)-3 x 10(-7) M) were evaluated. Isolated mesenteric arteries from rats given both DOCA and salt were most sensitive to Bay K 8644 (SBP = 191 +/- 6 mmHg, -log EC50 = 7.78 +/- 0.13), followed by rats receiving high salt alone (SBP = 118 +/- 6 mmHg, -log EC50 = 7.30 +/- 0.17), DOCA alone (SBP = 152 +/- 2 mmHg, -log EC50 = 7.25 +/- 0.15), and finally normal sham rats (SBP = 111 +/- 5 mm Hg, -log EC50 > or = 6.80 +/- 0.10). These data indicate that both DOCA and salt intake can independently influence responsiveness to Bay K 8644.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7532526
Watts, S W; Finta, K M; Lloyd, M C; Storm, D S; Webb, R C
Hepatic levels of a powerful vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its receptors increase in human and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether antagonism of hepatic ET-1 receptors ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic injury and portal hypertension in rats. Acute liver injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.3 ml/kg), whereas cirrhosis and portal hypertension were induced by CCl4 treatment (0.15 ml/kg twice a week) for 8 weeks. Hepatic morphology, ET-1 and its receptors, and portal venous pressures were determined. Increases in ET-1 and its receptors occurred within 24 h of CCl4 administration, and progressively thereafter during the development of cirrhosis. The acute CCl4-induced hepatic injury was characterized by significant increases in portal pressure (from 8.7+/-1.8 to 17.6+/-3.3 mmHg; p<0.01) and serum levels of liver enzymes, as well as massive hepatocellular necrosis (62+/-8%). Intravenous administration of an ET-1 receptor antagonist TAK-044 reduced portal pressure to 13.6+/-2.8 mmHg (p<0.05), and ameliorated hepatocellular necrosis by about 35% (p<0.001). TAK-044 treatment also produced significant reduction in serum levels of liver enzymes. In cirrhotic rats, portal venous infusion of TAK-044 reduced portal hypertension by about 40% (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicate involvement of ET-1 in acute liver injury as well as portal hypertension associated with hepatic cirrhosis, and a potential for ET-1 receptor antagonists in the treatment of these pathologic conditions. PMID:9548266
Gandhi, C R; Nemoto, E M; Watkins, S C; Subbotin, V M
Gomisin A (GA) is a small molecular weight lignan present in Schisandra chinensis, and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GA on blood pressure (BP) in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive mice. C57/BL6 mice infused subcutaneously with Ang II (1 and 2??g?kg?1 per min for 2 weeks) showed an increase in BP with a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in plasma, and a negative correlation between these two parameters was demonstrated. In the thoracic aorta from Ang II-induced hypertensive mice, a decrease in vascular NO that was accompanied by a diminution of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was demonstrated. These alterations in BP, eNOS phosphorylation and ROS production in the vasculature of Ang II-treated mice were markedly and dose-dependently reversed by simultaneous administration of GA (2 and 10??g?kg?1 per min). In addition, Ang II-induced ROS production in cultured vascular cells such as endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells was markedly attenuated by GA. These results suggested that GA attenuated the increase in BP via preservation of vascular NO bioavailability not only by inhibiting ROS production but also by preventing the impairment of eNOS function in the vasculature of Ang II-induced hypertensive mice.
Young Park, Ji; Wook Yun, Jung; Whan Choi, Young; Ung Bae, Jin; Won Seo, Kyo; Jin Lee, Seung; Youn Park, So; Whan Hong, Ki; Kim, Chi Dae
The present study was aimed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and renoprotective potential of valproic acid against N(?)-nitro-l arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertension in male albino Wistar rats. In hypertensive rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP), kidney weight, levels of oxidative stress markers in tissues were increased. Dyslipidemia was also observed in hypertensive rats. Moreover, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant network also deregulated in tissues. Valproic acid (VPA) supplementation daily for four weeks brought back all the above parameters to near normal level and showed no toxicity which was established using serum hepatic marker enzyme activities and renal function markers. Moreover the up regulated expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components were also attenuated by VPA treatment. All the above outcomes were confirmed by the histopathological examination. These results suggest that VPA has enough potential to attenuate hypertension, dyslipidemia and renal damage in nitric oxide deficiency induced hypertension. PMID:24705342
Rajeshwari, Thiyagarajan; Raja, Boobalan; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Dhanalakshmi, Thanikkodi
Transient arterial hypertension occurs sporadically following cerebral air embolism and may occur during the acute phase of stroke. This study used an animal model of multifocal cerebral ischemia induced by air embolism and reversed by recompression to as...
A. J. Dutka J. M. Hallenbeck P. Kochanek
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a common consequence of systemic hypertension associated with poor clinical outcome, is also a potentially reversible condition. Here, we probed the molecular pathways that underpin the development of LVH and their modulation by antihypertensive regimens that reversed LVH. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were studied at 12 (early LVH) and 48 weeks (late LVH), respectively, with normotensive Wistar–Kyoto
Julio Gallego-Delgado; Susan B Connolly; Alberto Lázaro; Denise Sadlier; Niamh E Kieran; Declan D Sugrue; Peter Doran; Hugh R Brady; Julio Osende; Jesus Egido
Background: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. While the contribution of ECM in vascular remodeling is well documented, the roles played by their receptors, integrins, in pulmonary hypertension have received little attention. Here we characterized the changes of integrin expression in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries (PAs) and aorta of chronic hypoxia as well as
Anita Umesh; Omkar Paudel; Yuan-Ning Cao; Allen C. Myers; James S. K. Sham
Intravenous and intratracheal implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may offer ameliorating effects on pulmonary hypertension (PH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT) in rats. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-remodeling effect of intravenous MSCs (VMSCs) and intratracheal MSCs (TMSCs) in rats with PH, and the underlying mechanisms. MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and cultured. PH was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of MCT. One week after MCT administration, the rats were divided into 3 groups in terms of different treatments: VMSCs group (intravenous injection of MSCs), TMSCs group (intratracheal injection of MSCs), PH group (no treatment given). Those receiving saline instead of MCT served as negative control (control group). Pulmonary arterial structure was pathologically observed, pulmonary arterial dynamics measured, and remodeling-associated cytokines Smad2 and Smad3 detected in the lungs, three weeks after MCT injection. The results showed that PH group versus control group had higher pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and wall thickness index (WTI) 21 days after MCT treatment. The expression of phosphorylated (p)-Smad2 and the ratio of p-Smad2/Smad2 were much higher in PH group than in control group. Fluorescence-labeled MSCs were extensively distributed in rats' lungs in VMSCs and TMSCs groups 3 and 14 days after transplantation, but not found in the media of the pulmonary artery. WTI and PAP were significantly lower in both VMSCs and TMSCs groups than in PH group three weeks after MCT injection. The p-Smad2 expression and the ratio of p-Smad2/Smad2 were obviously reduced in VMSCs and TMSCs groups as compared with those in PH group. In conclusion, both intravenous and intratracheal transplantation of MSCs can attenuate PAP and pulmonary artery remodeling in MCT-induced PH rats, which may be associated with the early suppression of Smad2 phosphorylation via paracrine pathways. PMID:23271278
Xie, Jiang; Hu, Dayi; Niu, Lili; Qu, Suping; Wang, Shenghao; Liu, Shuang
AIM: To determine platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor expression in cirrhotic hepatic stellate cells. METHODS: Hepatic stellate cells, isolated from the livers of control and CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats, were placed in serum-free medium after overnight culture. We determined the PAF receptor in hepatic stellate cells by saturation binding technique and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the effects of PAF and its antagonist BN52021 on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release by stellate cells. RESULTS: Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of PAF receptor with dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.66 nmol/L and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 24.65 fmol/?g in cirrhotic stellate cells. Compared with the control, the maximum PAF binding capacity increased significantly (Bmax: 24.65 ± 1.96 fmol/?g. DNA, R = 0.982 vs 5.74 ± 1.55 fmol/?g. DNA, R = 0.93; P < 0.01), whereas receptor affinity had no significant difference (Kd of 4.66 ± 0.33 nmol/L for the cirrhosis and 3.51 ± 0.26 nmol/L for the control; P > 0.05). Consistent with the receptor binding data, the mRNA expression of PAF receptor was increased significantly in cirrhotic stellate cells. PAF in a concentration-dependent manner induced PGE2 synthesis in cirrhotic hepatic stellate cells, but the effects were blocked significantly by BN52021. CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis sensitizes hepatic stellate cells to PAF by elevating its receptor level and hepatic stellate cells maybe potential effectors of PAF induced portal hypertension.
Chen, Yan; Wang, Chun-Ping; Lu, Yin-Ying; Zhou, Lin; Su, Shu-Hui; Jia, Hong-Jun; Feng, Yong-Yi; Yang, Yong-Ping
Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death worldwide. No therapy stopping progress of the disease is available. Objectives: To investigate the role of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cGMP axis in development of lung emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to test whether the sGC-cGMP axis is a treatment target for these conditions. Methods: Investigations were performed in human lung tissue from patients with COPD, healthy donors, mice, and guinea pigs. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for up to 6 months and treated with BAY 63-2521. Guinea pigs were exposed to CS from six cigarettes per day for 3 months, 5 days per week and treated with BAY 41-2272. Both BAY compounds are sGC stimulators. Gene and protein expression analysis were performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Lung compliance, hemodynamics, right ventricular heart mass alterations, and alveolar and vascular morphometry were performed, as well as inflammatory cell infiltrate assessment. In vitro assays of cell adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis have been done. Measurements and Main Results: The functionally essential sGC ?1-subunit was down-regulated in patients with COPD and in CS-exposed mice. sGC stimulators prevented the development of PH and emphysema in the two different CS-exposed animal models. sGC stimulation prevented peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis of alveolar and endothelial cells, reduced CS-induced inflammatory cell infiltrate in lung parenchyma, and inhibited adhesion of CS-stimulated neutrophils. Conclusions: The sGC-cGMP axis is perturbed by chronic exposure to CS. Treatment of COPD animal models with sGC stimulators can prevent CS-induced PH and emphysema. PMID:24738736
Weissmann, Norbert; Lobo, Borja; Pichl, Alexandra; Parajuli, Nirmal; Seimetz, Michael; Puig-Pey, Raquel; Ferrer, Elisabet; Peinado, Víctor I; Domínguez-Fandos, David; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Frey, Reiner; Schermuly, Ralph T; García-Lucio, Jéssica; Blanco, Isabel; Bednorz, Mariola; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Tadele, Elsa; Brandes, Ralf P; Grimminger, Jan; Klepetko, Walter; Jaksch, Peter; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Barberà, Joan A
Fructose intake has increased globally and is linked to hypertension. Melatonin was reported to prevent hypertension development. In this study, we examined whether maternal high fructose (HF) intake causes programmed hypertension and whether melatonin therapy confers protection against the process, with a focus on the link to epigenetic changes in the kidney using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with HF (60% diet by weight) alone or with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, HF, control + melatonin (M), and HF + M. Maternal HF caused increases in blood pressure (BP) in the 12-wk-old offspring. Melatonin therapy blunted the HF-induced programmed hypertension and increased nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney. The identified differential expressed gene (DEGs) that are related to regulation of BP included Ephx2, Col1a2, Gucy1a3, Npr3, Aqp2, Hba-a2, and Ptgs1. Of which, melatonin therapy inhibited expression and activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH, Ephx2 gene encoding protein). In addition, we found genes in arachidonic acid metabolism were potentially involved in the HF-induced programmed hypertension and were affected by melatonin therapy. Together, our data suggest that the beneficial effects of melatonin are attributed to its ability to increase NO level in the kidney, epigenetic regulation of genes related to BP control, and inhibition of SEH expression. The roles of DEGs by the NGS in long-term epigenetic changes in the adult offspring kidney require further clarification. PMID:24867192
Tain, You-Lin; Leu, Steve; Wu, Kay L H; Lee, Wei-Chia; Chan, Julie Y H
Summary Glucocorticoid excess causes insulin resistance and hypertension. Hepatic expression of PPAR? (Ppara) is required for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that afferent fibers of the vagus nerve interface with hepatic Ppara expression to disrupt blood pressure and glucose homeostasis in response to glucocorticoids. Selective hepatic vagotomy decreased hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic insulin resistance, Ppara expression and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) enzyme activity in dexamethasone-treated Ppara+/+ mice. Selective vagotomy also decreased blood pressure, adrenergic tone, renin activity, and urinary sodium retention in these mice. Hepatic reconstitution of Ppara in nondiabetic, normotensive dexamethasone-treated Ppara null mice increased glucose, insulin, hepatic PEPCK enzyme activity, blood pressure and renin activity in sham-operated but not hepatic-vagotomized animals. Disruption of vagal afferent fibers by chemical or surgical means prevented glucocorticoid-induced metabolic derangements. We conclude that a dynamic interaction between hepatic Ppara expression and a vagal afferent pathway is essential for glucocorticoid induction of diabetes and hypertension.
Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos; Xiaozhong, Liu; Yin, Li; Knutsen, Russell H.; Howard, Michael J.; Arends, Joop J. A.; DeSantis, Pascual; Coleman, Trey; Semenkovich, Clay F.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? is associated with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) in adults. In the present study, the expression levels of HIF-1?, endothelin (ET)-1 and adrenomedullin (ADM) were analyzed during HPH in neonates. In total, 96 newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia or normoxia for 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 or 21 days (n=8 per subgroup). HIF-1?, ET-1 and ADM expression levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the intima-media thickness/external diameter ratio (MT%) and medial wall cross-sectional area/vessel total cross-sectional area ratio (MA%) were calculated to evaluate pulmonary vascular remodeling. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) increased with exposure to hypoxia. Furthermore, the expression levels of HIF-1?, ET-1 and ADM in the lungs were shown to increase after three and five days of hypoxia, while the MT% and MA% increased after seven days of hypoxia, as compared with the controls (P<0.05). Therefore, the expression of HIF-1?, ET-1 and ADM is upregulated in the lungs of newborn rats during early HPH. At later stages, the mPAP increases, vascular remodeling occurs and HIF-1?, ET-1 and ADM expression levels restore to normal levels.
WANG, LE; ZHOU, YING; LI, MINGXIA; ZHU, YANPING
Background In humans, salt intake has been suggested to influence blood pressure (BP) on a wide range of time scales ranging from several hours or days to many months or years. Detailed time course data collected in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat strain suggest that the development of salt-induced hypertension may consist of several distinct phases or components that differ in their timing and reversibility. To better understand these components, the present study sought to model the dynamics of salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl-S) rat using 3 sets of time course data. Results The first component of the model ("Acute-Reversible") consisted of a linear transfer function to account for the rapid and reversible effects of salt on BP (ie. acute salt sensitivity, corresponding with a depressed slope of the chronic pressure natriuresis relationship). For the second component ("Progressive-Irreversible"), an integrator function was used to represent the relatively slow, progressive, and irreversible effect of high salt intake on BP (corresponding with a progressive salt-induced shift of the chronic pressure natriuresis relationship to higher BP levels). A third component ("Progressive-Reversible") consisted of an effect of high salt intake to progressively increase the acute salt-sensitivity of BP (ie. reduce the slope of the chronic pressure natriuresis relationship), amounting to a slow and progressive, yet reversible, component of salt-induced hypertension. While the 3 component model was limited in its ability to follow the BP response to rapid and/or brief transitions in salt intake, it was able to accurately follow the slower steady state components of salt-induced BP changes. This model exhibited low values of mean absolute error (1.92 ± 0.23, 2.13 ± 0.37, 2.03 ± 0.3 mmHg for data sets 1 - 3), and its overall performance was significantly improved over that of an initial model having only 2 components. The 3 component model performed well when applied to data from hybrids of Dahl salt sensitive and Dahl salt resistant rats in which salt sensitivity varied greatly in its extent and character (mean absolute error = 1.11 ± 0.08 mmHg). Conclusion Our results suggest that the slow process of development of salt-induced hypertension in Dahl-S rats over a period of many weeks can be well represented by a combination of three components that differ in their timing, reversibility, and their associated effect on the chronic pressure natriuresis relationship. These components are important to distinguish since each may represent a unique set of underlying mechanisms of salt-induced hypertension.
It is suggested that an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker suppresses sodium-induced hypertension through increased secretion of urinary kallikrein. We reported that glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, accelerated dose-dependent secretion of renal kallikrein in sliced kidney cortex and in vivo in rats. In vehicle-treated normal Brown- Norway-Kitasato (nBN-Ki) rats, the administration of glibenclamide increased urinary kallikrein secretion, but changed neither
Yuji Kamata; Tomoe Fujita; Tetsuki Kato; Izumi Hayashi; Maya Kurosaka; Makoto Katori; Yoshikuni Fujita; Masataka Majima
The present study was performed to evaluate the potential role and functional interaction of angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) in the regulation of blood pressure and glucose homeostasis in fructose-induced insulin-resistant, hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on fructose-enriched or regular diets for 4 weeks were subjected to 2-step euglycemic euinsulinemic (EEI) and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (EHI) clamp
Po-Shiuan Hsieh; Yueh-Hua Tai; Ching-Hui Loh; Kuang-Chung Shih; Wei-Tung Cheng; Chi-Hong Chu
We tested the hypothesis that long-term caffeine intake prevents the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in two pathological animal models: the high-fat (HF) and the high-sucrose (HSu) diet rat. We used six groups of animals: control; caffeine-treated (Caff; 1 g/l in drinking water during 15 d); HF; caffeine-treated HF (HFCaff); HSu; caffeine-treated HSu (HSuCaff). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the insulin tolerance test. Blood pressure, weight gain, visceral fat, hepatic glutathione, plasma caffeine, insulin and NO, and serum NEFA and catecholamines were measured. Caffeine reversed insulin resistance and hypertension induced by both the HF and HSu diets. In the HF-fed animals caffeine treatment restored fasting insulin levels to control values and reversed increased weight gain and visceral fat mass. In the HSu group, caffeine reversed fasting hyperglycaemia and restored NEFA to control values. There were no changes either in plasma NO or in hepatic glutathione levels. In contrast, caffeine totally prevented the increase in serum catecholamines induced by HF and HSu diets. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system prevents the development of diet-induced insulin resistance we administered carvedilol, an antagonist of ?1, ?2 and also ?1 adrenoceptors, to HF and HSu rats. Carvedilol treatment fully prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension, mimicking the effect of caffeine. We concluded that long-term caffeine intake prevented the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in HF and HSu models and that this effect was related to a decrease in circulating catecholamines. PMID:21733336
Conde, Silvia V; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Gonzalez, Constancio; Mota Carmo, Miguel; Monteiro, Emilia C; Guarino, Maria P
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of RNA interference inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) on cold-induced hypertension (CIH) and renal damage. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying short hairpin small interference (si)RNA for MR (AAV.MR-shRNA) was constructed and tested for the ability to inhibit renal MR and to control CIH. Three groups of rats with CIH received
X Wang; L Skelley; R Cade; Z Sun
Ethanol has been shown to aggravate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in cerebral trauma and in cerebral gas embolism, possibly by changing the endothelial cell membrane. No difference in protein extravasation was found between intoxicated and control rats under nitrous oxide anesthesia after the injection of bicuculline, a drug that hemodynamically gives rise to high blood pressure in combination with cerebral vasodilatation. In contrast there was a statistically significant increase in protein leakage in conscious intoxicated rats. The fact that ethanol increased the vulnerability only in conscious rats might indicate that nitrous oxide and ethanol have a common effect on the endothelial cell membranes or that nitrous oxide neutralizes an action of ethanol. Protein leakage induced by acute hypertension is more severe in rats anesthetized with nitrous oxide than in conscious rats, a difference that might to some extent be related to an effect of nitrous oxide on the endothelial cells. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of ethanol and nitrous oxide on the endothelial cell membrane. PMID:570339
Johansson, B B; Linder, L E; Persson, L I
Rhodiola rosea (Rhodiola) is grown at high altitudes and northern latitudes. It is mainly used clinically as an adaptogen, but antihypertensive effects have been reported for the extract. These have not been well investigated, so in the present study, we evaluated the effect of Rhodiola-water extract on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigated the potential mechanism(s) for this action. In conscious male SHRs, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate were recorded using the tail-cuff method. Plasma ?-endorphin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rhodiola-water extract decreased SBP in SHRs in a dose-dependent manner, and this action was more significant than that in normal group named Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This reduction of SBP in SHRs was inhibited by pretreatment with the selective opioid ?-receptor antagonist, cyprodime, but not by naloxonazine, an antagonist specific to opioid ?1-receptor. Also, the SBP-lowering action of Rhodiola-water extract was attenuated in adrenalectomized SHRs. Moreover, Rhodiola-water extract dose-dependently increased ?-endorphin release in SHRs, and the elevation of ?-endorphin in SHRs was higher than that in WKY. Thus, we suggest that Rhodiola-water extract can induce release of ?-endorphin to lower SBP in SHRs. PMID:23192943
Lee, Wei-Jing; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Yung-Ze; Lin, Hung Jung; Cheng, Juei-Tang
Sleep disturbances in the general population are associated with elevated blood pressure. This may be due to several mechanisms, including sympathetic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance. Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy can have devastating effects on both maternal and fetal health and is associated with increased risk for preeclampsia and poor delivery outcomes. Preliminary evidence suggests that mechanisms linking sleep and blood pressure in the general population may also hold in the pregnant population. However, the effects of disturbed sleep on physiologic mechanisms that may directly influence blood pressure in pregnancy have not been well studied. The role that sleep disturbance plays in gestational blood pressure elevation and its subsequent consequences warrant further investigation. This review evaluates the current literature on sleep disturbance and elevated blood pressure in pregnancy and proposes possible treatment interventions. Citation: Haney A; Buysse DJ; Okun M. Sleep and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a possible target for intervention? J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1349-1356.
Haney, Alyssa; Buysse, Daniel J.; Okun, Michele
A double-blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of and electrolyte changes caused by ramipril-chlorthalidone combination treatment (5 mg + 25 mg) and chlorthalidone monotherapy (25 mg daily) in patients with hypertension. After a 4-week placebo period, 32 patients (mean age, 51 +/- 9 years) with essential hypertension (average blood pressure of 181.4/104.5 +/- 13.0/6.9 mmHg) were randomly assigned to receive combination therapy (group A, n = 17) or monotherapy (group B, n = 15). After 12 weeks of active treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 16.1% and 13%, respectively, for patients taking combined therapy, and by 12.7% and 9.8%, respectively, for patients taking monotherapy. The difference was significant for between-group comparisons. There were no changes in serum sodium concentration, but a significant similar increase in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was seen in both groups. Serum calcium levels increased slightly and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion decreased significantly in both groups, probably due to chlorthalidone administration. Serum potassium levels increased slightly in group A (from 4.16 +/- 0.39 mmol/L to 4.30 +/- 0.42 mmol/L) and decreased slightly in group B (from 4.18 +/- 0.32 mmol/L to 3.99 +/- 0.49 mmol/L). Urinary potassium excretion did not change significantly in group A, but increased by approximately 15% in group B. There was a decrease in 24-hour urinary magnesium excretion (from 4.01 +/- 1.24 mmol/24 hours to 3.50 +/- 0.93 mmol/24 hours) in group A and an increase (from 3.49 +/- 0.98 mmol/24 hours to 4.35 +/- 1.12 mmol/24 hours) in group B. At the end of the trial these changes were significant in between-group comparisons. Consistent with the previously shown amelioration by ramipril of thiazide-induced metabolic side-effects, ramipril appears to improve magnesium balance during cotreatment with chlorthalidone. PMID:8750365
Simunic, M; Rumboldt, Z; Ljutic, D; Sardelic, S
Chronic hypoxia (CH) associated with respiratory disease results in elevated pulmonary vascular intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which elicits enhanced vasoconstriction and promotes vascular arterial remodeling and thus has important implications in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) contributes to this elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and has also been linked to acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Since our laboratory has recently demonstrated an important role for acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) in mediating SOCE, we hypothesized that ASIC1 contributes to both HPV and the development of CH-induced PH. To test this hypothesis, we examined responses to acute hypoxia in isolated lungs and assessed the effects of CH on indexes of PH, arterial remodeling, and vasoconstrictor reactivity in wild-type (ASIC1(+/+)) and ASIC1 knockout (ASIC1(-/-)) mice. Restoration of ASIC1 expression in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from ASIC1(-/-) mice rescued SOCE, confirming the requirement for ASIC1 in this response. HPV responses were blunted in lungs from ASIC1(-/-) mice. Both SOCE and receptor-mediated Ca(2+) entry, along with agonist-dependent vasoconstrictor responses, were diminished in small pulmonary arteries from control ASIC(-/-) mice compared with ASIC(+/+) mice. The effects of CH to augment receptor-mediated vasoconstrictor and SOCE responses in vessels from ASIC1(+/+) mice were not observed after CH in ASIC1(-/-) mice. In addition, ASIC1(-/-) mice exhibited diminished right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and arterial remodeling in response to CH compared with ASIC1(+/+) mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate an important role for ASIC1 in both HPV and the development of CH-induced PH. PMID:24186095
Nitta, Carlos H; Osmond, David A; Herbert, Lindsay M; Beasley, Britta F; Resta, Thomas C; Walker, Benjimen R; Jernigan, Nikki L
Preexistent cardiopulmonary disease in humans appears to enhance susceptibility to the adverse effects of ambient particulate matter. Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated enhanced inflammation and mortality after intratracheal instillation (IT) and inhalation (INH) of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline (MCT). The present study was conducted to examine the effects of ROFA in this model on ventilatory function in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals. Sixty-day-old male CD rats were injected with MCT (60 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) intraperitoneally 10 days before IT of ROFA (8.3 mg/kg) or saline (SAL) (control) or nose-only INH of ROFA [15 mg/m3 for 6 hr on 3 consecutive days or air (control)]. At 24 and 72 hr after exposure, rats were studied individually in a simultaneous gas uptake/whole-body plethysmograph. Lungs were removed at 72 hr for histology. Pulmonary test results showed that tidal volume (VT) decreased 24 hr after IT of ROFA in MCT-treated rats. Breathing frequency, minute volume (VE), and the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen increased in MCT- and VEH-treated rats 24 hr after IT or INH of ROFA and remained elevated 72 hr post-IT. O2 uptake (VO2) decreased after IT of ROFA in MCT-treated rats. Carbon monoxide uptake decreased 24 hr after IT of ROFA, returning to control values in VEH-treated rats but remaining low in MCT-treated rats 72 hr post-IT. ROFA exposure induced histologic changes and abnormalities in several ventilatory parameters, many of which were enhanced by MCT treatment. PMID:15175175
Gardner, Sarah Y; McGee, John K; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Ledbetter, Allen; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Winsett, Darrell W; Doerfler, Donald L; Costa, Daniel L
Diabetes and hypertension are closely associated with impaired endothelial function. Studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of edible palm oil may reverse endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigates the effect of palm oil fractions: tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol and refined palm olein (vitamin E-free fraction) on the vascular relaxation responses in the aortic rings of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We hypothesize that the TRF and alpha-tocopherol fractions are able to improve endothelial function in both diabetic and hypertensive rat aortic tissue. A 1,1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl assay was performed on the various palm oil fractions to evaluate their antioxidant activities. Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxations were examined on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and SHR rat aorta following preincubation with the different fractions. In 1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl antioxidant assay, TRF and alpha-tocopherol fractions exhibited a similar degree of activity while palm olein exhibited poor activity. TRF and alpha-tocopherol significantly improved acetylcholine-induced relaxations in both diabetic (TRF, 88.5% +/- 4.5%; alpha-tocopherol, 87.4% +/- 3.4%; vehicle, 65.0 +/- 1.6%) and SHR aorta (TRF, 72.1% +/- 7.9%; alpha-tocopherol, 69.8% +/- 4.0%, vehicle, 51.1% +/- 4.7%), while palm olein exhibited no observable effect. These results suggest that TRF and alpha-tocopherol fractions possess potent antioxidant activities and provide further support to the cardiovascular protective effects of palm oil vitamin E. TRF and alpha-tocopherol may potentially improve vascular endothelial function in diabetes and hypertension by their sparing effect on endothelium derived nitric oxide bioavailability. PMID:20417882
Muharis, Syed Putra; Top, Abdul Gapor Md; Murugan, Dharmani; Mustafa, Mohd Rais
In this study we tested the hypothesis that excess dietary salt produces an expansion of extracellular fluid volume which may be associated with pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure in chickens with rapid growth rates. One-week-old broiler and White Leghorn chickens were given 0.5% salt in their drinking water for three weeks. Saline water had a minimal effect on White Leghorns. The hypothesis appears to be correct since salt-treatment in broilers resulted in up to 30% expansion in blood volume and there was 50% mortality from pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure and ascites. There was marked (up to 88% in some broilers) right ventricular hypertrophy, an indicator of pulmonary hypertension. There was less left ventricular hypertrophy as shown by an increase in the ratio of the right to total ventricle weight. There was up to 32% decrease in growth rate. There was renal hypertrophy in the salt-treated birds as shown by a higher kidney to body weight ratio.
Mirsalimi, S M; O'Brien, P J; Julian, R J
A patient who developed pulmonary hypertension and systemic lupus erythematosus as a complication of hydralazine therapy is reported. She was a slow acetylator and in addition was found to have a null allele at the C4A locus.
Asherson, R A; Benbow, A G; Speirs, C J; Jackson, N; Hughes, G R
Rationale: Exposure to ambient particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease as identified in several epidemiological studies. Radio telemetric analysis detected increased heart rate and blood pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) following inhalatio...
Chronic fructose treatment in rats has repeatedly been shown to elevate blood pressure in association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the leaf methanol extract of Bidens pilosa on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Wistar rats that drank a 10% fructose solution for 3-6 weeks showed significant increase not only in plasma insulin and cholesterol levels but also in SBP. B. pilosa extract was able to prevent the establishment of hypertension and lower elevated blood pressure levels. The extract also reduced the highly elevated plasma insulin levels provoked by the high fructose diet. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of B. pilosa exerts its antihypertensive effect in part by improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:12426085
Dimo, Théophile; Rakotonirina, Silvere V; Tan, Paul V; Azay, Jacqueline; Dongo, Etienne; Cros, Gérard
The effect of aerobic training and Ferula gummosa supplementation (90 mg/kg) on apelinergic system and markers of cardiac stress in hypertensive rats were studied. Chronically administered l-NAME resulted in an increased level of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), malondialdehyde (MDA), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and also reduced the levels of apelin, apelin and its receptor (APJ), and nitric oxide (NO) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), when compared with the control group. The combination of aerobic exercise and Ferula gummosa decreased MDA and hs-CRP and significantly increased cardiac apelinergic system, NO, and TAC, when compared with the control and the l-NAME groups. A rationale for an inhibitory role and a cardioprotective effect of aerobic exercise training in the attenuation of hypertension-induced cardiotoxicity was developed. PMID:22578103
Mahmoody, Seeyed Ali Akbar; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hedayati, Mehdi
Anaphylactic shock is sometimes life-threatening, and it is accompanied by hepatic venoconstriction in animals, which, in part, accounts for anaphylactic hypotension. Roles of norepinephrine and ?-adrenoceptor in anaphylaxis-induced hypotension and portal hypertension were investigated in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. The sensitized rats were randomly allocated to the following pretreatment groups (n = 6/group): 1) control (nonpretreatment), 2) ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, 3) nonselective ?-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine, 4) 6-hydroxydopamine-induced chemical sympathectomy, and 5) surgical hepatic sympathectomy. Anaphylactic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of the antigen. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP), and portal venous blood flow (PBF) were measured, and splanchnic [Rspl: (SAP-PVP)/PBF] and portal venous [Rpv: (PVP-CVP)/PBF] resistances were determined. Separately, we measured efferent hepatic sympathetic nerve activity during anaphylaxis. In the control group, SAP markedly decreased, followed by a gradual recovery toward baseline. PVP and Rpv increased 3.2- and 23.3-fold, respectively, after antigen. Rspl decreased immediately, but only transiently, after antigen, and then increased 1.5-fold later than 10 min. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonist pretreatment or chemical sympathectomy inhibited the late increase in Rspl and the SAP recovery. Pretreatment with ?-adrenoceptor antagonists, or either chemical or surgical hepatic sympathectomy, did not affect the antigen-induced increase in Rpv. Hepatic sympathetic nerve activity did not significantly change after antigen. In conclusion, ?-adrenoceptor antagonists and chemical sympathectomy exacerbate anaphylaxis-induced hypotension, but not portal hypertension, in anesthetized rats. Hepatic sympathetic nerves are not involved in anaphylactic portal hypertension. PMID:23948775
Wang, Mofei; Tanida, Mamoru; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kurata, Yasutaka
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by increased pulmonary arterial resistance and vessel remodeling. Patients living with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have an increased susceptibility to develop severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) irrespective of their CD4+ lymphocyte counts. While the underlying cause of HIV-PAH remains unknown, the interaction of HIV-1 proteins with the vascular endothelium may play a critical role in HIV-PAH development. Hypoxia promotes PH in experimental models and in humans, but the impact of HIV-1 proteins on hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular dysfunction and PAH has not been examined. Therefore, we hypothesize that the presence of HIV-1 proteins and hypoxia synergistically augment the development of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and PH. We examined the effect of HIV-1 proteins on pulmonary vascular resistance by measuring pressure-volume relationships in isolated lungs from wild-type (WT) and HIV-1 Transgenic (Tg) rats. WT and HIV-1 Tg rats were exposed to 10% O2 for four weeks to induce experimental pulmonary hypertension to assess whether HIV-1 protein expression would impact the development of hypoxia-induced PH. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 protein expression significantly increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). HIV-1 Tg mice demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia as evidenced by greater increases in right ventricular systolic pressures, right ventricular hypertrophy and vessel muscularization when compared to wild-type controls. This enhanced PH was associated with enhanced expression of HIF-1? and PCNA. In addition, in vitro studies reveal that medium from HIV-infected monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) potentiates hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery endothelial proliferation. These results indicate that the presence of HIV-1 proteins likely impact pulmonary vascular resistance and exacerbate hypoxia-induced PH.
Porter, Kristi M.; Walp, Erik R.; Elms, Shawn C.; Raynor, Robert; Mitchell, Patrick O.; Guidot, David M.; Sutliff, Roy L.
Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension with vascular remodeling, increase in vascular tone, and altered reactivity to agonists. These changes involve alterations in multiple Ca2+ pathways in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We have previously shown that vanilloid (TRPV)- and melastatin-related transient receptor potential (TRPM) channels are expressed in pulmonary arteries (PAs). Here we found that TRPV4 was the only member of the TRPV and TRPM subfamilies upregulated in PAs of chronic hypoxic rats. The increase in TRPV4 expression occurred within 1 day of hypoxia exposure, indicative of an early hypoxic response. TRPV4 in PASMCs were found to be mechanosensitive. Osmo-mechanical stress imposed by hypotonic solution activated Ca2+ transients; they were inhibited by TRPV4 specific short interfering RNA, the TRPV blocker ruthenium red, and the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase inhibitor N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide. Consistent with TRPV4 upregulation, the Ca2+ response induced by the TRPV4 agonist 4?-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate and hypotonicity was potentiated in hypoxic PASMCs. Moreover, a significant myogenic tone, sensitive to ruthenium red, was observed in pressurized endothelium denuded small PAs of hypoxic but not normoxic rats. The elevated basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hypoxic PASMCs was also reduced by ruthenium red. In extension of these results, the development of pulmonary hypertension, right heart hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling was significantly delayed and suppressed in hypoxic trpv4?/? mice. These results suggest the novel concept that TRPV4 serves as a signal pathway crucial for the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Its upregulation may provide a pathogenic feed-forward mechanism that promotes pulmonary hypertension via facilitated Ca2+ influx, subsequently enhanced myogenic tone and vascular remodeling.
Yang, Xiao-Ru; Lin, Amanda H. Y.; Hughes, Jennifer M.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.; Cao, Yuan-Ning; Liedtke, Wolfgang
Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone acetate/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may influence DOCA/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing drinking water with 1% NaCl solution. These rats received cotreatment of different doses of EO (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. EO significantly decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate along with cardiac and renal hypertrophy in a dose-dependent fashion as compared to DOCA control rats. Increased TBARS and decreased endogenous antioxidants including GSH, SOD and GSHPx activity in serum, heart and kidney tissues of hypertensive rats were also normalized. Furthermore, this antihypertensive activity of EO was also linked with increased serum NO, K(+) levels and decreased Na(+) levels. Moreover, EO robustly increased activated eNOS expression in heart. Our results demonstrate that EO reduces oxidative stress, prevents development and progression of hypertension as well as cardiac and renal hypertrophy in DOCA/HS-induced hypertension via modulation of activated eNOS, endogenous antioxidants, serum NO and electrolyte levels. PMID:21748534
Bhatia, Jagriti; Tabassum, Fauzia; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Joshi, Sujata; Sayeed Akhatar, Md; Srivastava, Abhay Krishna; Arya, Dharamvir Singh
Background Chronic hypoxia influences gene expression in the lung resulting in pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodelling. For specific investigation of the vascular compartment, laser-microdissection of intrapulmonary arteries was combined with array profiling. Methods and Results Analysis was performed on mice subjected to 1, 7 and 21 days of hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.1) using nylon filters (1176 spots). Changes in the expression of 29, 38, and 42 genes were observed at day 1, 7, and 21, respectively. Genes were grouped into 5 different classes based on their time course of response. Gene regulation obtained by array analysis was confirmed by real-time PCR. Additionally, the expression of the growth mediators PDGF-B, TGF-?, TSP-1, SRF, FGF-2, TIE-2 receptor, and VEGF-R1 were determined by real-time PCR. At day 1, transcription modulators and ion-related proteins were predominantly regulated. However, at day 7 and 21 differential expression of matrix producing and degrading genes was observed, indicating ongoing structural alterations. Among the 21 genes upregulated at day 1, 15 genes were identified carrying potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) for hypoxia-induced transcription factors. Three differentially expressed genes (S100A4, CD36 and FKBP1a) were examined by immunohistochemistry confirming the regulation on protein level. While FKBP1a was restricted to the vessel adventitia, S100A4 and CD36 were localised in the vascular tunica media. Conclusion Laser-microdissection and array profiling has revealed several new genes involved in lung vascular remodelling in response to hypoxia. Immunohistochemistry confirmed regulation of three proteins and specified their localisation in vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts indicating involvement of different cells types in the remodelling process. The approach allows deeper insight into hypoxic regulatory pathways specifically in the vascular compartment of this complex organ.
Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Wilhelm, Jochen; Wolff, Stephanie; Laumanns, Isabel; Koenig, Inke R; Ziegler, Andreas; Seeger, Werner; Bohle, Rainer M; Weissmann, Norbert; Fink, Ludger
In spite of treatment, severe angioproliferative pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a disease characterized by great morbidity and shortened survival. New treatment strategies for patients with PAH are needed, and after drug development, preclinical studies are best conducted in animal models which present with pulmonary angio-obliterative disease and right heart failure. A rat model of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure, described a decade ago, continues to be investigated and provide insight into the nature of the lung vascular lesions and mechanisms of cardiac adaptation to an altered lung circulation. This rat model is based on the combination of VEGF receptor blockade with Su5416 and chronic hypoxia; use of this pulmonary hypertension induction strategy led to developing the concept of apoptosis-dependent compensatory vascular cell growth. Although, often employed in experimental designs, chronic hypoxia is not necessary for the development of angio-obliterative pulmonary hypertension. Left pneumonectomy combined with Su5416 also results in severe pulmonary hypertension in normoxic conditions. Similarly, the immune insufficiency component of severe PAH can be modeled in athymic rats (lacking T-lymphocytes). In these rats housed under normoxic conditions, treatment with the VEGFR receptor blocker results in angioproliferative pulmonary hypertension; cardiopulmonary disease in these animals can be prevented by immune reconstitution of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Finally, chronic hypoxia can be replaced with another stimulator of HIF-1?: Ovalbumin (Ova). Immunization of rats with Ova increases lung tissue HIF-1? protein expression, and in Su5416-treated rats causes lethal pulmonary hypertension. Finally, we postulate that these models may also be useful for “reverse translation”; that is, the mechanisms of lung vascular cell death and growth and the modifying influences of immune and bone marrow cells that have been identified in the Su5416 VEGFR inhibitor models can be informative about heretofore undescribed processes in human PAH.
Nicolls, Mark R.; Mizuno, Shiro; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Farkas, Laszlo; Drake, Jennnifer I.; Al Husseini, Aysar; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose G.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Bogaard, Herman J.
To determine under what circumstances hypertension is associated with brain oedema, the specific gravity of the brain was measured in acutely hypertensive, renal hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maximum mean arterial pressure (MAP) in acute hypertension induced by intravenous amphetamine or bicuculline was 171 +\\/- 5 and 181 +\\/- 5 mmHg respectively. In spite of pronounced extravasation of Evans blue-albumin,
B B Johansson; L E Linder
Inhaled salbutamol (?2 agonist) affects the augmentation index (AIx) through endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (JACC 2002; 40: 521–528). It has been reported that amlodipine, a long-acting calcium antagonist, facilitated the production of nitric oxide (NO) in essential hypertensive patients (Am J Hypertens 2004; 17: 729–33). We evaluated the effect of amlodipine on endothelial function using salbutamol-induced AIx change in essential hypertensive patients.After
Yoshio Matsui; Kazuomi Kario; Joji Ishikawa; Kazuo Eguchi; Satoshi Hoshide; Kazuyuki Shimada
Background and Objectives Simvastatin's properties are suggestive of a potential pathophysiologic role in pulmonary hypertension. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes of pulmonary pathology and gene expressions, including endothelin (ET)-1, endothelin receptor A (ERA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) and caspase 3, and to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on monocrotaline (M)-induced pulmonary hypertension. Materials and Methods Six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated, as follows: control group, subcutaneous (sc) injection of saline; M group, sc injection of M (60 mg/kg); and simvastatin group, sc injection of M (60 mg/kg) plus 10 mg/kg/day simvastatin orally. Results On day 28, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) significantly decreased in the simvastatin group compared to the M group. Similarly, right ventricular pressure significantly decreased in the simvastatin group on day 28. From day 7, the ratio of medial thickening of the pulmonary artery was significantly increased in the M group, but there was no significant change in the simvastatin group. The number of muscular pulmonary arterioles was significantly reduced in the simvastatin group. On day 5, gene expressions of ET-1, ERA, NOS2, NOS3, MMP and TIMP significantly decreased in the simvastatin group. Conclusion Administration of simvastatin exerted weak inhibitory effects on RVH and on the number of muscular pulmonary arterioles, during the development of M-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Simvastatin decreased gene expressions on day 5.
Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Kwan Chang; Cho, Min-Sun
The changes in arterial pressure, sodium excretion, diuresis, and content of renal prostaglandins were studied in rats with COD-salt hypertension. The administration of DOC to rats with unilateral nephrectomy resulted in more distinct hypertension than in those with both kidneys preserved. Arterial pressure elevation was accompanied by a gradual reduction of renal prostaglandins concentration, the removal of one kidney causing an earlier and more distinct reduction of their content. Unilateral nephrectomy (without DOC administration) resulted in a reduction of prostaglandins concentration in the remaining kidney, but their total content in the medullar layer of this kidney practically did not change. PMID:950759
Markov, Kh M; Ivanova, I A; Mikhalkina, V G
Hypertension in the elderly substantially increases the risk of stroke and vascular cognitive impairment in part due to an impaired functional adaptation of aged cerebral arteries to high blood pressure. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying impaired autoregulatory protection in aging, hypertension was induced in young (3 mo) and aged (24 mo) C57BL/6 mice by chronic infusion of angiotensin II and pressure-induced changes in smooth muscle cell (SMC) intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and myogenic constriction of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) were assessed. In MCAs from young hypertensive mice, pressure-induced increases in vascular SMC [Ca(2+)]i and myogenic tone were increased, and these adaptive responses were inhibited by the cytochrome P-450 ?-hydroxylase inhibitor HET0016 and the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker SKF96365. Administration of 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) increased SMC [Ca(2+)]i and constricted MCAs, and these responses were inhibited by SKF96365. MCAs from aged hypertensive mice did not show adaptive increases in pressure-induced calcium signal and myogenic tone and responses to HET0016 and SKF96365 were blunted. Inhibition of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels by iberiotoxin enhanced SMC [Ca(2+)]i and myogenic constriction in MCAs of young normotensive animals, whereas it was without effect in MCAs of young hypertensive mice. Iberiotoxin did not restore myogenic adaptation in MCAs of aged hypertensive mice. Thus functional maladaptation of aged cerebral arteries to hypertension is due to the dysregulation of pressure-induced 20-HETE and TRP channel-mediated SMC calcium signaling, whereas overactivation of BK channels is unlikely to play a role in this phenomenon. PMID:24097425
Toth, Peter; Csiszar, Anna; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Koller, Akos; Schwartzman, Michal Laniado; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan
Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats Part I: cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.
Hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with functional abnormalities of the heart and kidney. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic treatment with Arbutus unedo leaf (AuL) or root (AuR) aqueous extracts can prevent these alterations. Six groups of rats were used: control group received tap water; N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) group treated with L-NAME at 40 mg/kg/day; AuL and AuR groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and Au leaves or roots extract at the same concentration 250 mg/kg/day; l-arginine and enalapril groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and l-arginine at 50mg/kg/day or enalapril at 15 mg/kg/day. Treatment of rats during 4 weeks with L-NAME caused an increase of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by a ventricular hypertrophy, an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, an increase of the cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease of water, sodium and potassium excretion. The co-administration of AuL or AuR extracts with L-NAME reduces the development of increased SBP, ameliorates the vascular reactivity as well as the baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes the renal function. AuR reduces the ventricular hypertrophy but AuL do not. Enalapril associated with L-NAME reverses the majority of alterations induced by L-NAME while l-arginine only lightly ameliorates the vascular reactivity. These results show that chronic treatment with Arbutus extract regress the development of hypertension and ameliorate cardiovascular and renal functions in NO deficient hypertension. PMID:18191352
Afkir, Saida; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Aziz, Mohamed; Zoheir, Johar; Cuisinaud, Guy; Bnouham, Mohamed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Lahlou, Saad; Ziyyat, Abderrahim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of dry cough during treatment with candesartan cilexetil, enalapril, or placebo in patients with hypertension and a history of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor–related cough. Patients with confirmed cough during an enalapril (10 mg) challenge period, followed by no cough during a placebo dechallenge period were randomized to 8 weeks of
P. H Tanser; L. M Campbell; J Carranza; J Karrash; P Toutouzas; R Watts
Dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine greatly increase the risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PHT). The mechanism of anorexigen-associated PHT (AA-PHT) and the reason PHT occurs in a mi- nority of people exposed are unknown. Anorexigens are weak pulmonary vasoconstrictors, but they become potent when synthesis of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) is suppressed. We hypothesized NO deficiency predisposes affected individuals to
STEPHEN L. ARCHER; KHIER DJABALLAH; MARC HUMBERT; E. KENNETH WEIR; MURIEL FARTOUKH; JOSETTE DALL' AVA-SANTUCCI; JEAN-CHRISTOPHE MERCIER; GERALD SIMONNEAU; A. TUAN DINH-XUAN
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening disorder with high mortality rates. Available treatment options are cumbersome to administer, expensive or are associated with adverse events. Gene therapy for PH is an alternative treatment strategy, yet viral vectors have inherent disadvantages including immune activation. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a nonviral method of gene delivery that may overcome some of
Li Liu; Hanzhong Liu; Gary Visner; Bradley S. Fletcher
Background?Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective?1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...
Abstract Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is caused by a spectrum of functional and structural abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary circuit. The existence of multiple etiologies and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression have hindered the development of effective therapies. Animal models offer a means of gaining a better understanding of the fundamental basis of the disease. To that effect, a number of experimental animal models are being used to generate pulmonary hypertension in the fetus and newborn. In this review, we compare the mechanisms associated with pulmonary hypertension caused by two such models: in utero ligation of the ductus arteriosus and chronic perinatal hypoxia in sheep fetuses and newborns. In this manner, we make direct comparisons between ductal ligation and chronic hypoxia with respect to the associated mechanisms of disease, since multiple studies have been performed with both models in a single species. We present evidence that the mechanisms associated with pulmonary hypertension are dependent on the type of stress to which the fetus is subjected. Such an analysis allows for a more thorough evaluation of the disease etiology, which can help focus clinical treatments. The final part of the review provides a clinical appraisal of current treatment strategies and lays the foundation for developing individualized therapies that depend on the causative factors.
To investigate the effects of hyperinsulinemia on the myocardial vessels, long acting insulin (mixtard, a combination of 30% regular human insulin and 70% NPH human insulin) was injected daily for 8 weeks, intraperitoneally, in two strains of rats, normotensive WKY and hypertensive SHR. There were four groups in all, a control group, and an insulin-injected group in each strain. The
R Zimlichman; L Zaidel; S Nofech-Mozes; A Shkedy; Z Matas; C Shahar; H. E Eliahou
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether the accumulation of norepinephrine by the pulmonary circulation is altered in the Dahl model of genetic hypertension. Pulmonary norepinephrine accumulation was evaluated by performing a compartmental analysis of the efflux of L-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine from perfused lungs after inhibition of the norepinephrine-metabolizing enzymes. The lungs were isolated from Dahl salt-hypertension-susceptible (S) and salt-hypertension-resistant (R) rats that had been on a high sodium diet for 3 weeks. In both S and R rats, norepinephrine was accumulated into a single compartment with an efflux half-time of approximately 23 min, in addition to its distribution in the extracellular space. The size of the extracellular space was significantly increased in the S rats, but there was no difference in the size of the compartment of L-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine efflux between S (6.4 +/- 1.2 ml/g) and R (3.7 +/- 0.7 ml/g) rats. These data indicate that impaired accumulation and efflux of norepinephrine by the lungs does not contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in Dahl S rats.
Metting, P.J.; Duggan, J.M.
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that contributes to hypertension. Although platelets in blood from hypertensive subjects have an abnormal biological profile, it is unclear if circulating Ang II influences platelet aggregation or thrombus formation. One of the abnormalities presented to the platelets during hypertension is an elevated plasma concentration of serotonin (5-HT) caused by reduced 5-HT uptake secondary to loss of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) on the platelet plasma membrane. In the current study, we evaluated in vivo platelet function after 7 days of subcutaneous Ang II infusion to establish hypertension in mice and additionally assessed the biology of isolated platelets exposed to Ang II in vitro. The administration of Ang II elevated systolic blood pressure, but markers of platelet activation including P-selectin and PEJon/A staining were not changed. However, the aggregation response to collagen was reduced in isolated platelets from Ang II-infused mice, which also showed reduced 5-HT uptake by SERT. In vitro exposure of isolated platelets to Ang II also resulted in a loss of surface SERT associated with a reduced aggregation response to collagen. These abnormalities were reversed by increasing concentrations of the Ang II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Interestingly, SERT KO mice failed to fully develop hypertension in response to Ang II infusion and isolated platelets from these animals were insensitive to the anti-aggregatory influence of Ang II. Thus, Ang II blunts the aggregation responses of platelets and the mechanism underlying this action may involve a loss of SERT on the platelet plasma membrane. The latter event depletes intracellular 5-HT in platelets, an event that is associated with reduced aggregation. The widespread use of antihypertensive drugs that target the renin-angiotensin system suggest the potential clinical utility of our findings and emphasize the importance of understanding the impact of Ang II on platelet function.
Singh, Preeti; Fletcher, Terry W.; Li, Yicong; Rusch, Nancy J.; Kilic, Fusun
Cold exposure is considered to be an important contributing factor to the high morbidity of hypertension. In order to elucidate the cause and mechanism of cold-induced hypertension (CIH), gene expression analysis was performed on microarray data for two groups of cold-exposed mice (4°C for 1 week and 4°C for 5 weeks, three replicates per group) and their respective control groups maintained at 30°C. Analysis results indicated that the differentially expressed genes with the most significance were associated with adaptive thermogenesis, fatty acid metabolism and energy metabolism. The expected marked increase in metabolism during cold exposure caused tissue hypoxia. Genes involved in the hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathway were activated. In addition, genes associated with oxidative stress were significantly upregulated, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2). The majority of genes involved in inflammation-associated pathways were shown to be downregulated in the 4°C 5-week group. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that tissue hypoxia and increased oxidative stress may play important roles in the process of CIH.
TUO, BUXIONG; LI, CHAOMIN; PENG, LIJING; YE, MINGXIA; LIU, WEI; ZHONG, XIAOLAN; LI, HUI
Pirfenidone (PFD) is a novel anti-fibrotic agent that targets TGF?. However, the mechanisms underlying its renoprotective properties in hypertension-induced renal injury are poorly understood. We investigated the renoprotective properties of PFD and clarified its renoprotective mechanisms in a rat hypertension-induced renal injury model. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet with or without 1% PFD for 6 weeks. During the administration period, we examined the effects of PFD on blood pressure and renal function. After the administration, the protein levels of renal TGF?, Smad2/3, TNF?, MMP9, TIMP1, and catalase were examined. In addition, total serum antioxidant activity was measured. Compared to untreated rats, PFD treatment significantly attenuated blood pressure and proteinuria. Histological study showed that PFD treatment improved renal fibrosis. PFD may exert its anti-fibrotic effects via the downregulation of TGF?-Smad2/3 signaling, improvement of MMP9/TIMP1 balance, and suppression of fibroblast proliferation. PFD treatment also increased catalase expression and total serum antioxidant activity. In contrast, PFD treatment did not affect the expression of TNF? protein, macrophage or T-cell infiltration, or plasma interleukin 1? levels. PFD prevents renal injury via its anti-fibrotic and anti-oxidative stress mechanisms. Clarifying the renoprotective mechanisms of PFD will help improve treatment for chronic renal diseases. PMID:24389407
Ji, Xu; Naito, Yukiko; Weng, Huachun; Ma, Xiao; Endo, Kosuke; Kito, Naoko; Yanagawa, Nariaki; Yu, Yang; Li, Jie; Iwai, Naoharu
Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX) is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1) control, (2) 5/6NX, (3) 5/6NX +CUR, and (4) CUR (n = 8–10). Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60?mg/kg/day) starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.
Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Ortiz-Vega, Karla Mariana; Zarco-Marquez, Guillermo; Molina-Jijon, Eduardo; Cristobal-Garcia, Magdalena; Santamaria, Jose; Garcia-Nino, Wylly Ramses; Correa, Francisco; Zazueta, Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose
Since angiotensin (Ang) (1-7) injected into the brain blocked Ang II pressor actions in rats made hypertensive by aortic coarctation (CH), we examined systemic and tissue angiotensin peptide levels, specifically concentrating on the hypothalamic Ang-(1-7) levels. Plasma, heart and kidney isolated from CH rats showed increased levels of Ang I, Ang II and Ang-(1-7) compared with the normotensive group, with Ang II being the predominant peptide in heart and kidney. In the hypothalamus, equimolar amounts of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) were found in the sham group, whereas only Ang-(1-7) levels increased in CH rats. We conclude that aortic coarctation activates systemic and tissue renin-angiotensin system. The increased central levels of Ang-(1-7) in the CH rats suggest a potential mitigating role of this peptide in central control of the hypertensive process.
Gironacci, Mariela M.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Lopez Verrilli, Maria A.; Pascual, Mariano; Taira, Carlos; Pena, Clara
ABSTRACT The literature suggests that farmers nowadays are more likely to contract cardiovascular diseases than in the past. This study involved 79 farmers and 64 controls. The workers completed a questionnaire to identify exclusion factors for audiological and cardiovascular risk factors. The participants underwent medical examination, measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood tests, audiometry, and measurement of noise exposure. The farmers were found to have a higher prevalence of systolic and diastolic arterial hypertension as well as electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities compared with the controls. A significant prevalence of arterial hypertension was detected in the farmers exposed to noise, when compared with those who were not exposed. These results suggest that farmers are at risk of cardiovascular effects and that noise is a cardiovascular risk factor for farmers. PMID:23697692
Tomei, Gianfranco; Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Vitarelli, Antonio; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Rinaldi, Giovanni; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Samperi, Ilaria; Fiaschetti, Maria; Tasciotti, Zaira; Cetica, Carlotta; Capozzella, Assunta; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Caciari, Tiziana
Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi) are known to cause hypertension and renal injury that severely limits their use as an anticancer therapy. We hypothesized that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril not only prevents hypertension, but also decreases renal injury caused by the VEGFi sorafenib. Rats were administered sorafenib (20 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with captopril (40 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. Sorafenib administration increased blood pressure, which plateaued by day 10. Concurrent treatment with captopril for 4 weeks resulted in a 30 mmHg decrease in blood pressure compared with sorafenib alone (155 ± 5 vs 182 ± 6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Furthermore, concurrent captopril treatment reduced albuminuria by 50% compared with sorafenib alone (20 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 mg/day, respectively; P < 0.05) and reduced nephrinuria by eightfold (280 ± 96 vs 2305 ± 665 ?g/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Glomerular injury, thrombotic microangiopathy and tubular cast formation were also decreased in captopril-treated rats administered sorafenib. Renal autoregulatory efficiency was determined by evaluating the afferent arteriolar constrictor response to ATP. Sorafenib administration attenuated the vasoconstriction to ATP, whereas concurrent captopril treatment improved ATP reactivity. In conclusion, captopril attenuated hypertension and renal injury and improved renal autoregulatory capacity in rats administered sorafenib. These findings indicate that captopril treatment, in addition to alleviating the detrimental side-effect of hypertension, decreases the renal injury associated with anticancer VEGFi therapies such as sorafenib. PMID:22443474
Nagasawa, Tasuku; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Imig, John D
SUMMARY Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi) are known to cause hypertension and renal injury that severely limits their use as an anticancer therapy. We hypothesized that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril not only prevents hypertension, but also decreases renal injury caused by the VEGFi sorafenib.Rats were administered sorafenib (20 mg/kg per day) alone or in combination with captopril (40 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks. Sorafenib administration increased blood pressure, which plateaued by day 10.Concurrent treatment with captopril for 4 weeks resulted in a 30 mmHg decrease in blood pressure compared with sorafenib alone (155 ± 5 vs 182 ± 6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Furthermore, concurrent captopril treatment reduced albuminuria by 50% compared with sorafenib alone (20 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 mg/day, respectively; P < 0.05) and reduced nephrinuria by eightfold (280 ± 96 vs 2305 ± 665 ?g/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Glomerular injury, thrombotic micro-angiopathy and tubular cast formation were also decreased in captopril-treated rats administered sorafenib. Renal autoregulatory efficiency was determined by evaluating the afferent arteriolar constrictor response to ATP. Sorafenib administration attenuated the vasoconstriction to ATP, whereas concurrent captopril treatment improved ATP reactivity.In conclusion, captopril attenuated hypertension and renal injury and improved renal autoregulatory capacity in rats administered sorafenib. These findings indicate that captopril treatment, in addition to alleviating the detrimental side-effect of hypertension, decreases the renal injury associated with anticancer VEGFi therapies such as sorafenib.
Nagasawa, Tasuku; Khan, Abdul Hye; Imig, John D
Page kidney is a well-known phenomenon causing hypertension, due to compression of renal parenchyma by a subcapsular hematoma, of either traumatic or non-traumatic origin. The main therapeutic approach is based on surgical approach (nephrectomy or hematoma evacuation) and antihypertensive treatment. In this paper we present a post-traumatic case of Page Kidney in a Critical Care unit. We discuss different therapeutical opportunities to extremely elevated systemic blood pressure resistant to traditional drug therapy.
Brotfain, E.; Koyfman, L.; Frenkel, A.; Smolikov, A.; Zlotnik, A.; Klein, M.
We have reported that dietary fish oil (FO) rich in n?3 PUFA modulates gut contractility. It was further demonstrated that\\u000a the gut of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has a depressed contractility response to prostaglandins (PG) compared with\\u000a normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We investigated whether feeding diets supplemented with n?3 PUFA increased gut contractility\\u000a and restored the depressed prostanoid response in
Glen S. Patten; Michael J. Adams; Julie A. Dallimore; Paul F. Rogers; David L. Topping; Mahinda Y. Abeywardena
Hypertension is both the cause and effect of kidney disease. Together these two diseases have become epidemics in our society and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Over the last several decades multiple clinical and transplant studies have shown the kidney to be an important determinant of essential hypertension. However, little is known about the direct mechanisms in which the kidney induces hypertension or why the blood pressure tends to rise in the failing kidney. This document provides a systematic analysis of peer-reviewed, published literature pertaining to the central role of the kidney in the development of essential hypertension in adults. We will describe the pathophysiology of essential hypertension and its relationship to chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Particular focus will be drawn to effects of sodium handling, the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, the sympathetic system and mediators of vascular tone in the development of kidney induced hypertension. In addition, the mediators which initiate and maintain the progression of chronic kidney disease, and how these factors are related in the development of hypertension will also be discussed. Finally, therapeutic strategies to treat individuals with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent the development of essential hypertension and lower their cardiovascular risk will be presented. PMID:19942846
Lubanski, M S; McCullough, P A
The response of the intima-media of the thoracic aorta to 1 to 4 weeks of two-kidney renal hypertension in the rat has been analyzed by morphometric techniques at light and electron microscopic levels. The increased thickness of the aorta that ensues is the result of an increase in the size but not the number of smooth muscle cell layers. The volume fractions of intima occupied by endothelium (26%), internal elastic lamina (37%), and subendothelial space (37%) in normotensive animals are not significantly altered by the hypertension. The percent increases in muscle cross-sectional area is greatest (58 to 60%) in the two innermost layers (M1 and M2). M1 is composed of nearly equal compartments of smooth muscle cells and interstitial space that expand 69% and 50%, respectively, with hypertension. Analysis of the subcellular constituents of the M1 smooth muscle cells indicates that significant changes in absolute volume include increases of caveolae (45%), myofibrils (59%), mitochondria (81%), glycogen (163%), and rough endoplasmic reticulum (221%). Factors contributing to these alterations are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Wiener, J.; Loud, A. V.; Giacomelli, F.; Anversa, P.
The inhibition in the synthesis or bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) has an important role in progress of hypertension. The blocking of nitric oxide synthase activity may cause vasoconstriction with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honey bees from various plants. Propolis has biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of propolis on catalase (CAT) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels in the testis tissues of hypertensive rats by N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Rats have received nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (l-NAME, 40 mg kg(-1) , intraperitoneally) for 15 days to produce hypertension and propolis (200 mg kg(-1) , by gavage) during the last 5 days. MDA level in l-NAME-treated group significantly increased compared with control group (P < 0.01). MDA level of l-NAME + propolis-treated rats significantly reduced (P < 0.01) compared with l-NAME-treated group. CAT activity and NO level significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in l-NAME group compared with control group. There were no statistically significant increases in the CAT activity and NO level of the l-NAME + propolis group compared with the l-NAME-treated group (P > 0.01). These results suggest that propolis changes CAT activity, NO and MDA levels in testis of l-NAME-treated animals, and so it may modulate the antioxidant system. PMID:23788129
Selamoglu Talas, Zeliha
Kinins have been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotective effect of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) during heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion. However, it is controversial as to whether kinins oppose the hypertensinogenic effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate plus salt (DOCA-salt) or aortic coarctation and whether they mediate both chronic antihypertensive and cardiac antihypertrophic effects of ACEi in hypertension. Using normal 129/SvEvTac mice and mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor gene (B2-KO), we investigated whether (1) the hypertensinogenic effect of DOCA-salt or aortic coarctation is enhanced in B2-KO mice and (2) the chronic antihypertensive and antihypertrophic effects of an ACEi (ramipril, 4 mg. kg-1. d-1) are mediated by B2 receptors in aortic coarctation (6 weeks)- and DOCA-salt (4 weeks)-induced hypertension. Before surgery, there was no difference between 129/SvEvTac and B2-KO mice in terms of blood pressure and heart weight, suggesting that kinins are not essential to maintaining normal blood pressure. DOCA-salt (volume expansion) or aortic coarctation (renin-dependent) induced similar hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 129/SvEvTac and B2-KO mice, suggesting that kinins do not play an essential role in the development of DOCA-salt- or aortic coarctation-induced hypertension. We found that B2 receptors mediate only the early (1 week) but not the late phase (4 weeks) of the chronic hypotensive effect of ACEi in DOCA-salt hypertension. On the other hand, chronic ACE inhibition prevented the development of hypertension and LVH in both 129/SvEvTac and B2-KO mice given DOCA-salt or subjected to aortic coarctation, suggesting that kinins do not participate in the chronic antihypertensive and antihypertrophic effects of ACEi in these 2 models of hypertension. Thus, in mice, kinins acting via B2 receptors do not participate in (1) maintenance of normal basal blood pressure, (2) establishment and maintenance of hypertension induced by DOCA-salt or aortic coarctation, and (3) chronic antihypertensive and cardiac antihypertrophic effects of ACEi in DOCA-salt and aortic coarctation hypertension. PMID:9931125
Rhaleb, N E; Peng, H; Alfie, M E; Shesely, E G; Carretero, O A
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of laser-induced ocular hypertension on the cone electroretinogram (ERG) and retinal thickness in monkeys. Background data: Degeneration of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and loss of retinal ganglion cells in the primate glaucoma model have been confirmed by histological studies and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. However, it remains unclear whether the outer retina distal to the RGCs (e.g., photoreceptors) is involved in histological studies and in functional test. Materials and methods: Subjects were five monkeys with high intraocular pressure (IOP) induced in the right eye by laser. Six years after the laser coagulation of the mid-trabecular meshwork, RNFL, ganglion cell complex (GCC), central macular thickness (CMT), and the thickness of outer retinal layer (ORL) were measured by OCT. The photopic responses of ERG were recorded in response to red flashes on a blue background. The maximum cone amplitude (Rcone) and cone sensitivity (Scone) were calculated. Results: Enlarged cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio was found in the lasered eyes. RNFL and GCC were significantly thinner in the lasered eyes (p<0.05), but no significant differences were found in CMT and the thickness of ORL compared with fellow eyes (p>0.05). Mean amplitude of the photopic negative response (PhNR), Mean Rcone were significantly lower in the lasered eye (p<0.05), and no significant differences of Scone were found between the two eyes (p>0.05). Conclusions: Long-term ocular hypertension induced by laser affects the function of cone photoreceptor in monkeys. PMID:24992271
Liu, Kegao; Wang, Ningli; Peng, Xiaoyan; Yang, Diya; Wang, Cong; Zeng, Huiyang
Thick ascending limbs (TAL) reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Na enters the cells via apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporters and Na/H exchangers and exits via basolateral Na pumps. Chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net TAL Na transport and Na apical entry; however, little is known about its effects on the basolateral Na pump. We hypothesized that in rat TALs Na pump activity is enhanced by ANG II-infusion, a model of ANG II-induced hypertension. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 7 days, and TAL suspensions were obtained. We studied plasma membrane Na pump activity by measuring changes in 1) intracellular Na (Nai) induced by ouabain; and 2) ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption (QO2). We found that the ouabain-sensitive rise in Nai in TALs from ANG II-infused rats was 12.8 ± 0.4 arbitrary fluorescent units (AFU)·mg(-1)·min(-1) compared with only 9.9 ± 1.1 AFU·mg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (P < 0.024). Ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption was 17 ± 5% (P < 0.043) greater in tubules from ANG II-treated than vehicle rats. ANG II infusion did not alter total Na pump expression, the number of Na pumps in the plasma membrane, or the affinity for Na. When furosemide (1.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was coinfused with ANG II, no increase in plasma membrane Na pump activity was observed. We concluded that in ANG II-induced hypertension Na pump activity is increased in the plasma membrane of TALs and that this increase is caused by the chronically enhanced Na entry occurring in this model. PMID:23986517
Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Garvin, Jeffrey L
Background Continuous exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) is a key cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a complex multifactorial disease that is difficult to model in rodents. The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat exhibits several COPD-associated co-morbidities such as hypertension and increased coagulation. We have investigated whether SH rats are a more appropriate animal paradigm of COPD. Methods SH rats were exposed to TS for 6 hours/day, 3 days/week for 14 weeks, and the lung tissues examined by immunohistochemistry. Results TS induced a CK13-positive squamous metaplasia in proximal airways, which also stained for Ki67 and p63. We hypothesise that this lesion arises by basal cell proliferation, which differentiates to a squamous cell phenotype. Differences in staining profiles for the functional markers CC10 and surfactant D, but not phospho-p38, indicated loss of ability to function appropriately as secretory cells. Within the parenchyma, there were also differences in the staining profiles for CC10 and surfactant D, indicating a possible attempt to compensate for losses in proximal airways. In human COPD sections, areas of CK13-positive squamous metaplasia showed sporadic p63 staining, suggesting that unlike the rat, this is not a basal cell-driven lesion. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although proximal airway metaplasia in rat and human are both CK13+ and therefore squamous, they potentially arise by different mechanisms.
Background Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH) has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs) infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS), as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. Methods We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT), monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE). Results Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine) in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature. Immunolabeling for OX62, CD68 and actin revealed adventitial and medial DC- and monocyte-infiltration; in MCT/PE, medial smooth muscle cells were admixed with CD68+/vimentin+ cells. Conclusion Our experimental findings support a new concept of immunologic responses to increased OS in MCT/PE-induced PAH, possibly linking recruitment of dendritic cells and OS-producing mast-cells to characteristic vasculopathy.
Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses antihypertensive and organ protective effects that may result from its ability to increase the production of the endogenous NO and/or to regulate dyslipidemia.
Iganidipine, a new water-soluble calcium antagonist, was administered at a nonhypotensive dose (NHD) of 0.3 mg\\/kg\\/day, a moderate-hypotensive dose (MHD) of 1.0 mg\\/kg\\/day, and a sustained-hypotensive dose (SHD) of 3.0 mg\\/kg\\/day to Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats fed a high-salt diet for 8 weeks. The effects on survival, and on renal and cerebral injuries, were then examined. Iganidipine completely prevented hypertensive
Hiroaki Shirahase; Katsuo Wada; Yoshio Uehara; Shohei Nakamura; Atsuko Ichikawa
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in cardiovascular protection. It can inhibit arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis induced by anoxia. However, the role of AMPK-dependent signalling cascades in the pulmonary vascular system is currently unknown. This study aims to determine the effects of AMPK on pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vessel remodelling induced by hypoxia in rats using in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo study: pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodelling were found in hypoxic rats. Meanwhile, AMPK?1 and phosphorylated AMPK?1 were increased markedly in pulmonary arterioles and lung tissues. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure, index of right ventricular hypertrophy and parameters of pulmonary vascular remodelling, including vessel wall area/total area, density of nuclei in medial smooth muscle cells, and thickness of the medial smooth muscle cell layer were markedly suppressed by AICAR, an AMPK agonist. In vitro study: the expression of AMPK?1 and phosphorylated AMPK?1 was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic conditions. The effects of PASMC proliferation stimulated by hypoxia were reinforced by treatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. AICAR inhibited the proliferation of PASMCs stimulated by hypoxia. These findings suggest that AMPK is involved in the formation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vessel remodelling. Up-regulating AMPK can contribute to decreasing pulmonary vessel remodelling and pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia. PMID:24566685
Huang, Xiaoying; Fan, Rong; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Chang; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xie; Liu, Panpan; Yan, Shuangquan; Chen, Chun; Wang, Liangxing
Although both diabetes and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the role of hyperglycaemia per se in endothelial dysfunction is controversial. This study was designed to examine whether hyperglycaemia, or streptozotocin-induced diabetes, could aggravate endothelial dysfunction in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin in 2-month-old SHRSP and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The aorta was isolated 8 weeks after induction of hyperglycaemia to record its function and to examine its morphology with transmission electron microscopy. Endothelial/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/iNOS) and inducible/constitutive haem oxygenase (HO-1/HO-2) levels were determined with Western blotting. Aortic endothelial function and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were assayed after incubation in vitro in hyperglycaemic, hyperosmolar solution. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes of 8 weeks duration did not result in endothelial dysfunction in normotensive WKY rats. In contrast, hyperglycaemic WKY rats showed significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, which was abrogated by simultaneous blocking of NOS and HO. The enhanced vasodilatation was associated with elevation of vascular eNOS and HO-1. Significant endothelial dysfunction and massive macrophage-monocyte infiltration were found in SHRSP aorta (the ratio of the number of macrophages to endothelial cells in the intima, expressed as a percentage, was 20.9 ± 2.8% in SHRSP versus 1.9 ± 0.5% in WKY rats, P < 0.01), which was attenuated significantly in hyperglycaemic SHRSP (11.3 ± 1.6%, P < 0.01 versus SHRSP). Acute hyperglycaemia (10 min) aggravated endothelial dysfunction in SHRSP, with a marked increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species and NO production. Sustained in vitro incubation in hyperglycaemic/hyperosmolar conditions (addition of an extra 50 mmol L(-1) of glucose or mannitol to the usual buffer, to produce a final osmolarity of 350 mosmol L(-1)) for 5 h enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, with elevated vessel NO production and upregulation of eNOS/HO-1 proteins. Sustained hyperglycaemia does not aggravate endothelial dysfunction and macrophage infiltration in SHRSP. Hyperglycaemia/hyperosmolarity-induced upregulation of eNOS and HO-1 may play a role in this paradoxical adaptation of endothelial function. PMID:21930604
Zhong, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei-Li; Wang, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yuan, Wen-Jun; He, Jin; Wu, Ping-Ping; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Lan; Higashino, Hideaki; Chen, Hong
Our objectives are to investigate the role of MMP-9 in cold exposure-induced stroke and assess the preventive effect of doxycycline, a total of 200 rats were assigned to a control group, sham group, 2-kidney, 2-clip (2K-2C) group, and doxycycline-received 2K-2C group (2K-2C+doxy) (N=50, each), and subsequently, each group were randomly assigned to 2 groups: acute cold exposure (ACE) and nonacute cold exposure (NACE) (N=25, each). After the blood pressure was stabilized, rats were maintained on a 12-h light (22°C)/dark (4°C) cycle (ACE group) or a 12-h light (22°C)/dark (22°C) cycle (NACE group) for 3 cycles. The results showed that ACE upregulated Ang II and MMP-9 protein levels in brains and aortas and considerably enhanced stroke incidence in 2K-2C rats. In contrast, doxycycline treatment prevented upregulation of MMP-9 protein expression and activity in brains and aortas in response to ACE and significantly decreased stroke incidence. These findings suggest that cold exposure-induced MMP-9 via activation of RAS might play a critical role in the initiation of cold exposure-induced stroke during chronic hypertension and doxycycline shows protective effects against cold exposure-induced stroke. PMID:23800500
Li, Chunguang; Li, Xiangpen; Shen, Qingyu; Li, Yi; He, Lei; Li, Mei; Tang, Yamei; Wang, Yidong; He, Qingyu; Peng, Ying
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease often associated with positive antinuclear antibody and high mortality. Pulmonary hypertension, which rarely is severe, occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension ranges from 9%-39% in individuals with stage 5 CKD, 18.8%-68.8% in hemodialysis patients, and 0%-42% in patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy. No epidemiologic data are available yet for earlier stages of CKD. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD may be induced and/or aggravated by left ventricular disorders and risk factors typical of CKD, including volume overload, an arteriovenous fistula, sleep-disordered breathing, exposure to dialysis membranes, endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification and stiffening, and severe anemia. No specific intervention trial aimed at reducing pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD has been performed to date. Correcting volume overload and treating left ventricular disorders are factors of paramount importance for relieving pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD. Preventing pulmonary hypertension in this population is crucial because even kidney transplantation may not reverse the high mortality associated with established pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23164943
Bolignano, Davide; Rastelli, Stefania; Agarwal, Rajiv; Fliser, Danilo; Massy, Ziad; Ortiz, Alberto; Wiecek, Andrzej; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Lindholm, Bengt; Parati, Gianfranco; Sicari, Rosa; Gargani, Luna; Mallamaci, Francesca; London, Gerard; Zoccali, Carmine
Excess dietary salt induces a cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase isoform in rat kidneys (Capdevila, J. H., S. Wei, J. Yang, A. Karara, H. R. Jacobson, J. R. Falck, F. P. Guengerich, and R. N. Dubois. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:21720-21726). Treatment of rats on a high salt diet with the epoxygenase inhibitor, clotrimazole, produces significant increases in mean arterial blood pressure (122 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 4 mmHg for salt and salt- and clotrimazole-treated rats, respectively). The salt- and clotrimazole-dependent hypertension is accompanied by reductions in the urinary excretion of epoxygenase metabolites and by a selective inhibition of the renal microsomal epoxygenase reaction. The prohypertensive effects of clotrimazole are readily reversed when either the salt or clotrimazole treatment is discontinued. The indication that a salt-inducible renal epoxygenase protects against hypertension, are supported by studies with the Dahl rat model of genetic salt-sensitive hypertension. Dahl resistant animals responded to excess dietary salt by inducing the activity of their kidney microsomal epoxygenase(s) (0.102 +/- 0.01 and 0.240 +/- 0.04 nmol of products formed/min per mg of microsomal protein for control and salt-treated rats, respectively). Despite severe hypertension during excess dietary salt intake (200 +/- 20 mmHg), Dahl salt-sensitive rats demonstrated no increase in renal epoxygenase activity. These studies indicate that acquired or inherited abnormalities in renal epoxygenase activities and/or regulation can be related to salt-sensitive hypertension in rodents. Studies on the human renal epoxygenase and its relationship to salt hypertension may prove useful.
Makita, K; Takahashi, K; Karara, A; Jacobson, H R; Falck, J R; Capdevila, J H
It has been found that Na, K-ATP-ase activity in microsomal fraction obtained from the medullar layer of kidneys of stress-sensitive hypertensive rats (SSHR) which were subjected to stress effects is lower by 20-40% than that in the Wistar rats. In hypertensive animals the stress (30-min immobilization) has led to a considerable increase in blood tension. Values I50 for ouabain and dependence of activity on the ratio of Na and K ions in the medium are similar in animals of both lines subjected to the stress. There are also no considerable differences in the protein composition of microsomal fraction from kidneys of rats of both lines. The effects which increase permeability of vesicules (channel-forming agent alamecytin, lubrol WX, freezing-thawing) activate Na,K-ATP-ase in the preparation from the kidneys of rats of the both lines. Under maximum activation there is a removal of differences in activity of the enzyme obtained from the tissues of the SSHR and Wistar animals after the stress action. Blood serum of SSHR rats after the stress inhibits purified Na,K-ATP-ase to the greater extent than the Wistar rat blood serum after the same effect. It is supposed that differences in Na,K-ATP-ase activity in microsomal fraction from the kidneys of rats of the above lines are stipulated by the differences in the "latent" ATP-ase activity. PMID:1656573
Lopina, O D; Kotlova?, A A; Kamernitski?, A V; Pavlova-Grishina, N S; Markel', A L; Boldyrev, A A
The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of naringenin when co-administered with l-arginine in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mg/kg). l-arginine (500mg/kg) and naringenin (50mg/kg) were orally administered daily, alone and in combination, for 3weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography and echocardiography were then recorded and rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of total nitrate/nitrite level. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total nitrate/nitrite and transforming growth factor-beta. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities in addition to endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression were also determined. Moreover, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was performed. Combined therapy provided a significant improvement in l-arginine protective effect toward preserving hemodynamic changes and alleviating oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers induced by monocrotaline treatment. Furthermore, combined therapy prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as histological analysis compared with either treatment alone. In conclusion, naringenin significantly adds to the protective effect of l-arginine in pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats. PMID:24878387
Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Obaid, Al Arqam Z; Zaki, Hala F; Agha, Azza M
The pathological hallmarks of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most common long-term pulmonary complications associated with preterm birth, include arrested alveolarization, abnormal vascular growth, and variable interstitial fibrosis. Severe BPD is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension characterized by excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy that significantly contributes to the mortality and morbidity of these infants. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a multifunctional protein that coordinates complex biological processes during tissue development and remodeling. We have previously shown that conditional overexpression of CTGF in airway epithelium under the control of the Clara cell secretory protein promoter results in BPD-like architecture in neonatal mice. In this study, we have generated a doxycycline-inducible double transgenic mouse model with overexpression of CTGF in alveolar type II epithelial (AT II) cells under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter. Overexpression of CTGF in neonatal mice caused dramatic macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in alveolar air spaces and perivascular regions. Overexpression of CTGF also significantly decreased alveolarization and vascular development. Furthermore, overexpression of CTGF induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Most importantly, we have also demonstrated that these pathological changes are associated with activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/glucose synthesis kinase-3? (GSK-3?)/?-catenin signaling. These data indicate that overexpression of CTGF in AT II cells results in lung pathology similar to those observed in infants with severe BPD and that ILK/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe BPD.
Chen, Shaoyi; Rong, Min; Platteau, Astrid; Hehre, Dorothy; Smith, Heather; Ruiz, Philip; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Bancalari, Eduardo
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic doses of Cimicifuga racemosa on cardiovascular parameters and on liver lipid metabolism and redox status in an animal model of estrogen deficiency associated with hypertension, a condition that could make the liver more vulnerable to drug-induced injuries. Female Wistar rats were subjected to the surgical procedures of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and induction of renovascular hypertension (two-kidneys, one-clip; 2K1C). These animals (OVX + 2K1C) were treated with daily doses of a C. racemosa extract, using a dose that is similar to that recommended to postmenopausal women (0.6 mg/kg), over a period of 15 days. The results were compared to those of untreated OVX + 2K1C, OVX, and control rats. The treatment with C. racemosa caused a significant reduction in blood pressure. In the liver, treatment did not prevent the development of steatosis, and it reduced the mitochondrial and peroxisomal capacity to oxidize octanoyl-CoA compared to the untreated animals. In addition, C. racemosa caused numerous undesirable effects on the liver redox status: it increased the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, an event that was not accompanied by an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, and it induced a decrease in peroxisomal catalase activity. Although the reduced glutathione content had not been affected, a phenomenon that probably reflected the restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by C. racemosa, oxidative damage was evidenced by the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances found in the liver of treated animals. PMID:22684021
Campos, Lilian Brites; Gilglioni, Eduardo Hideo; Garcia, Rosângela Fernandes; Brito, Márcia do Nascimento; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia
It was previously reported that the hippurate transport disturbance after exercise is a specific phenomenon to patients with hypertension. The authors' study with Tc-99m-DTPA revealed exercise induced renal dysfunction not only in hypertensives (H) but also in normotensive controls (N). The details of the investigation is presented. Tc-99m-DTPA was intravenously injected at rest and during bicycle ergometric stress to 14 H and 14 N in sitting position. Serial dynamic renal images were taken, of which data were simultaneously stored in a data processor for later analysis. The renogram was drawn setting ROI on each kidney. Peak counts (PC) of vascular phase, peak time (PT) of secretory phase and radioisotope retention rate (RR) at 10 minutes were the parameters being compared between at rest and at exercise. GFR of each kidney was determined. Blood samples were obtained at rest and at the end of exercise for the measurement of aldosterone (ALD), plasma renin activity (PRA) and catecholamines (A, NA). Exercise caused significant lowering of PC, prolongation of PT and increase in RR (10 min. counts/peak counts) both in H and N. GFR (miota/min.) during exercise was significantly lower than at rest in both H (80 +- 22 vs 93.8 +- 16.9, p<0.02) and N (84 +- 17 vs 102 +- 15, p<0.01). ALD, PRA, A and NA are all elevated during exercise both in H and N. None of the rest-exercise differences significantly differed between H and N. The data indicate the exercise induced renal dysfunction demonstrated by Tc-99m-DTPA renograms is not specified to H but can also be observed in N, which may be resulted from the common changes in H and N of GFR and humoral factors.
Mizuiri, S.; Hayashi, I.; Ohara, T.; Hirata, K.; Sasaki, Y.
Summary Aldosterone promotes cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling, both of which are characteristic changes in hypertensive\\u000a and failing hearts. Since chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induces systemic hypertension associated with cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling,\\u000a we examined the potential role of aldosterone in this process using eplerenone, a selective aldosterone receptor antagonist.\\u000a Ten-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto rats
Osamu Tsukamoto; Tetsuo Minamino; Shoji Sanada; Ken-ichiro Okada; Akio Hirata; Masashi Fujita; Yasunori Shintani; Liao Yulin; Yoshihiro Asano; Seiji Takashima; Satoru Yamasaki; Hitonobu Tomoike; Masatsugu Hori; Masafumi Kitakaze
We evaluated celiprolol-induced vasodilatation in aorta taken from 12-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the effect of AT(1) angiotensin II receptor antagonism on the vasodilatory action of celiprolol in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR. In WKY rats, the celiprolol-induced relaxation was greatly decreased in denuded aorta, and completely abolished in intact aorta by N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 100 microM). In SHR, celiprolol-induced relaxation was reduced compared to WKY rats (E(max) (value obtained for the highest concentration, 300 microM)=39.1+ or - 3.78%, n=21 vs. 80.4 + or - 3% in WKY rats, n=10; P<0.0001). Endothelium removal or pre-treatment with l-NAME did not alter celiprolol-induced relaxation in SHR. In both strains, relaxation to celiprolol was decreased in the presence of nadolol (a beta(1)/beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 10 microM). N-[[3-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-3-[[2-[4-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino] phenyl]ethyl]amino] propoxy]phenyl]methyl]-acetamide (L748337, a beta(3)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 7 microM) had no effect. A 12-day treatment with candesartan cilexetil (an AT(1) receptor antagonist, 0.37 or 1mg/kg/day) reduced systolic blood pressure in both strains, but only improved relaxation to celiprolol in SHR, and only at the highest dose (E(max)=64.2+/-3.9%, n=10, P<0.0001 vs. SHR control). In both strains, local aortic AT(1) receptor antagonism with candesartan CV11974 (100 microM) had no effect. The endothelial beta(1)/beta(2) relaxation induced by celiprolol was therefore impaired in SHR aorta and AT(1) receptor antagonism improved the response to celiprolol, in conjunction with a reduction in blood pressure. This work highlights the need to analyse the potential benefit of a combination of celiprolol/AT(1) receptor antagonist in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:20637193
Sauvaget, Frédérique; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Bucas, Véronique; Gogny, Marc; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Noireaud, Jacques
BackgroundAngiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker L-158,809 (ARB) induces reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats. However, the signaling mechanism that mediates ARB-induced reverse LV remodeling remains unclear. The present study was to determine if changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, including ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling correlate with ARB-elicited reversal of cardiac hypertrophy in
Qiangrong Liang; Andrew C. Elson; A. Martin Gerdes
If left untreated, hypertension can lead to the thickening of arterial walls causing its lumen, or blood passage way, to narrow in diameter. ... the narrowed arterial openings. In addition, people with hypertension may be more susceptible to stroke.
Renal hypertension; Hypertension - renovascular; Renal artery occlusion; Stenosis - renal artery; Renal artery stenosis ... blood pressure to rise. Risk factors for atherosclerosis: High blood pressure Smoking Diabetes High cholesterol Heavy alcohol use Cocaine ...
Barnidipine is a stereoselective single isomer formulation of a long-term acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (CaA). In anaesthetised animals, the antihypertensive response to barnidipine is accompanied by a diuretic effect. The aim of the present study was to examine whether barnidipine increased renal blood flow in a conscious animal model for essential hypertension. We compared the regional specific hemodynamic effects of barnidipine with those obtained with its racemic mixture and amlodipine. Male adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were instrumented with Doppler flow probes and catheters to measure renal (RVR), mesenteric (MVR) and hindquarter (HQVR) vascular resistance changes. One week after surgery, barnidipine, its racemic mixture, and amlodipine were intravenously administered at three doses (n> or =10 per dose) causing comparable reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP). At doses of 3, 10 and 30 microg/kg barnidipine reduced MAP (+/- SEM) by 8+/-2, 26+/-3 and 45+/-4 mmHg. Equipotent effects on MAP were achieved by the racemic mixture of barnidipine at 10, 30 and 100 microg/kg, and by amlodipine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 microg/kg. Following the 3 microg/kg and 10 microg/kg dose, barnidipine reduced MVR (% +/- SEM) by 4+/-4 and 19+/-4, and RVR by 8+/-2 and 15+/-4, respectively. In contrast, HQVR remained unaltered. Similar data were obtained for the racemic mixture of barnidipine and for amlodipine, although for the latter the changes in RVR were half of those found after barnidipine. After the highest doses of barnidipine, its racemic mixture as well as amlodipine, HQVR fell more than 25% whereas RVR and MVR remained unaltered. Analysis of the dynamic response to the CaAs revealed that the reductions in vascular resistance were associated with decreased myogenic-like oscillations in blood flow. We conclude that, in conscious SHR, the single isomer barnidipine reduces MAP at doses which are three times lower than its racemic mixture and 30 times lower than amlodipine. In contrast to short-acting CaAs such as nifedipine and isradipine, which reduce mainly HQVR and do not reduce RVR (Nievelstein et al.; Eur J Pharmacol 113:187-198, 1985), the three long-term acting CaAs preferentially dilated the mesenteric and renal vascular bed. In view of the elevation of RVR in essential hypertension, the reduction of RVR may contribute to the long-term antihypertensive effects of barnidipine and amlodipine. PMID:11692224
Janssen, B J; Kam, K L; Smits, J F
Abstract A full-term male infant presented shortly after birth with respiratory distress. An echocardiogram done within the first hour of life showed an elevated pulmonary artery pressure, an associated right ventricular hypertrophy without a patent ductus arteriosus. The patient was treated for persistent pulmonary hypertension with favorable response. Maternal history was unremarkable except for chronic low back pain treated with cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril®). A proposed mechanism for cyclobenzaprine includes inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake, factors known to inhibit prostaglandin and nitric oxide. These two factors are the leading causes of in-utero ductal closure. This report is the first to indicate that cyclobenzaprine use during late pregnancy should be considered a potential cause of early ductal closure. PMID:24102182
Moreira, Alvaro; Barbin, Clay; Martinez, Hugo; Aly, Ashraf; Fonseca, Rafael
Background The outcome of patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are predominantly determined by the response of the right ventricle to the increase afterload secondary to high vascular pulmonary resistance. However, little is known about the effects of the current available or experimental PAH treatments on the heart. Recently, inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PAH. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known safe anti-oxidant drug, has immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties. We therefore hypothesized that NAC could reduce the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats exposed to monocrotaline (MCT), lowering inflammation and preserving pulmonary vascular system and right heart function. Methods Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and NAC treated rats (day 14–28) were evaluated at day 28 following MCT for hemodynamic parameters (right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output), right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular morphometry, lung inflammatory cells immunohistochemistry (monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells), IL-6 expression, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Results The treatment with NAC significantly decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, and improved total pulmonary resistance (from 0.71?±?0.05 for MCT group to 0.50?±?0.06 for MCT?+?NAC group, p?0.05). Right ventricular function was also improved with NAC treatment associated with a significant decrease in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (625?±?69 vs. 439?±?21 ?m2 for MCT and MCT?+?NAC group respectively, p?0.001) and heart fibrosis (14.1?±?0.8 vs. 8.8?±?0.1% for MCT and MCT?+?NAC group respectively, p?0.001). Conclusions Through its immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties, NAC has beneficial effect on pulmonary vascular and right heart function in experimental PH.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive channel in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Its upregulation by chronic hypoxia is associated with enhanced myogenic tone, and genetic deletion of trpv4 suppresses the development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). Here we further examine the roles of TRPV4 in agonist-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and in the enhanced vasoreactivity in CHPH. Initial evaluation of TRPV4-selective antagonists HC-067047 and RN-1734 in KCl-contracted pulmonary arteries (PAs) of trpv4(-/-) mice found that submicromolar HC-067047 was devoid of off-target effect on pulmonary vasoconstriction. Inhibition of TRPV4 with 0.5 ?M HC-067047 significantly reduced the sensitivity of serotonin (5-HT)-induced contraction in wild-type (WT) PAs but had no effect on endothelin-1 or phenylephrine-activated response. Similar shift in the concentration-response curve of 5-HT was observed in trpv4(-/-) PAs, confirming specific TRPV4 contribution to 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) response was attenuated by HC-067047 in WT PASMCs but not in trpv4(-/-) PASMCs, suggesting TRPV4 is a major Ca(2+) pathway for 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) mobilization. Nifedipine also attenuated 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) response in WT PASMCs but did not cause further reduction in the presence of HC-067047, suggesting interdependence of TRPV4 and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the 5-HT response. Chronic exposure (3-4 wk) of WT mice to 10% O2 caused significant increase in 5-HT-induced maximal contraction, which was partially reversed by HC-067047. In concordance, the enhancement of 5-HT-induced contraction was significantly reduced in PAs of CH trpv4(-/-) mice and HC-067047 had no further effect on the 5-HT induced response. These results suggest unequivocally that TRPV4 contributes to 5-HT-dependent pharmaco-mechanical coupling and plays a major role in the enhanced pulmonary vasoreactivity to 5-HT in CHPH. PMID:23739180
Xia, Yang; Fu, Zhenzhen; Hu, Jinxing; Huang, Chun; Paudel, Omkar; Cai, Shaoxi; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Sham, James S K
The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. Ninty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 24), MCT (n = 35) and shRNA (n = 35). Four-week survival rate in the shRNA group was significantly increased compared to that in the MCT group. The shRNA group showed a significant improvement of right ventricular (RV) pressure compared with the MCT group. The MCT and shRNA groups also showed an increase in RV/(left ventricle + septum) ratio and lung/body weight. Plasma endothelin (ET)-1 concentrations in the shRNA group were lower than those in the MCT group. Medial wall thickness of pulmonary arterioles were increased after MCT injection and was significantly decreased in the shRNA group. The number of intra-acinar muscular pulmonary arteries was decreased in the shRNA group. The mRNA expressions of ET-1 and ET receptor A (ETA) were significantly decreased in the shRNA group in week 4. The protein levels of ETA were decreased in the shRNA group in week 2. The protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and vascular endothelial growth factor were decreased in the shRNA group in week 4. In conclusion, the gene silencing with lentiviral vector targeting ECE-1 could be effective against hemodynamic, histopathological and gene expression changes in pulmonary hypertension.
Son, Jae Sung; Kim, Kwan Chang; Kim, Bo Kyung; Cho, Min-Sun
To evaluate the relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II) changes during treatment with imidapril and candesartan in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. A total of 84 hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome were randomized to imidapril 10?mg or candesartan 16?mg for 16 weeks. At weeks 4 and 8, there was a dose titration to imidapril 20?mg and candesartan 32?mg in nonresponders (systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90?mm?Hg). We evaluated, at baseline and after 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, clinic blood pressure, Ang II and PAI-1 antigen. Both imidapril and candesartan induced a similar SBP/DBP reduction (-19.4/16.8 and -19.5/16.3?mm?Hg, respectively, P<0.001 vs. baseline). Both drugs decreased PAI-1 antigen after 4 weeks of treatment, but only the PAI-1 lowering effect of imidapril was sustained throughout the 16 weeks (-9.3?ng?ml(-1), P<0.01 vs. baseline), whereas candesartan increased PAI-1 (+6.5?ng?ml(-1), P<0.05 vs. baseline and P<0.01 vs. imidapril). Imidapril significantly decreased Ang II levels (-14.6?pg?ml(-1) at week 16, P<0.05 vs. baseline), whereas candesartan increased them (+24.2?pg?ml(-1), P<0.01 vs. baseline and vs. imidapril). In both groups there was a positive correlation between Ang II and PAI-1 changes (r=0.61, P<0.001 at week 16 for imidapril, and r=0.37, P<0.005 at week 16 for candesartan). Imidapril reduced plasma PAI-1 and Ang II levels, whereas candesartan increased them. This suggests that the different effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and Ang II blockers on Ang II production has a role in their different influence on fibrinolysis. PMID:21814211
Fogari, Roberto; Zoppi, Annalisa; Mugellini, Amedeo; Maffioli, Pamela; Lazzari, Pierangelo; Derosa, Giuseppe
Serotonin is produced by pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) via tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1). Pathologically, serotonin acts on underlying pulmonary arterial cells, contributing to vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The effects of hypoxia on PAEC-Tph1 activity are unknown. We investigated the potential of a gene therapy approach to PAH using selective inhibition of PAEC-Tph1 in vivo in a hypoxic model of PAH. We exposed cultured bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (bPASMCs) to conditioned media from human PAECs (hPAECs) before and after hypoxic exposure. Serotonin levels were increased in hypoxic PAEC media. Conditioned media evoked bPASMC proliferation, which was greater with hypoxic PAEC media, via a serotonin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, adenoviral vectors targeted to PAECs (utilizing bispecific antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as the selective targeting system) were used to deliver small hairpin Tph1 RNA sequences in rats. Hypoxic rats developed PAH and increased lung Tph1. PAEC-Tph1 expression and development of PAH were attenuated by our PAEC-Tph1 gene knockdown strategy. These results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Tph1 activity and selective knockdown of PAEC-Tph1 attenuates hypoxia-induced PAH in rats. Further investigation of pulmonary endothelial-specific Tph1 inhibition via gene interventions is warranted.
Morecroft, Ian; White, Katie; Caruso, Paola; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Alba, Raul; Reynolds, Paul N; Danilov, Sergei M; Baker, Andrew H; MacLean, Margaret R
The study was designed to explore the alteration of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), induced by transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel-specific agonist menthol, in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) between control and pulmonary hypertensive (PH) rats. PH rat models were established by means of chronic hypoxia (CH) and monocrotaline (MCT) injection, respectively. PASMCs from control and PH rats were cultured. The change of [Ca(2+)]i in PASMCs induced by menthol, and the effect of TRPM8 channel-specific antagonist BCTC on the change of [Ca(2+)]i, were observed. Cellular localization of TRPM8 was examined by using immunohistochemistry. Results showed that menthol increased [Ca(2+)]i in the control PASMCs both in Ca(2+)-normal and Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solutions, and at the same time BCTC could inhibit these two kinds of elevations. Compared with the control group, elevations of [Ca(2+)]i were decreased notably in CH- and MCT-pretreated PASMCs superfused with 2 mmol/L Ca(2+)- or 0 Ca(2+)-Tyrode's solutions. Immunohistochemical localization experiments showed that the whole PASMCs were dyed brown except for the nucleus. This study verified that TRPM8 exists both in membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum of PASMCs. In addition, CH- and MCT-pretreatment could independently down-regulate the Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+) release mediated by TRPM8 channel. PMID:24964842
Chen, Gai-Ying; Jiao, Hai-Xia; Wang, Ming-Yue; Wang, Rui-Xing; Lin, Mo-Jun
Serotonin is produced by pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) via tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1). Pathologically, serotonin acts on underlying pulmonary arterial cells, contributing to vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The effects of hypoxia on PAEC-Tph1 activity are unknown. We investigated the potential of a gene therapy approach to PAH using selective inhibition of PAEC-Tph1 in vivo in a hypoxic model of PAH. We exposed cultured bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (bPASMCs) to conditioned media from human PAECs (hPAECs) before and after hypoxic exposure. Serotonin levels were increased in hypoxic PAEC media. Conditioned media evoked bPASMC proliferation, which was greater with hypoxic PAEC media, via a serotonin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, adenoviral vectors targeted to PAECs (utilizing bispecific antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as the selective targeting system) were used to deliver small hairpin Tph1 RNA sequences in rats. Hypoxic rats developed PAH and increased lung Tph1. PAEC-Tph1 expression and development of PAH were attenuated by our PAEC-Tph1 gene knockdown strategy. These results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Tph1 activity and selective knockdown of PAEC-Tph1 attenuates hypoxia-induced PAH in rats. Further investigation of pulmonary endothelial-specific Tph1 inhibition via gene interventions is warranted. PMID:22525513
Morecroft, Ian; White, Katie; Caruso, Paola; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Alba, Raul; Reynolds, Paul N; Danilov, Sergei M; Baker, Andrew H; Maclean, Margaret R
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with various lung and heart diseases. PAH is characterized by vascular obstruction which leads to a sustained increased pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. Limited PAH therapies indicate that novel approaches are urgently needed for the treatment of PAH. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) has been shown to play an important role in different cardiac pathologies; however, the role of NF-?B remains limited in the setting of PAH. Here, we investigated whether NF-?B inhibition in the lungs using Club (Clara) cell-10 promoter driving I?B? mutant had any effect in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH mouse model. Our data revealed that MCT-induced PAH and right ventricular hypertrophy were associated with NF-?B activation, inflammatory response, and altered expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2, inhibitor of differentiation, and Notch-3 signaling molecules in wild-type mice; and all these alterations were prevented in I?B? mutant mice treated with MCT. Moreover, endothelial cell apoptosis and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurred in the lungs of MCT-treated wild-type mice and were restored in I?B? mutant+MCT mice, indicating an association with NF-?B signaling. In lung microvascular endothelial cells, I?B? (AA) mutant plasmid restored the decreased bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 protein level and reversed the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition process induced by transforming growth factor-?1. We conclude that NF-?B regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2-inhibitor of differentiation-Notch-3 axis genes and the subsequent endothelial cell apoptosis and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition events in the lungs, providing new mechanistic information about MCT-induced PAH and right ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:24614212
Li, Li; Wei, Chuanyu; Kim, Il-Kwon; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne; Gupta, Sudhiranjan
Whipple disease is a disorder caused by Tropheryma whipplei, a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacillus. In addition to gastrointestinal manifestations, many other systems may be involved in Whipple disease. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare manifestation of Whipple disease, and its clinical course is not well established. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with typical gastrointestinal manifestations of Whipple disease, which was diagnosed by duodenal biopsy. She was also noted to have elevated pulmonary arterial pressures on transthoracic echocardiography. There was no evidence of left-sided valvular disease, hypertrophy, or dyskinesis, and there was no evidence of endocarditis. The patient was started on intravenous ceftriaxone for 6 weeks and then transitioned to oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a year. The patient demonstrated clinical improvement, endoscopic and histologic improvement, and also resolution of PH. This is the third reported case of PH that is convincingly secondary to Whipple disease that resolved after appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:23344104
Hoskote, Sumedh S; Georgescu, Anca; Ganjhu, Lisa; Zeizafoun, Nebras; Polsky, Bruce
Retrospective analysis of hemodynamic factors was performed on hypertensive participants of our Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) center to determine whether these may have a role in the higher mortality in a subgroup of special intervention (SI) participants with minor baseline electrocardiographic abnormalities. Stroke volume was estimated by a formula [SV = K(LVETxPP)x(1 + LVET/DP) where the K factor was determined using a separate group of individuals undergoing cardiac catheterization. The Pearson correlation between the two methods (dye dilution and above formula) was 0.7744 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.57-0.89 for the true correlation. In 222 SI and 186 usual care (UC) participants with no differences in stroke volume index (SVI) and cardiac output index (CI) at baseline, SVI and CI were systematically lower during the entire period of treatment in SI receiving higher average doses of thiazide diuretics. There was a moderate increase of SVI and CI in SI participants toward baseline after hydrochlorothiazide was replaced by other antihypertensive medication in the fourth year of the trial. We conclude that the lower SVI and CI could have been a contributing factor in the higher mortality in the SI group with ECG abnormalities resulting in decreased coronary flow reserve under stress conditions in these participants with probably pre-existing asymptomatic coronary artery disease. PMID:1600636
Kezdi, P; Kezdi, P C; Khamis, H J
We examined in rats the effects of intraperitoneal angiotensin II (AII) infusion for 12 d on urinary excretion, plasma concentration, and in vitro release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a PGI2 metabolite. AII at 200 ng/min increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) progressively from 125 +/- 3 to 170 +/- 9 mmHg (P less than 0.01) and elevated fluid intake and urine volume. Urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion increased from 38 +/- 6 to 55 +/- 5 and 51 +/- 7 ng/d (P less than 0.05) on days 8 and 11, respectively, of AII infusion, but urinary PGE2 excretion did not change. Relative to a control value of 129 +/- 12 pg/ml in vehicle-infused (V) rats, arterial plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentration increased by 133% (P less than 0.01) with AII infusion. Aortic rings from AII-infused rats released more 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (68 +/- 7 ng/mg) during 15-min incubation in Krebs solution than did rings from V rats (40 +/- 3 ng/mg); release of PGE2, which was less than 1% of that of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, was also increased. Slices of inner renal medulla from AII-infused rats released more 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (14 +/- 1 ng/mg) during incubation than did slices from V rats (8 +/- 1 ng/mg, P less than 0.05), but PGE2 release was not altered. In contrast, AII infusion did not alter release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha or PGE2 from inferior vena cava segments or from renal cortex slices. Infusion of AII at 125 ng/min also increased SBP, plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentration, and in vitro release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from rings of aorta and renal inner medulla slices; at 75 ng/min AII had no effect. SBP on AII infusion day 11 correlated positively with both 6-keto-PGF1 alpha plasma concentration (r = 0.54) and net aortic ring release (r = 0.70) when data from all rats were combined. We conclude that augmentation of PGI2 production is a feature of AII-induced hypertension. The enhancement of PGI2 production may be an expression of nonspecific alteration in vascular structure and metabolic functions during AII-induced hypertension, as well as the result of a specific effect of the peptide on the arachidonate-prostaglandin system.
Diz, D I; Baer, P G; Nasjletti, A
We determined whether postnatal pulmonary hypertension induced by 70% of pregnancy at high altitude (HA) persists once the offspring return to sea level and investigated pulmonary vascular mechanisms operating under these circumstances. Pregnant ewes were divided into two groups: conception, pregnancy, and delivery at low altitude (580 m, LLL) and conception at low altitude, pregnancy at HA (3,600 m) from 30% of gestation until delivery, and return to lowland (LHL). Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was measured in vivo. Vascular reactivity and morphometry were assessed in small pulmonary arteries (SPA). Protein expression of vascular mediators was determined. LHL lambs had higher basal PAP and a greater increment in PAP after NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (20.9 ± 1.1 vs. 13.7 ± 0.5 mmHg; 39.9 ± 5.0 vs. 18.3 ± 1.3 mmHg, respectively). SPA from LHL had a greater maximal contraction to K+ (1.34 ± 0.05 vs. 1.16 ± 0.05 N/m), higher sensitivity to endothelin-1 and nitroprusside, and persistence of dilatation following blockade of soluble guanylate cyclase. The heart ratio of the right ventricle-to-left ventricle plus septum was higher in the LHL relative to LLL. The muscle area of SPA (29.3 ± 2.9 vs. 21.1 ± 1.7%) and the protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2), phosphodiesterase (1.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.7 ± 0.1), and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (0.76 ± 0.16 vs. 0.30 ± 0.01) were greater in LHL compared with LLL lambs. In contrast, LHL had decreased heme oxygenase-1 expression (0.82 ± 0.26 vs. 2.22 ± 0.44) and carbon monoxide production (all P < 0.05). Postnatal pulmonary hypertension induced by 70% of pregnancy at HA promotes cardiopulmonary remodeling that persists at sea level.
Herrera, Emilio A.; Riquelme, Raquel A.; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Ulloa, Cesar E.; Cabello, Gertrudis; Krause, Bernardo J.; Parer, Julian T.; Giussani, Dino A.
1. Vascular contractions induced by K(+)-free solution and relaxation responses following the return of K+ to the organ bath were studied in mesenteric arterial rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) with particular focus on the role of vascular adrenergic nerve-endings and endothelium. 2. In endothelium-denuded rings the omission of K+ from the incubation medium resulted in gradual contractions, the rate of which was slower in SHR than WKY. Nifedipine (1 microM) inhibited the contractions more effectively in SHR than WKY. 3. Adrenergic denervation in vitro with 6-hydroxydopamine reduced the contractions induced by the K(+)-free medium in endothelium-denuded rings. The remaining contractions after denervation were markedly greater in SHR than WKY. 4. The presence of intact vascular endothelium attenuated the K(+)-free contractions in both strains, the attenuation being smaller in SHR than WKY. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM) and methylene blue (10 microM), but not indomethacin (10 microM), abolished the attenuating effect of endothelium on the K(+)-free contractions. L-Arginine (1 mM) reversed the effect of L-NAME in WKY but not in SHR. 5. The re-addition of K+ after full K(+)-free contractions dose-dependently relaxed the rings. The rate of this K(+)-induced relaxation was significantly slower in SHR than WKY at all K+ concentrations (0.1-5.9 mM) studied, whether the endothelium or functioning adrenergic nerve-endings were present or not. Ouabain (1 mM) totally inhibited the K+ relaxation in SHR but only partially in WKY.6. Vascular smooth muscle contractions induced by high concentrations of potassium were comparable between the strains. The EC50 for noradrenaline-induced contractions was lower in SHR than WKY, but the maximal forces did not differ significantly.7. In conclusion, the contractile response in K+-free solution more clearly differentiates vascular rings from SHR and WKY than the responses induced by the classical contractile agents noradrenaline and high concentrations of potassium. The depressant effect of the presence of intact endothelium on the K+-free contractions, which was smaller in SHR than WKY, is mediated via the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Neurotransmitter release from vascular adrenergic nerve-endings participates less in the K+-free contractile response in SHR than WKY. Moreover, the contractile response is more dependent on calcium entry through nifedipine-sensitive calcium channels in SHR than WKY. The greater K+-free contractions of denervated endothelium-denuded rings and the reduced K+ relaxation rate in SHR when compared to WKY suggest increased cell membrane permeability and decreased activity of vascular Na+, K+-ATPase, respectively, in this type of genetic hypertension. PMID:1504724
Arvola, P; Pörsti, I; Vuorinen, P; Pekki, A; Vapaatalo, H
monary arteries (PAs) of 6 patients with PAH and rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, but not in the PAs of 3 patients and rats without PAH. Gene therapy with inhalation of an adenovirus carrying a phosphorylation- deficient survivin mutant with dominant-negative properties reversed established monocrotaline-induced PAH and prolonged survival by 25%. The survivin mutant lowered pulmonary vascular resistance, RV hyper- trophy,
M. Sean McMurtry; Stephen L. Archer; Dario C. Altieri; Sebastien Bonnet; Alois Haromy; Gwyneth Harry; Sandra Bonnet; Lakshmi Puttagunta; Evangelos D. Michelakis
Barnidipine is a new 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with a strong and long-lasting vasodilatory effect. In order to assess the haemodynamic profile of the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine, a randomized, double-blind study of barnidipine vs nitrendipine was performed in 24 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Following an initial 4-week placebo period, patients whose sitting diastolic blood pressure (SiDBP) was between 95 and 114 mm Hg, and whose sitting systolic blood pressure was between 150 and 219 mm Hg, were randomized (2:1 ratio) to receive either barnidipine (10 mg) or nitrendipine (10 mg) once daily, for a 6-week double-blind period. Subsequently, patients with an SiDBP of less than 90 mm Hg continued for a second 6-week period with the same monotherapy, while patients with an SiDBP of 90 mm Hg or above received double the dose of antihypertensive treatment for the next 6 weeks. Two-dimensional M- and B-mode echocardiography with Doppler flowmetry was performed at the end of both the placebo and active treatment phases. Barnidipine and nitrendipine reduced blood pressure by the same degree (barnidipine: from 165 +/- 2/100 +/- 1 to 145 +/- 2/89 +/- 1 mm Hg, p < 0.01; nitrendipine: from 163 +/- 3/100 +/- 2 to 143 +/- 7/90 +/- 3 mm Hg, p < 0.01) as a result of peripheral vasodilation. This was not accompanied by reflex neurohormonal activation. Moreover, only in the group receiving barnidipine was a significant decrease in plasma noradrenaline observed, both when the patients were in the supine position (from 298 +/- 27 to 214 +/- 21 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and when they were upright (from 472 +/- 37 to 348 +/- 38 pg/ml, p < 0.05). PMID:9660521
Argenziano, L; Izzo, R; Iovino, G; De Luca, N; Parrella, L; Morisco, C; Trimarco, B
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a recognized complication of malignant hypertension (HTN). Such patients have blood pressures > or = 200/140 mmHg but the condition is defined by the presence of papilledema and is frequently complicated by acute renal failure. Here we report two patients with severe HTN (systolic > or = 180 mmHg or diastolic > or = 120 mmHg), TMA, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, and, in one case, neurological changes (4 of 5 manifestations of the TTP pentad). A 50-year-old male with HTN presented with blurred vision, dizziness, headache, confusion, renal failure, and a TMA (PLT = 39 x 10(9)/L and LD = 2,781 normal <600 U/L). On presentation, BP was 214/133 mmHg and an ophthalmic exam demonstrated no papilledema. With HTN control over 7 days, his platelet count rebounded (220 x 10(9)/L), LD declined (1,730 U/L), and mental status improved. A 60-year-old female with diabetes, HTN, Lupus erythematosus, mild chronic anemia, and thrombocytopenia presented with abdominal pain, shortness of breath, renal failure, and a TMA (PLT = 83 x 10(9)/L and LD = 2,929 U/L). Blood pressures were 180-210/89-111 mmHg and ophthalmic exam demonstrated no papilledema. With HTN control over 8 days, her platelet count rebounded (147 x 10(9)/L), and LD declined (1,624 U/L). Although in both cases a diagnosis of TTP was considered because of overlap with the classic diagnostic pentad, neither received plasmapheresis. TTP is a diagnosis of exclusion, where there is no other likely diagnosis to explain the TMA. In cases of severe HTN (with or without papilledema), the diagnosis of TTP should be held in abeyance until the effect of HTN control can be assessed. PMID:15493050
Egan, J A; Bandarenko, N; Hay, S N; Paradowski, L; Goldberg, R; Nickeleit, V; Brecher, M E
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone in various pathological conditions. To examine the effect of in vivo overexpression of the peptide in rats, we prepared recombinant adenovirus stocks encoding the human preproET-1 cDNA (Ad.ET-1) or Escherichia coli lacZ (Ad.betaGal), each driven by cytomegalovirus early promoter. Ad.ET-1 or Ad.betaGal was injected into the caudal vein of rats and the animals were studied under anesthesia 96 h later. Hepatic overexpression of the virus-derived human ET-1 mRNA was accompanied by a 13-fold elevation of liver ET-1 content in the Ad.ET-1 group. Circulating plasma ET-1 levels in the Ad.ET-1 group were sixfold higher than those in the Ad.betaGal group. Mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 28 mmHg in the Ad.ET-1 group as compared with the Ad.betaGal group. In the Ad.ET-1 group, intravenous infusion of the ET(A) receptor antagonist FR 139317 reduced the blood pressure to levels seen in the Ad.betaGal group, whereas the same antagonist did not significantly alter the blood pressure in the Ad.betaGal group. Intravenous infusion of the ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ-788 caused a small but significant increase in blood pressure in both groups. These findings demonstrate that endogenous overexpression of preproET-1, accompanied by an elevation of plasma ET-1 concentrations to the levels seen in pathophysiological states, can cause systemic hypertension through the activation of the ETA receptor.
Niranjan, V; Telemaque, S; deWit, D; Gerard, R D; Yanagisawa, M
Estrogen receptor (ER) activation in central autonomic nuclei modulates arterial blood pressure (ABP) and counteracts the deleterious effect of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that hypertension, in turn, influences the expression and trafficking of gonadal steroid receptors in central cardiovascular circuits. Thus, we examined whether ER- and progestin receptor (PR)-immunoreactivity (ir) are altered in medullary and hypothalamic autonomic areas of
Teresa A. Milner; Carrie T. Drake; Andree Lessard; Elizabeth M. Waters; Annelyn Torres-Reveron; Bradley Graustein; Katherine Mitterling; Kelly Frys; Costantino Iadecola
Background Lung inflammation precedes the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH); however its role in the pathogenesis of HPH is poorly understood. We sought to characterize the hypoxic inflammatory response and elucidate its role in the development of HPH. We also aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an anti-inflammatory enzyme, is protective in HPH. Methods and Results We generated bitransgenic mice that overexpress human HO-1 under doxycycline (dox) control in an inducible, lung-specific manner. Hypoxic exposure of mice in the absence of dox resulted in early transient accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Alveolar macrophages acquired an alternatively activated phenotype (M2) in response to hypoxia, characterized by the expression of Found in Inflammatory Zone-1, Arginase-1 and Chitinase-3-like-3. A brief, two-day pulse of dox delayed but did not prevent the peak of hypoxic inflammation, and could not protect from HPH. In contrast, a seven-day dox treatment sustained high HO-1 levels during the entire period of hypoxic inflammation, inhibited macrophage accumulation and activation, induced macrophage IL-10 expression, and prevented the development of HPH. Supernatants from hypoxic M2 macrophages promoted proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells while treatment with carbon monoxide, a HO-1 enzymatic product, abrogated this effect. Conclusions Early recruitment and alternative activation of macrophages in hypoxic lungs is critical for the later development of HPH. HO-1 may confer protection from HPH by effectively modifing macrophage activation state in hypoxia.
Vergadi, Eleni; Chang, Mun Seog; Lee, Changjin; Liang, Olin; Liu, Xianlan; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella
Objective: To determine whether higher levels of anti-?2-glycoprotein 1 before 25 weeks’ gestation are independently associated with either pregnancy loss or pregnancy-induced hypertension.Methods: Serum samples for the immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM isotypes of anti-?2-glycoprotein 1, anticardiolipin antibody, and antiphosphatidylserine were collected from 325 low-risk nulliparas who presented for prenatal care before 25 weeks’ gestation. This cohort was followed prospectively
Anne Lynch; Tim Byers; Woodruff Emlen; Dawn Rynes; Susan M Shetterly; Richard F Hamman
Cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene is a member of the NALP subfamily of the CATERPILLER protein family that is expressed predominantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, which is to regulate apoptosis or inflammation through the activation of NF-?B and caspase. Recent genetic analyses suggested an association between inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes in the development of hypertension. This is the
Toshinori Omi; Maki Kumada; Toyomi Kamesaki; Hiroshi Okuda; Lkhagvasuren Munkhtulga; Yoshiko Yanagisawa; Nanami Utsumi; Takaya Gotoh; Akira Hata; Masayoshi Soma; Satoshi Umemura; Toshio Ogihara; Norio Takahashi; Yasuharu Tabara; Kazuyuki Shimada; Hiroyuki Mano; Eiji Kajii; Tetsuro Miki; Sadahiko Iwamoto
Background: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has regulatory effects on myocardial and vasomotor functions usually demonstrated by in vitro or isolated heart studies. We studied in vivo effects in monocrotaline induced pulmonary hypertensive rabbits immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and tested them versus calcium channel and beta-blockers.Methods: The study consisted of six groups (N=30; five rabbits\\/group): (1) Control with no pretreatment,
Serdar Gunaydin; Yasuharu Imai; Yoshinori Takanashi; Kazuhiro Seo; Ikuo Hagino; Dehua Chang; Toshiharu Shinoka
Purpose Variation in sensitivity to glucocorticoids observed in healthy population is influenced by genetic polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1). N363S, ER22/23EK, and Bcl I have been previously described as glucocorticoid-sensitivity modulating polymorphisms. We investigated whether these variants may contribute to steroid-induced ocular hypertension and if they play a role as protective or risk factors during exogenous glucocorticoid administration. Methods We examined 102 patients who underwent photorefractive keratectomy and received topical steroids (either fluorometholone 0.1% or prednisolone acetate 0.5% alone or combined) as part of postoperative therapy. The choice of steroid depended on course of wound healing and regression. Variations in intraocular pressure (IOP) levels in response to steroid therapy were observed. To genotype DNA, allele-specific PCR amplification was applied for the N363S polymorphism, and PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to examine the Bcl I and the ER22/23EK polymorphisms. We separately analyzed data from three groups of patients: those who received fluorometholone only; those who were initially given fluorometholone then later switched to prednisolone acetate; and those who received prednisolone acetate only. Covariance analysis with forward stepwise variable selection was carried out. Results In cases where prednisolone acetate was administered, we found a significant correlation between N363S heterozygosity and steroid-induced ocular hypertension. ER22/23EK and Bcl I polymorphisms do not have a major influence on the risk of developing steroid-induced ocular hypertension. Conclusions Genotyping of high risk steroid responders may allow an individual therapy to avoid steroid-induced ocular hypertension. The N363S polymorphism may have a clinical significance in the future.
Borgulya, Gabor; Filkorn, Tamas; Majnik, Judit; Banyasz, Ilona; Nagy, Zoltan Zsolt
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are characterized by enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction, whereas their vasodilator mechanisms are relatively attenuated compared to their high BP. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate whether the impaired function of BKCa and/or KV channels is responsible for abnormal cAMP-induced vasodilatation in genetic hypertension. Using conscious SHR and normotensive WKY rats we have shown that under the basal conditions cAMP overproduction elicited by the infusion of beta-adrenoceptor agonist (isoprenaline) caused a more pronounced decrease of baseline blood pressure (BP) in SHR compared to WKY rats. Isoprenaline infusion prevented BP rises induced by acute NO synthase blockade in both strains and it also completely abolished the fully developed BP response to NO synthase blockade. These cAMP-induced vasodilator effects were diminished by the inhibition of either BKCa or KV channels in SHR but simultaneous blockade of both K(+) channel types was necessary in WKY rats. Under basal conditions, the vasodilator action of both K(+) channels was enhanced in SHR compared to WKY rats. However, the overall contribution of K(+) channels to cAMP-induced vasodilator mechanisms is insufficient in genetic hypertension since a concurrent activation of both K(+) channels by cAMP overproduction is necessary for the prevention of BP rise elicited by acute NO/cGMP deficiency in SHR. This might be caused by less effective activation of these K(+) channels by cAMP in SHR. In conclusion, K(+) channels seem to have higher activity in SHR, but their vasodilator action cannot match sufficiently the augmented vasoconstriction in this hypertensive strain. PMID:24397812
Pintérová, M; Behuliak, M; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J
Hypertension affects about 10 – 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta), aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism – Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3), non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia), and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy) to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy) for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers) and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics). Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy.
Although the antioxidant properties of flavonoids are well documented, it is still unclear whether these effects are dependent on radical scavenging or iron chelating activities. Oxidative stress, a state of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity, is associated with vascular disease conditions such as hypertension. Both the anti- and pro-oxidant effects of tea catechins have been implicated in the alterations of cellular functions that determine their chemoprotective and therapeutic potentials in health and diseases. The present study examined the concentration dependent (10(-7) to 10(-4) ?m) effects of (-)-epicatechin and L-ascorbic acid on Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -ATPase activity in hypertensive patients and normal subjects. L-ascorbic acid has been used as a positive control to compare the effect of (-)-epicatechin. A significant (p?0.0001) decrease in the activities of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -ATPase was observed in hypertensive patients compared with normal subjects. We report that (-)-epicatechin shows a significant (p?0.001) dose-dependent protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), which is manisfested as a decrease in the activity of erythrocyte Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -ATPase, in hypertensive patients as well as normal subjects. The effect of L-ascorbic acid was also significant (p?0.001) and was comparable with that of (-)-epicatechin. PMID:22371366
Kumar, Navneet; Kant, Ruchi; Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim
Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...
Objective: Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to stress are significant predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, we examined whether diet-induced obesity alters the BP and HR responses to stress and whether these alterations are associated with augmented cardiovascular morbidity in the rat.Research Methods and Procedures: Adult male
Lucie Šedová; Julie Bérubé; Daniel Gaudet; Marc Dumont; Johanne Tremblay; Pavel Hamet; Zdenka Pausová
Effects of aqueous extracts of Apocynum venetum leaves (Luobuma extracts) on the blood pressure were evaluated in hypertensive animal models, such as spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), renal hypertensive rats and NaCl-induced hypertensive rats. In SHR, administration of Luobuma (heat-processed and unprocessed leaves) extracts at a dose of 70 mg\\/rat per day significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure value, but their
Dong-Wook Kim; Takako Yokozawa; Masao Hattori; Shigetoshi Kadota; Tsuneo Namba
Rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (A-CRF) develop metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities resembling those in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of hypertension in this model and to assess aortic stiffness in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with radiotelemetry probes for arterial pressure recordings and received either chow containing adenine or normal control diet. At 7 to 11 wk after study start, blood pressure responses to high NaCl (4%) diet and different pharmacological interventions were analyzed. Aortic pulse wave velocity was measured under isoflurane anesthesia. Baseline 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 101 ± 10 and 119 ± 9 mmHg in controls and A-CRF animals, respectively (P < 0.01). After 5 days of a high-NaCl diet, MAP had increased by 24 ± 6 mmHg in A-CRF animals vs. 2 ± 1 mmHg in controls (P < 0.001). Candesartan (10 mg/kg by gavage) produced a more pronounced reduction of MAP in controls vs. A-CRF animals (-12 ± 3 vs. -5 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05). Aortic pulse wave velocity was elevated in A-CRF rats (5.10 ± 0.51 vs. 4.58 ± 0.17 m/s, P < 0.05). Plasma levels of creatinine were markedly elevated in A-CRF animals (259 ± 46 vs. 31 ± 2 ?M, P < 0.001), whereas plasma renin activity was suppressed (0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 12.3 ± 7.3 ?g·l(-1)·h(-1), P < 0.001). In conclusion, hypertension in A-CRF animals is characterized by low plasma renin activity and is aggravated by high-NaCl diet, suggesting a pathogenic role for sodium retention and hypervolemia probably secondary to renal insufficiency. Additionally, aortic stiffness was elevated in A-CRF animals as indicated by increased aortic pulse wave velocity. PMID:23515616
Nguy, Lisa; Johansson, Maria E; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Jaana; Teerlink, Tom; Carlström, Mattias; Lundberg, Jon O; Nilsson, Holger; Guron, Gregor
Hypertension is associated with low-grade inflammation, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to be linked to the development and maintenance of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of scutellarin (administered by oral gavage daily for 2 weeks) on brain TLR4/nuclear factor kappa B-(NF- ? B-) mediated inflammation and blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive (using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method) rats. Immunofluorescence and western immunoblot analyses revealed that hypertension contributed to the activation of TLR4 and NF- ? B, accompanied by significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? ), interleukin-1 ? (IL-1 ? ), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Furthermore, expression of the antiapoptotic protein, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl1), was decreased, and the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and cleavedcaspase-3 p17 were increased in combined cerebral cortical/striatal soluble lysates. Scutellarin significantly lowered blood pressure and attenuated the number of activated microglia and macrophages in brains of hypertensive rats. Furthermore, scutellarin significantly reduced the expression of TLR4, NF- ? B p65, TNF- ? , IL-1 ? , IL-18, Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 p17, and increased the expression of Mcl1. Overall, these results revealed that scutellarin exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and decreases blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Therefore, scutellarin may be a potential therapeutic agent in hypertension-associated diseases. PMID:24223475
Chen, Xingyong; Shi, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Xu; Lei, Huixin; Long, Simei; Su, Huanxing; Pei, Zhong; Huang, Ruxun
Hypertension is associated with low-grade inflammation, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to be linked to the development and maintenance of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of scutellarin (administered by oral gavage daily for 2 weeks) on brain TLR4/nuclear factor kappa B-(NF-?B-) mediated inflammation and blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive (using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method) rats. Immunofluorescence and western immunoblot analyses revealed that hypertension contributed to the activation of TLR4 and NF-?B, accompanied by significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Furthermore, expression of the antiapoptotic protein, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl1), was decreased, and the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and cleavedcaspase-3 p17 were increased in combined cerebral cortical/striatal soluble lysates. Scutellarin significantly lowered blood pressure and attenuated the number of activated microglia and macrophages in brains of hypertensive rats. Furthermore, scutellarin significantly reduced the expression of TLR4, NF-?B p65, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-18, Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 p17, and increased the expression of Mcl1. Overall, these results revealed that scutellarin exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and decreases blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Therefore, scutellarin may be a potential therapeutic agent in hypertension-associated diseases.
Chen, Xingyong; Shi, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Xu; Lei, Huixin; Long, Simei; Su, Huanxing; Pei, Zhong; Huang, Ruxun
Background The increase in fructose ingestion has been linked to overdrive of sympathetic activity and hypertension associated with the metabolic syndrome. The premotor neurons for generation of sympathetic vasomotor activity reside in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Activation of RVLM results in sympathoexcitation and hypertension. Neurons in the central nervous system are able to utilize fructose as a carbon source of ATP production. We examined in this study whether fructose affects ATP content in RVLM and its significance in the increase in central sympathetic outflow and hypertension induced by the high fructose diet (HFD). Results In normotensive rats fed with high fructose diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, there was a significant increase in tissue ATP content in RVLM, accompanied by the increases in the sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure. These changes were blunted by intracisternal infusion of an ATP synthase inhibitor, oligomycin, to the HFD-fed animals. In the catecholaminergic-containing N2a cells, fructose dose-dependently upregulated the expressions of glucose transporter 2 and 5 (GluT2, 5) and the rate-limiting enzyme of fructolysis, ketohexokinase (KHK), leading to the increases in pyruvate and ATP production, as well as the release of the neurotransmitter, dopamine. These cellular events were significantly prevented after the gene knocking down by lentiviral transfection of small hairpin RNA against KHK. Conclusion These results suggest that increases in ATP content in RVLM may be engaged in the augmented sympathetic vasomotor activity and hypertension associated with the metabolic syndrome induced by the HFD. At cellular level, the increase in pyruvate levels via fructolysis is involved in the fructose-induced ATP production and the release of neurotransmitter.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of diosmin in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized rats by weekly twice subcutaneous injection of DOCA (25 mg/kg body weight) and 1% NaCl in the drinking water for six consecutive weeks. The important pathological events that occurred in DOCA-salt treated rats were significant increase in systolic, diastolic blood pressure, sodium and chloride in serum and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) in plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart and aorta) and significant decrease in serum potassium, total nitrite and nitrate levels in plasma. The activities of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and the levels of renal urea, uric acid, creatinine in serum, water intake, and organ weight (kidney and heart) were significantly increased in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. DOCA-salt treated rats also showed a significant decrease in body weight, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte and tissues and the levels of reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E in plasma and tissues. Treatment with diosmin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) brings back all the above parameters to near normal level, in which 50 mg/kg body weight showed the highest effect than that of other two doses. Histopathology of heart and kidney also confirmed the protective effect of diosmin. Thus the experiment clearly showed that diosmin acts as an antihypertensive agent against DOCA-salt induced hypertension. PMID:22266490
Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Raja, Boobalan
By breeding and feeding salt to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) continuously over a long period (until 60 wk old), rats with systolic blood pressures (SBP) of over 270 mmHg were prepared. It was studied whether or not supplying large amounts of vitamin C (200 mg/rat/d) over this period might bring any beneficial effect to blood pressure. Moreover, physico-chemical studies were performed to measure the components and enzymes in the blood and urine at 53 and 60 wk-old, and biochemical studies on vitamin C were also carried out in this experiment. Male (14 rats: 7 wk-old, 100-105 g) and female (15 rats: 7 wk-old, 95-100 g) SHR were divided into three groups and bred continuously for 53 wk. The A group rats were given salt (2.5 g/100 g of diet), the B group rats were given salt and vitamin C (500 mg/100 mL of drinking water), and the C group rats were controls. The results showed almost the same tendencies between male and female rats. The body weights of the SHR in groups A and B were slightly lower than group C. The amount of food intake in groups A and B was almost the same as group C. The amount of water intake was, in the order from highest to lowest, group A, B and C. The SBP of group A rats exhibited the highest value among the three groups. The SBP of group B rats given vitamin C simultaneously with the salt resulted in a low blood pressure level close to that of the controls (group C). Furthermore, the DBP (diastolic blood pressure) also reflected the antihypertensive effect of vitamin C as well. The heartbeat of the rats was highest in group A, and was comparable to the value in the rats receiving vitamin C simultaneously with salt. For the tests on occult blood and protein in the urine, group A rats showed strong positive reactions, whereas the group B and C rats had decreased results for both tests. The organ weights of the liver, stomach, spleen, adrenal gland and kidneys per 100 g rat body weight were not different among the three groups. The values for the bilirubin content, and the enzyme activities of ALT and AST in the blood showed to be the highest in the male rats of group A. The values from the group B rats decreased near to the normal value like the control group. Vitamin C was found to decrease the blood pressure in SHR, and also to work effectively to protect liver and kidney functions even under the condition of very high blood pressure, as high as 250 mmHg. PMID:14703303
Nishikawa, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Kaori; Matsuura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Ayako; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Urabe, Kimiko
Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in newborns with Group B streptococcal infection opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.
Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L.
Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?Ser9, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR)Ser256, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2Thr183-Tyr185, Akt-1Ser473, GSK-3?Ser9, FKHRSer256, and PKC ?Ser729 and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC ?/?IIThr638/641, ?/?410/403 were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling.
Deres, Laszlo; Bartha, Eva; Palfi, Anita; Eros, Krisztian; Riba, Adam; Lantos, Janos; Kalai, Tamas; Hideg, Kalman; Sumegi, Balazs; Gallyas, Ferenc; Toth, Kalman; Halmosi, Robert
Abstract Aims: There are no effective treatments for chronic pulmonary hypertension in infants with cardiopulmonary disorders associated with hypoxia, such as those with chronic lung disease. These patients often have poor or inconsistent pulmonary dilator responses to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy for unknown reasons. One possible explanation for poor responsiveness to iNO is reduced NO bioavailability caused by interactions between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO. Our major aim was to determine if strategies to reduce ROS improve dilator responses to the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), in resistance pulmonary arteries (PRAs) from a newborn piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension. Results: The dilation to SNAP was significantly impaired in PRAs from piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. ROS scavengers, including cell-permeable and impermeable agents to degrade hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), improved dilation to SNAP in PRAs from chronically hypoxic piglets. Treatment with agents to inhibit nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase, potential enzymatic sources of ROS, also improved dilation to SNAP in PRAs from hypoxic piglets. Innovation: Our studies are the first to utilize a newborn model of chronic pulmonary hypertension to evaluate the impact of a number of potential therapeutic strategies for ROS removal on responses to exogenous NO in the vessels most relevant to the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PRA). Conclusions: Strategies aimed at reducing ROS merit further evaluation and consideration as therapeutic approaches to improve responses to iNO in infants with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1727–1738.
Dikalova, Anna; Slaughter, James C.; Kaplowitz, M.R.; Zhang, Y.; Aschner, Judy L.
Prolonged ouabain administration (25 ?g·kg?1·day?1 for 5 wk) induces “ouabain hypertension” (OH) in rats, but the molecular mechanisms by which ouabain elevates blood pressure are unknown. Here, we compared Ca2+ signaling in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from normotensive (NT) and OH rats. Resting cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt; measured with fura-2) and phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ transients were augmented in freshly dissociated OH ASMCs. Immunoblots revealed that the expression of the ouabain-sensitive ?2-subunit of Na+ pumps, but not the predominant, ouabain-resistant ?1-subunit, was increased (2.5-fold vs. NT ASMCs) as was Na+/Ca2+ exchanger-1 (NCX1; 6-fold vs. NT) in OH arteries. Ca2+ entry, activated by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ store depletion with cyclopiazonic acid (SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor) or caffeine, was augmented in OH ASMCs. This reflected an augmented expression of 2.5-fold in OH ASMCs of C-type transient receptor potential TRPC1, an essential component of store-operated channels (SOCs); two other components of some SOCs were not expressed (TRPC4) or were not upregulated (TRPC5). Ba2+ entry activated by the diacylglycerol analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol [a measure of receptor-operated channel (ROC) activity] was much greater in OH than NT ASMCs. This correlated with a sixfold upregulation of TRPC6 protein, a ROC family member. Importantly, in primary cultured mesenteric ASMCs from normal rats, 72-h treatment with 100 nM ouabain significantly augmented NCX1 and TRPC6 protein expression and increased resting [Ca2+]cyt and ROC activity. SOC activity was also increased. Silencer RNA knockdown of NCX1 markedly downregulated TRPC6 and eliminated the ouabain-induced augmentation; silencer RNA knockdown of TRPC6 did not affect NCX1 expression but greatly attenuated its upregulation by ouabain. Clearly, NCX1 and TRPC6 expression are interrelated. Thus, prolonged ouabain treatment upregulates the Na+ pump ?2-subunit-NCX1-TRPC6 (ROC) Ca2+ signaling pathway in arterial myocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. This may explain the augmented myogenic responses and enhanced phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in OH arteries (83) as well as the high blood pressure in OH rats.
Pulina, Maria V.; Zulian, Alessandra; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Beskina, Olga; Mazzocco-Spezzia, Amparo; Baryshnikov, Sergey G.; Papparella, Italia; Hamlyn, John M.; Blaustein, Mordecai P.
The effects of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) on tonic sympathetic activity\\u000a were studied in salt-sensitive hypertension-induced heart failure. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 9 weeks\\u000a to induce chronic heart failure (CHF-DSS). The effects of intravenous administration of a selective nNOS inhibitor, S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC), and an Ang II type 1-receptor blocker,
Takehito Kemuriyama; Megumi Tandai-Hiruma; Kazuo Kato; Hiroyuki Ohta; Satoshi Maruyama; Yoshiaki Sato; Yasuhiro Nishida
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited disease of the kidneys and is marked by progressive cyst growth and decline in kidney function, resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hypertension is thought to be a significant modifying factor in the progression of renal failure in ADPKD. A number of genetic variations involved in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) pathway genes have clinical or physiological impacts on pathogenesis of hypertension-induced ESRD in ADPKD. Information on RAAS pathway gene polymorphisms and their association with ESRD and ADPKD, published till March 2013, was collected using MEDLINE search. The present review deals with RAAS gene polymorphisms focused on hypertension-induced ESRD in ADPKD in different populations. The results were inconclusive and limited by heterogeneity in the study designs and the population stratification. In lieu of applying next generation sequencing technologies to study complex diseases, it is also possible to apply the same to unravel the complexity of ESRD in ADPKD. PMID:25001132
Ramanathan, Gnanasambandan; Elumalai, Ramprasad; Periyasamy, Soundararajan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar
Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...
Introduction Hyperthermia following a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common, potentiates secondary injury, and worsens neurological\\u000a outcome. Conventional fever treatment is often ineffective. An induced normothermia protocol, utilizing intravascular cooling,\\u000a was used to assess the impact on fever incidence and intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with severe TBI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A comparative cohort study of 21 adult patients with severe TBI (GCS ? 8)
Ava M. Puccio; Michael R. Fischer; Brian T. Jankowitz; Howard Yonas; Joseph M. Darby; David O. Okonkwo
• Background: It has been shown that intravitreal injection of NGF inhibits ganglion cell degeneration after optic nerve transection\\u000a and ischemic injury. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of NGF in aqueous humor and its involvement in retinal\\u000a damage during ocular hypertension. • Methods: We used an experimental model of ocular hypertension in rabbit. Before treatment
Alessandro Lambiase; Marco Centofanti; Alessandra Micera; Gian Luca Manni; Eleonora Mattei; Alessandra De Gregorio; Giuseppe de Feo; Massimo Gilberto Bucci; Luigi Aloe
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are associated with venous hypertension. Numerous studies have revealed high expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human DAVF specimens, as well as in animal models of experimental venous hypertension. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether the VEGF signaling pathway is important in the development of DAVFs. Rats (n=216) were randomly divided into six groups. In the rats from five groups (groups A and C-E, n=45 in each group; group B, n=12), experimental venous hypertension was induced by right common carotid artery (CCA)-external jugular vein (EJV) anastomosis, superior sinus occlusion and left transver sinus occlusion, while the remaining group (group F, n=24) underwent sham surgery. The rats in group A received a VEGF recombinant adenovirus injection into the distal section of the right EJV 30 min prior to anastomosis of the CCA and EJV. An equivalent control adenovirus was injected into the right EJV of group B rats prior to anastomosis. The rats in group C received no virus prior to anastomosis and no medicine subsequent to surgery. The group D rats were lavaged with Vatalanib, a VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor, and the group E rats were lavaged with an equal quantity of saline weekly following surgery. Six rats from groups A-E and one rat from group F were sacrificed in the first, second, fourth and twelfth weeks after surgery for immunohistochemical analysis of VEGF expression and analysis of microvessel density. Cerebral angiography was performed on the remaining rats in each group on the twelfth week after surgery. The results revealed that following transfection with VEGF recombinant adenovirus, angiogenesis in the dura mater of venous hypertensive rats was increased subsequent to the increase in the VEGF expression levels of the brain and dura mater. The rate of DAVF induction by venous hypertension was significantly reduced by the VEGFR antagonist due to reduced angiogenesis in the dura mater. In conclusion, VEGF and its receptor may be important in the formation of venous hypertension-induced DAVFs.
LI, QIANG; ZHANG, QI; HUANG, QING-HAI; FANG, YI-BIN; ZHANG, ZHAO-LONG; XU, YI; LIU, JIAN-MIN
The effect of hypertension on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear at the molecular level. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypertension on the degree of hepatic steatosis, liver injury and hepatic fibrosis induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Seven-week-old male SHRs were fed standard chow with high or normal salt concentrations for 7 weeks, followed by a CDAA diet containing high or normal salt for an additional 8 or 24 weeks. Hepatic steatosis was assessed using hepatic triglyceride levels and Oil red O staining. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated using Sirius red and Azan staining. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) gradually increased with a high-salt diet and was significantly higher after 7 weeks of feeding with high-salt vs. normal-salt chow. After 8 weeks on the CDAA diet, the degree of hepatic steatosis did not differ between the high-salt and normal-salt groups; however, alanine aminotransferase and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher and hepatic mRNA levels for interleukin (IL)-10 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 were significantly lower in the high-salt group compared with the normal-salt group. After 24 weeks on the CDAA diet, the high-salt group had significantly more severe hepatic fibrosis and a higher hepatic mRNA expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and lower hepatic IL-10 and HO-1 mRNA levels compared with the normal-salt group. In conclusion, our results indicate that hypertension is a potential risk factor for liver injury and hepatic fibrosis through glucose intolerance and decreased IL-10-mediated or HO-1-induced anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:24190226
Arima, Shiho; Uto, Hirofumi; Ibusuki, Rie; Kumamoto, Ryo; Tanoue, Shirou; Mawatari, Seiichi; Oda, Kohei; Numata, Masatsugu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito
Locally acting insulin growth factor isoform (mIGF-1) and the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 are implicated in life and health span. Heart failure is associated with aging and is a major cause of death. mIGF-1 protects the heart from oxidative stresses via SIRT1. SIRT1 subcellular localization and its genomic regulation by mIGF-1 are unknown. We show here that SIRT1 is located in the nuclei of a significant fraction of cardiomyocytes. Using high throughput sequencing approaches in mIGF-1 transgenic mice, we identified new targets of the mIGF-1/SIRT1 signaling. In addition to its potent cardioprotective properties, cardiac-restricted mIGF-1 transgene induced systemic changes such as high blood pressure, leukocytosis and an enhanced fear response, in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Cardiac mIGF-1/SIRT1 signaling may thus modulate disparate systemic functions.
Bolasco, Giulia; Calogero, Raffaele; Carrara, Matteo; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Bilbao, Daniel; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on biochemical and cardiovascular changes resulting from exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin.Methods: A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into the following four groups: (1) control group was administered with 0.5 mL corn oil by gavage and 0.5 cc vehicle of melatonin (proportionally nine parts physiological serum + one part ethyl alcohol) intraperitoneally for 4 weeks, (2) the melatonin group was given 5 mg/kg/day melatonin intraperitoneally for 4 weeks, (3) the TCDD group was given 500 ng/kg/day TCDD by gavage for 4 weeks and (4) the TCDD + melatonin group was given TCDD (500 ng/kg/day) by gavage and melatonin (5 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally simultaneously for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was evaluated by the tail-cuff method. Vascular responses to phenylephrine and acetylcholine were evaluated in the isolated thoracic aortas.Results: TCDD not only augmented the systolic blood pressure but also increased the contractile responses to phenylephrine in aorta. Melatonin reversed the blood pressure augmented by TCDD and decreased the contractile responses to phenylephrine in aorta. TCDD induced an increase in the malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue and melatonin did not change it. Therefore, TCDD caused a decrease in glutathione levels in kidney tissues and melatonin reversed it.Conclusion: Present data demonstrated that TCDD may lead to an increase in blood pressure via increased renal oxidative stress and vascular reactivity. However, melatonin might ameliorate the blood pressure disturbed by TCDD in part by decreasing the oxidant activity induced by TCDD. PMID:23308013
Ilhan, Selcuk; Atessahin, Dilek; Atessahin, Ahmet; Mutlu, Emre; Onat, Elif; Sahna, Engin
Essential hypertension can be defined as a rise in blood pressure of unknown cause that increases risk for cerebral, cardiac, and renal events. In industrialised countries, the risk of becoming hypertensive (blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg) during a lifetime exceeds 90%. Essential hypertension usually clusters with other cardiovascular risk factors such as ageing, being overweight, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia. Subtle target-organ damage such as left-ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and cognitive dysfunction takes place early in the course of hypertensive cardiovascular disease, although catastrophic events such as stroke, heart attack, renal failure, and dementia usually happen after long periods of uncontrolled hypertension only. All antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure (by definition) and this decline is the best determinant of cardiovascular risk reduction. However, differences between drugs exist with respect to reduction of target-organ disease and prevention of major cardiovascular events. Most hypertensive patients need two or more drugs for blood-pressure control and concomitant statin treatment for risk factor reduction. Despite the availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, hypertension and its concomitant risk factors remain uncontrolled in most patients. PMID:17707755
Messerli, Franz H; Williams, Bryan; Ritz, Eberhard
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) have an abnormality in cholesterol synthesis, but the pathological relevance of this to stroke and related neuronal disorders is not yet clear. The induction of astrocyte-derived cholesterol transportation to neurons by apolipoprotein E (apoE) promotes neuronal repair after brain injuries such as stroke. Such repair is reduced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and stroke conditions. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) regulates the production of apoE-cholesterol-rich high density lipoproteins (HDL) and induces gliosis of astrocytes. On the other hand, high levels of plasma carotenoids reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Thus, we investigated the expression of apoE in primary astrocytes that had been treated with IL-1? or ?-carotene. In addition, we compared the expression levels of Apoe genes in astrocytes from SHRSP/Izm and normal control rats, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm) following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The expression levels of genes and proteins were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting (WB), and immunofluorescence analysis. IL-1? decreased the expression levels of the Apoe gene. Conversely, ?-carotene significantly enhanced the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol regulation, including Abca1, Abcg1, Hmgcr as well as Apoe. During H/R, the gene expression levels of Apoe were decreased in the SHRSP/Izm rats in comparison with the WKY/Izm rats. These results suggest that IL-1? decreases Apoe expression levels, whereas ?-carotene strongly elevates Apoe levels and inhibits FGF1-mediated gliosis of astrocytes. Furthermore, under hypoxic stress, astrocytes isolated from SHRSP/Izm rats displayed altered regulation of Apoe compared with those from WKY/Izm rats. PMID:23147682
Yamagata, Kazuo; Nakayama, Chika; Suzuki, Koichi
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a stress response enzyme which presents with cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory properties. Six-month chronic overcirculation-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in piglets has been previously reported as a model of right ventricular (RV) failure related to the RV activation of apoptotic and inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that altered HO-1 signalling could be involved in both pulmonary vascular and RV changes. Fifteen growing piglets were assigned to a sham operation (n = 8) or to an anastomosis of the left innominate artery to the pulmonary arterial trunk (n = 7). Six months later, hemodynamics was evaluated after closure of the shunt. After euthanasia of the animals, pulmonary and myocardial tissue was sampled for pathobiological evaluation. Prolonged shunting was associated with a tendency to decreased pulmonary gene and protein expressions of HO-1, while pulmonary gene expressions of interleukin (IL)-33, IL-19, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and -2 were increased. Pulmonary expressions of constitutive HO-2 and pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? remained unchanged. Pulmonary vascular resistance (evaluated by pressure/flow plots) was inversely correlated to pulmonary HO-1 protein and IL-19 gene expressions, and correlated to pulmonary ICAM-1 gene expression. Pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness and PVR were inversely correlated to pulmonary IL-19 expression. RV expression of HO-1 was decreased, while RV gene expressions TNF-? and ICAM-2 were increased. There was a correlation between RV ratio of end-systolic to pulmonary arterial elastances and RV HO-1 expression. These results suggest that downregulation of HO-1 is associated to PAH and RV failure. PMID:23936023
Belhaj, Asmae; Dewachter, Laurence; Kerbaul, François; Brimioulle, Serge; Dewachter, Céline; Naeije, Robert; Rondelet, Benoît
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) causes right ventricular failure and possibly even death by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy has provided an alternative treatment for ailments of various organs by promoting cell regeneration at the site of pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of pulmonary haemodynamics, pathology and expressions of various genes, including ET (endothelin)-1, ET receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after bone marrow cell (BMC) transfusion. The rats were grouped as the control (C) group, monocrotaline (M) group, and BMC transfusion (B) group. M and B groups received subcutaneous (sc) injection of MCT (60 mg/kg). BMCs were transfused by intravenous injection at the tail 1 week after MCT injection in B group. Results showed that the average RV pressure significantly decreased in the B group compared with the M group. RV weight and the ratio of RH/LH+septum significantly decreased in the B group compared to the M group. Gene expressions of ET-1, ERA, NOS 3, MMP 2, TIMP, IL-6, and TNF-? significantly decreased in week 4 in the B group compared with the M group. In conclusion, BMC transfusion appears to improve survival rate, RVH, and mean RV pressure, and decreases gene expressions of ET-1, ERA, NOS 3, MMP 2, TIMP, IL-6, and TNF-?.
Kim, Kwan Chang; Lee, Hae Ryun; Kim, Sung Jin; Cho, Min-Sun
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling of the pulmonary artery (PA). Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inappropriate adaptation through the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been disclosed in various types of diseases. Here we examined whether ER stress is involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. Four weeks of chronic normobaric hypoxia increased right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure by 63% compared with that in normoxic controls and induced RV hypertrophy and medial thickening of the PA in C57BL/6J mice. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone, significantly reduced RV systolic pressure by 30%, attenuated RV hypertrophy and PA muscularization, and increased total running distance in a treadmill test by 70% in hypoxic mice. The beneficial effects of 4-PBA were associated with suppressed expression of inflammatory cytokines and ER stress markers, including Grp78 and Grp94 in the activating transcription factor-6 branch, sXbp1 and Pdi in the inositol-requiring enzyme-1 branch and Atf4 in the PKR-like ER kinase branch, and reduced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? in the lung. The pattern of changes in ER stress and inflammatory markers by 4-PBA in the lung of the PAH model was reproduced in PA smooth muscle cells by chronic stimulation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB or hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of each UPR branch sensor activated other branches and promoted proliferation of PA smooth muscle cells. The findings indicate that activation of all branches of the UPR and accompanying inflammation play a major role in the pathogenesis of PAH, and that chemical chaperones are potentially therapeutic agents for PAH. PMID:24610918
Koyama, Masayuki; Furuhashi, Masato; Ishimura, Shutaro; Mita, Tomohiro; Fuseya, Takahiro; Okazaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Miura, Tetsuji
The aim of this study was to examine the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and downstream signaling of prostanoids in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) using mice with genetically manipulated COX-2 expression. COX-2 knockdown (KD) mice, characterized by 80–90% suppression of COX-2, and wild-type (WT) control mice were treated weekly with monocrotaline (MCT) over 10 weeks. Mice were examined for cardiac hypertrophy/function and right ventricular pressure. Lung histopathological analysis was performed and various assays were carried out to examine oxidative stress, as well as gene, protein, cytokine and prostanoid expression. We found that MCT increased right ventricular systolic and pulmonary arterial pressures in comparison to saline-treated mice, with no evidence of cardiac remodeling. Gene expression of endothelin receptor A and thromboxane synthesis, regulators of vasoconstriction, were increased in MCT-treated lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung sections demonstrated mild inflammation and perivascular edema but activation of inflammatory cells was not predominant under the experimental conditions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and indicators of oxidative stress in lungs were significantly increased, especially in COX-2 KD MCT-treated mice. Gene expression of NOX-4, but not NOX-2, two NADPH oxidase subunits crucial for superoxide generation, was induced by ?4-fold in both groups of mice by MCT. Vasodilatory and anti-aggregatory prostacyclin was reduced by ?85% only in MCT-treated COX-2 KD mice. This study suggests that increased oxidative stress-derived endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction and mild inflammation, exacerbated by the lack of COX-2, contribute to the pathogenesis of early stages of PH when mild hemodynamic changes are evident and not yet accompanied by vascular and cardiac remodeling.
Seta, Francesca; Rahmani, Mahboubeh; Turner, Patricia V.; Funk, Colin D.
Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with portal hypertension. Among liver transplant (LT) candidates, reported incidence rates of POPH range from 4.5% to 8.5%. In patients with LT, intraoperative death and immediate post-LT mortality are feared clinical events when transplantation is attempted in the setting of untreated, moderate to severe POPH; therefore, POPH precludes LT unless the mean pulmonary artery pressure can be reduced to a safe level and right ventricular function optimized. Specific pulmonary artery vasodilator medications seem effective in reducing pulmonary artery pressures and improving right ventricular function and survival. PMID:24679504
Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Krowka, Michael J
Previous studies using the fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rat have indicated that genetic factors appear to be important in determining the susceptibility to develop renal damage. This was further investigated by comparing the effects of N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertension on functional and structural renal damage in two normotensive strains, the resistant August × Copenhagen Irish rat (ACI) and the
Richard P. E. van Dokkum; Howard J. Jacob; Abraham P. Provoost
An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.
Foulke, J. M.
Pulmonary involvement is common in patients with portal hypertension and can manifest in diverse manners. Changes in pulmonary arterial resistance, manifesting either as the hepatopulmonary syndrome or portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), have been increasingly recognized in these patients in recent years. The prognosis in patients with liver disease who also suffer from significant POPH is considered to be poor. Higher degree of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) may preclude a patient from liver transplant as mortality in these patients is high. This review summarizes the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, as well as the latest concepts in the pathogenesis and management of POPH, which is defined as is a form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with portal hypertension with or without underlying chronic liver disease. PMID:23982562
Barua, U K; Hossain, A S; Roy, G C; Rahman, M A; Das, M
Elevated blood pressure (BP) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are complex traits representing major global health problems1,2. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified common variants giving independent susceptibility for CKD and hypertension in the promoter of the UMOD gene3-9, encoding uromodulin, the major protein secreted in the normal urine. Despite compelling genetic evidence, the underlying biological mechanism is not understood. Here, we demonstrate that UMOD risk variants directly increase UMOD expression in vitro and in vivo. We modeled this effect in transgenic mice and showed that uromodulin overexpression leads to salt-sensitive hypertension and to age-dependent renal lesions that are similarly observed in elderly subjects homozygous for UMOD risk variants. We demonstrate that the link between uromodulin and hypertension is caused by activation of the renal sodium co-transporter NKCC2. This very mechanism is relevant in humans, as pharmacological inhibition of NKCC2 is more effective in lowering BP in hypertensive patients homozygous for UMOD risk variants. Our findings establish a link between the genetic susceptibility to hypertension and CKD, the control of uromodulin expression and its role in a salt-reabsorbing tubular segment of the kidney. These data point to uromodulin as a novel therapeutic target to lower BP and preserve renal function.
Trudu, Matteo; Janas, Sylvie; Lanzani, Chiara; Debaix, Huguette; Schaeffer, Celine; Ikehata, Masami; Citterio, Lorena; Demaretz, Sylvie; Trevisani, Francesco; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Glaudemans, Bob; Laghmani, Kamel; Dell'Antonio, Giacomo; Loffing, Johannes; Rastaldi, Maria P.; Manunta, Paolo
\\u000a High blood pressure (BP) is a very important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is often labeled the “silent killer” because\\u000a arterial hypertension will lead to serious CV events such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Moreover,\\u000a uncontrolled essential hypertension also leads to renal insufficiency, which accelerates the process of blood pressure elevation\\u000a (1, 2). There is a shift
Daniel A. Duprez
Glitazones have anti-inflammatory properties by interfering with the transcription of proinflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and with ROS production, which are increased in hypertension. This study analyzed whether pioglitazone modulates COX-2 expression in hypertension by interfering with ROS and endothelin (ET)-1. In vivo, pioglitazone (2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 28 days) reduced the greater levels of COX-2, pre-pro-ET-1, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity as well as O2 (·-) production found in aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ANG II increased COX-2 and pre-pro-ET-1 levels more in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from hypertensive rats compared with normotensive rats. The ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHR cells. ANG II also increased NOX-1 expression, NOX activity, and superoxide production in SHR cells; the selective NOX-1 inhibitor ML-171 and catalase reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 and ET-1 transcription. ANG II also increased c-Jun transcription and phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-c-Jun, and p65 NF-?B subunit nuclear protein expression. SP-600125 and lactacystin, JNK and NF-?B inhibitors, respectively, reduced ANG II-induced ET-1, COX-2, and NOX-1 levels and NOX activity. Pioglitazone reduced the effects of ANG II on NOX activity, NOX-1, pre-pro-ET-1, COX-2, and c-Jun mRNA levels, JNK activation, and nuclear phospho-c-Jun and p65 expression. In conclusion, ROS production and ET-1 are involved in ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHRs, explaining the greater COX-2 expression observed in this strain. Furthermore, pioglitazone inhibits ANG II-induced COX-2 expression likely by interfering with NF-?B and activator protein-1 proinflammatory pathways and downregulating ROS production and ET-1 transcription, thus contributing to the anti-inflammatory properties of glitazones. PMID:24727493
Pérez-Girón, Jose V; Palacios, Roberto; Martín, Angela; Hernanz, Raquel; Aguado, Andrea; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Barrús, María T; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J
Recent studies evidenced a decrease in ghrelin's aqueous humor levels in patients with glaucoma. The goal of our investigation was to study the effect of the ghrelin-GHSR-1a system in the modulation of intraocular pressure in acute ocular hypertension models and its expression and distribution in ocular tissues. Two animal models of acute ocular hypertension were used to study the effect of the ghrelin-GHSR-1a system in the modulation of intraocular pressure: the rabbit and the rat. Ocular hypertension was induced by an intravitreal injection of 20% NaCl. Ghrelin or des-acyl ghrelin were delivered subconjunctivally and the intraocular pressure was assessed by a rebound tonometer that was calibrated for each species. In addition, we have studied the influence of nitric oxide and prostaglandins on ghrelin's effect in the rabbit animal model. Finally, we determined by immunofluorescence the expression of ghrelin and GHSR-1 in the rat's ocular tissue. Ghrelin decreased the intraocular pressure in both animal models (maximum decrease: 43.8±12.0% in the rabbit and 29.0±7.46% in the rat). In the rabbit, this effect was blunted in the presence of l-NAME and ketorolac. Des-acyl ghrelin only decreased the intraocular pressure in the rat (maximum decrease: 34.9±8.15%). Ghrelin expression was detected in the ciliary processes and GHSR-1 expression was detected in the trabecular meshwork and ciliary body. The ghrelin-GHSR-1 system is expressed in the anterior segment of the eye. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are responsible for a hypotensive effect in acute ocular hypertension animal models. PMID:24780389
Rocha-Sousa, A; Pereira-Silva, P; Tavares-Silva, M; Azevedo-Pinto, S; Rodrigues-Araújo, J; Pinho, S; Avelino, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Leite-Moreira, A
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) is an endothelial Ca(2+) entry channel contributing to endothelium-mediated dilation in conduit and resistance arteries. We investigated the role of TRPV4 in the regulation of blood pressure and endothelial function under hypertensive conditions. TRPV4-deficient (TRPV4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) control mice were given l-NAME (0.5 g/L) in drinking water for 7 days or subcutaneously infused with angiotensin (Ang) II (600 ng/kg per minute) for 14 days, and blood pressure measured by radiotelemetry. TRPV4(-/-) mice had a lower baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) (12-h daytime MAP, 94 ± 2 vs. 99 ± 2 mmHg in WT controls). l-NAME treatment induced a slightly greater increase in MAP in TRPV4(-/-) mice (day 7, 13 ± 4%) compared to WT controls (6 ± 2%), but Ang II-induced increases in MAP were similar in TRPV4(-/-) and WT mice (day 14, 53 ± 6% and 37 ± 11%, respectively, P < 0.05). Chronic infusion of WT mice with Ang II reduced both acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilation (dilation to 10(-5) mol/L ACh, 71 ± 5% vs. 92 ± 2% of controls) and the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A-induced dilation of small mesenteric arteries (10(-8) mol/L GSK1016790A, 14 ± 5% vs. 77 ± 7% of controls). However, Ang II treatment did not affect ACh dilation in TRPV4(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, Ang II did not significantly alter either TRPV4 total protein expression in mesenteric arteries or TRPV4 agonist-induced Ca(2+) response in mesenteric endothelial cells in situ. These results suggest that TRPV4 channels play a minor role in blood pressure regulation in l-NAME- but not Ang II-induced hypertension, but may be importantly involved in Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24744878
Nishijima, Yoshinori; Zheng, Xiaodong; Lund, Hayley; Suzuki, Makoto; Mattson, David L; Zhang, David X
There is evidence that aspirin in low doses favorably influences the course of pregnancy-induced hypertension, but the mechanism, although assumed to involve suppression of the production of thromboxane by platelets, has not been established. We performed a randomized study of the effect of the long-term daily administration of 60 mg of aspirin (n = 17) or placebo (n = 16) on platelet thromboxane A2 and vascular prostacyclin in women at risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension. Low doses of aspirin were associated with a longer pregnancy and increased weight of newborns. Serum levels of thromboxane B2, a stable product of thromboxane A2, were almost completely (greater than 90 percent) inhibited by low doses of aspirin. The urinary excretion of immunoreactive thromboxane B2 was significantly reduced without changes in the level of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, a product of prostacyclin. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that aspirin reduced the excretion of the 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 metabolite--mainly of platelet origin--by 81 percent and of thromboxane B2, probably chiefly of renal origin, by 59 percent. The urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and of its metabolite 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha was not affected. Low doses of aspirin only partially (63 percent) reduced neonatal serum thromboxane B2. No hemorrhagic complications were observed in the newborns. Thus, in women at risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, low doses of aspirin selectively suppressed maternal platelet thromboxane B2 while sparing vascular prostacyclin, but only partially suppressed neonatal platelet thromboxane B2, allowing hemostatic competence in the fetus and newborn. PMID:2664523
Benigni, A; Gregorini, G; Frusca, T; Chiabrando, C; Ballerini, S; Valcamonico, A; Orisio, S; Piccinelli, A; Pinciroli, V; Fanelli, R
The present study was undertaken to assess the possible protective effects of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4-inhibitor (DPP4), against N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive nephropathy in rats. Hypertension was induced in adult rats by administration of L-NAME for 6 weeks. Rats were treated with sitagliptin (10mg/kg/day or 30 mg/kg/day) for six weeks. Chronic L-NAME administration resulted in depletion of serum nitric oxide (NO) associated with elevation in the mean arterial pressure. When compared with the control group; serum urea, serum creatinine, albuminuria, urinary N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) level and renal tissue malondialdhyde (MDA) content were significantly elevated, while creatinine clearance, serum level of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as well as renal tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were signifcantly decreased in L-NAME treated group. Renal expression of mRNA for eNOS and GLP-1 receptors were reduced in the L-NAME treated group as compared with the control group. Treatment with sitagliptin (10mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) successfully ameliorated the deleterious effects of L-NAME on the all tested parameters. Our study indicates a novel protective effect of sitagliptin against L-NAME induced hypertensive nephropathy. An effect which is mediated through, increasing serum level of GLP-1, upregulation of GLP-1 receptors, which in turn, lead to induction of expression eNOS, increased serum NO level, tandem with decreased lipid perodixation and restore the antioxidant defense mechanisms. It is worth mentioning that the effects produced by sitaglipin (30 mg/kg) were superior to the effects obtained by the lower dose. PMID:24238127
Abd El Motteleb, Dalia M; Elshazly, Shimaa M
Purpose Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? is thought to contribute to pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to investigate the effect of infliximab (TNF-? antagonist) treatment on pathologic findings and gene expression in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model. Methods Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: control (C), single subcutaneous injection of normal saline (0.1 mL/kg); monocrotaline (M), single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg); and monocrotaline + infliximab (M+I), single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline plus single subcutaneous injection of infliximab (5 mg/kg). The rats were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7, 14, or 28 days. We examined changes in pathology and gene expression levels of TNF-?, endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP). Results The increase in medial wall thickness of the pulmonary arteriole in the M+I group was significantly lower than that in the M group on day 7 after infliximab treatment (P<0.05). The number of intra-acinar muscular arteries in the M+I group was lower than that in the M group on days 14 and 28 (P<0.05). Expression levels of TNF-?, ET-1, ERA, and MMP2 were significantly lower in the M+I group than in the M group on day 5, whereas eNOS and TIMP expressions were late in the M group (day 28). Conclusion Infliximab administration induced early changes in pathological findings and expression levels of TNF-?, and MMP2 in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model.
Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Kwan Chang; Cho, Min-Sun; Kim, Hae Soon; Sohn, Sejung
The balance between cell proliferation and cell quiescence is regulated delicately by a variety of mediators, in which cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitors (CDKI) play a very important role. Heparin which inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation increases the levels of two CDKIs, p21 and p27, although only p27 is important in inhibition of PASMC growth in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the expression profile of all the cell cycle regulating genes, including all seven CDKIs (p21, p27, p57, p15, p16, p18, and p19), in the lungs of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. A cell cycle pathway specific gene microarray was used to profile the 96 genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also observed the effect of heparin on gene expression. We found that (a) hypoxic exposure for two weeks significantly inhibited p27 expression and stimulated p18 activity, showing a 98% decrease in p27 and 81% increase in p18; (b) other CDKIs, p21, p57, p15, p16, and p19 were not affected significantly in response to hypoxia; (c) heparin treatment restored p27 expression, but did not influence p18; (d) ERK1/2 and p38 were mediators in heparin upregulation of p27. This study provides an expression profile of cell cycle regulating genes under hypoxia in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and strengthens the previous finding that p27 is the only CDKI involved in heparin regulation of PASMC proliferation and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
Yu Lunyin [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Quinn, Deborah A. [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Garg, Hari G. [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Hales, Charles A. [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Compelling evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has shown that mild to moderate hypothermia is neuroprotective against ischemic stroke. Clinical applications of hypothermia therapy, however, have been hindered by current methods of physical cooling, which is generally inefficient and impractical in clinical situations. In this report, we demonstrate the potential of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) by the novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist ABS-201 in a focal ischemic model of adult mice. ABS-201 (1.5-2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduces body and brain temperature by 2-5°C in 15-30 min in a dose-dependent manner without causing shivering or altering physiological parameters. Infarct volumes at 24 h after stroke are reduced by ?30-40% when PIH therapy is initiated either immediately after stroke induction or after 30-60 min delay. ABS-201 treatment increases bcl-2 expression, decreases caspase-3 activation, and TUNEL-positive cells in the peri-infarct region, and suppresses autophagic cell death compared to stroke controls. The PIH therapy using ABS-201 improves recovery of sensorimotor function as tested 21 d after stroke. These results suggest that PIH induced by neurotensin analogs represented by ABS-201 are promising candidates for treatment of ischemic stroke and possibly for other ischemic or traumatic injuries. PMID:22459147
Choi, Ko-Eun; Hall, Casey L; Sun, Jin-Mei; Wei, Ling; Mohamad, Osama; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan P
Background and Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoylhydrazide (LASSBio-1359), on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Experimental Approach PAH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single i.p. injection of MCT (60 mg·kg?1) and 2 weeks later, oral LASSBio-1359 (50 mg·kg?1) or vehicle was given once daily for 14 days. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function and pulmonary artery dimensions, with histological assay of vascular collagen. Studies of binding to human recombinant adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A3) and of docking with A2A receptors were also performed. Key Results MCT administration induced changes in vascular and ventricular structure and function, characteristic of PAH. These changes were reversed by treatment with LASSBio-1359. MCT also induced endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery, as measured by diminished relaxation of pre-contracted arterial rings, and this dysfunction was reversed by LASSBio-1359. In pulmonary artery rings from normal Wistar rats, LASSBio-1359 induced relaxation, which was decreased by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385. In adenosine receptor binding studies, LASSBio-1359 showed most affinity for the A2A receptor and in the docking analyses, binding modes of LASSBio-1359 and the A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, were very similar. Conclusion and Implications In rats with MCT-induced PAH, structural and functional changes in heart and pulmonary artery were reversed by treatment with oral LASSBio-1359, most probably through the activation of adenosine A2A receptors.
Alencar, Allan K N; Pereira, Sharlene L; Montagnoli, Tadeu L; Maia, Rodolfo C; Kummerle, Arthur E; Landgraf, Sharon S; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Ferraz, Emanuelle B; Tesch, Roberta; Nascimento, Jose H M; de Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele
Stroke in spontaneously-hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats is of particular interest because the pathogenesis is believed to be similar to that in the clinical setting. In this study, we employed multi-modal MRI-ASL, OWl, T2 , GRE, T1 (pre/post contr...
E. C. Henning M. Spatz S. Warach
Estrogen receptor (ER) activation in central autonomic nuclei modulates arterial blood pressure (ABP) and counteracts the deleterious effect of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that hypertension, in turn, influences the expression and trafficking of gonadal steroid receptors in central cardiovascular circuits. Thus, we examined whether ER- and progestin receptor (PR)-immunoreactivity (ir) are altered in medullary and hypothalamic autonomic areas of cycling rats following chronic infusion of the hypertensive agent, angiotensin II (AngII). After 1 week AngII-infusion, systolic ABP was elevated from 103+/-4 to 172+/-8 mmHg (p<0.05; N=8/group) and all rats were in diestrus (low estrogen). In AngII-infused rats the number of PR-immunoreactive nuclei was reduced (-72%) compared to saline-infused controls also in diestrus (p<0.05). Furthermore, the intensity of ERalpha-ir increased selectively in nuclei (16%) and cytoplasm (21%) of cells in the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS; p<0.05) while neither the number nor intensity of ERbeta-labeled cells changed (p>0.05). Following chronic AngII-infusion, electron microscopy showed a higher cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of ERalpha-labeling selectively in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labeled neurons in the cNTS. Furthermore, AngII-infusion increased ERalpha-ir in the cytosol of TH- and non-TH neuronal perikarya and increased the amount of ERalpha-ir associated with endoplasmic reticulum only in TH-containing perikarya. The data suggest that hypertension modulates the expression and subcellular distribution of ERalpha and PR in central autonomic regions involved in blood pressure control. Considering that ERalpha counteracts the central and peripheral effects of AngII, these receptor changes may underlie adaptive responses that protect females from the deleterious effects of hypertension. PMID:18533148
Milner, Teresa A; Drake, Carrie T; Lessard, Andree; Waters, Elizabeth M; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Graustein, Bradley; Mitterling, Katherine; Frys, Kelly; Iadecola, Costantino
We investigated the contribution of cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1) to renal dysfunction and organ damage associated with ANG II-induced hypertension in rats. ANG II (300 ng·kg?1·min?1) or vehicle were infused for 2 wk, with daily injections of a selective CYP1B1 inhibitor, 2,4,3?,5?-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS; 300 ?g/kg ip), or its vehicle. ANG II increased blood pressure and renal CYP1B1 activity that were prevented by TMS. ANG II also increased water intake and urine output, decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary Na+ and K+ excretion, and caused proteinuria, all of which were prevented by TMS. ANG II infusion caused hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and increased reactivity of renal and interlobar arteries to vasoconstrictor agents and renal vascular resistance and interstitial fibrosis as indicated by accumulation of ?-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and collagen, and inflammation as indicated by increased infiltration of CD-3+ cells; these effects were inhibited by TMS. ANG II infusion also increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activities of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and c-Src that were prevented by TMS. TMS alone had no effect on any of the above parameters. These data suggest that CYP1B1 contributes to the renal pathophysiological changes associated with ANG II-induced hypertension, most likely via increased ROS production and activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and c-Src and that CYP1B1 could serve as a novel target for treating renal disease associated with hypertension.
Jennings, Brett L.; Anderson, Larry J.; Estes, Anne M.; Fang, Xiao R.; Song, Chi Young; Campbell, William B.
We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in the pathogenesis of leptin-induced hypertension in the rat. Leptin, administered in increasing doses (0.1-0.5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days, increased phosphorylation levels of non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Src, EGF receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in aorta and kidney, which was accompanied by the increase in plasma concentration and urinary excretion of isoprostanes and H2O2. Blood pressure and renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity were higher, whereas urinary sodium excretion was lower in animals receiving leptin. The effects of leptin on renal Na+,K+-ATPase, natriuresis and blood pressure were abolished by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, EGF receptor inhibitor, AG1478, protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor, manumycin A, and ERK inhibitor, PD98059. In contrast, inhibitors of insulin-like growth factor-1 and platelet-derived growth factor receptors, AG1024 and AG1295, respectively, only slightly reduced ERK phosphorylation and had no effect on blood pressure in rats receiving leptin. These data indicate that: (1) experimental hyperleptinemia is associated with oxidative stress and c-Src-dependent transactivation of the EGF receptor, which stimulates ERK in vascular wall and the kidney, (2) overactivity of EGF receptor-ERK pathway contributes to leptin-induced hypertension by stimulating renal Na+,K+-ATPase and reducing sodium excretion, (3) inhibitors of c-Src, EGF receptor and ERK may be considered as a novel therapy for hypertension associated with hyperleptinemia, e.g. in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:18282556
Jamroz-Wi?niewska, Anna; Wójcicka, Grazyna; ?owicka, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Marta; Be?towski, Jerzy
STAT3 is involved in protection of the heart provided by ischemic preconditioning. However, the role of this transcription factor in the heart in chronic stresses such as hypertension has not been defined. We assessed whether STAT3 is important in hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling using mice with reduced STAT3 activity due to a S727A mutation (SA/SA). Wild type (WT) and SA/SA mice received angiotensin (ANG) II or saline for 17 days. ANG II increased mean arterial and systolic pressure in SA/SA and WT mice, but cardiac levels of cytokines associated with heart failure were increased less in SA/SA mice. Unlike WT mice, hearts of SA/SA mice showed signs of developing systolic dysfunction as evidenced by reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In the left ventricle of both WT and SA/SA mice, ANG II induced fibrosis. However, fibrosis in SA/SA mice appeared more extensive and was associated with loss of myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy as indexed by heart to body weight ratio and left ventricular anterior wall dimension during diastole was greater in WT mice. In WT+ANG II mice there was an increase in the mass of individual myofibrils. In contrast, cardiac myocytes of SA/SA+ANG II mice showed a loss in myofibrils and myofibrillar mass density was decreased during ANG II infusion. Our findings reveal that STAT3 transcriptional activity is important for normal cardiac myocyte myofibril morphology. Loss of STAT3 may impair cardiac function in the hypertensive heart due to defective myofibrillar structure and remodeling that may lead to heart failure.
Zouein, Fouad A.; Zgheib, Carlos; Hamza, Shereen; Fuseler, John W.; Hall, John E.; Soljancic, Andrea; Lopez-Ruiz, Arnaldo; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W.
STAT3 is involved in protection of the heart provided by ischemic preconditioning. However, the role of this transcription factor in the heart in chronic stresses such as hypertension has not been defined. We assessed whether STAT3 is important in hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling using mice with reduced STAT3 activity due to a S727A mutation (SA/SA). Wild type (WT) and SA/SA mice received angiotensin (ANG) II or saline for 17 days. ANG II increased mean arterial and systolic pressure in SA/SA and WT mice, but cardiac levels of cytokines associated with heart failure were increased less in SA/SA mice. Unlike WT mice, hearts of SA/SA mice showed signs of developing systolic dysfunction as evidenced by reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In the left ventricle of both WT and SA/SA mice, ANG II induced fibrosis. However, fibrosis in SA/SA mice appeared more extensive and was associated with loss of myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy as indexed by heart to body weight ratio and left ventricular anterior wall dimension during diastole was greater in WT mice. In WT+ANG II mice there was an increase in the mass of individual myofibrils. In contrast, cardiac myocytes of SA/SA+ANG II mice showed a loss in myofibrils and myofibrillar mass density was decreased during ANG II infusion. Our findings reveal that STAT3 transcriptional activity is important for normal cardiac myocyte myofibril morphology. Loss of STAT3 may impair cardiac function in the hypertensive heart due to defective myofibrillar structure and remodeling that may lead to heart failure. PMID:23364341
Zouein, Fouad A; Zgheib, Carlos; Hamza, Shereen; Fuseler, John W; Hall, John E; Soljancic, Andrea; Lopez-Ruiz, Arnaldo; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W
Metabolic syndrome (Mets), including diabetes and hypertension, increases the risk of colorectal cancer via the induction of chronic inflammation, acceleration of oxidative stress, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The present study examined the possible inhibitory effects of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and antihypertensive drug, on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic premalignant lesions, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) diabetic and hypertensive rats. Male 6-week-old SHRSP-ZF rats were administered two, weekly intraperitoneal injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). Following the second injection, the rats received drinking water containing captopril (8 mg/kg/day) for two weeks. At sacrifice, captopril administration significantly lowered the blood pressure and reduced the total number and size of ACF compared with those observed in the untreated group. The serum levels of angiotensin-II and the expression levels of ACE and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor mRNA on the colonic mucosa decreased following captopril treatment. Captopril also reduced the urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine levels and the serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites levels, both of which are oxidative stress markers, but increased the mRNA levels of catalase, an antioxidant enzyme, in the colonic epithelium. Moreover, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, vascular endothelial growth factor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen mRNA in the colonic epithelium were decreased significantly following captopril administration. These observations suggested that captopril prevents the development of ACF by inhibiting renin-angiotensin system activation and attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in SHRSP-ZF rats. Therefore, targeting Mets-related pathophysiological conditions, including renin-angiotensin system activation, may be an effective strategy to prevent colorectal carcinogenesis in patients with Mets, particularly those with hypertension.
KOCHI, TAKAHIRO; SHIMIZU, MASAHITO; OHNO, TOMOHIKO; BABA, ATSUSHI; SUMI, TAKAFUMI; KUBOTA, MASAYA; SHIRAKAMI, YOHEI; TSURUMI, HISASHI; TANAKA, TAKUJI; MORIWAKI, HISATAKA
Severe acidic pH-activated chloride channel (ICl,acid) has been found in various mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigate whether this channel participates in reactions of the thoracic aorta to severe acidosis and whether it plays a role in hypertension. We measured isometric contraction in thoracic aorta rings from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar rats. Severe acidosis induced contractions of both endothelium-intact and -denuded thoracic aorta rings. In Wistar rats, contractions did not differ at pH 6.4, 5.4 and 4.4. However, in SHRs, contractions were higher at pH 5.4 or 4.4 than pH 6.4, with no difference between contractions at pH 5.4 and 4.4. Nifedipine, ICl,acid blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4,4?-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2?-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited severe acidosis-induced contraction of aortas at different pH levels. When blocking ICl,acid, the remnant contraction was greater at pH 4.4 than pH 5.4 and 6.4 for both SHRs and Wistar rats. With nifedipine, the remnant contraction was greatly reduced at pH 4.4 as compared with at pH 6.4 and 5.4. With NPPB or DIDS, the ratio of remnant contractions at pH 4.4 and 5.4 (R4.4/5.4) was lower for SHRs than Wistar rats (all <1). However, with nifedipine, the R4.4/5.4 was higher for SHRs than Wistar rats (both >1). Furthermore, patch clamp recordings of ICl,acid and intracellular Ca2+ measurements in smooth muscle cells confirmed these findings. ICl,acid may protect arteries against excess vasoconstriction under extremely acidic extracellular conditions. This protective effect may be decreased in hypertension.
Ma, Zhiyong; Qi, Jia; Fu, Zhijie; Ling, Mingying; Li, Li; Zhang, Yun
: Recent studies show that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on prevention of pulmonary hypertension. This study is performed to explore the effects of trimethoxystilbene, a novel resveratrol analog, on rat pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in a chamber and exposed to 10% O2 continuously for 4 weeks to induce PAH. The effects of trimethoxystilbene (5 or 10 mg/kg per day, intragastric [i.g.]) and resveratrol (as a positive control, 25 mg/kg per day, i.g.) on hypoxia-induced PAH vascular remodeling and right ventricle hypertrophy were evaluated. At the end of experiments, the index for pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricle hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, the plasma levels and lung tissue contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the mRNA and protein levels for NADPH oxidases (NOX2, NOX4) and vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) in pulmonary artery or right ventricle were measured. The results showed that trimethoxystilbene treatment significantly attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling (such as decrease in the ratio of wall thickness to vessel external diameter) and right ventricle hypertrophy (such as decrease in the ratio of right ventricle weight to the length of the tibia), accompanied by downregulation of NOX2, NOX4, and VPO1 expression in pulmonary artery or right ventricle, decrease in H2O2 production and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue. Trimethoxystilbene is able to prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricle hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced rat model of PAH, which is related to inhibition of the NOX/VPO1 pathway-mediated oxidative stress and the inflammatory reaction. PMID:24492474
Liu, Bin; Luo, Xiu-Ju; Yang, Zhong-Bao; Zhang, Jie-Jie; Li, Ting-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Ma, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Guo-Gang; Hu, Chang-Ping; Peng, Jun
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory,mechanisms,appear to play a significant role in some types of pulmonary hypertension (PH), including monocrotaline-induced PH in rats and pulmonary arterial hypertension of various origins in humans, such as connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective disease), human immunodeficiency virus infection, or plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal (M) protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome.
P. Dorfmuller; F. Perros; K. Balabanian; M. Humbert
Purpose To investigate the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) on the survival and retrograde axonal transport of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), as well as on the function of retinal layers. Methods Adult albino Swiss mice (35–45 g) received laser photocoagulation of limbal and episcleral veins in the left eye. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 17, 35, and 63 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes was measured with a Tono-Lab before LP and at various days after LP. Flash electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic threshold response (STR) and a- and b-wave amplitudes were recorded before LP and at various times after LP. RGCs were labeled with 10% hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt) applied to both superior colliculi before sacrifice and in some mice, with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR) applied to the ocular stump of the intraorbitally transected optic nerve. Retinas were immunostained for RT97 or Brn3a. Retinas were prepared as whole-mounts and photographed under a fluorescence microscope. Labeled RGCs were counted using image analysis software, and an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. Results IOP increased to twice its basal values by 24 h and was maintained until day 5, after which IOP gradually declined to reach basal values by 1 wk. Similar IOP increases were observed in all groups. The mean total number of OHSt+ RGCs was 13,428±6,295 (n=12), 10,456±14,301 (n=13), 12,622±14,174 (n=21), and 10,451±13,949 (n=13) for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively; these values represented 28%, 23%, 26%, and 22% of the values found in their contralateral fellow retinas. The mean total population of Brn3a+ RGCs was 24,343±5,739 (n=12) and 10,219±8,887 (n=9), respectively, for groups I and III; these values represented 49% and 20%, respectively, of the values found in their fellow eyes. OHT retinas showed an absence of OHSt+ and DTMR+ RGCs in both focal wedge-shaped and diffuse regions of the retina. By 1 wk, there was a discrepancy between the total number of surviving OHSt+ RGCs and Brn3a+ RGCs, suggesting that a large proportion of RGCs had impaired retrograde axonal transport. In the retinal areas lacking backlabeled RGCs, neurofibrillar staining revealed aberrant expression of RT97 within axons and RGC bodies characteristic of axotomy. Elevated IOP induced significant reductions in the registered ERG waves, including positive STR, a- and b-waves, that were observed by 24 h and remained throughout the period of study for the three groups analyzed. Conclusions LP of the perilimbal and episcleral veins resulted in OHT leading to a lack of retrograde axonal transport in approximately 75% of the original RGC population. This lack did not progress further between 8 and 63 days, and it was both focal (in sectors with the apex located in the optic disc) and diffuse within the retina. In addition, severe amplitude diminutions of the STR and a- and b-waves of the ERG appeared as early as 24 h after lasering and did not recover throughout the period of study, indicating that increased IOP results in severe damage to the innermost, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear layers of the retina.
Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Alarcon-Martinez, Luis; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Jimenez-Lopez, Manuel; Aviles-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria Paz; de la Villa, Pedro
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress. PMID:21673929
Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N S; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil
We have previously established a cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) transgenic mouse model. The present study elucidated the molecular foundation of hypertension by androgen-induction in this model. The renal expression of CYP4F2 in transgenic mice was highly expressed and strongly induced with 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment determined by Western blot. DHT also increased the renal arachidonic acid ?-hydroxylation and urinary 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) excretion (P<0.01), and furthermore elevated the systolic blood pressure by 10 and 22 mm Hg (P<0.05) in female and castrated male transgenic mice, respectively. HET0016 completely eliminated the androgen-induced effects (P<0.01). Endogenous Cyp4a ?-hydroxylases, evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR, were significantly suppressed in transgenic mice (P<0.05). Importantly, transgenic mice with increased 20-HETE showed decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and increased dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, contributing to significantly raised ratio of 20-HETE/EETs in the urine and kidney homogenate (P<0.01). These data demonstrate that the androgen aggravated hypertension possibly through an altered ratio of 20-HETE/EETs in CYP4F2 transgenic mice. PMID:22387726
Liu, Xiaoliang; Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Hong; Lai, Guangrui; Zhao, Yanyan
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress.
Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil
Catecholamine secretory traits were significantly heritable, as were stress-induced blood pressure changes. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. In the tyrosine hyroxylase promoter, significant associations were found for urinary catecholamine excretion and for blood pressure response to stress. TH promoter haplotype 2 (TGGG) showed pleiotropy, increasing both norepinephrine excretion and blood pressure during stress. In hypertension, 2 independent case-control studies (1,266 subjects with 53% women and 927 subjects with 24% women) replicated the effect of C-824T in the determination of blood pressure. Chromogranin A (CHGA) plays a fundamental role in the biogenesis of catecholamine secretory granules. Changes in the storage and release of CHGA in clinical and experimental hypertension prompted us to study whether genetic variation at the CHGA locus might contribute to alterations in autonomic function, and hence hypertension and its target organ consequences such as hypertensive kidney disease (nephrosclerosis). Systematic polymorphism discovery across the human CHGA locus revealed such regulatory regions as the proximal promoter and 3'-UTR. In chromaffin cell-transfected CHGA 3'-UTR and promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids, the functional consequences of the regulatory/non-coding allelic variants were documented. Variants in both the proximal promoter and the 3'-UTR displayed statistical associations with hypertension and hypertensive end stage renal disease. Therefore, I would like to review the common genetic variation in TH and CHGA as a cause of inter-individual variation in sympathetic activity, and ultimately blood pressure and hypertensive kidney disease.
Plasma chromogranin-A (CgA) concentrations correlate with severe cardiovascular diseases, whereas CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin elicit cardiosuppression via an antiadrenergic/nitric oxide-cGMP mediated mechanism. Whether these phenomena are related is unknown. We here investigated whether and to what extent full-length CgA directly influences heart performance and may be subjected to stimulus-elicited intracardiac processing. Using normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evaluated the following: 1) direct myocardial and coronary effects of full-length CgA; 2) the signal-transduction pathway involved in its action mechanism; and 3) CgA intracardiac processing after ?-adrenergic [isoproterenol (Iso)]- and endothelin-1(ET-1)-dependent stimulation. The study was performed by using a Langendorff perfusion apparatus, Western blotting, affinity chromatography, and ELISA. We found that CgA (1-4 nM) dilated coronaries and induced negative inotropism and lusitropism, which disappeared at higher concentrations (10-16 nM). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), negative inotropism and lusitropism were more potent than in young normotensive rats. We found that perfusion itself, Iso-, and endothelin-1 stimulation induced intracardiac CgA processing in low-molecular-weight fragments in young, Wistar Kyoto, and SHR rats. In young normotensive and adult hypertensive rats, CgA increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and cGMP levels. Analysis of the perfusate from both Wistar rats and SHRs of untreated and treated (Iso) hearts revealed CgA absence. In conclusion, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evidenced the following: 1) full-length CgA directly affects myocardial and coronary function by AkT/nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway; and 2) the heart generates intracardiac CgA fragments in response to hemodynamic and excitatory challenges. For the first time at the cardiovascular level, our data provide a conceptual link between systemic and intracardiac actions of full-length CgA and its fragments, expanding the knowledge on the sympathochromaffin/CgA axis under normal and physiopathological conditions. PMID:23751870
Pasqua, Teresa; Corti, Angelo; Gentile, Stefano; Pochini, Lorena; Bianco, Mimma; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso
We studied the expression of genes encoding angiotensinogen (Agt), renin (Ren), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and type 1 angiotensin receptor (AT1A) in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata of hypertensive ISIAH rats and normotensive WAG rats. The amount of Agt mRNA in the hypothalamus of young ISIAH rats was increased by 30% compared to WAG controls. In the medulla oblongata of young ISIAH rats, the levels of mRNA of Agt and AT1A receptor were enhanced by 60% and 24%, respectively, compared to WAG rats. In adult animals, the expression of the studied genes did not differ from the control. It is concluded that changes in gene expression of the renin-angiotensin system in brain structures of ISIAH rats may contribute to the development of hypertension. PMID:23484200
Klimov, L O; Fedoseeva, L A; Ryazanova, M A; Dymshits, G M; Markel, A L
Fourteen patients with severe hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated surgically. One patient died 4 days after surgery due to a cerebral thrombosis. The other 13 patients were followed for 18–24 months. Five were considered cured since the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was ? 90 mm Hg without therapy. Five were improved since DBP was ? 100 mm Hg
Erling B. Pedersen; Henning Danielsen; Ole Fjeldborg; Hans J. Kornerup; Bent Madsen
... pressure." Pulmonary hypertension is an increase in blood pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. It is ... the narrowed arteries. This results in high blood pressure in the right side of your heart and in the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs. Symptoms What ...
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important cause of heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pro brain natriuretic peptide N-terminal (NT-proBNP) has been suggested as a noninvasive marker to evaluate ventricular function. However, there is no evidence to support the use of NT-proBNP in monitoring the benefits of vasodilators in COPD induced PH. Thus, we used NT-proBNP as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of oral vasodilators on cardiac function in COPD-induced PH. Forty clinically-stable PH patients were enrolled with history of COPD, normal left ventricular ejection-fraction (LVEF), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) > 45 mmHg and baseline blood NT-proBNP levels >100 pg/mL. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group received sildenafil and second group were given amlodipine for two weeks. NT-proBNP and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic PA-pressure) were measured at the beginning and the end of study. Mean NT-proBNP level in the first group was 1297 ± 912 pg/mL before therapy and 554 ± 5 pg/mL after two weeks drug therapy, respectively. Similarly, in second group NT-proBNP level was 1657 ± 989 pg/mL and 646 ± 5 pg/mL before and after treatment. Amlodipine or sildenafil significantly reduced NT-proBNP levels in COPD-induced PH patients (p < 0.05). Our study shows that amlodipine and sildenafil have a similar effect on NT-proBNP levels. In both groups NT- proBNP levels were significantly reduced after treatment. Therefore, our findings support the potential benefits of treatment with vasodilators in COPD induced PH. Pulmonary hypertension, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NT-proBNP, Amlodipine, Sildenafil. PMID:24711842
Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Hamraghani, Ali; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Abbasi Nazari, Mohammad; Malekmohammad, Majid; Behzadnia, Neda; Fahimi, Fanak
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important cause of heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pro brain natriuretic peptide N-terminal (NT-proBNP) has been suggested as a noninvasive marker to evaluate ventricular function. However, there is no evidence to support the use of NT-proBNP in monitoring the benefits of vasodilators in COPD induced PH. Thus, we used NT-proBNP as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of oral vasodilators on cardiac function in COPD-induced PH. Forty clinically-stable PH patients were enrolled with history of COPD, normal left ventricular ejection-fraction (LVEF), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) > 45 mmHg and baseline blood NT-proBNP levels >100 pg/mL. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group received sildenafil and second group were given amlodipine for two weeks. NT-proBNP and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic PA-pressure) were measured at the beginning and the end of study. Mean NT-proBNP level in the first group was 1297 ± 912 pg/mL before therapy and 554 ± 5 pg/mL after two weeks drug therapy, respectively. Similarly, in second group NT-proBNP level was 1657 ± 989 pg/mL and 646 ± 5 pg/mL before and after treatment. Amlodipine or sildenafil significantly reduced NT-proBNP levels in COPD-induced PH patients (p < 0.05). Our study shows that amlodipine and sildenafil have a similar effect on NT-proBNP levels. In both groups NT- proBNP levels were significantly reduced after treatment. Therefore, our findings support the potential benefits of treatment with vasodilators in COPD induced PH. Pulmonary hypertension, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NT-proBNP, Amlodipine, Sildenafil
Sharif-kashani, Babak; Hamraghani, Ali; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Abbasi Nazari, Mohammad; Malekmohammad, Majid; Behzadnia, Neda; Fahimi, Fanak
The balance between angiotensin II (ANG II) and nitric oxide plays an important role in renal function and is thought to contribute to the progression of renal injury in experimental hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the extent of blood pressure (BP)-dependent and BP-independent pathways of renal injury following 2 wk of hypertension produced by intravenous infusion of ANG II (5 ng·kg?1·min?1)+N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 1.4 ?g·kg?1·min?1) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An aortic balloon occluder was positioned between the renal arteries to maintain (24 h/day) BP to the left kidney (servo-controlled) at baseline levels, whereas the right kidney (uncontrolled) was chronically exposed to elevated BP. Over the 14-day experimental protocol, the average BP to uncontrolled kidneys (152.7 ± 1.8 mmHg) was significantly elevated compared with servo-controlled (113.0 ± 0.2 mmHg) kidneys and kidneys from sham rats (108.3 ± 0.1 mmHg). ANG II+l-NAME infusion led to renal injury that was focal in nature and mainly confined to the outer medulla. Despite the differences in BP between servo-controlled and uncontrolled kidneys, there was a similar ?3.5-fold increase in renal outer medullary tubular injury, ?2-fold increase in outer medullary interstitial fibrosis, ?2-fold increase in outer medullary macrophage infiltration, and a significant increase in renal oxidative stress, all of which are indicative of BP-independent mediated pathways. The results of this study have important implications regarding the pathogenesis of renal injury in various experimental models of hypertension and provide novel insights regarding the variable association observed between hypertension and renal injury in some human populations.
Polichnowski, Aaron J.; Lu, Limin
Hypertension has been shown to be associated with impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated arterial relaxation and hyperpolarization. Treatments of hypertensive rats with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system have been shown to restore both EDHF-mediated responses and the expression of connexins involved in the intercellular transfer of the hyperpolarization in mesenteric arteries. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic treatment of rats with angiotensin II impairs EDHF-mediated responses and the expression of connexins in the mesenteric arterial wall. Male Wistar rats were treated with angiotensin II (0.4 mg/kg/day) for 21 days using osmotic minipumps. Arterial pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Contractile responses and membrane potential were measured in isolated mesenteric arteries. The expression of the three connexins (Cxs), Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43, was quantified in segments of mesenteric arteries by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Angiotensin II administration increased the mean systolic blood pressure. EDHF-mediated relaxation and hyperpolarization to acetylcholine and red wine polyphenols were significantly impaired in mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-treated rats in comparison with control animals, whereas nitric oxide-mediated relaxation was unaltered. The expression of connexins Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 was significantly decreased in the mesenteric artery from angiotensin II-treated rats. These findings indicate that angiotensin II-induced hypertension is associated with a selective impairment of EDHF-mediated relaxation and hyperpolarization in the rat mesenteric artery. The inhibition of EDHF-mediated responses is due, at least in part, to a decreased expression of connexins Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 in the arterial wall. PMID:18984652
Dal-Ros, Stéphanie; Bronner, Christian; Schott, Christa; Kane, Modou O; Chataigneau, Marta; Schini-Kerth, Valerie B; Chataigneau, Thierry