Science.gov

Sample records for induced market disturbances

  1. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

  2. Diet-Induced Metabolic Disturbances As Modulators of Brain Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Nguyen, AnhThao; Liu, Dr Ying; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    A number of metabolic disturbances occur in response to the consumption of a high fat Western diet. Such metabolic disturbances can include the progressive development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Cumulatively, diet-induced disturbance in metabolism are known to promote increased morbidity and negatively impact life expectancy through a variety of mechanisms. While the impact of metabolic disturbances on the hepatic, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems are well established there remains a noticeable void in understanding the basis by which the central nervous system (CNS) becomes altered in response to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. In particular, it remains to be fully elucidated which established features of diet-induced pathogenesis (observed in non-CNS tissues) are recapitulated in the brain, and identification as to whether the observed changes in the brain are a direct or indirect effect of peripheral metabolic disturbances. This review will focus on each of these key issues and identify some critical experimental questions which remain to be elucidated experimentally, as well as provide an outline of our current understanding for how diet-induced alterations in metabolism may impact the brain during aging and age-related diseases of the nervous system. PMID:18926905

  3. Induced Disturbances Cause Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nest Relocation.

    PubMed

    Tay, Jia-Wei; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-06-01

    Budding and relocation of nests are important characteristics of the Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), an important pest of artificial structures. Pharaoh ant colony movements induced by several types of disturbances were evaluated in the laboratory. The percentages of workers and brood in the source and new nest sites were determined at Days 0, 1, 3, and 5 following physical disturbance (temporal removal of nestmates), chemical disturbance (application of pyrethroid insecticide), invasion by heterospecific ants, food depletion, and moisture depletion in the laboratory. All disturbances were performed in the source nest, which was connected to an empty new nest site. Almost all workers moved and carried the entire brood to the new nest site when subjected to physical disturbance, chemical disturbance, and ant invasion on Day 1, whereas only <5% of workers were present in the new nest site in the undisturbed control. After these disturbances, the brood was never relocated back to the original nest site in this 5-d study. When subjected to food depletion, ∼60% of the brood were found in the new nest site and ∼40% of the brood remained in the original nest on Day 5, resulting in a polydomous population. In contrast, moisture depletion did not show any significant effect on colony movement. These results provide useful information about the causes of Pharaoh ant colony budding and guidance about how to develop effective control and prevention strategies. PMID:26470251

  4. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Rind, David; Goldberg, Richard

    1990-01-01

    New and published climate-model results are discussed which indicate that global warming favors increased rates of forest disturbance as a result of weather more likely to cause forest fires, convective wind storms, coastal flooding, and hurricanes. New sensitivity tests carried out with a vegetation model indicate that climate-induced increases in disturbance could, in turn, significantly alter the total biomass and compositional response of forests to future warming. An increase in disturbance frequency is also likely to increase the rate at which natural vegetation responses to future climate change. The results reinforce the hypothesis that forests could be significantly altered by the first part of the next century. The modeling also confirms the potential utility of selected time series of fossil pollen data for investigating the poorly understood natural patterns of century-scale climate variability.

  5. Fungicidal effect of isoquercitrin via inducing membrane disturbance.

    PubMed

    Yun, JiEun; Lee, Heejeong; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-02-01

    Isoquercitrin is a flavonoid isolated from Aster yomena, which has been used as a traditional medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antifungal activity and the underlying mechanism of isoquercitrin. Isoquercitrin had a potent effect in the susceptibility test against pathogenic fungi and almost no hemolysis. Propidium iodide and potassium release assays were conducted in Candida albicans, and these studies confirmed that isoquercitrin induced membrane damage, thereby, increasing permeability. Membrane potential was analyzed using 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)], and the transition of membrane potential was indicated by an increased fluorescence intensity. To further analyze these results using model membranes, giant unilamellar vesicles and large unilamellar vesicles that encapsulated calcein were prepared and the detection of calcein leakage from liposomes indicated that membrane was disturbed. We further verified membrane disturbance by observing the disordered status of the lipid bilayer with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence. Moreover, changes in size and granularity of the cell were revealed in flow cytometric analysis. All these results suggested the membrane disturbance and the degree of disturbance was estimated to be within a range of 2.3 nm to 3.3 nm by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran analysis. Taken together, isoquercitrin exerts its fungicidal effect by disturbing the membrane of cells. PMID:25445674

  6. A potential mechanism underlying atypical antipsychotics-induced lipid disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H L; Tan, Q Y; Jiang, P; Dang, R L; Xue, Y; Tang, M M; Xu, P; Deng, Y; Li, H D; Yao, J K

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings suggested that a four-protein complex, including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), SREBP-cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), insulin-induced gene (INSIG) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), within the endoplasmic reticulum appears to be an important regulator responsible for atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD)-induced lipid disturbances. In the present study, effects of typical antipsychotic drug and AAPDs as well as treatment outcome of steroid antagonist mifepristone (MIF) on the PGRMC1/INSIG/SCAP/SREBP pathway were investigated in rat liver using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. In addition, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, free fatty acids and various hormones including progesterone, corticosterone and insulin were measured simultaneously. Following treatment with clozapine or risperidone, both lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis were enhanced via inhibition of PGRMC1/INSIG-2 and activation of SCAP/SREBP expressions. Such metabolic disturbances, however, were not demonstrated in rats treated with aripiprazole (ARI) or haloperidol (HAL). Moreover, the add-on treatment of MIF was effective in reversing the AAPD-induced lipid disturbances by upregulating the expression of PGRMC1/INSIG-2 and subsequent downregulation of SCAP/SREBP. Taken together, our findings suggest that disturbances in lipid metabolism can occur at an early stage of AAPD treatment before the presence of weight gain. Such metabolic defects can be modified by an add-on treatment of steroid antagonist MIF enhancing the PGRMC1 pathway. Thus, it is likely that PGRMC1/INSIG-2 signaling may be a therapeutic target for AAPD-induced weight gain. PMID:26485545

  7. Sleep disturbances in veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Masoudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is related to a wide range of medical problems, with a majority of neurological, psychological, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, as well as sleep disorders. Although the majority of studies reveal the association between PTSD and sleep disturbances, there are few studies on the assessment of sleep disruption among veterans with PTSD. In this review, we attempt to study the sleep disorders including insomnia, nightmare, sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias among veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD. It is an important area for further research among veterans with PTSD. PMID:27093088

  8. Magnetic torquer induced disturbing signals within GRACE accelerometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, Nadja; Flury, Jakob; Schlicht, Anja

    2012-05-01

    The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) gravity field satellite mission was launched in 2002. Although many investigations have been carried out, not all disturbances and perturbations upon satellite instruments and sensors are resolved yet. In this work the issue of acceleration disturbances onboard of GRACE due to magnetic torquers is investigated and discussed. Each of the GRACE satellites is equipped with a three-axes capacitive accelerometer to measure non-gravitational forces acting on the spacecraft. We used 10 Hz Level 1a raw accelerometer data in order to determine the impact of electric current changes on the accelerometer. After reducing signals which are induced by highly dominating processes in the low frequency range, such as thermospheric drag and solar radiation pressure, which can easily be done by applying a high-pass filter, disturbing signals from onboard instruments such as thruster firing events or heater switch events need to be removed from the previously filtered data. Afterwards the spikes which are induced by the torquers can be very well observed. Spikes vary in amplitude with respect to an increasing or decreasing current used for magnetic torquers, and can be as large as 20 nm/s2. Furthermore, we were able to set up a model for the spikes of each scenario with which we were able to compute model spike time series. With these time series the spikes can successfully be removed from the 10 Hz raw accelerometer data. Spectral analysis of the time series reveal that an influence onto gravity field determination due to these effects is very unlikely, but can theoretically not be excluded.

  9. An evaluation of thermally-induced structural disturbances of spacecraft solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.D.; Thornton, E.A.

    1996-12-31

    Spacecraft have experienced attitude disturbances as a result of thermally-induced motions of flexible appendages for over 30 years. Thermally-induced deformations of appendages such as deployable booms and solar arrays may result in significant disturbance torques. These effects lead to a decrease in pointing accuracy, an increase in pointing jitter, and in extreme cases may affect the stability of the entire spacecraft. Examples of recent satellites whose performance has been degraded by thermally-induced structural disturbances are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). This paper presents an evaluation of thermally-induced structural disturbances of solar arrays, including: (1) identification of disturbances sources and classifications, (2) assessment of the susceptibility of different types of solar array to the disturbances, and (3) discussion of potential methods for mitigating the effects of the disturbances.

  10. Natural and Human-induced Disturbances and Their Impacts on Forest Carbon Budgets in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Birdsey, R.; Chen, J. M.; McCullough, K.; Zhang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Natural and human-induced disturbances have profound impacts on forest carbon dynamics, and may cause the greatest uncertainty in estimating forest carbon budgets. In North America, three countries show very different forest disturbance patterns: Canadian forests are dominated by natural disturbances such as wildfires and insect outbreaks; forests of Mexico are more affected by human-induced land disturbances such as land-use change; while US forests are equally affected by human-induced and natural disturbances. As human-induced disturbances are closely linked to socioeconomic factors, natural disturbances are usually viewed as a natural process in forests and have equilibrium impacts on forests over the long run. However, with climate change and related changes in natural disturbance regimes in terms of frequency, intensity and scale, there are now fundamental changes in the nature of the impact of natural disturbances on forest carbon dynamics and even greater uncertainty about forest carbon budgets and feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate. In this study, we synthesize disturbance information for North America based on existing remote-sensing products, ground-based observations and modeling studies, evaluating impacts of disturbances on forest carbon budgets that are relevant to disturbance types, scales, frequency and intensity. The work represents the initial step of a more ambitious project tackling this research challenge for North America that crosses a broad climate gradient and diverse socioeconomic entities. The goal is to ultimately improve the estimates of forest carbon budgets and their potential for climate mitigation under changing environments.

  11. Global satellite monitoring of climate-induced vegetation disturbances.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Nate G; Coops, Nicholas C; Beck, Pieter S A; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Gangodagamage, Chandana; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Huang, Cho-ying; Kennedy, Robert; Krofcheck, Dan J; Litvak, Marcy; Meddens, Arjan J H; Muss, Jordan; Negrón-Juarez, Robinson; Peng, Changhui; Schwantes, Amanda M; Swenson, Jennifer J; Vernon, Louis J; Williams, A Park; Xu, Chonggang; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steve W; Allen, Craig D

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial disturbances are accelerating globally, but their full impact is not quantified because we lack an adequate monitoring system. Remote sensing offers a means to quantify the frequency and extent of disturbances globally. Here, we review the current application of remote sensing to this problem and offer a framework for more systematic analysis in the future. We recommend that any proposed monitoring system should not only detect disturbances, but also be able to: identify the proximate cause(s); integrate a range of spatial scales; and, ideally, incorporate process models to explain the observed patterns and predicted trends in the future. Significant remaining challenges are tied to the ecology of disturbances. To meet these challenges, more effort is required to incorporate ecological principles and understanding into the assessments of disturbance worldwide. PMID:25500552

  12. Direct Adaptive Rejection of Vortex-Induced Disturbances for a Powered SPAR Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Balas, Mark J.; VanZwieten, James H.; Driscoll, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rapidly Deployable Stable Platform (RDSP) is a novel vessel designed to be a reconfigurable, stable at-sea platform. It consists of a detachable catamaran and spar, performing missions with the spar extending vertically below the catamaran and hoisting it completely out of the water. Multiple thrusters located along the spar allow it to be actively controlled in this configuration. A controller is presented in this work that uses an adaptive feedback algorithm in conjunction with Direct Adaptive Disturbance Rejection (DADR) to mitigate persistent, vortex-induced disturbances. Given the frequency of a disturbance, the nominal DADR scheme adaptively compensates for its unknown amplitude and phase. This algorithm is extended to adapt to a disturbance frequency that is only coarsely known by including a Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The PLL improves the frequency estimate on-line, allowing the modified controller to reduce vortex-induced motions by more than 95% using achievable thrust inputs.

  13. High-Order Simulation of Induced Disturbance in a Mach 6 Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Harold L.

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of the early evolution of induced unstable disturbances in a Mach 6 hypersonic boundary layer are presented for the purposes of validating a high-order discontinuous Galerkin Navier-Stokes simulation code. The simulations are modeled after experiments performed in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. In these experiments, a forcing mechanism was employed to induce reproducible disturbances in a hypersonic boundary layer providing for the controlled study of the growth and breakdown of these disturbances into turbulent spots. Simulations revealed that the form and strength of the excitation can greatly influence the growth of the disturbance. In particular, at large forcing amplitude, the simulated forcing produces large advecting transients that appear to enhance the growth of the wave packet, relative to that of low amplitude forcing. Simulation results with large amplitude forcing agree well with experimental results while results from low amplitude forcing agree with linear stability theory.

  14. Induced Voltage Linear Extraction Method Using an Active Kelvin Bridge for Disturbing Force Self-Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs). In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of the induced voltage, and an additional GMA is adopted as a reference actuator in the self-sensing circuit in order to balance the circuit bridge. The linear fitting of the measurement data is done according to the linear relationship between the disturbing forces and the integral of the induced voltage. The experimental results confirm the good performance of the proposed method, and the self-sensitivity of the disturbing forces is better than 2.0 (mV·s)/N. PMID:27213399

  15. Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency and Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling Contribute to Atherosclerosis Induced by Disturbed Flow

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Chen, Wei; Rezvan, Amir; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical cofactor for Nitric Oxide (NO) synthesis by NO synthase (NOS). Recently, we demonstrated that disturbed flow produced by partial carotid ligation decreases BH4 levels in vivo. We therefore aimed to determine whether atherosclerosis induced by disturbed flow is due to BH4 deficiency and NOS uncoupling and whether increasing BH4 would prevent endothelial dysfunction, plaque inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and Results We produced a region of disturbed flow in ApoE−/− mice using partial carotid ligation and fed these animals a high-fat diet. This caused eNOS uncoupling as characterized by increased vascular superoxide production, altered vascular reactivity and a change in eNOS migration on low-temperature gel. These perturbations were accompanied by severe atherosclerosis, infiltration of T cells and macrophages, and an increase in cytokine production. Treatment with BH4 recoupled NOS, decreased superoxide production, imporoved endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and virtually eliminated atherosclerosis. BH4 treatment also markedly reduced vascular inflammation and improved the cytokine milieu induced by disturbed flow. Conclusions Our results highlight a key role of BH4 deficiency and NOS uncoupling in atherosclerosis induced by disturbed flow, and provide insight into the effect of modulating vascular BH4 levels on atherosclerosis and inflammation at these sites of the circulation. PMID:21512164

  16. Review of field studies of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Michaud, David S; Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl; Campbell, Kenneth C; Keith, Stephen E

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance (AN-ISD) is potentially among the more serious effects of aircraft noise on people. This literature review of recent field studies of AN-ISD finds that reliable generalization of findings to population-level effects is complicated by individual differences among subjects, methodological and analytic differences among studies, and predictive relationships that account for only a small fraction of the variance in the relationship between noise exposure and sleep disturbance. It is nonetheless apparent in the studied circumstances of residential exposure that sleep disturbance effects of nighttime aircraft noise intrusions are not dramatic on a per-event basis, and that linkages between outdoor aircraft noise exposure and sleep disturbance are tenuous. It is also apparent that AN-ISD occurs more often during later than earlier parts of the night; that indoor sound levels are more closely associated with sleep disturbance than outdoor measures; and that spontaneous awakenings, or awakenings attributable to nonaircraft indoor noises, occur more often than awakenings attributed to aircraft noise. Predictions of sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise should not be based on over-simplifications of the findings of the reviewed studies, and these reports should be treated with caution in developing regulatory policy for aircraft noise. PMID:17297758

  17. The state of the art of predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance in field settings.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Pearsons, Karl S

    2010-01-01

    Several relationships between intruding noises (largely aircraft) and sleep disturbance have been inferred from the findings of a handful of field studies. Comparisons of sleep disturbance rates predicted by the various relationships are complicated by inconsistent data collection methods and definitions of predictor variables and predicted quantities. None of the relationships is grounded in theory-based understanding, and some depend on questionable statistical assumptions and analysis procedures. The credibility, generalizability, and utility of sleep disturbance predictions are also limited by small and nonrepresentative samples of test participants, and by restricted (airport-specific and relatively short duration) circumstances of exposure. Although expedient relationships may be the best available, their predictions are of only limited utility for policy analysis and regulatory purposes, because they account for very little variance in the association between environmental noise and sleep disturbance, have characteristically shallow slopes, have not been well validated in field settings, are highly context-dependent, and do not squarely address the roles and relative importance of nonacoustic factors in sleep disturbance. Such relationships offer the appearance more than the substance of precision and objectivity. Truly useful, population-level prediction and genuine understanding of noise-induced sleep disturbance will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, until the findings of field studies of broader scope and more sophisticated design become available. PMID:20472953

  18. Disturbances of saccadic eye movements in monkeys during development of MPTP-induced syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, L V; Yudin, A G; Kuznetsov, YuB; Latanov, A V; Shul'govskii, V V

    2002-02-01

    Changes in the amplitude and dynamic parameters of purposive saccades were studied in monkeys with MPTP-induced Parkinson-like syndrome. Lengthening of saccade latency, decreased maximum velocity of eye movements, and impaired saccade accuracy were observed at the early stages MPTP-syndrome. Different disturbances of large- and small-scale saccades were found. PMID:12428290

  19. The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in carbon management and sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breshears, D.D.; Allen, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    Management of terrestrial carbon fluxes is being proposed as a means of increasing the amount of carbon sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere. This approach is generally viewed only as an interim strategy for the coming decades while other longer-term strategies are developed and implemented - the most important being the direct reduction of carbon emissions. We are concerned that the potential for rapid, disturbance-induced losses may be much greater than is currently appreciated, especially by the decision-making community. Here we wish to: (1) highlight the complex and threshold-like nature of disturbances - such as fire and drought, as well as the erosion associated with each - that could lead to carbon losses; (2) note the global extent of ecosystems that are at risk of such disturbance-induced carbon losses; and (3) call for increased consideration of and research on the mechanisms by which large, rapid disturbance-induced losses of terrestrial carbon could occur. Our lack of ability as a scientific community to predict such ecosystem dynamics is precluding the effective consideration of these processes into strategies and policies related to carbon management and sequestration. Consequently, scientists need to do more to improve quantification of these potential losses and to integrate them into sound, sustainable policy options.

  20. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N.; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice. PMID:25995826

  1. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-05-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice. PMID:25995826

  2. Combined system for the compensation of the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatov, S. I.; Mordvinkin, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The problem is considered of determining the shape and dimensions of the passive component in a combined system for offsetting the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for geostationary spacecraft with asymmetrical solar arrays. The problem statement, numerical solution algorithm, and calculated results are presented. The resulting shape, the study suggests, not only has the required compensation properties but is also the most efficient from the standpoint of manufacture and functional reliability.

  3. Preexisting mild sleep disturbance as a vulnerability factor for inflammation-induced depressed mood: a human experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H J; Eisenberger, N I; Olmstead, R; Breen, E C; Irwin, M R

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance and depression are common, particularly in females, and sleep disturbance is a well-known risk factor for depression. Systemic inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism of this association. This study examined whether preexisting sleep disturbance acted as a vulnerability factor for depressed mood induced by an inflammatory challenge in healthy females vs males. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, volunteers aged 18–50 (N=111; 67 females) were assigned to placebo or low-dose endotoxin. Before substance administration, sleep disturbance was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and dichotomized using median split (⩾3 vs <3). Self-reported depressed mood (profile of mood states) and circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α) were repeatedly assessed over 6 h. Among females, moderation of depressed mood by sleep disturbance was significant even after adjustment for covariates (X2=12.73, df=6, P<0.05). There was a robust time-by-condition interaction in females with sleep disturbance (X2=26.22, df=6, P<0.001), but not in females without sleep disturbance (X2=8.65, df=6, P=0.19). Although cytokines increased equally in all females, the correlations between cytokines and depressed mood were significantly stronger in females with sleep disturbance. Among males, no moderating effect of sleep disturbance was observed. Inflammation-induced depressed mood was considerably more severe among females reporting mild sleep disturbance compared with those reporting no sleep disturbance, suggesting that even mild sleep disturbance may increase vulnerability for inflammation-induced depression in females. Furthermore, sleep disturbance appears to increase the vulnerability to depression by augmenting affective sensitivity to cytokines rather than by enhancing cytokine responses to inflammatory challenge in females. PMID:26954978

  4. Preexisting mild sleep disturbance as a vulnerability factor for inflammation-induced depressed mood: a human experimental study.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J; Eisenberger, N I; Olmstead, R; Breen, E C; Irwin, M R

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance and depression are common, particularly in females, and sleep disturbance is a well-known risk factor for depression. Systemic inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism of this association. This study examined whether preexisting sleep disturbance acted as a vulnerability factor for depressed mood induced by an inflammatory challenge in healthy females vs males. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, volunteers aged 18-50 (N = 111; 67 females) were assigned to placebo or low-dose endotoxin. Before substance administration, sleep disturbance was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and dichotomized using median split (⩾ 3 vs < 3). Self-reported depressed mood (profile of mood states) and circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α) were repeatedly assessed over 6 h. Among females, moderation of depressed mood by sleep disturbance was significant even after adjustment for covariates (X(2) = 12.73, df = 6, P < 0.05). There was a robust time-by-condition interaction in females with sleep disturbance (X(2) = 26.22, df = 6, P < 0.001), but not in females without sleep disturbance (X(2) = 8.65, df = 6, P = 0.19). Although cytokines increased equally in all females, the correlations between cytokines and depressed mood were significantly stronger in females with sleep disturbance. Among males, no moderating effect of sleep disturbance was observed. Inflammation-induced depressed mood was considerably more severe among females reporting mild sleep disturbance compared with those reporting no sleep disturbance, suggesting that even mild sleep disturbance may increase vulnerability for inflammation-induced depression in females. Furthermore, sleep disturbance appears to increase the vulnerability to depression by augmenting affective sensitivity to cytokines rather than by enhancing cytokine responses to inflammatory challenge in females. PMID:26954978

  5. Incorporating a disturbance observer with direct velocity feedback for control of human-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawako, Donald; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  6. Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Residences Near Two Civil Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Howe, Richard R.; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Pearsons, Karl S.; Sneddon, Matthew D.

    1995-01-01

    A large-scale field study of noise-induced sleep disturbance was conducted in the vicinities of Stapleton International Airport (DEN) and Denver International Airport (DIA) in anticipation of the closure of the former and opening of the latter. Both indoor and outdoor measurements of aircraft and other nighttime noises were made during four time periods. Measurements were made in 57 homes located as close as feasible to the runway ends of the two airports. Sleep disturbance was measured by several indices of behaviorally confirmed awakening (button pushes upon awakening) and body movement (as measured with wrist-worn actimeters). A total of 2717 subject-nights of observations were made over the course of the study. Although average noise event levels measured outdoors decreased markedly at DEN after closure of the airport and increased slightly at DIA after its opening, indoor noise event levels varied much less in homes near both airports. No large differences were observed in noise-induced sleep disturbance at either airport. Indoor sound exposure levels of noise events were, however, closely related to and good predictors of actimetrically defined motility and arousal.

  7. Astronaut-Induced Disturbances to the Microgravity Environment of the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.; Amir, Amir R.; Beck, Sherwin M.

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the International Space Station, the Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors Space Flight Experiment measured the forces and moments astronauts exerted on the Mir Space Station during their daily on-orbit activities to quantify the astronaut-induced disturbances to the microgravity environment during a long-duration space mission. An examination of video recordings of the astronauts moving in the modules and using the instrumented crew restraint and mobility load sensors led to the identification of several typical astronaut motions and the quantification or the associated forces and moments exerted on the spacecraft. For 2806 disturbances recorded by the foot restraints and hand-hold sensor, the highest force magnitude was 137 N. For about 96% of the time, the maximum force magnitude was below 60 N, and for about 99% of the time the maximum force magnitude was below 90 N. For 95% of the astronaut motions, the rms force level was below 9.0 N. It can be concluded that expected astronaut-induced loads from usual intravehicular activity are considerably less than previously thought and will not significantly disturb the microgravity environment.

  8. Succession-inducing disturbances and the old-growth forest mosaic of a Central Amazon landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    Old-growth forest ecosystems comprise a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the fraction of the landscape in any particular state relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Tropical forest studies commonly assume that plots covering only a small fraction of the landscape representatively sample this mosaic, and that departures from steady-state represent trends. Here a critical test of this equilibrium assumption for a Central Amazon old-growth forest landscape is carried out by combining extensive forest field plot data, remote sensing analysis to generate disturbance probability distribution functions, and simulation modeling to place plot-level results into a landscape context. Results show that succession-inducing disturbances had a return frequency of ~100 years, and that these episodic events have been poorly sampled by existing forest sample plots. Overall, key ecosystem attributes of small patches are expected to constantly change in the Central Amazon, and long significant trends can result from purely stochastic processes. The role of episodic disturbances will be discussed in terms of Amazon forest carbon balance, and regional tree diversity patterns.

  9. Demographics of an ornate box turtle population experiencing minimal human-induced disturbances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, S.J.; Iverson, J.B.; Savidge, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced disturbances may threaten the viability of many turtle populations, including populations of North American box turtles. Evaluation of the potential impacts of these disturbances can be aided by long-term studies of populations subject to minimal human activity. In such a population of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) in western Nebraska, we examined survival rates and population growth rates from 1981-2000 based on mark-recapture data. The average annual apparent survival rate of adult males was 0.883 (SE = 0.021) and of adult females was 0.932 (SE = 0.014). Minimum winter temperature was the best of five climate variables as a predictor of adult survival. Survival rates were highest in years with low minimum winter temperatures, suggesting that global warming may result in declining survival. We estimated an average adult population growth rate (????) of 1.006 (SE = 0.065), with an estimated temporal process variance (????2) of 0.029 (95% CI = 0.005-0.176). Stochastic simulations suggest that this mean and temporal process variance would result in a 58% probability of a population decrease over a 20-year period. This research provides evidence that, unless unknown density-dependent mechanisms are operating in the adult age class, significant human disturbances, such as commercial harvest or turtle mortality on roads, represent a potential risk to box turtle populations. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Vortex dislocations in wake-type flow induced by spanwise disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guo Can; Zhao, Hong Liang

    2009-07-01

    Vortex dislocations in wake-type flow induced by three types of spanwise disturbances superimposed on an upstream velocity profile are investigated by direct numerical simulations. Three distinct modes of vortex dislocations and flow transitions have been found. A local spanwise exponential decay disturbance leads to the appearance of a twisted chainlike mode of vortex dislocation. A stepped spanwise disturbance causes a streamwise periodic spotlike mode of vortex dislocation. A spanwise sinusoidal wavy disturbance with a moderate waviness causes a strong unsteadiness of wake behavior. This unsteadiness starts with a systematic periodic mode of vortex dislocation in the spanwise direction followed by the spanwise vortex shedding suppressed completely with increased time and the near wake becoming a steady shear flow. Characteristics of these modes of vortex dislocation and complex vortex linkages over the dislocation, as well as the corresponding dynamic processes related to the appearance of dislocations, are described by examining the variations of vortex lines and vorticity distribution. The nature of the vortex dislocation is demonstrated by the substantial vorticity modification of the spanwise vortex from the original spanwise direction to streamwise and vertical directions, accompanied by the appearance of noticeable vortex branching and complex vortex linking, all of which are produced at the locations with the biggest phase difference or with a frequency discontinuity between shedding cells. The effect of vortex dislocation on flow transition, either to an unsteady irregular vortex flow or suppression of the Kármán vortex shedding making the wake flow steady state, is analyzed. Distinct similarities are found in the mechanism and main flow phenomena between the present numerical results obtained in wake-type flows and the experimental-numerical results of cylinder wakes reported in previous studies.

  11. Horizontal wind disturbances induced by inertial instability in the equatorial middle atmosphere as seen in rocketsonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hiroo; Shiotani, Masato; Gille, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Rocketsonde observations at Kwajalein (8.7°N, 167.7°E) were used for investigation of horizontal wind disturbances induced by inertial instability. Two characteristic cases were found in the 1978-1979 northern winter during which the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) made observations. In both the cases the eastward component and the northward component of horizontal winds are negatively correlated in the vertical direction near the stratopause level, which is thought to be due to inertial instability. The wind disturbances have a wavelength of about 10 km, and their maximum amplitudes are estimated as over 10 ms-1. Examinations of the LIMS temperatures support a possibility that the wind disturbances are induced by inertial instability. It was revealed that temperature disturbances characteristic of inertial instability, called ``pancake structures,'' appear in the same height and time as the wind disturbances do. The relationship between the rocketsonde wind disturbances and the LIMS pancake structures is 90° out of phase, as expected by the theory of inertial instability. In addition, it was confirmed that the two inertial instability events follow enhancements of the midlatitude planetary wave. This is consistent with a mechanism of the inertially unstable disturbances in the equatorial region inferred in some observational and numerical studies. Analyses of rocketsonde data were extended to the entire observation period at Kwajalein, which suggests that the occurrence of inertially unstable disturbances is biased toward the winter season. However, at some other stations in the tropics, wind disturbances which may be induced by inertial instability do not appear so frequently as they do at Kwajalein. This seasonality and regionality of inertially unstable disturbances would be due to the seasonality and regionality of planetary wave breakings at midlatitude.

  12. Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Exerts Anti-Atherogenic Effects by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Induced by Disturbed Flow

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jihwa; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Seok Cheol; An, Shung Hyun; Kwon, Kihwan

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed blood flow with low-oscillatory shear stress (OSS) is a predominant atherogenic factor leading to dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs). Recently, it was found that disturbed flow can directly induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ECs, thereby playing a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid, has long been used to treat chronic cholestatic liver disease and is known to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the cellular level. However, its role in atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-atherogenic activity of UDCA via inhibition of disturbed flow-induced ER stress in atherosclerosis. UDCA effectively reduced ER stress, resulting in a reduction in expression of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) and CEBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in ECs. UDCA also inhibits the disturbed flow-induced inflammatory responses such as increases in adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion to ECs, and apoptosis of ECs. In a mouse model of disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis, UDCA inhibits atheromatous plaque formation through the alleviation of ER stress and a decrease in adhesion molecules. Taken together, our results revealed that UDCA exerts anti-atherogenic activity in disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting ER stress and the inflammatory response. This study suggests that UDCA may be a therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26442866

  13. Disturbed Flow Induces Autophagy, but Impairs Autophagic Flux to Perturb Mitochondrial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongsong; Jen, Nelson; Wu, Lan; Lee, Juhyun; Fang, Karen; Quigley, Katherine; Lee, Katherine; Wang, Sky; Zhou, Bill; Vergnes, Laurent; Chen, Yun-Ru; Li, Zhaoping; Reue, Karen; Ann, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Temporal and spatial variations in shear stress are intimately linked with vascular metabolic effects. Autophagy is tightly regulated in intracellular bulk degradation/recycling system for maintaining cellular homeostasis. We postulated that disturbed flow modulates autophagy with an implication in mitochondrial superoxide (mtO2•−) production. Results: In the disturbed flow or oscillatory shear stress (OSS)-exposed aortic arch, we observed prominent staining of p62, a reverse marker of autophagic flux, whereas in the pulsatile shear stress (PSS)-exposed descending aorta, p62 was attenuated. OSS significantly increased (i) microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) II to I ratios in human aortic endothelial cells, (ii) autophagosome formation as quantified by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 dots per cell, and (iii) p62 protein levels, whereas manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression by recombinant adenovirus, N-acetyl cysteine treatment, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition reduced OSS-mediated LC3-II/LC3-I ratios and mitochondrial DNA damage. Introducing bafilomycin to Earle's balanced salt solution or to OSS condition incrementally increased both LC3-II/LC3-I ratios and p62 levels, implicating impaired autophagic flux. In the OSS-exposed aortic arch, both anti-phospho-JNK and anti-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining for DNA damage were prominent, whereas in the PSS-exposed descending aorta, the staining was nearly absent. Knockdown of ATG5 with siRNA increased OSS-mediated mtO2•−, whereas starvation or rapamycin-induced autophagy reduced OSS-mediated mtO2•−, mitochondrial respiration, and complex II activity. Innovation: Disturbed flow-mediated oxidative stress and JNK activation induce autophagy. Conclusion: OSS impairs autophagic flux to interfere with mitochondrial homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1207–1219. PMID:26120766

  14. L-theanine partially counteracts caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hwan-Soo; Jung, Ji Young; Jang, Il-Sung; Jang, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Maan-Gee

    2012-04-01

    L-theanine has been reported to inhibit the excitatory effects of caffeine. The present study examined the effects of L-theanine on caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats. Rats received the following drug pairings: saline and saline (Control), 7.5 mg/kg caffeine and saline, or 7.5 mg/kg of caffeine followed by various doses of L-theanine (22.5, 37.5, 75, or 150 mg/kg). Vigilance states were divided into: wakefulness (W), transition to slow-wave sleep (tSWS), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). Caffeine significantly increased the duration of W and decreased the duration of SWS and REMS compared to the Control. Although L-theanine failed to reverse the caffeine-induced W increase, at 22.5 and 37.5 mg/kg (but not at 75 and 150 mg/kg), it significantly reversed caffeine-induced decreases in SWS. In conclusion, low doses of L-theanine can partially reverse caffeine-induced reductions in SWS; however, effects of L-theanine on caffeine-induced insomnia do not appear to increase dose-dependently. PMID:22285321

  15. Physics-based Modeling of Ionospheric Signatures Induced by Surface Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Yang, Y. M.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Komjathy, A.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards like tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions can disturb the surface of the solid Earth or ocean, generating acoustic-gravity waves propagating upward through the atmosphere and inducing total electron content (TEC) disturbances in the ionosphere. To capture this process, we have developed a three-dimensional, time-dependent, and physics-based model WP-GITM (Wave Perturbation - Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model). WP-GITM consists of two dynamically coupled components: 1) an analytical model that solves for atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves at 100 km altitude given ground or ocean displacements; and 2) the first-principles model GITM that describes the responses of the upper atmosphere between 100 km and 600 km altitudes. We report recent WP-GITM developments and simulations of actual earthquake and tsunami events. We validate the simulated TEC perturbations through Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and have found reasonable agreement. As an advanced modeling tool, WP-GITM can provide many insights of ionospheric signatures generated by a variety of natural hazards.

  16. Sounding of HF heating-induced artificial ionospheric disturbances by navigational satellite radio transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, V. E.; Andreeva, E. S.; Frolov, V. L.; Komrakov, G. P.; Nazarenko, M. O.; Padokhin, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    During experiments carried out in 2009-2011 the midlatitude ionosphere was modified by powerful HF pulses from the Sura heating facility located near Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) and operated by the Radio Physical Research Institute. GPS/GLONASS and Parus/Tsikada satellite radio transmissions responding to the heating-induced disturbances in electron density were analyzed. The variations in the total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for various schemes of radiation of the heating wave. The variations in TEC (their amplitudes and temporal behavior) caused by HF heating are identified in several examples. The TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the heating wave. For the first time, the spatial structure of the wave disturbances generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heating facility with a square wave modulation of the effective radiated power at a frequency lower than or of the order of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency of the neutral atmosphere is imaged using the method of low-orbital radio tomography and GPS/GLONASS data.

  17. Lead Poisoning Disturbs Oligodendrocytes Differentiation Involved in Decreased Expression of NCX3 Inducing Intracellular Calcium Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Wu, Xiyan; Cai, Qiyan; Wang, Yun; Xiao, Lan; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning has always been a serious health concern, as it permanently damages the central nervous system. Chronic Pb accumulation in the human body disturbs oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation, resulting in dysmyelination, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, Pb at 1 μM inhibits OLs precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation via decreasing the expression of Olig 2, CNPase proteins in vitro. Moreover, Pb treatment inhibits the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) mRNA expression, one of the major means of calcium (Ca2+) extrusion at the plasma membrane during OPCs differentiation. Also addition of KB-R7943, NCX3 inhibitor, to simulate Pb toxicity, resulted in decreased myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and cell branching. Ca2+ response trace with Pb and KB-R7943 treatment did not drop down in the same recovery time as the control, which elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration reducing MBP expression. In contrast, over-expression of NCX3 in Pb exposed OPCs displayed significant increase MBP fluorescence signal in positive regions and CNPase expression, which recovered OPCs differentiation to counterbalance Pb toxicity. In conclusion, Pb exposure disturbs OLs differentiation via affecting the function of NCX3 by inducing intracellular calcium overload. PMID:26287169

  18. Robust tracking of a flexible spacecraft subject to induced disturbances and parametric uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karray, Fakhreddine; Dwyer, Thomas A., III; Kim, Jinho

    1990-01-01

    A variable structure control technique combined with an operator spline for bilinear systems is implemented to a fast moving deformable structure for purposes of achieving robust tracking performance. The control torque applied to the structure is based on estimates of the structure parameters and on upper bounds of the model errors. For a rapid rotation of the deformable structure, the elastic response can be modeled by oscillators driven by angular acceleration, where stiffness and damping coefficients are also angular velocity and acceleration dependent. By transforming this 'slew-driven' elastic dynamics into a bilinear form, an operator spline can be constructed, that gives a low order estimate of the induced disturbance. An upper bound between the estimated deformation and the unknown exact deformation is also generated, which can be used where required in the sliding control correction.

  19. Hadal disturbance in the Japan Trench induced by the 2011 Tohoku–Oki Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Murayama, Masafumi; Fujikura, Katsunori; Glud, Ronnie N.; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku–Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending ~30–50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic macrofauna was absent and dead organisms along with turbid downslope current were observed. The top 31 cm of sediment in the trench axis revealed three recent depositions events characterized by elevated 137Cs levels and alternating sediment densities. At 4.9 km seaward from the trench axis, little deposition was observed but the surface sediment contained 134Cs from the Fukushima Dai–ichi nuclear disaster. We argue that diatom blooms observed by remote sensing facilitated rapid deposition of 134Cs to hadal environment and the aftershocks induced successive sediment disturbances and maintained dense nepheloid layers in the trench even four months after the mainshock. PMID:23715086

  20. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan; Li, Longjiang

    2015-11-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells' viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy. PMID:26302210

  1. Magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles induce vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation by disturbing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, XueQin; Miao, YiMing; Chen, ZhiQiang; Qiang, PengFei; Cui, LiuQing; Jing, Hongjuan; Guo, YuQi

    2016-03-01

    Despite the considerable use of magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) worldwide, their safety is still an important topic of debate. In the present study, we detected the toxicity and biological behavior of bare-Fe3O4NPs (B-Fe3O4NPs) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results showed that B-Fe3O4NPs did not induce cell death within 24h even at concentrations up to 400 μg/ml. The level of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) were decreased after exposure to B-Fe3O4NPs, whereas the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were elevated. Importantly, B-Fe3O4NPs increased the accumulation of autophagosomes and LC3-II in HUVECs through both autophagy induction and the blockade of autophagy flux. The levels of Beclin 1 and VPS34, but not phosphorylated mTOR, were increased in the B-Fe3O4NP-treated HUVECs. Suppression of autophagy induction or stimulation of autophagy flux, at least partially, attenuated the B-Fe3O4NP-induced HUVEC dysfunction. Additionally, enhanced autophagic activity might be linked to the B-Fe3O4NP-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results demonstrated that B-Fe3O4NPs disturb the process of autophagy in HUVECs, and eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:26551222

  2. Shaking stress aggravates burn-induced cardiovascular and renal disturbances in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Bing-qian; Ruan, Jing; Luo, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Jia-ping; Xiao, Rong; Lei, Ze-yuan; Hu, Jiong-yu; Chen, Yi-sheng; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to address the effects of shaking stress (a.k.a. physical agitation) on burn-induced remote organ injury and to evaluate the application of delayed fluid resuscitation to treat severe burns under shaking conditions. Healthy adult male rabbits, weighing 2.50±0.40 kg, were randomly assigned to the following groups: control group, burn group, and burn+shaking group. One half of burned animals received a 6-h delayed fluid resuscitation and the other half remained untreated. Cardiovascular hemodynamics and functional and pathological changes of the heart and kidney were examined. Compared to normal controls, untreated burned animals showed decreased hemodynamic parameters, increased serum lactic acid, and severe myocardial inflammation. The burn-induced hemodynamic abnormalities and cardiac injury were aggravated by shaking stress. Burn injury led to reduced urine volume, elevated serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, and formation of erythrocyte casts in renal tubules. Shaking stimulation worsened the burn-associated functional and pathological changes of the kidney. Fluid resuscitation markedly mitigated cardiac and renal injury in burned animals, and, to a lesser extent, in the presence of shaking stimulation. Shaking stimulation aggravates burn-induced cardiovascular and renal disturbances. Delayed fluid resuscitation attenuates cardiac and renal damages in burn injury under shaking conditions. PMID:23063799

  3. Lycopene protects against atrazine-induced hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance by modulating ion-transporting ATPases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Xiang, Li-Run; Xia, Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible chemoprotective role of lycopene (LYC) against atrazine (ATR)-induced ionic disorder and hepatotoxicity in mice. Male kunming mice were treated with LYC (5mg/kg) and/or ATR (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) by lavage administration for 21days. Ionic disorder was assessed by determining the Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) content and the alteration in ATP enzymes (ATPases) including Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase and the mRNA levels of ATPase's subunits in liver. ATR caused the increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and histological changes. LYC pretreatment significantly protected liver against ATR-caused alternation. The significant effect of ATR and LYC on the K(+) and Mg(2+) content in liver was not observed, but ATR increased hepatic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. The mRNA expressions of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunits were regulated significantly by ATR. A significant increase of Ca(2+) content and seven down-regulated mRNA expressions of Ca(2+)-ATPase subunits and a decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were observed in the ATR-treated mice. Notably, LYC modulated these ATR-induced alterations of ATPase activity and mRNA expression of their subunits. These results suggest that ATR presents hepatotoxicity via regulating hepatic ATPase's activities and their subunit transcriptions and inducing ionic disorder. LYC protects liver against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity, significantly. LYC modulated hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance via regulation of ATPase activities and their subunits' (1a1, 1b3, 1b4 and 2b4) transcriptions. In summary, these effects play a critical role of LYC-mediated chemoprevention against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26476475

  4. Magnesium Supplementation Prevents and Reverses Experimentally Induced Movement Disturbances in Rats: Biochemical and Behavioral Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Maikel; Segat, Hecson J; De David Antoniazzi, Caren Tatiane; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Pase, Camila S; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Burger, Marilise E

    2015-08-01

    Reserpine administration results in a predictable animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) that has been largely used to access movement disturbances related to extrapyramidal oxidative damage. Here, OD was acutely induced by reserpine (two doses of 0.7 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), every other day for 3 days), which was administered after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) magnesium (Mg) supplementation (40 mg/kg/mL, peroral (p.o.)). In experiment 1, Mg was administered for 28 days before reserpine treatment, while in experiment 2, it was initiated 24 h after the last reserpine administration and was maintained for 10 consecutive days. Experiment 1 (prevention) showed that Mg supplementation was able to prevent reserpine-induced OD and catalepsy development. Mg was also able to prevent reactive species (RS) generation, thus preventing increase of protein carbonyl (PC) levels in both cortex and substantia nigra, but not in striatum. Experiment 2 (reversion) showed that Mg was able to decrease OD and catalepsy at all times assessed. In addition, Mg was able to decrease RS generation, with lower levels of PC in both cortex and striatum, but not in substantia nigra. These outcomes indicate that Mg is an important metal that should be present in the diet, since its intake is able to prevent and minimize the development of movement disorders closely related to oxidative damage in the extrapyramidal brain areas, such as OD. PMID:25686766

  5. Disturbances in the murine hepatic circadian clock in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Ross, Ruth A.; Pywell, Cameron M.; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of the circadian clock in the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver disease we examined livers of mice chronically alcohol-fed over 4-weeks that resulted in steatosis. Here we show time-of-day specific changes in expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes, including those associated with lipid and bile acid regulation. Such changes were not observed following a 1-week alcohol treatment with no hepatic lipid accumulation. Real-time bioluminescence reporting of PERIOD2 protein expression suggests that these changes occur independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus pacemaker. Further, we find profound time-of-day specific changes to the rhythmic synthesis/accumulation of triglycerides, cholesterol and bile acid, and the NAD/NADH ratio, processes that are under clock control. These results highlight not only that the circadian timekeeping system is disturbed in the alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis state, but also that the effects of alcohol upon the clock itself may actually contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. PMID:24430730

  6. Effects of voluntary running and soy supplementation on diet-induced metabolic disturbances and inflammation in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of voluntary running and soy supplementation on diet-induced metabolic disturbance and inflammation in male C57BL/6 mice using a 2x2x2 design in which the effects of diet (AIN93G or its modification with 45% calories from fat), activity level (sedentary or ...

  7. The solar array-induced disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, C. L.; Tinker, M. L.; Nurre, G. S.; Till, W. A.

    1995-05-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitudes of the disturbances were considerably larger than the design jitter requirements. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first space telescope servicing mission and, in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm, reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  8. Solar-array-induced disturbance of the Hubble space telescope pointing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Carlton L.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nurre, Gerald S.; Till, William A.

    1995-07-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitude of the disturbances was considerably larger than the design jitter requirement. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first Space Telescope servicing mission, and in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  9. Solar-Array-Induced Disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Carlton L.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nurre, Gerald S.; Till, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitude of the disturbances was considerably larger than the design jitter requirement. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first Space Telescope servicing mission, and in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  10. The solar array-induced disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L.; Tinker, M. L.; Nurre, G. S.; Till, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitudes of the disturbances were considerably larger than the design jitter requirements. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first space telescope servicing mission and, in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm, reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  11. Probing of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances using HF-induced scatter targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kornienko, V. A.; Moskvin, I. V.; Rietveld, M. T.; Frolov, V. L.; Uryadov, V. P.; Kagan, L. M.; Yampolski, Yu. M.; Galushko, V. L.; Koloskov, A. V.; Kasheev, S. B.; Zalizovski, A. V.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Kelley, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    Experimental results from the Tromsø and Sura heating experiments at high and mid-latitudes are examined. It is shown that the combination of HF-induced target and bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter observations is a profitable method for probing medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) at high and mid-latitudes. HF ionospheric modification experiments provide a way of producing the HF-induced scatter target in a controlled manner at altitudes where the sensitivity to TIDs is highest. Bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter observations were carried out on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path in the course of a Tromsø heating experiment on 16 November 2004 when the pump wave was reflected from an auroral Es-layer. During Sura heating experiments on 19 and 20 August 2004, when the HF pump wave was reflected from the F2 ionospheric layer, multi-position bi-static HF Doppler radio scatter observations were simultaneously performed at three reception points including St. Petersburg, Kharkov, and Rostov-on-Don. Ray tracing and Doppler shift simulations were made for all experiments. A computational technique has been developed allowing the reconstruction of the TID phase velocities from multi-position bi-static HF Doppler scatters. Parameters of medium-scale TIDs were found. In all experiments they were observed in the evening and pre-midnight hours. TIDs in the auroral E-region with periods of about 23 min were traveling southward at speeds of 210 m/s. TIDs in the mid-latitudinal F-region with periods from 20 to 45 min travelled at speeds between 40 and 150 m/s. During quiet magnetic conditions the waves were traveling in the north-east direction. In disturbed conditions the waves were moving in the south-west direction with higher speeds as compared with quiet conditions. Possible sources for the atmospheric gravity waves at middle and high latitudes are discussed.

  12. Hyperprolactinemia induced by hCG leads to metabolic disturbances in female mice.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Laura D; Stevens, Guillermina; Bonaventura, Maria Marta; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2016-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a growing epidemic; it increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, and several cancers. Several reports have indicated a link between hormonal imbalances and insulin resistance or obesity. Transgenic (TG) female mice overexpressing the human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice) exhibit constitutively elevated levels of hCG, increased production of testosterone, progesterone and prolactin, and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hCG hypersecretion on possible alterations in the glucose and lipid metabolism of adult TG females. We evaluated fasting serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride levels in adult hCGβ+ females and conducted intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests at different ages. TG female mice showed hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia, as well as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance at 6 months of age. A 1-week treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline applied on 5-week-old hCGβ+ mice, which corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, effectively prevented the metabolic alterations. These data indicate a key role of the hyperprolactinemia-induced gonadal dysfunction in the metabolic disturbances of hCGβ+ female mice. The findings prompt further studies on the involvement of gonadotropins and prolactin on metabolic disorders and might pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27154336

  13. Aluminum Trichloride Induces Hypertension and Disturbs the Function of Erythrocyte Membrane in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyue; Cao, Zheng; Sun, Xudong; Zuang, Cuicui; Huang, Wanyue; Li, Yanfei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al accumulates in erythrocyte and causes toxicity on erythrocyte membrane. The dysfunction of erythrocyte membrane is a potential risk to hypertension. The high Al content in plasma was associated with hypertension. To investigate the effect of AlCl3 on blood pressure and the function of erythrocyte membrane, the rats were intragastrically exposed to 0, 64(1/20 LD50), 128(1/10 LD50), and 256(1/5 LD50) mg/kg body weight AlCl3 in double distilled water for 120 days, respectively. Then, we determined the systolic and mean arterial blood pressures of rats, the osmotic fragility, the percentage of membrane proteins, the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-pX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the erythrocyte membrane in this experiment. The results showed that AlCl3 elevated the systolic and mean arterial blood pressure of rats, increased the osmotic fragility, decreased the percentage of membrane protein, inhibited the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, CAT, SOD and GSH-pX, and increased the MDA content of erythrocyte membrane. These results indicate that AlCl3 may induce hypertension by disturbing the function of erythrocyte membrane. PMID:26354416

  14. Disturbance of deep-sea environments induced by the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Yukari T.; Noguchi, Takuroh; Honda, Makio C.; Uchida, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Hidenori; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Tsunogai, Urumu; Okamura, Kei; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nunoura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Hirai, Miho; Lin, Weiren; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Takai, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of the M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake on deep-sea environment were investigated 36 and 98 days after the event. The light transmission anomaly in the deep-sea water after 36 days became atypically greater (∼35%) and more extensive (thickness ∼1500 m) near the trench axis owing to the turbulent diffusion of fresh seafloor sediment, coordinated with potential seafloor displacement. In addition to the chemical influx associated with sediment diffusion, an influx of 13C-enriched methane from the deep sub-seafloor reservoirs was estimated. This isotopically unusual methane influx was possibly triggered by the earthquake and its aftershocks that subsequently induced changes in the sub-seafloor hydrogeologic structures. The whole prokaryotic biomass and the development of specific phylotypes in the deep-sea microbial communities could rise and fall at 36 and 98 days, respectively, after the event. We may capture the snap shots of post-earthquake disturbance in deep-sea chemistry and microbial community responses. PMID:22355782

  15. Polyvinylidene fluoride film sensors in collocated feedback structural control: application for suppressing impact-induced disturbances.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chien-Ching; Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Pan, Shan-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films are light, flexible, and have high piezoelectricity. Because of these advantages, they have been widely used as sensors in applications such as underwater investigation, nondestructive damage detection, robotics, and active vibration suppression. PVDF sensors are especially preferred over conventional strain gauges in active vibration control because the PVDF sensors are easy to cut into different sizes or shapes as piezoelectric actuators and they can then be placed as collocated pairs. In this work, to focus on demonstrating the dynamic sensing performance of the PVDF film sensor, we revisit the active vibration control problem of a cantilever beam using a collocated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator/PVDF film sensor pair. Before applying active vibration control, the measurement characteristics of the PVDF film sensor are studied by simultaneous comparison with a strain gauge. The loading effect of the piezoelectric actuator on the cantilever beam is also investigated in this paper. Finally, four simple, robust active vibration controllers are employed with the collocated PZT/PVDF pair to suppress vibration of the cantilever beam subjected to impact loadings. The four controllers are the velocity feedback controller, the integral resonant controller (IRC), the resonant controller, and the positive position feedback (PPF) controller. Suppression of impact disturbances is especially suitable for the purpose of demonstrating the dynamic sensing performance of the PVDF sensor. The experimental results also provide suggestions for choosing between the previously mentioned controllers, which have been proven to be effective in suppressing impact-induced vibrations. PMID:23443690

  16. Measurement-induced disturbance and thermal negativity in 1D optical lattice chain

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Liang; Lin-Wang; Long, Gui-Lu

    2013-03-15

    We study the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a 1D optical lattice chain with nonlinear coupling. Special attention is paid to the difference between the thermal entanglement and MID when considering the influences of the linear coupling constant, nonlinear coupling constant and external magnetic field. It is shown that MID is more robust than thermal entanglement against temperature T and external magnetic field B, and MID may reveal more properties about quantum correlations of the system, which can be seen from the point of view that MID can be nonzero when there is no thermal entanglement and MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear coupling constant can strengthen the quantum correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID is more robust than entanglement against temperature and magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID exhibits more information about quantum correlation than entanglement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature.

  17. Optimal use of fluids of varying formulations to minimise exercise-induced disturbances in homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lamb, D R; Brodowicz, G R

    1986-01-01

    The rationale underlying the development of various formulations of beverages for consumption before, during, and/or after physical exercise is that such formulations should minimise some of the disturbances in physiological homeostasis that occur during exercise and thereby prevent injury and/or enhance performance. Exercise- and dehydration-induced increases in core temperature, body fluid osmolality, heart rate, losses of plasma and other body fluid volumes, and carbohydrate depletion are probably the most important homeostatic disturbances that can be ameliorated by fluid consumption. With the exception of athletes subject to hyponatraemia after consumption of ordinary water during prolonged activity, changes in electrolyte concentrations in the body fluids of most athletes do not justify the inclusion of electrolytes in fluid replacement beverages to be consumed during exercise. However, small amounts of sodium added to water does speed gastric emptying and fluid absorption from the intestine. Recent evidence suggests that a precompetition meal high in easily digested carbohydrates should be consumed not later than 5 to 6 hours before competition. There is little published research on the optimal composition of this meal. Water ingestion 30 to 60 minutes before exercise seems to be of benefit to temperature regulation and cardiovascular homeostasis if the exercise is of moderate intensity (50 to 65% VO2max), but probably has little effect at the higher intensities of athletic performance. There is no systematic evidence to support the inclusion of calcium or sodium chloride in drinks consumed an hour or 2 before exercise. Furthermore, if glucose solutions are fed 15 to 45 minutes before prolonged exercise, they will probably cause a fall in blood glucose during exercise and may adversely affect performance. These adverse effects are not present when fructose is consumed before exercise. Contrary to the adverse effects of glucose feedings 15 to 60 minutes

  18. Thresholds of flow-induced bed disturbances and their effects on stream metabolism in an agricultural river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Harvey, Judson W.; McPhillips, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    Storm-driven flow pulses in rivers destroy and restructure sediment habitats that affect stream metabolism. This study examined thresholds of bed disturbances that affected patch- and reach-scale sediment conditions and metabolism rates. A 4 year record of discharge and diel changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations (ΔDO) was analyzed for disturbances and recovery periods of the ΔDO signal. Disturbances to the ΔDO signal were associated with flow pulses, and the recovery times for the ΔDO signal were found to be in two categories: less than 5 days (30% of the disturbances) or greater than 15 days (70% of the disturbances). A field study was performed during the fall of 2007, which included a storm event that increased discharge from 3.1 to 6.9 m3/s over a 7 h period. During stable flow conditions before the storm, variability in patch-scale stream metabolism values were associated with sediment texture classes with values ranging from −16.4 to 2.3 g O22/d (negative sign indicates net respiration) that bounded the reach-averaged rate of −5.6 g O22/d. Hydraulic modeling of bed shear stresses demonstrated a storm-induced flow pulse mobilized approximately 25% of the bed and reach-scale metabolism rates shifted from −5 to −40 g O22/d. These results suggest that storm-induced bed disturbances led to threshold behavior with respect to stream metabolism. Small flow pulses resulted in partial-bed mobilization that disrupted stream metabolism by increased turbidity with short recovery times. Large flow pulses resulted in full-bed mobilization that disrupted stream metabolism by destroying periphyton habitats with long recovery times.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Upset-Inducing Disturbances for Digital Systems in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a modeling and simulation approach for disturbance patterns representative of the environment experienced by a digital system in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber. The disturbance is modeled by a multi-variate statistical distribution based on empirical observations. Extended versions of the Rejection Samping and Inverse Transform Sampling techniques are developed to generate multi-variate random samples of the disturbance. The results show that Inverse Transform Sampling returns samples with higher fidelity relative to the empirical distribution. This work is part of an ongoing effort to develop a resilience assessment methodology for complex safety-critical distributed systems.

  20. Impacts of natural and human-induced disturbances on carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.

    2012-12-01

    Disturbance regimes (DR) of vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia (NE, limited to Russian territories) are represented by complicated and interacting sets of natural and human-induced disturbances (D). We present a unified classification of D and DR in major land cover classes of Northern Eurasia (forests, agriculture, wetlands, shrubs & grasses), their connections to succession regularities, and minimal informative set of indicators, which are able to describe both specifics of individual types of D and their impacts on annual carbon budget. The assessment of extent, severity and consequences of D was done based on an Integrated Land Information System for Russia, which accumulated all relevant spatially distributed information including multi-sensor and multi-temporal remote sensing concept, in situ measurements and ground data from diverse inventories and surveys. Major emissions caused by D are produced by consumption of plant products (agriculture and forestry), wild fire, and biotic D (basically insect outbreaks). For example, the annual flux due to human consumption of plant products is estimated at 170 Tg C yr-1. Wild fire in 1998-2010 enveloped 106.9 x 106 ha-1, on average 8.23 x 106 ha-1 yr-1, with variation from 4.2 to 17.3 x 106 ha-1 yr-1. Average direct carbon emissions due to wildfire were estimated to be at 121.0 Tg C yr-1, including 84.6% as C-CO2, 8.2% C-CO, C-CH4 - 1.1%, C-NMHC - 1.2%, organic carbon - 1.2% and black carbon - 0.1%, particulate matter 3.5%, of which PM2.5 - 1.2%. About 2/3 of burnt area and carbon emissions were on forest land. While the area of fire on wetlands was only 7.3%, this land class delivered 15.2% of the total fire emissions. Emissions caused by biotic D (accounted for forests only) is estimated at 50.8 Tg C yr-1. Overall, direct emissions due to D amounted at about 350 Tg C yr-1, or ~7% of annual Net Primary Production of terrestrial ecosystems of Russia. These data do not include long-term consequences of D, which

  1. Pollen, wind and fire: how to investigate genetic effects of disturbance-induced change in forest trees.

    PubMed

    Bacles, Cecile F E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of habitat disturbance on mating patterns although pollen and seed dispersal in forest trees has been a long-standing theme of forest and conservation genetics. Forest ecosystems face global environmental pressures from timber exploitation to genetic pollution and climate change, and it is therefore essential to comprehend how disturbances may alter the dispersal of genes and their establishment in tree populations in order to formulate relevant recommendations for sustainable resource management practices and realistic predictions of potential adaptation to climate change by means of range shift or expansion (Kremer et al. 2012). However, obtaining reliable evidence of disturbance-induced effects on gene dispersal processes from empirical evaluation of forest tree populations is difficult. Indeed, tree species share characteristics such as high longevity, long generation time and large reproductive population size, which may impede the experimenter's ability to assess parameters at the spatial and time scales at which any change may occur (Petit and Hampe 2006). It has been suggested that appropriate study designs should encompass comparison of populations before and after disturbance as well as account for demonstrated variation in conspecific density, that is, the spatial distribution of mates, and forest density, including all species and relating to alteration in landscape openness (Bacles & Jump 2011). However, more often than not, empirical studies aiming to assess the consequences of habitat disturbance on genetic processes in tree populations assume rather than quantify a change in tree densities in forests under disturbance and generally fail to account for population history, which may lead to inappropriate interpretation of a causal relationship between population genetic structure and habitat disturbance due to effects of unmonitored confounding variables (Gauzere et al. 2013). In this issue, Shohami and Nathan (2014

  2. Using measurement-induced disturbance to characterize correlations as classical or quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Shunlong

    2008-02-15

    In contrast to the seminal entanglement-separability paradigm widely used in quantum information theory, we introduce a quantum-classical dichotomy in order to classify and quantify statistical correlations in bipartite states. This is based on the idea that while in the classical description of nature measurements can be carried out without disturbance, in the quantum description, generic measurements often disturb the system and the disturbance can be exploited to quantify the quantumness of correlations therein. It turns out that certain separable states still possess correlations of a quantum nature and indicates that quantum correlations are more general than entanglement. The results are illustrated in the Werner states and the isotropic states, and are applied to quantify the quantum advantage of the model of quantum computation proposed by Knill and Laflamme [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5672 (1998)].

  3. Magnetospheric disturbance induced equatorial plasma bubble development and dynamics: A case study in Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Takahashi, H.; MacDougall, J.; Sobral, J. H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Trivedi, N. B.

    2003-12-01

    Equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble irregularity development and dynamics during the major magnetospheric storm of 26 August 1998 are investigated using the data collected by a multistation and multi-instrument diagnostic network operated at equatorial and low latitude sites in Brazil, and auroral electrojet activity (AU/AL), IMF, and Dst indices. A magnetospheric disturbance onset in the morning of 26 August 1998 was initiated by a solar wind shock and associated IMF Bz polarity reversals and ssc that were soon followed by a succession of substorm-like auroral electrojet (AE) intensifications and Dst development. An IMF Bz southward turning and associated AE intensifications in the Brazilian dusk sector produced intense prompt penetration eastward electric field that caused large F region vertical drift and consequently the developments of intense postsunset equatorial anomaly and a series of intense plasma bubbles, the latter event lasting the entire night, as observed by digital ionosondes at São Luís (2.33°S, 315.8°E, dip angle: -.5°) and Fortaleza (3.9°S, 321.55°W, dip angle: -9°) and an all-sky imager, two scanning photometers, and a Digisonde at the low-latitude site Cachoeira Paulista (22.6°S, 315°E dip angle: -28°). A notable aspect of the dynamics of the bubbles was their initially very low eastward drift velocity which turned into steadily increasing westward velocity that lasted till early morning hours. The results show for the first time a relationship between the zonal drift velocities of optically observed large-scale bubbles (tens to hundreds of kilometers) and that of the smaller scale (kilometer sizes) structures as observed by a digital ionosonde. The results point to the dominant role of a disturbance dynamo associated westward thermospheric wind to maintain the plasma irregularity drift increasingly westward going into postmidnight hours. As an important finding, the results further show that significant contribution to the

  4. Carbon in Amazon forests: unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses.

    PubMed

    Saleska, Scott R; Miller, Scott D; Matross, Daniel M; Goulden, Michael L; Wofsy, Steven C; da Rocha, Humberto R; de Camargo, Plinio B; Crill, Patrick; Daube, Bruce C; de Freitas, Helber C; Hutyra, Lucy; Keller, Michael; Kirchhoff, Volker; Menton, Mary; Munger, J William; Pyle, Elizabeth Hammond; Rice, Amy H; Silva, Hudson

    2003-11-28

    The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide was measured by eddy covariance methods for 3 years in two old-growth forest sites near Santarém, Brazil. Carbon was lost in the wet season and gained in the dry season, which was opposite to the seasonal cycles of both tree growth and model predictions. The 3-year average carbon loss was 1.3 (confidence interval: 0.0 to 2.0) megagrams of carbon per hectare per year. Biometric observations confirmed the net loss but imply that it is a transient effect of recent disturbance superimposed on long-term balance. Given that episodic disturbances are characteristic of old-growth forests, it is likely that carbon sequestration is lower than has been inferred from recent eddy covariance studies at undisturbed sites. PMID:14645845

  5. Long term prevention of disturbance induces the collapse of a dominant species without altering ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Wu, Honghui; Wang, Zhengwen; Flynn, Dan F B; Yang, Hao; Lü, Fumei; Smith, Melinda; Han, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Limitation of disturbances, such as grazing and fire, is a key tool for nature reserve management and ecological restoration. While the role of these disturbances in shaping ecosystem structure and functioning has been intensively studied, less is known about the consequences of long-term prevention of grazing and fire. Based on a 31-year study, we show that relative biomass of the dominant grass, Leymus chinensis, of grasslands in northern China declined dramatically, but only after 21 years of exclusion of fire and grazing. However, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) did not decline accordingly due to compensatory responses of several subdominant grass species. The decline in dominance of L. chinensis was not related to gradually changing climate during the same period, whereas experimentally imposed litter removal (simulating fire), mowing (simulating grazing), fire and moderate grazing enhanced dominance of L. chinensis significantly. Thus, our findings show that disturbances can be critical to maintain the dominance of key grass species in semiarid grassland, but that the collapse of a dominant species does not necessarily result in significant change in ANPP if there are species in the community capable of compensating for loss of a dominant. PMID:26388168

  6. Disturbance induced decoupling between host genetics and composition of the associated microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of oyster microbiomes have revealed that a limited number of microbes, including pathogens, can dominate microbial communities in host tissues such as gills and gut. Much of the bacterial diversity however remains underexplored and unexplained, although environmental conditions and host genetics have been implicated. We used 454 next generation 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of individually tagged PCR reactions to explore the diversity of bacterial communities in gill tissue of the invasive Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas stemming from genetically differentiated beds under ambient outdoor conditions and after a multifaceted disturbance treatment imposing stress on the host. Results While the gill associated microbial communities in oysters were dominated by few abundant taxa (i.e. Sphingomonas, Mycoplasma) the distribution of rare bacterial groups correlated to relatedness between the hosts under ambient conditions. Exposing the host to disturbance broke apart this relationship by removing rare phylotypes thereby reducing overall microbial diversity. Shifts in the microbiome composition in response to stress did not result in a net increase in genera known to contain potentially pathogenic strains. Conclusion The decrease in microbial diversity and the disassociation between population genetic structure of the hosts and their associated microbiome suggest that disturbance (i.e. stress) may play a significant role for the assembly of the natural microbiome. Such community shifts may in turn also feed back on the course of disease and the occurrence of mass mortality events in oyster populations. PMID:24206899

  7. S1P prophylaxis mitigates acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced molecular, biochemical, and metabolic disturbances: A preclinical report.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Sonam; Rahar, Babita; Saxena, Shweta

    2016-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging to have hypoxic preconditioning potential in various preclinical studies. The study aims to evaluate the preclinical preconditioning efficacy of exogenously administered S1P against acute hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced pathological disturbances. Male Sprague Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) were preconditioned with 1, 10, and 100 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) S1P (i.v.) for three consecutive days. On the third day, S1P preconditioned animals, along with hypoxia control animals, were exposed to HH equivalent to 7,620 m (280 mm Hg) for 6 h. Postexposure status of cardiac energy production, circulatory vasoactive mediators, pulmonary and cerebral oxidative damage, and inflammation were assessed. HH exposure led to cardiac energy deficit indicated by low ATP levels and pronounced AMPK activation levels, raised circulatory levels of brain natriuretic peptide and endothelin-1 with respect to total nitrate (NOx), redox imbalance, inflammation, and alterations in NOx levels in the pulmonary and cerebral tissues. These pathological precursors have been routinely reported to be coincident with high-altitude diseases. Preconditioning with S1P, especially 1 µg/kg b.w. dose, was seen to reverse the manifestation of these pathological disturbances. The protective efficacy could be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced activity of cardioprotective protein kinase C and activation of small GTPase Rac1, which led to further induction of hypoxia-adaptive molecular mediators: hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and Hsp70. This is a first such report, to the best of our knowledge, elucidating the mechanism of exogenous S1P-mediated HIF-1α/Hsp70 induction. Conclusively, systemic preconditioning with 1 μg/kg b.w. S1P in rats protects against acute HH-induced pathological disturbances. © 2016 IUBMB Life 68(5):365-375, 2016. PMID:26959531

  8. Cryo Cooler Induced Micro-Vibration Disturbances to the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrich, Nick; Zimbelman, Darrell; Turczyn, Mark; Sills, Joel; Voorhees, Carl; Clapp, Brian; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Cryo Cooler (MCC) system, a description of the micro-vibration characterization testing performed, and a discussion of the simulated performance. The NCC is a reverse Brayton cycle system that employs micro turbo-machinery to provide cooling to the NICMOS instrument. Extensive testing was conducted to quantify the expected on-orbit disturbances caused by the micro turbo-machinery and provide input to a flexible-body dynamic simulation to demonstrate compliance with the HST 7 milli-arcsecond root mean square jitter requirement.

  9. Seismic Induced Ionospheric Disturbances: Characteristics observed from 2012 Indian Ocean Doublet Earthquake and 2014 Chile Pisagua Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil Kumar, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Large earthquakes (Mw > 6.5) can induce near and far-field ionospheric perturbations by direct/secondary acoustic and gravity waves through Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling. The earthquake generated pressure waves grow in amplitude by about five orders of magnitude as they propagate upward and produce ionosphere electron density perturbations. In addition to the ground vertical motion near the seismic rupture area, horizontally propagating Rayleigh surface waves also induce acoustic waves into the nearby neutral atmosphere, which arrive at the ionospheric altitudes and generate electron density variations there within 10 minutes after the initial Earth's surface motion. It is also observed that tsunami waves in the ocean generate gravity waves that propagate obliquely upwards and interact with the ionospheric electron density. In the present study, we tried to explore the characteristics of seismic induced ionospheric electron density variations following Indian Ocean doublet and Pisagua earthquakes. The April 11, 2012 Indian Ocean doublet earthquake was a unique event because of its largest ever recorded aftershock (Mw = 8.2) occurred after two hours of the main shock (Mw = 8.6). Approximately 10 min after both seismic events, the nearby ionosphere started to manifest electron density perturbations that are investigated using GPS-TEC measurements. The epicenters of both events are located south of the magnetic equator, and the magnetic field inclination is one of the factors responsible for the observed north-south asymmetry in the co-seismic total electron content (TEC) disturbances. These disturbances are observed to propagate up to approximately 1500 km towards the north side of the epicenter and up to only a few hundred kilometers on the south side. The frequency analysis of the co-seismic TEC disturbances after both earthquakes exhibits the dominant presence of acoustic frequencies varying between approximately 4.0 to 6.0 mHz. The estimated

  10. Arecoline Induces Neurotoxicity to PC12 Cells: Involvement in ER Stress and Disturbance of Endogenous H2S Generation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Mei; Wang, Li; Gu, Hong-Feng; Wu, Keng; Xiao, Fan; Chen, Ying; Guo, Run-Min; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Increasing evidences have shown that both excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Cleaved caspase-12 expressions. Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. PMID:27255601

  11. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  12. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  13. Effects of land cover changes induced by large physical disturbances on hydrological responses in Central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nien Ming; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Deng, Dung-Po

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the significant impacts of typhoons and earthquakes on land cover change and hydrological response. The occurrence of landslides following typhoons and earthquakes is a major indicator of natural disturbance. The hydrological response of the Chenyulan watershed to land use change was assessed from 1996 to 2005. Land use changes revealed by seven remote images corresponded to typhoons and a catastrophic earthquake in central Taiwan. Hydrological response is discussed as the change in quantities and statistical distributions of hydrological components. The land cover change results indicate that the proportion of landslide relative to total area increased to 6.1% after the Chi-Chi earthquake, representing the largest increase during the study period. The study watershed is dominated by forest land cover. Comparisons of hydrological components reveal that the disturbance significantly affects base flow and direct runoff. The hydrological modeling results demonstrate that the change in forest area correlates with the variation of base flow and direct runoff. Base flow and direct runoff are sensitive to land use in discussions of distinction. The proposed approach quantifies the effect of typhoons and earthquakes on land cover changes. PMID:19496007

  14. Regionalization of disturbance-induced nitrogen leakage from mid-Appalachian forests using a linear systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.; Fiscus, Daniel A.; Castro, Nancy M.; Webb, James R.; Herlihy, Alan T.

    2004-10-01

    The leakage of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N) to surface waters is a common (but not universal) response of forest ecosystems to both human-induced and natural disturbances. There are several reported examples of the transient leakage of nitrate-N to surface waters from eastern US forests that have sustained outbreaks of defoliating insects, such as the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larva. Previous research has suggested that annual nitrate-N leakage from disturbed forests can be modelled using an empirically derived unit nitrogen export response function (UNERF) model. The model represents annual nitrate-N export as a linear deterministic process in both space and time and is analogous to a unit hydrograph. The goal of the present study was to verify and apply a regionalized, lithology-based UNERF model that references the geographic distribution of bedrock class and the timing and extent of gypsy moth defoliation of forests in the non-glaciated highlands of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Despite an inability to verify the model for most individual watersheds within the study area, the model was able to reproduce the statistical distribution of annual nitrate-N export to streams that comprised our target population. During water year 1991 (the year following peak defoliation) the model results indicated that regional annual nitrate-N export had transiently increased by nearly 1500% from a baseline rate of about 0.1 kg ha-1 to a peak value approaching 1.5 kg ha-1. We thus conclude that natural vegetation disturbance is an important mechanism by which dissolved nitrogen is leaked from forested lands to small streams, rivers, and Chesapeake Bay. The present study also illustrates how simple, empirically derived linear systems approaches like the UNERF model can be successfully applied to problems where regionalization is a primary goal.

  15. Continuous administration of polyphenols from aqueous rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract ameliorates dietary-induced metabolic disturbances in hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Debón, R; Rull, A; Rodríguez-Sanabria, F; Iswaldi, I; Herranz-López, M; Aragonès, G; Camps, J; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Menéndez, J A; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Joven, J

    2011-03-15

    The incidence of obesity and related metabolic diseases is increasing globally. Current medical treatments often fail to halt the progress of such disturbances, and plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly being investigated as a possible way to provide safe and effective complementary therapy. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is a rich source of polyphenols without caloric and/or stimulant components. We have tentatively characterized 25 phenolic compounds in rooibos extract and studied the effects of continuous aqueous rooibos extract consumption in mice. The effects of this extract, which contained 25% w/w of total polyphenol content, were negligible in animals with no metabolic disturbance but were significant in hyperlipemic mice, especially in those in which energy intake was increased via a Western-type diet that increased the risk of developing metabolic complications. In these mice, we found hypolipemiant activity when given rooibos extract, with significant reductions in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations. Additionally, we found changes in adipocyte size and number as well as complete prevention of dietary-induced hepatic steatosis. These effects were not related to changes in insulin resistance. Among other possible mechanisms, we present data indicating that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the resulting regulation of cellular energy homeostasis may play a significant role in these effects of rooibos extract. Our findings suggest that adding polyphenols to the daily diet is likely to help in the overall management of metabolic diseases. PMID:21211952

  16. Linking Subcellular Disturbance to Physiological Behavior and Toxicity Induced by Quantum Dots in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Yanfeng; Song, Bin; Zhong, Yiling; Wu, Sicong; Cui, Rongrong; Cong, Haixia; Su, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Huimin; He, Yao

    2016-06-01

    The wide-ranging applications of fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have triggered increasing concerns about their biosafety. Most QD-related toxicity studies focus on the subcellular processes in cultured cells or global physiological effects on whole animals. However, it is unclear how QDs affect subcellular processes in living organisms, or how the subcellular disturbance contributes to the overall toxicity. Here the behavior and toxicity of QDs of three different sizes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are systematically investigated at both the systemic and the subcellular level. Specifically, clear size-dependent distribution and toxicity of the QDs in the digestive tract are observed. Short-term exposure of QDs leads to acute toxicity on C. elegans, yet incurring no lasting, irreversible damage. In contrast, chronic exposure of QDs severely inhibits development and shortens lifespan. Subcellular analysis reveals that endocytosis and nutrition storage are disrupted by QDs, which likely accounts for the severe deterioration in growth and longevity. This work reveals that QDs invasion disrupts key subcellular processes in living organisms, and may cause permanent damage to the tissues and organs over long-term retention. The findings provide invaluable information for safety evaluations of QD-based applications and offer new opportunities for design of novel nontoxic nanoprobes. PMID:27121203

  17. Model simulations of strong atmospheric conductivity disturbances and induced responses of the Global Electric Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertner, A. J.; Lehto, E.; Neely, R. R.; English, J. M.; Zhu, Y.; Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity in the troposphere and stratosphere is an important quantity that determines the distribution of currents in the GEC (Global Electric Circuit), as well as the potential difference between the Earth and the ionosphere. Recently, progress in modeling atmospheric conductivity has been achieved by integrating the conductivity calculation into an AC-GCM (atmospheric chemistry general circulation model), which provides all relevant data. In this study, WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model) is used for conductivity calculations and an analysis of the effects of strong disturbances on the GEC. This includes volcanic eruptions of Pinatubo in 1991 and the super volcano Toba, polar stratospheric clouds, radioactive releases, and the recent strong galactic cosmic ray maximum. In general, there is a decrease in conductivity from enhanced aerosol number densities, resulting from volcanic eruptions or polar stratospheric clouds. Conductivity is increased by additional ionization sources such as radioactive releases, or galactic cosmic ray increases such as during the last solar minimum. The effects of such events on conductivity, column and total resistance, and estimate effects on current distribution and the earth-ionosphere potential difference will be quantified. Percentage change in conductivity at 20 km altitude two months after the Toba volcanic eruption (WACCM model simulation). The enhanced aerosol concentrations lead to a "conductivity hole" between 30°S and 45° N.

  18. Predator-induced flow disturbances alert prey, from the onset of an attack

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Jérôme; Steinmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Many prey species, from soil arthropods to fish, perceive the approach of predators, allowing them to escape just in time. Thus, prey capture is as important to predators as prey finding. We extend an existing framework for understanding the conjoint trajectories of predator and prey after encounters, by estimating the ratio of predator attack and prey danger perception distances, and apply it to wolf spiders attacking wood crickets. Disturbances to air flow upstream from running spiders, which are sensed by crickets, were assessed by computational fluid dynamics with the finite-elements method for a much simplified spider model: body size, speed and ground effect were all required to obtain a faithful representation of the aerodynamic signature of the spider, with the legs making only a minor contribution. The relationship between attack speed and the maximal distance at which the cricket can perceive the danger is parabolic; it splits the space defined by these two variables into regions differing in their values for this ratio. For this biological interaction, the ratio is no greater than one, implying immediate perception of the danger, from the onset of attack. Particular attention should be paid to the ecomechanical aspects of interactions with such small ratio, because of the high degree of bidirectional coupling of the behaviour of the two protagonists. This conclusion applies to several other predator–prey systems with sensory ecologies based on flow sensing, in air and water. PMID:25030986

  19. The protective effect of blueberry anthocyanins against perfluorooctanoic acid-induced disturbance in planarian (Dugesia japonica).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhang, Jianyong; Tu, Changchao; Wang, Zhijing; Xin, Wenpeng

    2016-05-01

    The influence of blueberry anthocyanins on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced stress response in planarian mitochondria was investigated. PFOA at 15mg/L and anthocyanins at 10 or 20mg/L were individually and simultaneously administered to planarians for up to 10d. The results showed PFOA treatment induced an increase in mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and a decrease antioxidant capacity and enzyme activities. In anthocyanin treated animals, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and monoamine oxidase increased, but mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening decreased and total antioxidant capacity increased. An improvement in above-mentioned physiological and biochemical parameters was found in the combined PFOA and anthocyanin treated animals, in a dose-dependent manner. Anthocyanins attenuated the PFOA induced toxicity; antioxidant capacity and enzyme activities are involved in the protective mechanism of anthocyanins. PMID:26836138

  20. Loxapine for Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Metabolic Disturbances: A Chart Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Seema; Andridge, Rebecca; Hellings, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Loxapine substitution is a promising option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who develop antipsychotic-induced metabolic illness. We performed a chart review of 15 adolescents and adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for ASD, all with antipsychotic-associated weight gain, who received low dose loxapine in an attempt to taper or…

  1. Carbendazim exposure induces developmental, biochemical and behavioural disturbance in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thayres S; Henriques, Jorge F; Almeida, Ana Rita; Machado, Ana Luísa; Koba, Olga; Giang, Pham Thai; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês

    2016-01-01

    Carbendazim is a widely used broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide; however, its effects to non-target aquatic organisms are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of carbendazim to zebrafish early life stages at several levels of biological organization, including developmental, biochemical and behavioural levels. The embryo assay was done following the OECD guideline 236 and using a concentration range between 1.1 and 1.8mg/L. Lethal and developmental endpoints such as hatching, edemas, malformations, heart beat rate, body growth and delays were assessed in a 96h exposure. A sub-teratogenic range (from 0.16 to 500μg/L) was then used to assess effects at biochemical and behavioural levels. Biochemical markers included cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) and were assessed at 96h. The locomotor behaviour was assessed using an automated video tracking system at 120h. Carbendazim (96h-LC50 of 1.75mg/L) elicited several developmental anomalies in zebrafish embryos with EC50 values ranging from 0.85 to 1.6mg/L. ChE, GST and LDH activities were increased at concentrations equal or above 4μg/L. The locomotor assay showed to be extremely sensitive, detecting effects in time that larvae spent swimming at concentrations of 0.16μg/L and thus, being several orders of magnitude more sensitive that developmental parameters or lethality. These are ecological relevant concentrations and highlight the potential of behavioural endpoints as early warning signs for environmental stress. Further studies should focus on understanding how the behavioural disturbances measured in these types of studies translate into fitness impairment at the adult stage. PMID:26653011

  2. Metabolomic analysis reveals metabolic disturbances in the prefrontal cortex of the lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Fu, Yuying; Rao, Chenglong; Li, Wenwen; Liang, Zihong; Zhou, Chanjuan; Shen, Peng; Cheng, Pengfei; Zeng, Li; Zhu, Dan; Zhao, Libo; Xie, Peng

    2016-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating illness. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of depression remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence supports that inflammatory cytokine disturbances may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression in humans. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used to study inflammation-associated neurobehavioral changes in rodents, but no metabonomic study has been conducted to assess differential metabolites in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of a LPS-induced mouse model of depression. Here, we employed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomic approach in the LPS-induced mouse model of depression to investigate any significant metabolic changes in the PFC. Multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), was implemented to identify differential PFC metabolites between LPS-induced depressed mice and healthy controls. A total of 20 differential metabolites were identified. Compared with control mice, LPS-treated mice were characterized by six lower level metabolites and 14 higher level metabolites. These molecular changes were closely related to perturbations in neurotransmitter metabolism, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism, which might be evolved in the pathogenesis of MDD. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD and could be of valuable assistance in the clinical diagnosis of MDD. PMID:27102340

  3. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway. PMID:25817235

  4. Disturbance-induced reduction of biomass carbon sinks of China’s forests in recent years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.; Wang, Xiqun; Yang, Lin; Zheng, Guang

    2015-11-01

    Forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change because of their high carbon storage and productivity. China has experienced a pronounced increase in forest area resulting from afforestation and reforestation activities since the 1970s. However, few comprehensive analyses have been made to assess the recent dynamics of biomass carbon sinks in China’s forests. This study refined biomass carbon sinks of China’s forests based on eight forest inventories from 1973 to 2013. These sinks increased from 25.0 to 166.5 Tg C yr-1 between 1973 and 2008, and then decreased to 130.9 Tg C yr-1 for the period of 2009-2013 because the increases in forest area and biomass carbon density became slower. About 7% and 93% of this sink reduction occurred in planted and natural forests. The carbon sinks for young, middle-aged and premature forests decreased by 27.3, 27.0, and 7.6 Tg C yr-1, respectively. 42% of this decrease was offset by mature and overmature forests. During 2009-2013, forest biomass carbon sinks decreased in all regions but the north and northwest regions. The drivers for changes of forest biomass sinks differ spatially. More intensive harvest of young and middle-aged forests and snow damage were the major drivers for the decreases of biomass carbon sinks in the east (8.0 Tg C yr-1) and south (19.8 Tg C yr-1) regions. The carbon sink reduction in the southwest region (16.7 Tg C yr-1) was mainly caused by increased timber harvesting and natural disturbances, such as droughts in Yunnan province, snow damage in Guizhou province and forest fires in Sichuan province. In the northeast region, the sink reduction occurred mainly in Heilongjiang province (7.9 Tg C yr-1) and was caused dominantly by the combined effects of diseases, windthrow and droughts. The carbon sink increase was primarily attributed to forest growth and decreased deforestation in the north (10.0 Tg C yr-1) and northwest (2.3 Tg C yr-1) regions.

  5. Spatial disturbances in altered mucosal and luminal gut viromes of diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Gut microbial biogeography is a key feature of host-microbe relationships. In gut viral ecology, biogeography and responses to dietary intervention remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a metagenomic study to determine the composition of the mucosal and luminal viromes of the gut and to evaluate the impact of a Western diet on gut viral ecology. We found that mucosal and luminal viral assemblages comprised predominantly temperate phages. The mucosal virome significantly differed from the luminal virome in low-fat diet-fed lean mice, where spatial variation correlated with bacterial microbiota from the mucosa and lumen. The mucosal and luminal viromes of high-fat, high-sucrose 'Western' diet-fed obese mice were significantly enriched with temperate phages of the Caudovirales order. Interestingly, this community alteration occurred to a greater extent in the mucosa than lumen, leading to loss of spatial differences; however, these changes recovered after switching to a low-fat diet. Temperate phages enriched in the Western diet-induced obese mice were associated with the Bacilli, Negativicutes and Bacteroidia classes and temperate phages from the Bacteroidia class particularly encoded stress and niche-specific functions advantageous to bacterial host adaptation. This study illustrates a biogeographic view of the gut virome and phage-bacterial host connections under the diet-induced microbial dysbiosis. PMID:26690305

  6. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Methods Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. Results The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Conclusions Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However

  7. Therapeutic effects of curcumin on the functional disturbances and oxidative stress induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Houshang; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Sayedzadeh, Sayed Abolhasan; Mohamadi yarijani, Zeynab; Fakhri, Sajad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocyte infiltration induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups. The groups with 24-h reperfusion consisted of sham-24h, I/R-24h, and three I/R groups treated with curcumin at 10, 20, or 30 mg kg-1, i.p. after the ischemic period. The 72-h reperfusion groups also included Sham-72h, I/R-72h, I/R treated with curcumin at single dose of 20 mg kg-1, i.p., and I/R group which received three doses of curcumin at 20 mg kg-1, i.p., consecutively. Renal functional injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations. Oxidative stress was evaluated by assessment tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) levels. Moreover, renal tissue leukocyte infiltration was measured by histopathology examination. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, tissue MDA level, and leukocytes infiltration as well as reduced FRAP level. Treatment with curcumin in 24-h reperfusion groups could only lead to a significant change in the levels of MDA and FRAP. However, in 72-h reperfusion groups, curcumin was able to correct all functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocytes infiltration with more effectiveness in groups that received three doses of curcumin. Conclusion: The administration of curcumin during 72-h reperfusion following 30 minutes of ischemia can decrease renal oxidative stress and leukocytes infiltration as well as improve kidney function. However, during first 24-h reperfusion, curcumin only decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26693415

  8. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet. PMID:26644274

  9. Suppression of preoptic sleep-regulatory neuronal activity during corticotropin-releasing factor-induced sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gvilia, Irma; Suntsova, Natalia; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is implicated in sleep and arousal regulation. Exogenous CRF causes sleep suppression that is associated with activation of at least two important arousal systems: pontine noradrenergic and hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. It is not known whether CRF also impacts sleep-promoting neuronal systems. We hypothesized that CRF-mediated changes in wake and sleep involve decreased activity of hypothalamic sleep-regulatory neurons localized in the preoptic area. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CRF on sleep-wake measures and c-Fos expression in GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) in different experimental conditions. Administration of CRF (0.1 nmol) during baseline rest phase led to delayed sleep onset and decreases in total amount and mean duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Administration of CRF during acute sleep deprivation (SD) resulted in suppression of recovery sleep and decreased c-Fos expression in MnPN/VLPO GABAergic neurons. Compared with vehicle controls, intracerebroventricular CRF potentiated disturbances of both NREM and REM sleep in rats exposed to a species-specific psychological stressor, the dirty cage of a male conspecific. The number of MnPN/VLPO GABAergic neurons expressing c-Fos was reduced in the CRF-treated group of dirty cage-exposed rats. These findings confirm the involvement of CRF in wake-sleep cycle regulation and suggest that increased CRF signaling in the brain 1) negatively affects homeostatic responses to sleep loss, 2) exacerbates stress-induced disturbances of sleep, and 3) suppresses the activity of sleep-regulatory neurons of the MnPN and VLPO. PMID:26333784

  10. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin-seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanhua; Whittard, John; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Morris, Claudia V.; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2010-01-01

    There remains debate regarding the impact of cannabis on neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis on heroin self-administration and drug-seeking behavior using an experimental rat model. CBD (5-20 mg/kg) did not alter stable intake of heroin self-administration, extinction behavior, or drug seeking induced by a heroin prime injection. Instead, it specifically attenuated heroin-seeking behavior reinstated by exposure to a conditioned stimulus cue. CBD had a protracted effect with significance evident after 24h and even 2 weeks after administration. The behavioral effects were paralleled by neurobiological alterations in the glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems. Discrete disturbances of AMPA GluR1 and cannabinoid type-1 receptor expression observed in the nucleus accumbens associated with stimulus cue-induced heroin seeking were normalized by CBD treatment. The findings highlight the unique contributions of distinct cannabis constituents to addiction vulnerability and suggest that CBD may be a potential treatment for heroin craving and relapse. PMID:19940171

  11. S-adenosyl-L-methionine counteracts mitotic disturbances and cytostatic effects induced by sodium arsenite in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Tzutzuy; Stopper, Helga; Fischer, Thomas; Hock, Robert; Herrera, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    Aneuploidy represents a serious problem for human health. Toxicological data have shown that aneuploidy can be caused by exposure to chemical agents known as mitotic spindle poisons, since they arrest cell cycle in mitosis through their interaction with tubulin. Among these agents is arsenic. In previous reports, we demonstrated that the aneugenic events induced by sodium arsenite can be abolished by the exogenous addition of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of SAM on the mitotic disturbances caused by sodium arsenite. To achieve this goal, we analyzed microtubule (MT) polymerization by immunolocalization and live cell microscopy of mitotic cells. Our findings indicate that sodium arsenite alters the dynamics of MT polymerization, induces centrosome amplification and delays mitosis. Furthermore, SAM reduces the alterations on MT dynamics, as well as centrosome amplification, and therefore diminishes the formation of multipolar spindles in treated HeLa cells. In addition, SAM decreases the progression time through mitosis. Taking these data together, we consider that the mechanism by which SAM reduces the frequency of aneuploid cells must be related to the modulation of the dynamics and organization of MT, suggesting a role of SAM on chromosome segregation, which should be further investigated in primary cells. PMID:17888458

  12. Intracellular calcium disturbances induced by arsenic and its methylated derivatives in relation to genomic damage and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Dopp, Elke

    2005-06-01

    Arsenic and its methylated derivatives are contaminants of air, water, and food and are known as toxicants and carcinogens. Arsenic compounds are also being used as cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In humans, inorganic arsenic is metabolically methylated to mono-, di-, and trimethylated forms. Recent findings suggest that the methylation reactions represent a toxification rather than a detoxification pathway. In recent years, the correlation between arsenic exposure, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and tumor promotion has been established, as well as the association of arsenic exposure with perturbation of physiologic processes, generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and apoptosis induction. Trivalent forms of arsenic have been found to induce apoptosis in several cellular systems with involvement of membrane-bound cell death receptors, activation of caspases, release of calcium stores, and changes of the intracellular glutathione level. It is well known that calcium ion deregulation plays a critical role in apoptotic cell death. A calcium increase in the nuclei might lead to toxic effects in the cell. In this review, we highlight the relationship between induced disturbances of calcium homeostasis, genomic damage, and apoptotic cell death caused by arsenic and its organic derivatives. PMID:15929885

  13. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  14. Antimicrobial peptide protonectin disturbs the membrane integrity and induces ROS production in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Dang, Wen; Xie, Junqiu; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Jia, Fengjing; Zhao, Yanyan; An, Xiaoping; Qiu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Zelin; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised patients and is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream infections. However, antifungals are limited, so novel antifungal agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as potential alternatives of conventional antibiotics. In the present study, antimicrobial peptide protonectin was chemically synthesized and its antifungal activity and mode of action were studied. Our results showed that protonectin has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungi cells. Its action mode involved the disruption of the membrane integrity and the inducing of the production of cellular ROS. Furthermore, protonectin could inhibit the formation of biofilm and kill the adherent fungi cells. In conclusion, with the increase of fungal infection, protonectin may offer a new strategy and be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against fungal disease. PMID:26209560

  15. Ritually induced growth disturbances and deformities of the orofacial system--a contribution to cranial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dietze, S; Winkelmann, D; Garve, R; Blens, T; Fanghänel, J; Proff, P; Gedrange, T; Maile, S

    2007-01-01

    Numerous ritual acts involving the skull result in orofacial changes. The present study focuses on ritual acts of Brazilian Zoé Indians. A distinct deformation effect of the ritual act (wearing a lip-plug) on the morphology of the orofacial system is demonstrated and documented using jaw models. The studies show that the lip-plug significantly influences tooth position and jaw growth. While the maxilla displays palatal displacement of the lateral incisors and elevation of the palate, retraction occurs in the mandible depending upon plug size. Additionally, both the plug and the nutritional habits of the Indians induce marked abrasion of all teeth. Moreover, it is shown that the duration of lip-plug wear is an essential determinant of sustained orofacial changes. PMID:17534041

  16. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation. PMID:17825994

  17. Metabolic and structural bone disturbances induced by hyperlipidic diet in mice treated with simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Soares, Evelise Aline; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Nakagaki, Wilson Romero; Fernandes, Geraldo José Medeiros; Garcia, José Antônio Dias; Camilli, José Angelo

    2015-08-01

    Simvastatin can modulate lipid and bone metabolism. However, information related to the interaction between diet and simvastatin on bone structure and biomechanics is scarce. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of simvastatin on femoral biomechanics and cortical/trabecular bone structure in wild-type mice nourished with a hyperlipidic diet. Three-month-old male wild-type mice (C57BL6 strain) were divided into four groups: (1) group W, nourished with a standard diet; (2) group WH, fed a hyperlipidic diet; (3) group WS, nourished with a standard diet plus oral simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day); and (4) group WHS, fed a hyperlipidic diet plus oral simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day). All animals received only their specific diet and water for 60 days. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of calcium, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and fraction serum levels. Diet manipulation was able to induce a dyslipidaemic status in mice, characterized by triglyceride and TC rise in WH animals. Simvastatin prevented hypercholesterolaemia and reduced TC and LDL serum levels, but did not prevent hypertriglyceridaemia and HDL serum levels in the WHS group. In the WH mice the hyperlipidaemia was associated with reduction in trabecular bone thickness, femur structural and material property alterations. Simvastatin prevented these morphological alterations and minimized femur biomechanical changes in WHS mice. Taken together, the results indicated that the hyperlipidic diet intake acts as a risk factor for bone integrity, generating bones with reduced resistance and more susceptible to fractures, an effect attenuated by simvastatin that is potentially related to the modulatory action of this drug on lipid and bone metabolism. PMID:26175225

  18. A rat retinal damage model predicts for potential clinical visual disturbances induced by Hsp90 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Ye, Josephine; Ying, Weiwen; Ogawa, Luisa Shin; Inoue, Takayo; Tatsuta, Noriaki; Wada, Yumiko; Koya, Keizo; Huang, Qin; Bates, Richard C.; Sonderfan, Andrew J.

    2013-12-01

    In human trials certain heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, including 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922, have caused visual disorders indicative of retinal dysfunction; others such as 17-AAG and ganetespib have not. To understand these safety profile differences we evaluated histopathological changes and exposure profiles of four Hsp90 inhibitors, with or without clinical reports of adverse ocular effects, using a rat retinal model. Retinal morphology, Hsp70 expression (a surrogate marker of Hsp90 inhibition), apoptotic induction and pharmacokinetic drug exposure analysis were examined in rats treated with the ansamycins 17-DMAG and 17-AAG, or with the second-generation compounds NVP-AUY922 and ganetespib. Both 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 induced strong yet restricted retinal Hsp70 up-regulation and promoted marked photoreceptor cell death 24 h after the final dose. In contrast, neither 17-AAG nor ganetespib elicited photoreceptor injury. When the relationship between drug distribution and photoreceptor degeneration was examined, 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 showed substantial retinal accumulation, with high retina/plasma (R/P) ratios and slow elimination rates, such that 51% of 17-DMAG and 65% of NVP-AUY922 present at 30 min post-injection were retained in the retina 6 h post-dose. For 17-AAG and ganetespib, retinal elimination was rapid (90% and 70% of drugs eliminated from the retina at 6 h, respectively) which correlated with lower R/P ratios. These findings indicate that prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 activity in the eye results in photoreceptor cell death. Moreover, the results suggest that the retina/plasma exposure ratio and retinal elimination rate profiles of Hsp90 inhibitors, irrespective of their chemical class, may predict for ocular toxicity potential. - Highlights: • In human trials some Hsp90 inhibitors cause visual disorders, others do not. • Prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 in the rat eye results in photoreceptor cell death. • Retina/plasma ratio and retinal

  19. Aryl organophosphate flame retardants induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis: by disturbing expression of the transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongkun; Wang, Guowei; Gao, Shixiang; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-04-01

    As a result of the ban on some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), the use of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) increases, and they are detected in multi-environment media at higher frequency and concentrations. However, the toxicity data of OPFRs, especially those on developmental toxicology are quite limited, which prevents an accurate evaluation of their environmental and health risk. Because a previous study reported that two aryl-OPFRs induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis, we designed experiments to compare the heart developmental toxicity of a series of aryl-OPFRs with alkyl-OPFRs and explored possible internal mechanism. First, acute toxicity of 9 frequently used OPFRs were studied with zebrafish embryos (2-96 hpf). By comparing the LC50 and EC50 (pericardium edema) data, two aryl-OPFRs, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP) showed greater heart developmental toxicity than the others. It was also found that the acute toxicity of OPFRs varied mainly depending on their hydrophobicity. Further study on the cardiotoxicity of TPhP and CDP showed that the cardiac looping progress can be impeded by 0.10mg/L TPhP or CDP exposure. Bradycardia and reduction of myocardium were also observed in 0.50 and 1.0mg/L TPhP groups and 0.10, 0.50, and 1.0mg/L CDP groups. 0-48 hpf is the vulnerable window of zebrafish cardiogenesis that can be easily affected by TPhP and CDP. RT-qPCR measurement on the expressions of key transcriptional regulators in cardiogenesis showed that BMP4, NKX2-5, and TBX5 were significantly inhibited at the exposure points of 12 hpf and 24 hpf which may be the internal factors related to the heart developmental toxicity. As zebrafish is a good model organism for human health study, the present results call for a greater attention to the health risk of fetus in pregnant women exposed to such OPFRs. PMID:25661707

  20. Release of Tensile Strain on Engineered Human Tendon Tissue Disturbs Cell Adhesions, Changes Matrix Architecture, and Induces an Inflammatory Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Monika L.; Schjerling, Peter; Herchenhan, Andreas; Zeltz, Cedric; Heinemeier, Katja M.; Christensen, Lise; Krogsgaard, Michael; Gullberg, Donald; Kjaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical loading of tendon cells results in an upregulation of mechanotransduction signaling pathways, cell-matrix adhesion and collagen synthesis, but whether unloading removes these responses is unclear. We investigated the response to tension release, with regard to matrix proteins, pro-inflammatory mediators and tendon phenotypic specific molecules, in an in vitro model where tendon-like tissue was engineered from human tendon cells. Tissue sampling was performed 1, 2, 4 and 6 days after surgical de-tensioning of the tendon construct. When tensile stimulus was removed, integrin type collagen receptors showed a contrasting response with a clear drop in integrin subunit α11 mRNA and protein expression, and an increase in α2 integrin mRNA and protein levels. Further, specific markers for tendon cell differentiation declined and normal tendon architecture was disturbed, whereas pro-inflammatory molecules were upregulated. Stimulation with the cytokine TGF-β1 had distinct effects on some tendon-related genes in both tensioned and de-tensioned tissue. These findings indicate an important role of mechanical loading for cellular and matrix responses in tendon, including that loss of tension leads to a decrease in phenotypical markers for tendon, while expression of pro-inflammatory mediators is induced. PMID:24465881

  1. Palladium Nanoparticles Induce Disturbances in Cell Cycle Entry and Progression of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Paramount Role of Ions

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Emanuela; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Leopold, Kerstin; Schindl, Roland; Lotti, Lavinia V.; Sabbioni, Enrico; Niu, Qiao; Di Gioacchino, Mario

    2014-01-01

    There is concern about the possible toxicity of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NP), as they are released in the environment through many applications. We previously studied the toxicity of Pd-NP at high concentrations; here we address the possible toxicity of Pd-NP at low, subtoxic doses. In particular, we have exposed normal human PBMC entering into the first in vitro mitotic division to Pd-NP and to Pd(IV) ions to evaluate ROS generation and cell cycle progression. We have measured a statistically significant increase of intracellular ROS in Pd(IV) exposed cells, but not in Pd-NP exposed cells. TEM revealed accumulation of lipid droplets and autophagic and mitophagic vacuoles, which appeared more conspicuous in cells exposed to Pd(IV) ions than to Pd-NP. Pd-NP were visible in the cytoplasm of Pd-NP exposed cells. Pd-NP addition was associated with a significant increase of cells within the G0/G1-phase and a significant reduction in GS- and G2/M-phases. Cells exposed to Pd(IV) ions showed a significant amplification of these cell cycle alterations. These results suggest that ions, per se or released by NPs, are the true inducers of Pd toxicity. It will be essential to verify whether the observed disturbance represents a temporary response or might result in permanent alterations. PMID:25105151

  2. Cadmium-induced neural tube defects and fetal growth restriction: Association with disturbance of placental folate transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua; Hu, Jun; Guo, Min-Yin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies found that maternal Cd exposure on gestational day (GD)9 caused forelimb ectrodactyly and tail deformity, the characteristic malformations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal Cd exposure on GD8 induces fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (2.5 or 5.0mg/kg) on GD8. Neither forelimb ectrodactyly nor tail deformity was observed in mice injected with CdCl2 on GD8. Instead, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in the incidence of NTDs. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in fetal growth restriction. In addition, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 reduced placental weight and diameter. The internal space of maternal and fetal blood vessels in the labyrinth layer was decreased in the placentas of mice treated with CdCl2. Additional experiment showed that placental PCFT protein and mRNA, a critical folate transporter, was persistently decreased when dams were injected with CdCl2 on GD8. Correspondingly, embryonic folate content was markedly decreased in mice injected with CdCl2 on GD8, whereas Cd had little effect on folate content in maternal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis disturbs transport of folate from maternal circulation to the fetuses through down-regulating placental folate transporters. PMID:27417525

  3. A Comparison of the Concurrence and Measurement-Induced Disturbance in Two-Qubit Spin XY Model with Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Li; Guo-Hui, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Using the concurrence (C) and measurement-induced disturbance (MID) criterions, the quantum correlation properties in two-qubit spin XY model with decoherence environment are investigated in detail. Firstly, the result show that the general feature of the quantum correlation evolutions is oscillating at the beginning time, then reach to the steady value of C and MID. Secondly, the obvious distinction of C and MID is that there is a entanglement sudden death(ESD) in C, but not in MID. One interesting result we must mention is that the time interval of ESD is influenced obviously by the anisotropic parameter Δ, it is prolonged evidently with the decrease of Δ, but it is nearly not effected by the external magnetic field B. Finally, we find that the effect of parameter B and Δ on the SC and SMID are too complicated to get an uniform law, through analyzing the property of the steady C (SC) and steady MID (SMID) values in the limit case t → ∞, we give the reason about it.

  4. Neurochemical Changes Associated with Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats: In Vivo and In Vitro Measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do-Wan; Chung, Seockhoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Woo, Chul-Woong; Kim, Sang-Tae; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Jeong-Kon; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Choong Gon; Shim, Woo Hyun; Choi, Yoonseok; Woo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively assess the changes in the cerebral neurochemical profile and to identify those factors that contribute to the alteration of endogenous biomolecules when rats are subjected to stress-induced sleep disturbance. We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats (controls: n = 9; stress-induced sleep perturbation rats: n = 11) to a psychological stressor (cage exchange method) to achieve stress-induced sleep perturbation. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging assessments were carried out using a high-resolution 9.4 T system. For in vivo neurochemical analysis, a single voxel was localized in the right dorsal hippocampal region, and in vivo spectra were quantified for 17 cerebral neurochemical signals. Rats were sacrificed upon completion of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocol, and whole-brain tissue was harvested from twenty subjects. The dopamine and serotonin signals were obtained by performing in vitro liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on the harvested tissue. In the right dorsal hippocampal region, the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) and glutamine (Gln) concentrations were significantly higher in the sleep-perturbed rats than in the sham controls. The ratios of Gln/Glu (glutamate), Gln/tCr (total-creatine), and GABA/Glu were also significantly higher in the sleep-perturbed group, while serotonin concentrations were significantly lower in the sleep-perturbed rats. Pearson correlation results among individual rat data indicate that concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were significantly higher in SSP rats. A larger correlation coefficient was also observed for the SSP rats. Analysis of the correlation between the in vivo and in vitro signals indicated that the concentrations of Gln, 5-HT, and DA exhibited a significant negative correlation in the SSP rat data but not in that of control rats. The authors propose that the altered and correlated GABA, Gln, 5-HT, and DA concentrations/ratios could be considered

  5. Neurochemical Changes Associated with Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats: In Vivo and In Vitro Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do-Wan; Chung, Seockhoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Woo, Chul-Woong; Kim, Sang-Tae; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Jeong-Kon; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Choong Gon; Shim, Woo Hyun; Choi, Yoonseok; Woo, Dong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively assess the changes in the cerebral neurochemical profile and to identify those factors that contribute to the alteration of endogenous biomolecules when rats are subjected to stress-induced sleep disturbance. We exposed Sprague-Dawley rats (controls: n = 9; stress-induced sleep perturbation rats: n = 11) to a psychological stressor (cage exchange method) to achieve stress-induced sleep perturbation. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging assessments were carried out using a high-resolution 9.4 T system. For in vivo neurochemical analysis, a single voxel was localized in the right dorsal hippocampal region, and in vivo spectra were quantified for 17 cerebral neurochemical signals. Rats were sacrificed upon completion of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocol, and whole-brain tissue was harvested from twenty subjects. The dopamine and serotonin signals were obtained by performing in vitro liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on the harvested tissue. In the right dorsal hippocampal region, the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) and glutamine (Gln) concentrations were significantly higher in the sleep-perturbed rats than in the sham controls. The ratios of Gln/Glu (glutamate), Gln/tCr (total-creatine), and GABA/Glu were also significantly higher in the sleep-perturbed group, while serotonin concentrations were significantly lower in the sleep-perturbed rats. Pearson correlation results among individual rat data indicate that concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were significantly higher in SSP rats. A larger correlation coefficient was also observed for the SSP rats. Analysis of the correlation between the in vivo and in vitro signals indicated that the concentrations of Gln, 5-HT, and DA exhibited a significant negative correlation in the SSP rat data but not in that of control rats. The authors propose that the altered and correlated GABA, Gln, 5-HT, and DA concentrations/ratios could be considered

  6. Climate change induced effects on the predisposition of forests of the water protection zone Wildalpen to disturbances by bark beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, P.; Pennerstorfer, J.; Schopf, A.

    2012-04-01

    The provision of drinking water of high quality is a precious service of forests. Large-scale disturbances like forest fires, wind throws, pest outbreaks and subsequent clear cutting may lead to changes in hydrology (runoff as well as percolation). Furthermore, water quality can be negatively influenced by increased erosion, increased decomposition of litter and humus and leaching of nitrate. Large-scale epidemics of forest pests may induce forest decline at landscape scale with subsequent long-lasting negative effects on water quality. The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.), is one of the most significant sources of mortality in mature spruce forest ecosystems in Eurasia. The objective of this study was to apply a complex predisposition assessment system for hazard rating and for the evaluation of climate change impacts for the water protection forests of the City of Vienna in Wildalpen. The following steps have been done to adapt/apply the bark beetle phenology model and the hazard rating system: -application, adaptation and validation of the bark beetle phenology model PHENIPS concerning start of dispersion, brood initiation, duration of development, beginning of sister broods, voltinism and hibernation - spatial/temporal modelling of the phenology and voltinism of I. typographus using past, present as well as projected climate data - application and validation of the stand- and site related long-term predisposition assessment system using forest stand/site data, annual damage reports and outputs of phenology modelling as data input - mapping of endangered areas and assessment of future susceptibility to infestations by I. typographus and other disturbing agents based on climate scenarios using GIS. The assessment of site- and stand-related predisposition revealed that the forest stands in Wildalpen are highly susceptible to bark beetle infestation. More than 65% of the stands were assigned to the predisposition classes high/very high. Only 10% of

  7. High Speed PC Based Data Acquisition and Instrumentation for Measurement of Simulated Low Earth Orbit Thermally Induced Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Disturbance Verification Test (DVT) was conducted to characterize responses of the Observatory's new set of rigid solar array's (SA3) to thermally induced 'creak' or stiction releases. The data acquired in the DVT were used in verification of the HST Pointing Control System on-orbit performance, post-Servicing Mission 3B (SM3B). The test simulated the on-orbit environment on a deployed SA3 flight wing. Instrumentation for this test required pretest simulations in order to select the correct sensitivities. Vacuum compatible, highly accurate accelerometers and force gages were used for this test. The complexity of the test, as well as a short planning schedule, required a data acquisition system that was easy to configure, highly flexible, and extremely robust. A PC Windows oriented data acquisition system meets these requirements, allowing the test engineers to minimize the time required to plan and perform complex environmental test. The SA3 DVT provided a direct practical and complex demonstration of the versatility that PC based data acquisition systems provide. Two PC based data acquisition systems were assembled to acquire, process, distribute, and provide real time processing for several types of transducers used in the SA3 DVT. A high sample rate digital tape recorder was used to archive the sensor signals. The two systems provided multi-channel hardware and software architecture and were selected based on the test requirements. How these systems acquire and processes multiple data rates from different transducer types is discussed, along with the system hardware and software architecture.

  8. Role of electrolytes disturbances and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cisplatin - induced renal toxicity and effects of ethanolic extract of Cichorium intybus.

    PubMed

    Noori, Shafaq; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2012-10-01

    Cisplatin is known by its toxicity by disturbing electrolytes homeostasis. Thus we aimed to find out the role of herbal plant Cichorium intybus on Cisplatin - induced toxicity. 24 male Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Group I is termed as untreated control; Group II is Cisplatin control and received 3 mg/ kg b.w.; i.p.; Group III received C. intybus ethanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. orally for 10 consecutive days and Group IV is Cisplatin + C. intybus pretreated group. C. intybus is given 30 minutes prior to Cisplatin. Cisplatin - induced electrolytes disturbances is indicated by increase Intra - erythrocyte sodium content, decreased plasma magnesium, calcium and Intra-erythrocyte Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase which implicates the renal toxicity. At a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. of C. Intybus pretreatment showed partial counter action on the electrolytes imbalances and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. PMID:23010005

  9. Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Linn.) Bulbs Ameliorated Pituitary-Testicular Injury and Dysfunction in Wistar Rats with Pb-Induced Reproductive Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ayoka, Abiodun O.; Ademoye, Aderonke K.; Imafidon, Christian E.; Ojo, Esther O.; Oladele, Ayowole A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulbs (AEASAB) on pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with lead-induced reproductive disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups such that the control group received propylene glycol at 0.2 ml/100 g intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days, the toxic group received lead (Pb) alone at 15 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 10 days while the treatment groups were pretreated with lead as the toxic group after which they received graded doses of the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day via oral route for 28 days. RESULTS: Pb administration induced significant deleterious alterations in the antioxidant status of the brain and testis, sperm characterization (counts, motility and viability) as well as reproductive hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) of exposed rats (p < 0.05). These were significantly reversed in the AEASAB-treated groups (p < 0.05). Also, there was marked improvement in the Pb-induced vascular congestion and cellular loss in the pituitary while the observed Pb-induced severe testicular vacuolation was significantly reversed in the representative photomicrographs, following administration of the extract. CONCLUSION: AEASAB treatment ameliorated the pituitary-testicular injury and dysfunction in Wistar rats with Pb-Induced reproductive disturbances. PMID:27335588

  10. Uvangoletin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo without adverse reactions of myelosuppression, leucopenia and gastrointestinal tract disturbances.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhuanzhen; Qiao, Zhenhua; Gong, Rong; Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Yiqun; Ma, Yanping; Zhang, Li; Lu, Yujin; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guoxia; Dong, Chunxia; Chen, Wenliang

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic effect of uvangoletin on HL-60 cells, and the effects of uvangoletin on myelosuppression, leucopenia, gastrointestinal tract disturbances and the possible cytotoxic mechanisms by using CCK-8, flow cytometry, western blot, xenograft, cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia, copper sulfate-induced emesis and ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions assays. The results of CCK-8, flow cytometry and western blot assays indicated that uvangoletin showed the cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells and induced the apoptosis of HL-60 cells by downregulating the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (Survivin, Bcl-xl and Bcl-2), upregulating the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Smac, Bax, Bad, c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9), and promoting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Further, the results of xenograft assay suggested that uvangoletin inhibited the HL-60-induced tumor growth without adverse effect on body weight of nude mice in vivo by regulating the expression levels of above apoptotic proteins. The results indicated that the reductions of WBCs count and thighbone marrow granulocytes percentage in cyclophosphamide-induced leucopenia assay, the incubation period and number of emesis in copper sulfate-induced emesis assay and the gastric mucosal lesions in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions assay were not exacerbated or reversed by uvangoletin. In conclusion, the research preliminarily indicated that uvangoletin induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo without adverse reactions of myelosuppression, leucopenia and gastrointestinal tract disturbances, and the pro-apoptotic mechanisms may be related to mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. PMID:26717974

  11. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  12. The roles of exercise-induced immune system disturbances in the pathology of heat stroke : the dual pathway model of heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chin Leong; Mackinnon, Laurel T

    2006-01-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition that can be fatal if not appropriately managed. Although heat stroke has been recognised as a medical condition for centuries, a universally accepted definition of heat stroke is lacking and the pathology of heat stroke is not fully understood. Information derived from autopsy reports and the clinical presentation of patients with heat stroke indicates that hyperthermia, septicaemia, central nervous system impairment and cardiovascular failure play important roles in the pathology of heat stroke. The current models of heat stroke advocate that heat stroke is triggered by hyperthermia but is driven by endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia triggers the systemic inflammatory response, which can lead to systemic coagulation and haemorrhage, necrosis, cell death and multi-organ failure. However, the current heat stroke models cannot fully explain the discrepancies in high core temperature (Tc) as a trigger of heat stroke within and between individuals. Research on the concept of critical Tc as a limitation to endurance exercise implies that a high Tc may function as a signal to trigger the protective mechanisms against heat stroke. Athletes undergoing a period of intense training are subjected to a variety of immune and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. The immune disturbances include the suppression of immune cells and their functions, suppression of cell-mediated immunity, translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), suppression of anti-LPS antibodies, increased macrophage activity due to muscle tissue damage, and increased concentration of circulating inflammatory and pyrogenic cytokines. Common symptoms of exercise-induced GI disturbances include diarrhoea, vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and cramps, which may increase gut-related LPS translocation. This article discusses the current evidence that supports the argument that these exercise-induced immune and GI disturbances may contribute to the development of endotoxaemia and

  13. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  14. Regionalization of Disturbance-Induced Nitrogen Leakage from Mid-Appalachian Forests Using a Linear Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, K. N.; Fiscus, D. A.; Castro, N. M.; Webb, J. R.; Herlihy, A. T.

    2001-05-01

    Understanding and quantifying the loading of nutrients from the land surface to surface waters at the scale of a large complex river basin or entire region is a major challenge for scientists and environmental managers faced with restoring water quality downstream. In order to simplify the process of nutrient export at this scale, many current state-of-the-art models do not consider the temporal dynamics of processes that are often observed at the scale of the small watershed. One example is the commonly observed "leakage" of nitrate-nitrogen (N) to surface waters from forested watersheds subjected to various types of vegetation disturbance. These disturbances include several types of management practices as well as outbreaks from defoliating insects such as the gypsy moth caterpillar. Several recently-published papers have demonstrated that a parsimonious, empirically-derived, unit nitrogen export response function (UNERF) model can explain large percentages of the temporal variation in annual N export from a group of small gaged forested watersheds in the years following vegetation disturbances; the UNERF modeling approach is analogous to the unit hydrograph technique for describing storm runoff, with the model representing annual N export as a linear deterministic process in both space and time. In this paper we report on our efforts to parameterize and apply a regional, lithology-based UNERF model that references the geographic distribution of bedrock class, as well as the timing and extent of gypsy moth defoliation within a large region. The model is used to estimate the temporal and spatial variations in annual N export from defoliated forests in the mid-Appalachian region during the period 1972-1994. Spatially-aggregated N loadings are compared with estimates from other models that have been used to examine forest N loadings.

  15. Long-term high-fat diet induces pancreatic injuries via pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress in rats with hyperlipidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Mingxian; Li Yanqing . E-mail: mx8902@163.com; Meng Min; Ren Hongbo; Kou Yi

    2006-08-18

    Relations between hyperlipidemia and chronic pancreatitis remain unclear. Microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress are involved in pathogeneses of a high numbers of diseases. The objective of this study was to induce hyperlipidemia in rats by long-term high-fat diet intake, then investigate the biochemical, microcirculatory, and histological alterations in blood and pancreatic tissues of these animals, and discuss their potential significances. Pancreatic blood flow was detected by intravital microscope; malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in pancreatic tissues for assessment of oxidative stress and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. The results showed that the velocity of pancreatic microvascular blood flow of rats with hyperlipidemia decreased significantly as compared to control value (p = 0.008). Pancreatic MDA content increased whereas SOD activity decreased in these rats (p = 0.022; p = 0.039, respectively). Histologically, microvesicles in acinar and islet cells, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondrion and modified vascular endothelial cells were observed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, {alpha}-SMA expression was up-regulated significantly (p < 0.05). These results suggest that long-term high-fat diet can induce chronic pancreatic injuries which could be considered as 'nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease', and pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress may play an important part in the underlying pathogenesis.

  16. Individual consistency in flight initiation distances in burrowing owls: a new hypothesis on disturbance-induced habitat selection

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often consistently differ in personalities and behaviours that allow them to cope with environmental variation. Flight initiation distance (FID) has been measured in a variety of taxa as an estimate of the risk that an individual is willing to take when facing a predator. FID has been used to test life-history trade-offs related to anti-predatory behaviour and for conservation purposes such as to establish buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, given its species-specific consistency. Individual consistency in FID, however, has been largely overlooked. Here we show that, even after controlling for several confounding effects, this behaviour has a strong individual component (repeatability = 0.84–0.92) in a bird species, leaving a small margin for behavioural flexibility. We hypothesize that individuals may distribute themselves among breeding sites depending on their individual susceptibility to human disturbance. This habitat selection hypothesis merits further research, given its implications on both evolutionary and applied ecology research. For example, selection of human-tolerant phenotypes may be promoted through the humanization of habitats occurring worldwide, and when population means instead of individual variability in FID are considered for designing buffer zones to reduce human impacts on wildlife. PMID:19864278

  17. Yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatotoxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora function: A rat urine metabonomic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Tao, Weiwei; Liu, Pei

    2016-07-15

    This research was designed to study metabonomic characteristics of the toxicity induced by yuanhuapine, a major bioactive diterpenoid in a well-known traditional Chinese medicine-Genkwa Flos. General observation, blood biochemistry and histopathological examination were used to reflect yuanhuapine-induced toxicity. Urine samples from rats in control and yuanhuapine treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Pattern recognition methods including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least-squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and computational system analysis were integrated to obtain comprehensive metabonomic profiling and pathways of the biological data sets. The results suggested that yuanhuapine could induce intestinal and liver damage. And 14 endogenous metabolites as biomarkers related to the amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora were significantly changed in the urine of yuanhuapine treated rats, which were firstly constructed the metabolomic feature profiling and metabolite interaction network of yuanhuapine-induced injury using pattern recognition methods and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approach. The present study showed that yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatic toxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora. PMID:26341729

  18. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPARα's transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins. PMID:24694979

  19. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPARα's transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and disturbed calcium homeostasis are involved in copper-induced alteration in hepatic lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Zhang, Li-Han; Hogstrand, Christer; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cu exposure on ER stress and Ca(2+) homeostasis, and explore the underlying mechanism of the ER stress and disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. To this end, three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, P. fulvidraco were exposed to three waterborne Cu concentrations for 56 days. Waterborne Cu exposure evoked ER stress and SREBP-1c activation and resulted in dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism in liver of P. fulvidraco in a time-dependent manner. In experiment 2, specific inhibitors 2-APB (IP3 receptor inhibitor) and dantrolene (RyR receptor inhibitor) were used to explore whether Ca(2+) release from ER was involved in the Cu-induced ER stress change. Dantrolene and 2-APB prevented Cu-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, demonstrating that the release of Ca(2+) from the ER, mediated by both RyR and IP3R, contributed to dysregulation of lipid metabolism. In experiment 3, a chemical chaperone (PBA) was used to demonstrate whether Cu-induced alteration in lipid metabolism was suppressed through the attenuation of ER stress. PBA attenuated the Cu-induced elevation of mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, SCAP, ACC, FAS, GRP78/BiP, GRP94, CRT, eIF2α and XBP-1, and alleviated the Cu-induced downregulation of Insig-1. Based on these observations, these results reveal a link between ER stress and the change of lipid metabolism induced by Cu, which will help to understand the Cu-induced toxicity on cellular and molecular level, and provide some novel insights into the regulation of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:26615493

  1. The vertical propagation of atmospheric disturbances induced by seismic waves of the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Nonono CH; Sun, Yang-Yi; Chen, Koichi CH; Chum, Jaroslav; Lastovicka, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Networks and concurrent/co-located measurements of seismometers, infrasonic systems, magnetometers, HF-CW (high frequency-continuous wave) Doppler sounding systems, and GPS receivers are employed to detect disturbances triggered by seismic waves of the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake. A theoretical calculation and a simulation are conducted to study the vertical propagation of the triggered disturbances of acoustic and/or gravity waves (AGWs). No time delay between co-located infrasonic (i.e. super long acoustic) waves and seismic waves indicates that the triggered AGWs near the Earth's surface can be immediately activated by vertical motions of the earthquake. The circle method is used to find the origin and compute the horizontal traveling speed of the triggered infrasonic waves. The infrasonic wave origin being coincident with the reported Tohoku epicenter and the speed being about 3.3 km/s suggest that the AGWs are mainly induced by the Rayleigh waves. The agreements in the arrival time at various heights between the observation and theoretical calculation/simulation suggest the AGWs triggered by the Tohoku earthquake vertically traveling from the ground to the ionosphere with speed of the sound in the atmosphere.

  2. A Neurophysiological Approach for Evaluating Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance: Calculating the Time Constant of the Dynamic Characteristics in the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Tagusari, Junta; Matsui, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance induced by traffic noise is considered to cause environmental sleep disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes and other stress-related diseases. However, noise indices for the evaluation of sleep disturbance are not based on the neurophysiological process of awakening regulated by the brainstem. In this study, through the neurophysiological approach, we attempted (1) to investigate the thresholds of awakening due to external stimuli in the brainstem; (2) to evaluate the dynamic characteristics in the brainstem and (3) to verify the validity of existing noise indices. Using the mathematical Phillips–Robinson model, we obtained thresholds of awakening in the brainstem for different durations of external stimuli. The analysis revealed that the brainstem seemed insensitive to short stimuli and that the response to external stimuli in the brainstem could be approximated by a first-order lag system with a time constant of 10–100 s. These results suggest that the brainstem did not integrate sound energy as external stimuli, but neuroelectrical signals from auditory nerve. To understand the awakening risk accumulated in the brainstem, we introduced a new concept of “awakening potential” instead of sound energy. PMID:27023587

  3. A Neurophysiological Approach for Evaluating Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance: Calculating the Time Constant of the Dynamic Characteristics in the Brainstem.

    PubMed

    Tagusari, Junta; Matsui, Toshihito

    2016-04-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance induced by traffic noise is considered to cause environmental sleep disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes and other stress-related diseases. However, noise indices for the evaluation of sleep disturbance are not based on the neurophysiological process of awakening regulated by the brainstem. In this study, through the neurophysiological approach, we attempted (1) to investigate the thresholds of awakening due to external stimuli in the brainstem; (2) to evaluate the dynamic characteristics in the brainstem and (3) to verify the validity of existing noise indices. Using the mathematical Phillips-Robinson model, we obtained thresholds of awakening in the brainstem for different durations of external stimuli. The analysis revealed that the brainstem seemed insensitive to short stimuli and that the response to external stimuli in the brainstem could be approximated by a first-order lag system with a time constant of 10-100 s. These results suggest that the brainstem did not integrate sound energy as external stimuli, but neuroelectrical signals from auditory nerve. To understand the awakening risk accumulated in the brainstem, we introduced a new concept of "awakening potential" instead of sound energy. PMID:27023587

  4. Locomotor hypoactivity and motor disturbances--behavioral effects induced by intracerebellar microinjections of dopaminergic DA-D2/D3 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kolasiewicz, W; Maj, J

    2001-01-01

    In the light of recent findings, DA-D3 dopamine receptors with an unclear physiological function are present in the cerebellar cortex. Our preliminary results seem to indicate that bilateral injection of 7-OH-DPAT, a DA-D2/D3 receptor agonist (1 and 10 microg/0.5 microl), to lobule 9/10 of rat cerebellar cortex reduces spontaneous locomotor activity (hypolocomotor effects) and induces balance and motor coordination disturbances, respectively. Similar effects can be observed in the case of analogous microinjection of the DA-D3/D2 agonist pramipexole. In earlier studies, peripheral (ip) injection of nafadotride (0.6 mg/kg), a D3 receptor antagonist, neither affected per se spontaneous motor activity, nor modified the above described effects of 7-OH-DPAT. Participation of cerebellar DA-D3 and DA-D2 receptors in hypolocomotor effects, as well as putative participation of other receptors in the generation of motor disturbances, has been discussed. PMID:11990070

  5. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time. PMID:25639377

  6. Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha Thi; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2015-01-01

    We have studied how spontaneous or carcinogen-induced intestinal tumorigenesis was affected by genetic or diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ X C57BL/6J-Lepob/+ mice. Obesity was induced by the obese (ob) mutation in the lep gene coding for the hormone leptin, or by a 45% fat diet. The effects of obesity were examined on spontaneous intestinal tumors caused by the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and on tumors induced by the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). F1 ob/ob (homozygous mutated) mice had increased body weight (bw) and number of spontaneous and PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors (in ApcMin/+ mice), versus ob/wt (heterozygous mutated) and wt/wt mice (homozygous wild-type). A 45% fat diet exacerbated bw and spontaneous tumor numbers versus 10% fat, but not PhIP-induced tumors. Except for bw, ob/wt and wt/wt were not significantly different. The obesity caused hyperglucosemia and insulinemia in ob/ob mice. A 45% fat diet further increased glucose, but not insulin. Inflammation was seen as increased TNFα levels in ob/ob mice. Thus the results implicate disturbed glucose regulation and inflammation as mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis. Ob/ob mice had shorter lifespan than ob/wt and wt/wt mice. PMID:26347815

  7. The Inositol Phosphatase SHIP-1 Inhibits NOD2-Induced NF-κB Activation by Disturbing the Interaction of XIAP with RIP2

    PubMed Central

    Condé, Claude; Rambout, Xavier; Lebrun, Marielle; Lecat, Aurore; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Dequiedt, Franck; Piette, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    SHIP-1 is an inositol phosphatase predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Over the ten past years, SHIP-1 has been described as an important regulator of immune functions. Here, we characterize a new inhibitory function for SHIP-1 in NOD2 signaling. NOD2 is a crucial cytoplasmic bacterial sensor that activates proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses upon bacterial invasion. We observed that SHIP-1 decreases NOD2-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. This negative regulation relies on its interaction with XIAP. Indeed, we observed that XIAP is an essential mediator of the NOD2 signaling pathway that enables proper NF-κB activation in macrophages. Upon NOD2 activation, SHIP-1 C-terminal proline rich domain (PRD) interacts with XIAP, thereby disturbing the interaction between XIAP and RIP2 in order to decrease NF-κB signaling. PMID:22815893

  8. Motion-induced disturbance of auditory-motor synchronization and its modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kentaro; Mikami, Yusuke; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-02-01

    The timing of personal movement with respect to external events has previously been investigated using a synchronized finger-tapping task with a sequence of auditory or visual stimuli. While visuomotor synchronization is more accurate with moving stimuli than with stationary stimuli, it remains unclear whether the same principle holds true in the auditory domain. Although the right inferior-superior parietal lobe (IPL/SPL), a center of auditory motion processing, is expected to be involved in auditory-motor synchronization with moving sounds, its functional relevance has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was thus to clarify whether horizontal auditory motion affects the accuracy of finger-tapping synchronized with sounds, as well as whether the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the right IPL/SPL affects this. Nineteen healthy right-handed participants performed a task in which tapping was synchronized with both stationary sounds and sounds that created apparent horizontal motion. This task was performed before and during anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS application to the right IPL/SPL in separate sessions. The time difference between the onset of the sounds and tapping was larger with apparently moving sounds than with stationary sounds. Cathodal tDCS decreased this difference, anodal tDCS increased the variance of the difference and sham stimulation had no effect. These results supported the hypothesis that auditory motion disturbs efficient auditory-motor synchronization and that the right IPL/SPL plays an important role in tapping in synchrony with moving sounds via auditory motion processing. PMID:26613559

  9. Potential of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid for ameliorating ischemia-reperfusion-induced microvascular disturbance in rat mesentery.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing-Yan; Horie, Yoshinori; Fan, Jing-Yu; Sun, Kai; Guo, Jun; Miura, Soichiro; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2009-01-01

    This study intended to examine the effect of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid (DLA), a major ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza, on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced rat mesenteric microcirculatory injury. DLA (5 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)), superoxide dismutase (SOD, 12,000 U.kg(-1).h(-1)), or catalase (CAT, 20 mg/kg) was continuously infused either starting from 10 min before the ischemia or 10 min after the initiation of reperfusion. The venule diameter, number of adherent leukocytes, FITC-albumin leakage, dihydrorhodamine 123 fluorescence, and mast cell degranulation were determined using an intravital microscope. The production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils were evaluated by in vitro experiments. The results showed that pretreatment with DLA significantly reduced peroxide production in and leukocyte adhesion to venular wall, albumin leakage, and mast cell degranulation induced by I/R. The DLA posttreatment exerted an ameliorating effect on I/R-induced disorders as well, characterized by inhibiting further increase in peroxide production in venular wall and albumin leakage and diminishing the number of leukocytes that had adhered to the venular wall. In vitro experiments revealed that treatment with DLA significantly attenuated TNF-alpha plus fMLP-evoked production of H(2)O(2) and the H(2)O(2)-elicited expression of CD11b/CD18 on neutrophils. SOD and CAT manifested similarly but with the exception that either SOD or CAT were unable to retrieve the adherent leukocytes if administrated after initiation of reperfusion and to depress the H(2)O(2)-induced expression of CD11b/CD18 on neutrophils. It is concluded that DLA protects from and ameliorates the I/R-induced microcirculatory disturbance by interfering with both peroxide production and adhesion molecule expression. PMID:19008340

  10. Enhanced intracellular calcium promotes metabolic and secretory disturbances in rat gastric mucosa during ethanol-induced gastritis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2003-03-01

    Changes in the Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated in cell injury and death. However, Ca(2+) participation in ethanol-induced chronic gastric mucosal injury has not been elucidated. We have developed a model of ethanol-induced chronic gastric injury in rats, characterized by marked alterations in plasma membranes from gastric mucosa and a compensatory cell proliferation, which follows ethanol withdrawal. Therefore, the present study explored the possible role of intracellular Ca(2+) in the oxidative metabolism and in acid secretion in this experimental model. Glucose oxidation was greatly enhanced in the injured mucosa, as evaluated by CO(2) production by isolated mucosal preparations incubated with (14)C-radiolabeled glucose in different carbons. Oxygen consumption and acid secretion (aminopyrine accumulation) were also stimulated. A predominating secretory status was morphologically identified by electron microscopy in oxyntic cells of gastric mucosa from ethanol-treated rats. A coupling between secretory and metabolic effects induced by ethanol (demonstrated by an inhibitory effect of omeprazole in both parameters) was found. These ethanol-induced effects were also inhibited by addition of Ca(2+) chelators to isolated gastric mucosa samples. Lanthanum, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, inhibited ethanol-promoted increase of oxidative metabolism. In addition, a stimulated Ca(2+) uptake by mucosal minces and increased in vivo Ca(2+) levels in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, were also noticed. Enhanced glucose and oxygen consumptions were associated with higher ATP and NADP+ availability, whereas cytosolic NAD/NADH ratio (assessed by mucosal levels of lactate and pyruvate) was not significantly modified by the chronic ethanol administration. In conclusion, changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis, probably mainly due to increased extracellular Ca(2+) uptake, could mediate secretory and metabolic alterations found in the gastric mucosa from rats chronically treated with

  11. Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    de Filippis, D; Iuvone, T; d'amico, A; Esposito, G; Steardo, L; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A; de Winter, B Y; de Man, J G

    2008-08-01

    Sepsis is an inflammatory condition that is associated with reduced propulsive gastrointestinal motility (ileus). A therapeutic option to treat sepsis is to promote intestinal propulsion preventing bacterial stasis, overgrowth and translocation. Recent evidence suggests that anti-oxidants improve sepsis-induced ileus. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, exerts strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects without binding to cannabinoid CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. Cannabidiol also regulates the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which is the main enzyme involved in endocannabinoid breakdown and which modulates gastrointestinal motility. Because of the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in several pathologies, we investigated its effect on sepsis-induced ileus and on cannabinoid receptor and FAAH expression in the mouse intestine. Sepsis was induced by treating mice with lipopolysaccharides for 18 h. Sepsis led to a decrease in gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Cannabidiol further reduced gastrointestinal motility in septic mice but did not affect gastrointestinal motility in control mice. A low concentration of the CB(1) antagonist AM251 did not affect gastrointestinal motility in control mice but reversed the effect of cannabidiol in septic mice. Sepsis was associated with a selective upregulation of intestinal CB(1) receptors without affecting CB(2) receptor expression and with increased FAAH expression. The increase in FAAH expression was completely reversed by cannabidiol but not affected by AM251. Our results show that sepsis leads to an imbalance of the endocannabinoid system in the mouse intestine. Despite its proven anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, cannabidiol may be of limited use for the treatment of sepsis-induced ileus. PMID:18373655

  12. Vehicle Disturbance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Brian

    2001-07-01

    The Vehicle Disturbance Test {VDT} is used to characterize uncompensated environmental disturbances acting upon the HST during normal operation. The VDT is a passive test {not a forced-response test} used to obtain signatures for both externally induced {e.g. SA-3} and internally induced {e.g. NCC and ACS mechanisms} disturbances for comparison with past VDT results. The disturbances observed will be used as the nominal on-orbit disturbances in pointing control simulations until the next VDT is run. The test occurs after release, and most of the VDT can be run during the BEA period. The -V1 sunpoint portion of the VDT occurs after the BEA period is complete. The VDT shall consist of five separate tests that need not occur consecutively. The overall duration of the VDT tests is at least 17 orbits of spacecraft time including {1} at least 1 full orbit at +V3 sunpoint prior to NCS CPL turn-on while performing ACS mechanism motions simulating routine flight operations, {2} at least 5 full orbits at +V3 sunpoint prior to NCS CPL turn-on, {3} at least 1 full orbit at +V3 sunpoint during NCC startup, {4} at least 5 full orbits at +V3 sunpoint while NCC is operating at steady-state, and {5} at least 5 full orbits at -V1 sunpoint with the NCC operating at steady-state. Each test is initiated via SMS execution of stored program macros in the HST flight computer to switch the attitude control law gains to low-bandwidth maneuver gains, command the gyros into low mode, terminate Velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing, and modify flight computer diagnostic mnemonics to display the roll component of DVTHEP. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test via SMS execution of stored program macros. The stored program command macros are developed specifically for the VDT by the Flight Software and Pointing Control System groups.

  13. Atmospheric Disturbance Environment Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, the application of atmospheric disturbance data to airplane design problems has been the domain of the structures engineer. The primary concern in this case is the design of structural components sufficient to handle transient loads induced by the most severe atmospheric "gusts" that might be encountered. The concern has resulted in a considerable body of high altitude gust acceleration data obtained with VGH recorders (airplane velocity, V, vertical acceleration, G, altitude, H) on high-flying airplanes like the U-2 (Ehernberger and Love, 1975). However, the propulsion system designer is less concerned with the accelerations of the airplane than he is with the airflow entering the system's inlet. When the airplane encounters atmospheric turbulence it responds with transient fluctuations in pitch, yaw, and roll angles. These transients, together with fluctuations in the free-stream temperature and pressure will disrupt the total pressure, temperature, Mach number and angularity of the inlet flow. For the mixed compression inlet, the result is a disturbed throat Mach number and/or shock position, and in extreme cases an inlet unstart can occur (cf. Section 2.1). Interest in the effects of inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, supersonic airplanes is not new. Results published by NASA in 1962 of wind tunnel studies of the problem were used in support of the United States Supersonic Transport program (SST) (White, at aI, 1963). Such studies continued into the late 1970's. However, in spite of such interest, there never was developed an atmospheric disturbance database for inlet unstart analysis to compare with that available for the structures load analysis. Missing were data for the free-stream temperature and pressure disturbances that also contribute to the unStart problem.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P.; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E.; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  15. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  16. Early-life physical activity reverses metabolic and Foxo1 epigenetic misregulation induced by gestational sleep disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Mutskov, Vesco; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Wang, Yang; Carreras, Alba; Nobrega, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are highly prevalent during late pregnancy and can impose adverse effects, such as preeclampsia and diabetes. However, the consequences of sleep fragmentation (SF) on offspring metabolism and epigenomic signatures are unclear. We report that physical activity during early life, but not later, reversed the increased body weight, altered glucose and lipid homeostasis, and increased visceral adipose tissue in offspring of mice subjected to gestational SF (SFo). The reversibility of this phenotype may reflect epigenetic mechanisms induced by SF during gestation. Accordingly, we found that the metabolic master switch Foxo1 was epigenetically misregulated in SFo livers in a temporally regulated fashion. Temporal Foxo1 analysis and its gluconeogenetic targets revealed that the epigenetic abnormalities of Foxo1 precede the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Importantly, regular physical activity early, but not later in life, reversed Foxo1 epigenetic misregulation and altered the metabolic phenotype in gestationally SF-exposed offspring. Thus, we have identified a restricted postnatal period during which lifestyle interventions may reverse the Foxo1 epigenetically mediated risk for metabolic dysfunction later in the life, as induced by gestational sleep disorders. PMID:25568076

  17. Preventive effects of procyanidin A2 on glucose homeostasis, pancreatic and duodenal homebox 1, and glucose transporter 2 gene expression disturbance induced by bisphenol A in male mice.

    PubMed

    Ahangarpour, A; Afshari, G; Mard, S A; Khodadadi, A; Hashemitabar, M

    2016-04-01

    Procyanidins (PCs) as oligomeric compounds with antidiabetic properties formed from catechin and epicatechin molecules. Bisphenol A(BPA) is a common chemical material use in food and beverage packaging. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of procyanidin A2 (PCA2) against glucose homeostasis disturbance and gene expression of pancreatic and duodenal homebox 1 (Pdx1) as well as glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) induced by BPA in male mice. First tested these five concentrations of PCA2 (3 - 300 μM) alone and in combination with BPA(100 μg/L), on insulin secretion from isolated islets at in vitro condition. Next, examined the influence of BPA and PCA2 on islet apoptosis using flowcytometry. At in vivo condition, the BPA (100 μg/kg) and PCA2 (10 μmol/kg) administered for 20 days then, blood glucose and insulin, Pdx1 and, Glut2 genes expression, and oxidative stress markers examined. The results indicated that PCA2 strongly prevents islet cells apoptosis induced by BPA and, co-administration of PCA2 and BPA modified hyperglycemia. BPA reduced Pdx1 and Glut2 mRNA expression and antioxidant level in pancreas tissue, whereas PCA2 prevented from these effects. The findings from these studies suggest that use of PCA2 rich plants have preventive effects on hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27226184

  18. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  19. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  20. Prevention of di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate-induced Testicular Disturbance in Mice by Co-administration of L-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zohre; Mohammadi, Moslem; Eimani, Hossein; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used in the plastic industry and can induce reproductive toxicity. On the other hand, L-carnitine (LC) plays a crucial role in sperm metabolism and maturation. This study evaluates the effect of LC on body and testis weight, testis tissue, count, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, testicular spermatid number (TSN) per gram testis and daily sperm production (DSP) in LC-treated mice. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age: 4 weeks) were given doses of DEHP and LC by gavaging for 2 weeks. All samples were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Sperm morphology was assessed using Papanicolaou staining and sperm chromatin quality by aniline-blue staining. The left testes were fixed in Bouinś solution for histological examination and the end slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The right testes were homogenized, and then TSN and DSP were calculated with an improved Neubauer haemocytometer and respective frames. Paired t-test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized for data analysis. Results Co-administration of DEHP and LC not only prevented significant gains in testicular weight, but also maintained the sperm’s normal morphology and chromatin quality (p<0.05). In addition, LC recovered histological changes, TSN, DSP, and sperm count. Conclusion These results demonstrated that oral administration of LC partially or generally protects spermatogenesis from DEHP-toxicity in mice. PMID:25101163

  1. [Climacteric disturbances. 2. Therapy of climacteric disturbances].

    PubMed

    Döring, G K

    1976-07-01

    After defining the terms climacterium and menopause the causes of climacteric disturbances are explained. During the premenopausal stage disturbances of the cycle are prevailing, caused by an insufficiency of the corpus luteum. Of climacteric disturbances should be spoken only after menopause. They are divided into: vegetative disturbances, troubles of metabolism, cardiovascular dysregulation, psychic deviations, sexual troubles and changes of the skin. The therapy of disturbances during the premenopausal stage mainly consists of the substitution of progesterone or in a cycle-like estrogen-progesterone-therapy. In the premenopausal stage estrogens are the therapy of choice. Among orally efficient estrogens the conjugated estrogen and the estradiol-valerianat are preferred. Side-effects and contraindications are discussed in detail. Among gynecologists there exists no disagreement about the necessity of therapy of serious climacteric disturbances, the opinions about prophylactic estrogen-therapy in women differ. PMID:184019

  2. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates disturbances induced by neuroleptics: the effect on catalepsy and gastric ulcers in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Jelovac, N; Sikiric, P; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Marovic, A; Perovic, D; Seiwerth, S; Mise, S; Turkovic, B; Dodig, G; Miklic, P; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I

    1999-08-20

    A gastric pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, with the amino acid sequence, Gly-Glu-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ala-Gly-Leu-Val, MW 1419, known to have a variety of protective effects in gastrointestinal tract and other organs, was recently shown to particularly affect dopamine systems. For instance, it blocks the stereotypy produced acutely by amphetamine in rats, and the development of haloperidol-induced supersensitivity to amphetamine in mice. Consequently, whether pentadecapeptide BPC 157, that by itself has no cataleptogenic effect in normal animals, may attenuate the immediate effects of neuroleptics application, particularly catalepsy, was the focus of the present report. Prominent catalepsy, otherwise consistently seen in the mice treated with haloperidol (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and fluphenazine (0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) after 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 and 7.5 h following administration, was markedly attenuated when pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w., i.p.) was coadministered with the neuroleptic. The number of cataleptic mice was markedly lower throughout most of the experimental period. Moreover, on challenge with lower doses of neuroleptics, catalepsy appearance was postponed and the mice, otherwise cataleptic since the earliest period, became cataleptic later, not before 3 or 4.5 h after neuroleptic administration, especially if protected with higher pentadecapeptide dose. Besides catalepsy, coadministration of the pentadecapeptide BPC 157, given in the above mentioned doses, reduced not only catalepsy but somatosensory disorientation (for 7.5 h after administration of a neuroleptic, assessed at intervals of 1.5 h, by a simple scoring system [0-5]) in haloperidol- or fluphenazine-challenged mice as it did in mice treated with sulpiride (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) or with clozapine (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.), in which case catalepsy was absent. In other experiments, considering

  3. Vehicle Disturbance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Brian

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the VDT is to measure and characterize uncompensated environmental disturbances acting upon the HST during normal operation. The VDT is a passive test {not a forced-response test} used to obtain signatures for both externally induced {e.g. SCM, SA-3, SSM thermal gradients} and internally induced {e.g. HGA, RWA, COS and WFC3 mechanisms} disturbances affecting HST LOS pointing. The disturbances observed will be used as the nominal on-orbit disturbances in pointing control simulations until the next VDT is run.The test occurs after release, and most of the VDT can be run during the BEA period. The ?V1 sunpoint portion of the VDT usually occurs after the BEA period is complete. The VDT shall consist of two separate tests that need not occur consecutively. The overall duration of the VDT is at least 13 orbits of spacecraft time including {1} at least 8 orbits at +V3 sunpoint after achieving thermal equilibrium {at least 36-hours at +V3 sunpoint} and three out of 8-orbits have RWA Friction Compensation turned Off, and {2} at least 5 orbits at ?V1 sunpoint {all or part of this segment have RWA Friction Compensation turned Off}. At the beginning of each test, the attitude control law gains are switched to maneuver gains, and the gyros are commanded to low mode. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test.Each test is initiated via SMS execution of stored program macros in the HST flight computer to switch the attitude control law gains to low-bandwidth maneuver gains, command the gyros into low mode, terminate Velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing, and manage the status of on-board RWA Friction Compensation. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test via SMS execution of stored program macros. The stored program command macros are developed specifically for the VDT by the Flight Software and Pointing Control System groups.

  4. Is disturbed clearance of apoptotic keratinocytes responsible for UVB-induced inflammatory skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus?

    PubMed Central

    Reefman, Esther; de Jong, Marcelus CJM; Kuiper, Hilde; Jonkman, Marcel F; Limburg, Pieter C; Kallenberg, Cees GM; Bijl, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Apoptotic cells are thought to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We hypothesise that delayed or altered clearance of apoptotic cells after UV irradiation will lead to inflammation in the skin of SLE patients. Fifteen SLE patients and 13 controls were irradiated with two minimal erythemal doses (MEDs) of ultraviolet B light (UVB). Subsequently, skin biopsies were analysed (immuno)histologically, over 10 days, for numbers of apoptotic cells, T cells, macrophages, and deposition of immunoglobulin and complement. Additionally, to compare results with cutaneous lesions of SLE patients, 20 biopsies of lupus erythematosus (LE) skin lesions were analysed morphologically for apoptotic cells and infiltrate. Clearance rate of apoptotic cells after irradiation did not differ between patients and controls. Influx of macrophages in dermal and epidermal layers was significantly increased in patients compared with controls. Five out of 15 patients developed a dermal infiltrate that was associated with increased epidermal influx of T cells and macrophages but not with numbers of apoptotic cells or epidermal deposition of immunoglobulins. Macrophages were ingesting multiple apoptotic bodies. Inflammatory lesions in these patients were localised near accumulations of apoptotic keratinocytes similar as was seen in the majority of LE skin lesions. In vivo clearance rate of apoptotic cells is comparable between SLE patients and controls. However, the presence of inflammatory lesions in the vicinity of apoptotic cells, as observed both in UVB-induced and in LE skin lesions in SLE patients, suggests that these lesions result from an inflammatory clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:17014704

  5. A bacterial metabolite induces glutathione-tractable proteostatic damage, proteasomal disturbances, and PINK1-dependent autophagy in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, B A; Kim, H; Ray, A; Caldwell, G A; Caldwell, K A

    2015-01-01

    Gene-by-environment interactions are thought to underlie the majority of idiopathic cases of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, we reported that an environmental metabolite extracted from Streptomyces venezuelae increases ROS and damages mitochondria, leading to eventual neurodegeneration of C. elegans dopaminergic neurons. Here we link those data to idiopathic disease models that predict loss of protein handling as a component of disorder progression. We demonstrate that the bacterial metabolite leads to proteostatic disruption in multiple protein-misfolding models and has the potential to synergistically enhance the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins. Genetically, this metabolite is epistatically regulated by loss-of-function to pink-1, the C. elegans PARK6 homolog responsible for mitochondrial maintenance and autophagy in other animal systems. In addition, the metabolite works through a genetic pathway analogous to loss-of-function in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which we find is also epistatically regulated by loss of PINK-1 homeostasis. To determine remitting counter agents, we investigated several established antioxidants and found that glutathione (GSH) can significantly protect against metabolite-induced proteostasis disruption. In addition, GSH protects against the toxicity of MG132 and can compensate for the combined loss of both pink-1 and the E3 ligase pdr-1, a Parkin homolog. In assessing the impact of this metabolite on mitochondrial maintenance, we observe that it causes fragmentation of mitochondria that is attenuated by GSH and an initial surge in PINK-1-dependent autophagy. These studies mechanistically advance our understanding of a putative environmental contributor to neurodegeneration and factors influencing in vivo neurotoxicity. PMID:26469957

  6. Implications of recurrent disturbance for genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C

    2016-02-01

    Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes. PMID:26839689

  7. Disturbed flow induces systemic changes in metabolites in mouse plasma: a metabolomics study using ApoE−/− mice with partial carotid ligation

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Kim, Chan Woo; Walker, Douglas I.; Kang, Dong Won; Kumar, Sandeep; Orr, Michael; Uppal, Karan; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed blood flow (d-flow) occurring in branched and curved arteries promotes endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, in part, by altering gene expression and epigenomic profiles in endothelial cells. While a systemic metabolic change is known to play a role in atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether it can be regulated by local d-flow. Here, we tested this hypothesis by carrying out a metabolomics study using blood plasma samples obtained from ApoE−/− mice that underwent a partial carotid ligation surgery to induce d-flow. Mice receiving sham ligation were used as a control. To study early metabolic changes, samples collected from 1 wk after partial ligation when endothelial dysfunction occurs, but before atheroma develops, were analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. A metabolome-wide association study showed that 128 metabolites were significantly altered in the ligated mice compared with the sham group. Of these, sphingomyelin (SM; m/z 703.5747), a common mammalian cell membrane sphingolipid, was most significantly increased in the ligated mice. Of the 128 discriminatory metabolites, 18 and 41 were positively and negatively correlated with SM, respectively. The amino acids methionine and phenylalanine were increased by d-flow, while phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were decreased by d-flow, and these metabolites were correlated with SM. Other significantly affected metabolites included dietary and environmental agents. Pathway analysis showed that the metabolic changes of d-flow impacted broad functional networks. These results suggest that signaling from d-flow occurring in focal regions induces systemic metabolic changes associated with atherosclerosis. PMID:25377480

  8. Disturbed flow induces systemic changes in metabolites in mouse plasma: a metabolomics study using ApoE⁻/⁻ mice with partial carotid ligation.

    PubMed

    Go, Young-Mi; Kim, Chan Woo; Walker, Douglas I; Kang, Dong Won; Kumar, Sandeep; Orr, Michael; Uppal, Karan; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Jo, Hanjoong; Jones, Dean P

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed blood flow (d-flow) occurring in branched and curved arteries promotes endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, in part, by altering gene expression and epigenomic profiles in endothelial cells. While a systemic metabolic change is known to play a role in atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether it can be regulated by local d-flow. Here, we tested this hypothesis by carrying out a metabolomics study using blood plasma samples obtained from ApoE(-/-) mice that underwent a partial carotid ligation surgery to induce d-flow. Mice receiving sham ligation were used as a control. To study early metabolic changes, samples collected from 1 wk after partial ligation when endothelial dysfunction occurs, but before atheroma develops, were analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. A metabolome-wide association study showed that 128 metabolites were significantly altered in the ligated mice compared with the sham group. Of these, sphingomyelin (SM; m/z 703.5747), a common mammalian cell membrane sphingolipid, was most significantly increased in the ligated mice. Of the 128 discriminatory metabolites, 18 and 41 were positively and negatively correlated with SM, respectively. The amino acids methionine and phenylalanine were increased by d-flow, while phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were decreased by d-flow, and these metabolites were correlated with SM. Other significantly affected metabolites included dietary and environmental agents. Pathway analysis showed that the metabolic changes of d-flow impacted broad functional networks. These results suggest that signaling from d-flow occurring in focal regions induces systemic metabolic changes associated with atherosclerosis. PMID:25377480

  9. Experimental investigation of rapid flow transients in an inlet/compressor system, induced by short-duration acoustic and entropy disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opalski, Anthony Benedict

    Highly sophisticated and extensively tested computational fluid dynamics codes are available to simulate the operation of inlet and compressor systems in high-speed airbreathing propulsion devices. In contrast, the methods used to couple these codes during the simulation of an unsteady flow transient are in a significantly less advanced state. In engineering practice the computations are typically performed separately for each device, while representing the adjacent component through a boundary condition. Unfortunately, the lack of experimentally validated compressor face boundary conditions leaves the accuracy of these models open to doubt. From the viewpoint of inlet computations, the compressor face boundary condition amounts to an approximate description of the manner in which upstream moving acoustic waves are induced by the arrival of downstream moving acoustic and entropy (temperature) disturbances to the compressor. This dissertation presents the results of an experimental investigation involving such rapid flow transients in a facility that combined a constant area circular inlet with a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Inlet Mach numbers ranged from 0.15 to 0.45. The experiment employed an impulse method, in which short-duration, large amplitude acoustic and entropy pulses were generated within the inlet utilizing an exploding wire technique. The incident acoustic pulse, its reflection from the compressor and the acoustic wave transmitted across the compressor were tracked by fast response pressure transducers, while entropy pulses were detected by dual-element hotfilm probes. Frequency domain analysis of the data yielded transfer functions that may be thought of as non-dimensional frequency-resolved reflection, transmission and induction coefficients. Transfer functions have been demonstrated to be suitable for the prediction of transients induced by small amplitude, incident acoustic and entropy pulses, thereby representing a powerful method for

  10. Paternal obesity induces metabolic and sperm disturbances in male offspring that are exacerbated by their exposure to an “obesogenic” diet

    PubMed Central

    Fullston, Tod; McPherson, Nicole O; Owens, Julie A; Kang, Wan Xian; Sandeman, Lauren Y; Lane, Michlle

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and related comorbidities are becoming increasingly prevalent globally. In mice preconception paternal exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) impairs the metabolic and reproductive health of male offspring, despite their control diet (CD) consumption. However, offspring share lifestyle, including diet, with parents. We assessed if male offspring from HFD fathers have a heightened susceptibility to HFD-induced metabolic and reproductive derangements. This 2 × 2 design saw founder males (F0) and their offspring (F1) fed either a HFD or a nutritionally matched CD. Regardless of paternal diet, HFD fed male offspring had greater total body weight and adiposity. Offspring sired by a HFD male and fed a HFD were the heaviest, had the greatest adiposity and had the greatest concentration of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, and NEFA compared with CD sired/fed littermates. A synergistic increase in serum insulin was unmasked by both father/son HFD consumption, concomitant with increased sera glucose. Either a paternal or offspring HFD was associated with similar reductions to offspring sperm motility. Whereas sperm ROS concentrations and sperm–oocyte binding saw detrimental effects of both F0 HFD and F1 HFD with an interaction evident between both, culminating in the most impaired sperm parameters in this group. This indicates that metabolic and fertility disturbances in male offspring sired by HFD fathers are exacerbated by a “second-hit” of exposure to the same obesogenic environment postnatally. If translatable to human health, this suggests that adverse reproductive and metabolic outcomes may be amplified across generations through a shared calorie dense diet, relevant to the current worldwide obesity epidemic. PMID:25804263

  11. Inducible Knock-Down of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor in Mice Disturbs Regulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Attenuates Heart Failure Induced by Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Cobos, Elena; Li, Xiao; Fischer, Henrike J.; Sasse, André; Kügler, Sebastian; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Fassnacht, Martin; Dressel, Ralf; Reichardt, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inactivation in mice results in early postnatal lethality. Therefore we generated mice in which MR expression can be silenced during adulthood by administration of doxycycline (Dox). Using a lentiviral approach, we obtained two lines of transgenic mice harboring a construct that allows for regulatable MR inactivation by RNAi and concomitant expression of eGFP. MR mRNA levels in heart and kidney of inducible MR knock-down mice were unaltered in the absence of Dox, confirming the tightness of the system. In contrast, two weeks after Dox administration MR expression was significantly diminished in a variety of tissues. In the kidney, this resulted in lower mRNA levels of selected target genes, which was accompanied by strongly increased serum aldosterone and plasma renin levels as well as by elevated sodium excretion. In the healthy heart, gene expression and the amount of collagen were unchanged despite MR levels being significantly reduced. After transverse aortic constriction, however, cardiac hypertrophy and progressive heart failure were attenuated by MR silencing, fibrosis was unaffected and mRNA levels of a subset of genes reduced. Taken together, we believe that this mouse model is a useful tool to investigate the role of the MR in pathophysiological processes. PMID:26605921

  12. Possible involvement of glucocorticoids in 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like metabolic disturbances in the rat visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Marina; Macut, Djuro; Djordjevic, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nestorović, Nataša; Bursać, Biljana; Antić, Ivana Božić; Macut, Jelica Bjekić; Matić, Gordana; Vojnović Milutinović, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, visceral obesity and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that changes in glucocorticoid metabolism and signaling in the visceral adipose tissue may contribute to disturbances of lipid metabolism in the rat model of PCOS obtained by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment of prepubertal female Wistar rats. The results confirmed that DHT treatment caused anovulation, obesity and dyslipidemia. Enhanced glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, assessed by elevated intracellular corticosterone and increased 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA and protein levels, was accompanied by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear accumulation. In concert with the increased expression of GR-regulated prolipogenic genes (lipin-1, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), histological analyses revealed hypertrophic adipocytes. The results suggest that glucocorticoids influence lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue in the way that may contribute to pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances associated with PCOS. PMID:25179821

  13. Remote Sensing Data with the Conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling and Geostatistical Approach to Delineate Landscape Changes Induced by Large Chronological Physical Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22389593

  14. Remote sensing data with the conditional latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical approach to delineate landscape changes induced by large chronological physical disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wang, Cheng-Long; Yu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    This study applies variogram analyses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT HRV images obtained before and after the ChiChi earthquake in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan, as well as images after four large typhoons, to delineate the spatial patterns, spatial structures and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach was applied to select samples from multiple NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with sufficient samples were then used to generate maps of NDVI images. The variography of NDVI image results demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by variogram analysis in study areas. The high-magnitude Chi-Chi earthquake created spatial landscape variations in the study area. After the earthquake, the cumulative impacts of typhoons on landscape patterns depended on the magnitudes and paths of typhoons, but were not always evident in the spatiotemporal variability of landscapes in the study area. The statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images were captured by 3,000 samples from 62,500 grids in the NDVI images. Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with the 3,000 samples effectively reproduced spatial patterns of NDVI images. However, the proposed approach, which integrates the conditional Latin hypercube sampling approach, variogram, kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation in remotely sensed images, efficiently monitors, samples and maps the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22389593

  15. Detecting the land-cover changes induced by large-physical disturbances using landscape metrics, spatial sampling, simulation and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Huang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran'I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE). Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management. PMID:22399972

  16. Mapping surface disturbance from wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2013-04-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing segments of the electricity market and this trend will likely continue as countries strive to reduce CO2 production while meeting growing energy demands. One impact of wind facilities is surface disturbance, including roads, that lead to habitat loss and fragmentation. Numerous studies of wind power utilize estimates of surface disturbance for GIS-based modeling or basic calculations of the land area required to generate energy using wind. However published estimates of the land use required for a MW of electricity from wind facilities vary by more than 10 times (0.83 to 250 MW/Km2). We report results from a geospatial analysis of 39 wind facilities in the United States that we fully digitized using high resolution photo-imagery. The selected sites and analyses were designed to elucidate the effects of turbine size, topography, and land use on the area requirements of wind facilities. The results indicate point estimates of average surface disturbance/MW have wide levels of variation, explained primarily by Landcover and Topography. Wind facilities in agricultural landscapes had smaller surface disturbance/ha than facilities in forests and shrublands, and facilities in relatively flat topography had smaller surface disturbance/ha than facilities on hills, ridges, or mesas. Land use, topography, and turbine size all influenced turbine spacing. The statistical models suggest we can predict geographic locations where new wind facilities could be placed with minimized surface disturbance.

  17. A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: a case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Tanya A; Balks, Megan R; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; McWhirter, Judi L

    2012-12-15

    With increasing visitor numbers an understanding of the impacts of human activities in Antarctic terrestrial environments has become important. The objective of this study was to develop a means for assessing recovery of the ground surface desert pavement following physical disturbance. A set of 11 criteria were identified to assess desert pavement recovery. Assessed criteria were: embeddedness of surface clasts; impressions of removed clasts; degree of clast surface weathering; % overturned clasts; salt on underside of clasts; development of salt coatings; armouring per m(2); colour contrast; evidence of subsidence/melt out; accumulation of salt on cut surfaces; and evidence of patterned ground development. Recovery criteria were assigned a severity/extent rating on a scale from zero to four, zero being highly disturbed, and four being undisturbed. A relative % recovery for each criteria was calculated for each site by comparison with a nearby undisturbed control area, and an overall Mean Recovery Index (MRI) was assigned to each pavement surface. To test the method, 54 sites in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica were investigated including areas disturbed by: bulldozer scraping for road-fill, contouring for infrastructure, geotechnical investigations, and experimental treading trial sites. Disturbances had occurred at timescales ranging from one week to 50 years prior to assessment. The extent of desert pavement recovery at the sites investigated in this study was higher than anticipated. Fifty of the 54 sites investigated were in an intermediate, or higher, stage of desert pavement recovery, 30 sites were in an advanced stage of recovery, and four sites were indistinguishable from adjacent control sites (MRI = 100%). It was found that active surfaces, such as the gravel beach deposits at the Greenpeace World Park Base site at Cape Evans, the aeolian sand deposits at Bull Pass, and the alluvial fan deposits of the Loop Moraine field campsite, recovered relatively

  18. Small-scale field-aligned currents and ionospheric disturbances induced by vertical acoustic resonance during the 2015 eruption of Chile's Calbuco volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, T.; Iyemori, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Nishioka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wave packet structure of small-scale magnetic fluctuations were observed by SWARM satellites just above the volcano and it's magnetic conjugate point after the eruption of Chile's Calbuco volcano on April 22, 2015. These magnetic fluctuations in low and middle latitudes generated by small-scale field aligned currents (FACs), and have about 10-30 seconds period along the satellites' orbit [Nakanishi et al., 2014] and about 200 (340) seconds temporal scale for meridional (longitudinal) magnetic components [Iyemori et al., 2015]. We also observed ionospheric disturbances and ground geomagnetic fluctuations just after the eruption. The 4-min period oscillations of total electron content (TEC) were observed by GPS receivers near the volcano. The 260 and 215 seconds spectral peaks in D component of ground based geomagnetic observation were found. Such oscillations and spectral peaks didn't exist before the eruption. All of these observations may have the same origin, i.e., vertical acoustic resonance between the ionosphere and the ground. In this presentation, we estimate the propagation velocity of the TEC oscillations and the spatial scale of the disturbance region in the E-layer where the FACs are generated by the ionospheric dynamo.

  19. Icariin reverses corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior, decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabolic network disturbances revealed by NMR-based metabonomics in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Meng-Juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang; Zou, Zhong-jie

    2016-05-10

    Previously published reports have revealed the antidepressant-like effects of icariin in a chronic mild stress model of depression and in a social defeat stress model in mice. However, the therapeutic effect of icariin in an animal model of glucocorticoid-induced depression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of icariin in a rat model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression by using a combination of behavioral and biochemical assessments and NMR-based metabonomics. The depression model was established by subcutaneous injections of CORT for 21 consecutive days in rats, as evidenced by reduced sucrose intake and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, together with an increase in immobility time in a forced swim test (FST). Icariin significantly increased sucrose intake and hippocampal BDNF level and decreased the immobility time in FST in CORT-induced depressive rats, suggesting its potent antidepressant activity. Moreover, metabonomic analysis identified eight, five and three potential biomarkers associated with depression in serum, urine and brain tissue extract, respectively. These biomarkers are primarily involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut microbe metabolism. Icariin reversed the pathological process of CORT-induced depression, partially via regulation of the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of icariin against CORT-induced depression and metabolic dysfunction. PMID:26874256

  20. Radiation processing and market economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    1998-06-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared.

  1. Drug- and herb-induced liver injury: Progress, current challenges and emerging signals of post-marketing risk.

    PubMed

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications in the past 15 years. This review will first provide clues for clinicians to suspect idiosyncratic (unpredictable) DILI and succeed in diagnosis. Causality assessment remains challenging and requires careful medical history as well as awareness of multifaceted aspects, especially for herbs. Drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation remain the mainstay in patent's management to minimize occurrence of acute liver failure. The second section will address novel agents associated with liver injury in 2014 (referred to as "signals"), especially in terms of clinical, research and drug development implications. Insights will be provided into recent trends by highlighting the contribution of different post-marketing data, especially registries and spontaneous reporting systems. This literature scrutiny suggests: (1) the importance of post-marketing databases as tools of clinical evidence to detect signals of DILI risk; and (2) the need for joining efforts in improving predictivity of pre-clinical assays, continuing post-marketing surveillance and design ad hoc post-authorization safety studies. In this context, ongoing European/United States research consortia and novel pharmaco-epidemiological tools (e.g., specialist prescription event monitoring) will support innovation in this field. Direct oral anticoagulants and herbal/dietary supplements appear as key research priorities. PMID:26167249

  2. Drug- and herb-induced liver injury: Progress, current challenges and emerging signals of post-marketing risk

    PubMed Central

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications in the past 15 years. This review will first provide clues for clinicians to suspect idiosyncratic (unpredictable) DILI and succeed in diagnosis. Causality assessment remains challenging and requires careful medical history as well as awareness of multifaceted aspects, especially for herbs. Drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation remain the mainstay in patent’s management to minimize occurrence of acute liver failure. The second section will address novel agents associated with liver injury in 2014 (referred to as “signals”), especially in terms of clinical, research and drug development implications. Insights will be provided into recent trends by highlighting the contribution of different post-marketing data, especially registries and spontaneous reporting systems. This literature scrutiny suggests: (1) the importance of post-marketing databases as tools of clinical evidence to detect signals of DILI risk; and (2) the need for joining efforts in improving predictivity of pre-clinical assays, continuing post-marketing surveillance and design ad hoc post-authorization safety studies. In this context, ongoing European/United States research consortia and novel pharmaco-epidemiological tools (e.g., specialist prescription event monitoring) will support innovation in this field. Direct oral anticoagulants and herbal/dietary supplements appear as key research priorities. PMID:26167249

  3. Optimal Free-Stream Vortical Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, M. J. Philipp

    2015-11-01

    In boundary layers exposed to moderate levels of free-stream disturbances, natural transition via the exponential amplification of Tollmien-Schlichting waves is bypassed by a more rapid breakdown process. The external disturbances interact with the mean shear and induce the growth of highly energetic streaks, which cause transition to turbulence by virtue of the growth of inviscid secondary instabilities. The relationship between external vortices and boundary-layer perturbations is, however, not entirely understood. The present study provides a rigorous link between the dynamics in the free-stream and inside the boundary layer by computing the optimal free-stream vortical disturbances, i.e. the external disturbances which maximize the energy content of the resulting boundary-layer perturbations. The mathematical framework is based on a semi-norm formulation of the adjoint linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates and enables the global analysis of disturbance sensitivity as well as the computation of optimal disturbances in flows with variable density and miscellaneous geometries.

  4. On Chu's disturbance energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph George, K.; Sujith, R. I.

    2011-10-01

    Chu [On the energy transfer to small disturbances in fluid flow (part I), Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 215-234] proposed a positive definite energy norm for characterizing the level of fluctuation in a disturbance. In the absence of heat transfer at the boundaries, work done by boundary or body forces, heat and material sources of energy, this norm is a monotone, non-increasing function of time. In this paper, we show that Chu's disturbance energy defines an inner product, with respect to which the conservation equations of fluid motion linearized about a uniform base flow are self-adjoint. This ensures that the eigenvectors of the linearized operator are orthogonal to each other, and the property that the energy norm is a non-increasing function of time in the absence of physical sources of energy follows as an immediate consequence. Examples from numerical simulations of Euler equations are presented to highlight the importance of choosing an energy norm that is consistent with the underlying physics. We demonstrate that the disturbance energy as measured by Chu's norm does not exhibit spurious transient growth in the absence of physical sources of energy and hence is suitable for analyzing thermoacoustic instability.

  5. Disturbance of Shallow Marine Soft-Bottom Environments and Megabenthos Assemblages by a Huge Tsunami Induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance. PMID:23762365

  6. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    PubMed

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance. PMID:23762365

  7. A Genetic and Pathologic Study of a DENV2 Clinical Isolate Capable of Inducing Encephalitis and Hematological Disturbances in Immunocompetent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Jaime Henrique; Pereira Bizerra, Raíza Sales; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Levi, José Eduardo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; de Souza Ferreira, Luís Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever (DF), a mosquito-borne illness endemic to tropical and subtropical regions. There is currently no effective drug or vaccine formulation for the prevention of DF and its more severe forms, i.e., dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). There are two generally available experimental models for the study of DENV pathogenicity as well as the evaluation of potential vaccine candidates. The first model consists of non-human primates, which do not develop symptoms but rather a transient viremia. Second, mouse-adapted virus strains or immunocompromised mouse lineages are utilized, which display some of the pathological features of the infection observed in humans but may not be relevant to the results with regard to the wild-type original virus strains or mouse lineages. In this study, we describe a genetic and pathological study of a DENV2 clinical isolate, named JHA1, which is naturally capable of infecting and killing Balb/c mice and reproduces some of the symptoms observed in DENV-infected subjects. Sequence analyses demonstrated that the JHA1 isolate belongs to the American genotype group and carries genetic markers previously associated with neurovirulence in mouse-adapted virus strains. The JHA1 strain was lethal to immunocompetent mice following intracranial (i.c.) inoculation with a LD50 of approximately 50 PFU. Mice infected with the JHA1 strain lost weight and exhibited general tissue damage and hematological disturbances, with similarity to those symptoms observed in infected humans. In addition, it was demonstrated that the JHA1 strain shares immunological determinants with the DENV2 NGC reference strain, as evaluated by cross-reactivity of anti-envelope glycoprotein (domain III) antibodies. The present results indicate that the JHA1 isolate may be a useful tool in the study of DENV pathogenicity and will help in the evaluation of anti-DENV vaccine formulations as well as

  8. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  9. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    SciTech Connect

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black

  10. Pension-Induced Rigidities in the Labor Market for School Leaders. Working Paper 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Grissom, Jason A.; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Educators in public schools in the United States are typically enrolled in defined-benefit pension plans, which penalize across-plan mobility. We use administrative data from Missouri to examine how the mobility penalties affect the labor market for school leaders, and show that pension borders greatly reduce leadership flows across schools. Our…

  11. Selenium nanoparticles induced membrane bio-mechanical property changes in MCF-7 cells by disturbing membrane molecules and F-actin.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Yang, Fen; Jin, Hua; Huang, Xun; Liu, Ruiying; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye

    2013-12-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have been served as promising materials for biomedical applications, especially for cancer treatment. The anti-cancer effects of Se NPs against cancer cells have been widely studied in recent years, but whether Se NPs can induce the changes of cell membrane bio-mechanical properties in cancer cells still remain unexplored. In this Letter, we prepared Se NPs for investigating the intracellular localization of Se NPs in MCF-7 cells and determined the effects of Se NPs on apoptosis and necrosis in MCF-7 cells. Especially, we reported for the first time about the effects of Se NPs on the bio-mechanical properties of cancer cells and found that Se NPs could remarkably decrease the adhesion force and Young's modulus of MCF-7 cells. To further understand the potential mechanisms about how Se NPs affect the bio-mechanical properties of MCF-7 cells, we also investigated the expression of CD44 molecules, the structure and the amounts of F-actin. The results indicated that the decreased adhesion force between AFM tip and cell membrane was partially due to the changes of membrane molecules induced by Se NPs, such as the down-regulation of trans-membrane CD44 molecules. Additionally, the decrease of Young's modulus of MCF-7 cells was due to the dis-organization and down-regulation of F-actin induced by Se NPs. These results collectively suggested that cell membrane was of vital importance in Se NPs induced toxicity in cancer cells, which could be served as a potential target for cancer treatment by Se NPs. PMID:24140445

  12. The Measurement-Disturbance Relation and the Disturbance Trade-off Relation in Terms of Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-09-01

    We employ quantum relative entropy to establish the relation between the measurement uncertainty and its disturbance on a state in the presence (and absence) of quantum memory. For two incompatible observables, we present the measurement-disturbance relation and the disturbance trade-off relation. We find that without quantum memory the disturbance induced by the measurement is never less than the measurement uncertainty and with quantum memory they depend on the conditional entropy of the measured state. We also generalize these relations to the case with multiple measurements. These relations are demonstrated by two examples.

  13. The Measurement-Disturbance Relation and the Disturbance Trade-off Relation in Terms of Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-04-01

    We employ quantum relative entropy to establish the relation between the measurement uncertainty and its disturbance on a state in the presence (and absence) of quantum memory. For two incompatible observables, we present the measurement-disturbance relation and the disturbance trade-off relation. We find that without quantum memory the disturbance induced by the measurement is never less than the measurement uncertainty and with quantum memory they depend on the conditional entropy of the measured state. We also generalize these relations to the case with multiple measurements. These relations are demonstrated by two examples.

  14. Disturbing Behavior Checklists" Technical Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Ecological theorists have suggested that "disturbance" may result from an interaction between a child's behavior and reactions to that behavior within ecosystems such as schools. In this context, behavior is viewed as "disturbing" rather than "disturbed" and equal emphasis is given to the child and to individuals with whom the child interacts when…

  15. Mitochondria-derived ROS bursts disturb Ca²⁺ cycling and induce abnormal automaticity in guinea pig cardiomyocytes: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qince; Su, Di; O'Rourke, Brian; Pogwizd, Steven M; Zhou, Lufang

    2015-03-15

    Mitochondria are in close proximity to the redox-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release [ryanodine receptors (RyRs)] and uptake [Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)] channels. Thus mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mdROS) could play a crucial role in modulating Ca(2+) cycling in the cardiomyocytes. However, whether mdROS-mediated Ca(2+) dysregulation translates to abnormal electrical activities under pathological conditions, and if yes what are the underlying ionic mechanisms, have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that pathological mdROS induce Ca(2+) elevation by modulating SR Ca(2+) handling, which activates other Ca(2+) channels and further exacerbates Ca(2+) dysregulation, leading to abnormal action potential (AP). We also propose that the morphologies of elicited AP abnormality rely on the time of mdROS induction, interaction between mitochondria and SR, and intensity of mitochondrial oxidative stress. To test the hypotheses, we developed a multiscale guinea pig cardiomyocyte model that incorporates excitation-contraction coupling, local Ca(2+) control, mitochondrial energetics, and ROS-induced ROS release. This model, for the first time, includes mitochondria-SR microdomain and modulations of mdROS on RyR and SERCA activities. Simulations show that mdROS bursts increase cytosolic Ca(2+) by stimulating RyRs and inhibiting SERCA, which activates the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, Ca(2+)-sensitive nonspecific cationic channels, and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, eliciting abnormal AP. The morphologies of AP abnormality are largely influenced by the time interval among mdROS burst induction and AP firing, dosage and diffusion of mdROS, and SR-mitochondria distance. This study defines the role of mdROS in Ca(2+) overload-mediated cardiac arrhythmogenesis and underscores the importance of considering mitochondrial targets in designing new antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25539710

  16. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia. PMID:26719309

  17. Robustness of disturbance attenuation with respect to disturbance model uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Daniel Edward

    In contrast to the case of robustness with respect to plant model uncertainty, the control systems community has paid relatively little attention to the issue of robustness with respect to disturbance model uncertainty. However, disturbance model uncertainty is of significance in many practical problems, including, for example, aircraft control (where the disturbance is turbulence), ship control (where the disturbances are wind and waves), and active suspension problems (where the disturbance is road roughness). Motivated, in particular, by turbulence model uncertainty, this dissertation considers the analysis and design of linear time-invariant controllers that are robust with respect to uncertainty in the disturbance intensity and bandwidth, where disturbance attenuation is measured by the output variance. Five aspects of the robust disturbance attenuation problem are considered. First, an expression for the output variance in terms of the uncertain disturbance parameters is derived. This expression is written in terms of an operator called the V-transform. Second, the notions of disturbance gain margin and disturbance bandwidth margin are introduced as quantitative measures of robustness with respect to uncertainty in the disturbance gain and disturbance bandwidth, respectively. Third, lower bounds on the achievable output variance are found under constraints of practical importance, e.g., constraints on bandwidth and stability robustness. The lower bounds are used to show that, in almost every practical situation, there is a limitation on both the achievable nominal performance and the achievable robustness margins. Fourth, tradeoffs between nominal performance and robust performance are investigated. The main result is that good nominal and good robust performance are neither incompatible nor equivalent. Fifth, a design procedure to achieve a prespecified level of robustness is proposed; the principal idea is to reduce the robust performance design problem to

  18. Soil disturbance by airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Disturbance of the drift at the Pathfinder landing site reveals a shallow subsurface that is slightly darker but has similar spectral properties. The top set of images, in true color, shows the soils disturbed by the last bounce of the lander on its airbags before coming to rest and the marks created by retraction of the airbags. In the bottom set of images color differences have been enhanced. The mast at center is the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET). The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. A shadow of the ASI/MET appears on a rock at left.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  19. Postoperative circadian disturbances.

    PubMed

    Gögenur, Ismail

    2010-12-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown that circadian variation in the excretion of hormones, the sleep wake circle, the core body temperature rhythm, the tone of the autonomic nervous system and the activity rhythm are important both in health and in disease processes. An increasing attention has also been directed towards the circadian variation in endogenous rhythms in relation to surgery. The attention has been directed to the question whether the circadian variation in endogenous rhythms can affect postoperative recovery, morbidity and mortality. Based on the lack of studies where these endogenous rhythms have been investigated in relation to surgery we performed a series of studies exploring different endogenous rhythms and factors affecting these rhythms. We also wanted to examine whether the disturbances in the postoperative circadian rhythms could be correlated to postoperative recovery parameters, and if pharmacological administration of chronobiotics could improve postoperative recovery. Circadian rhythm disturbances were found in all the examined endogenous rhythms. A delay was found in the endogenous rhythm of plasma melatonin and excretion of the metabolite of melatonin (AMT6s) in urine the first night after both minor and major surgery. This delay after major surgery was correlated to the duration of surgery. The amplitude in the melatonin rhythm was unchanged the first night but increased in the second night after major surgery. The amplitude in AMT6s was reduced the first night after minimally invasive surgery. The core body temperature rhythm was disturbed after both major and minor surgery. There was a change in the sleep wake cycle with a significantly increased duration of REM-sleep in the day and evening time after major surgery compared with preoperatively. There was also a shift in the autonomic nervous balance after major surgery with a significantly increased number of myocardial ischaemic episodes during the nighttime period. The

  20. [The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Oestmann, G

    1988-01-01

    150 questionnaires as well as epicutaneous tests in 56 individuals from a total of 675 persons cultivating and selling ornamental plants at the largest German flower market revealed that half of those investigated were suffering from allergic contact dermatitis. The leading plant species with sensitizing properties was found to be the chrysanthemum, followed by tulips and Alstroemeria cultivars. Allergic reactions to daffodils and primulas were rarely observed. Most of the reactions obtained with other Compositae species such as arnica, marguerite, sunflower, tansy and yarrow must be interpreted as cross-reactions due to the fact that cross-reactivity predominates within the sesquiterpene lactone constituents of the various Compositae species. PMID:2971519

  1. Immune System Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Szatmár; Mirnics, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological, genetic, transcriptome, postmortem, peripheral biomarker, and therapeutic studies of schizophrenia all point to a dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems in the disease, and it is likely that these immune changes actively contribute to disease symptoms. Gene expression disturbances in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia show complex, region-specific changes with consistently replicated and potentially interdependent induction of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A member 3 (SERPINA3) and interferon inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family transcripts in the prefrontal cortex. Recent data suggest that IFITM3 expression is a critical mediator of maternal immune activation. As the IFITM gene family is primarily expressed in the endothelial cells and meninges, and as the meninges play a critical role in interneuron development, we suggest that these two non-neuronal cell populations might play an important role in the disease pathophysiology. Finally, we propose that IFITM3 in particular might be a novel, appealing, knowledge-based drug target for treatment of schizophrenia. Gene*environment interactions play a critical role in the emergence of schizophrenia pathophysiology. Epidemiological, genetic, transcriptome, postmortem, peripheral biomarker, and therapeutic studies of schizophrenia all point to a dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems in the disease (1-3) and it is likely that these immune changes actively contribute to disease symptoms (1, 4, 5). Regardless of the abundance of data obtained to date, our understanding of the mechanism by which the immune system disturbances arise is limited: we do not have a good insight into the origin or sequence of events by which the immune dysregulation develops, and to date we have not taken full advantage of these changes as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:23890736

  2. Insurance coverage of customers induces dishonesty of sellers in markets for credence goods

    PubMed Central

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel; Sutter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Honesty is a fundamental pillar for cooperation in human societies and thus for their economic welfare. However, humans do not always act in an honest way. Here, we examine how insurance coverage affects the degree of honesty in credence goods markets. Such markets are plagued by strong incentives for fraudulent behavior of sellers, resulting in estimated annual costs of billions of dollars to customers and the society as a whole. Prime examples of credence goods are all kinds of repair services, the provision of medical treatments, the sale of software programs, and the provision of taxi rides in unfamiliar cities. We examine in a natural field experiment how computer repair shops take advantage of customers’ insurance for repair costs. In a control treatment, the average repair price is about EUR 70, whereas the repair bill increases by more than 80% when the service provider is informed that an insurance would reimburse the bill. Our design allows decomposing the sources of this economically impressive difference, showing that it is mainly due to the overprovision of parts and overcharging of working time. A survey among repair shops shows that the higher bills are mainly ascribed to insured customers being less likely to be concerned about minimizing costs because a third party (the insurer) pays the bill. Overall, our results strongly suggest that insurance coverage greatly increases the extent of dishonesty in important sectors of the economy with potentially huge costs to customers and whole economies. PMID:27325784

  3. Insurance coverage of customers induces dishonesty of sellers in markets for credence goods.

    PubMed

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel; Sutter, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Honesty is a fundamental pillar for cooperation in human societies and thus for their economic welfare. However, humans do not always act in an honest way. Here, we examine how insurance coverage affects the degree of honesty in credence goods markets. Such markets are plagued by strong incentives for fraudulent behavior of sellers, resulting in estimated annual costs of billions of dollars to customers and the society as a whole. Prime examples of credence goods are all kinds of repair services, the provision of medical treatments, the sale of software programs, and the provision of taxi rides in unfamiliar cities. We examine in a natural field experiment how computer repair shops take advantage of customers' insurance for repair costs. In a control treatment, the average repair price is about EUR 70, whereas the repair bill increases by more than 80% when the service provider is informed that an insurance would reimburse the bill. Our design allows decomposing the sources of this economically impressive difference, showing that it is mainly due to the overprovision of parts and overcharging of working time. A survey among repair shops shows that the higher bills are mainly ascribed to insured customers being less likely to be concerned about minimizing costs because a third party (the insurer) pays the bill. Overall, our results strongly suggest that insurance coverage greatly increases the extent of dishonesty in important sectors of the economy with potentially huge costs to customers and whole economies. PMID:27325784

  4. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. PMID:26318008

  5. Loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum disturbs iron pathways, potentiates behavioral abnormalities, and exacerbates harmaline-induced tremor in mice.

    PubMed

    Stroh, Matthew A; Winter, Michelle K; Swerdlow, Russell H; McCarson, Kenneth E; Zhu, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated in many diseases, including a number of neurological conditions. Cytosolic NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues and is capable of reducing ferric iron in vitro. We previously reported that global gene ablation of NCB5OR resulted in early-onset diabetes and altered iron homeostasis in mice. To further investigate the specific effects of NCB5OR deficiency on neural tissue without contributions from known phenotypes, we generated a conditional knockout (CKO) mouse that lacks NCB5OR only in the cerebellum and midbrain. Assessment of molecular markers in the cerebellum of CKO mice revealed changes in pathways associated with cellular and mitochondrial iron homeostasis. (59)Fe pulse-feeding experiments revealed cerebellum-specific increased or decreased uptake of iron by 7 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Additionally, we characterized behavioral changes associated with loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain in the context of dietary iron deprivation-evoked generalized iron deficiency. Locomotor activity was reduced and complex motor task execution was altered in CKO mice treated with an iron deficient diet. A sucrose preference test revealed that the reward response was intact in CKO mice, but that iron deficient diet consumption altered sucrose preference in all mice. Detailed gait analysis revealed locomotor changes in CKO mice associated with dysfunctional proprioception and locomotor activation independent of dietary iron deficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NCB5OR in the cerebellum and midbrain exacerbated harmaline-induced tremor activity. Our findings suggest an essential role for NCB5OR in maintaining both iron homeostasis and the proper functioning of various locomotor pathways in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain. PMID:27188291

  6. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide disturbs expression of metallothionein, proinflammatory cytokines and induces genotoxicity: Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Nesrine; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-09-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminum and acrylamide are known but there is no data on their combined effects. The present study investigates the toxic effects after combined exposure to these toxicants on: (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to aluminum and acrylamide on kidney function (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with metallothionein (MT) and inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to aluminum chloride or acrylamide alone and in combination induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in the 24-h urine volume and uric acid levels in plasma and an increase of plasma creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, advanced oxidation protein, and protein carbonyl contents, whereas reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant decline. Superoxide dismutase activity and its gene expression were increased. Aluminum and acrylamide co-exposure exhibited synergism in various biochemical variables and also in DNA damage. Kidney total MT levels and genes expression of MT1, MT2, and proinflammatory cytokines were increased. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide exhibited synergism and more pronounced toxic effects compared with their individual effects based on various biochemical variables, genotoxic, and histopathological changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1044-1058, 2016. PMID:25858877

  7. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  8. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  9. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  10. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities.

    PubMed

    Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D

    2009-09-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (<0.5% cover), and vegetation characteristics were similar between grazed and ungrazed treatments. However, litter accumulation was almost twofold greater in ungrazed than in grazed treatments. Long-term grazing exclusion followed by burning resulted in a substantial B. tectorum invasion, but burning the grazed areas did not produce an invasion. The ungrazed-burned treatment also had less perennial vegetation than other treatments. The accumulation of litter (fuel) in ungrazed treatments may have resulted in greater fire-induced mortality of perennial vegetation in ungrazed compared to grazed treatments

  11. An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, N.M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  13. The High-Risk (Disturbed and Disturbing) College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Kathy R.; Dunkle, John H.; Douce, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The disturbed and disturbing college student causes the most vexing concerns for student affairs administrators. The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model offers a useful and easily understood framework for dealing with the various challenges of this high-risk student population. This chapter focuses on changes that have…

  14. Effects of Forest Disturbance on Water Quality in Appalachian Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, K. N.; Townsend, P.

    2006-12-01

    Land use/land cover changes and a variety of transient watershed disturbances are regarded as important factors that can significantly influence water quality in associated aquatic ecosystems. In forest ecosystems, nitrate-N losses to surface waters provide a sensitive integrative indicator of the biogeochemical status of the forest and of its response to disturbances. While effects of human-induced forest disturbances (e.g., forest harvesting) have been relatively well studied in carefully controlled field experiments, natural forest disturbances and their ecosystem-level impacts are far less well understood. The purpose of this research is to quantify the eco-hydrological effects of historical and current forest disturbances in three large predominantly forested areas of the eastern U.S.: Savage River watershed (Maryland), Fifteenmile Creek watershed (Maryland & Pennsylvania), and Shenandoah National Park (Virginia). Each of these study areas is predominantly forested, has been extensively disturbed within the last 15 years by one or more human- induced or natural disturbance agents (e.g., ice storms, blow-downs, insect defoliations, etc.), and covers an area of several hundred square kilometers. Our research integrates the study of disturbances at multiple scales using remote sensing analyses (landscape scale), observations of surface water quality (watershed scale), and measurements of ecosystem processes within forests (plot scale). In the paper we provide evidence of relationships between transient land cover alterations/disturbances and systematic measurements of surface water quality. In particular, we use our water monitoring data to test whether nitrate-N concentrations in soil water and streamwater vary as linear functions of the magnitude (intensity, frequency, and extensity) and timing of disturbance at three different spatial scales (plot, watershed, and landscape).

  15. Identity disturbance in distant patients.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Irwin

    2013-04-01

    Chronically distant, emotionally isolated patients often present with identity disturbance. Identity, it is argued, develops as a thematic pattern of narcissism, shaped by the nature of the mother's early libidinal influences on the child's sense of self. Identity provides a form of self-definition that addresses the question, Who am I? In the treatment of these patients, resistances to narcissistic vulnerabilities (narcissistic resistances) provide an illusory sense of security and induce the analyst to avoid attention to a central pathological problem: primitive and frightening needs for, and unconscious fantasies of, dependence on, and functionality for, another. Patients' avoidance of material and therapeutic interactions that deal with their dependencies are aspects of a tacit contract with the analyst to foreclose examination of their considerable problems with inner stability. Among these problems are anxieties regarding intrusion and loss of separateness. As analysis proceeds, elements of such a patient's identity become clarified and are used to understand and organize the material for both analyst and patient. This can allow the patient to articulate a more embodied and vital experience of individuality. A case is presented to illustrate the analysis of a patient using this approach. PMID:23526544

  16. Hostility disturbs learning.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Yumi; Tujii, Takeo; Yanagisawa, Atsuo; Tajino, Kazuhiro; Kanda, Hiroko; Yamagami, Masako

    2003-04-01

    Many studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between hostility and coronary artery disease; however, the pathogenic mechanisms by which hostility causes coronary artery disease have not been identified. Several studies have shown that hostility is associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. Sloan and colleagues used mental arithmetic and the Stroop Color-Word Task as psychological stressors and suggested that hostility is associated with diminished cardiac vagal control. It is supposed that the diminished cardiac vagal control results in uncontrollability of increased heart rate under stressful conditions so performance on mental stress tasks is poor. However, performance was not analyzed on the Stroop Color-Word Task. If hostility influences the autonomic nervous system, the performance of this mental stress task may also differ according to extent of hostility. In the present study, whether hostility disturbed performance of a mental stress task and the practice on it was examined. Subjects completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and were divided into three groups (High, Middle, and Low) by their total scores and three subscales (Cynicism, Hostile Affect, and Aggressive Responding). They also completed the Stroop Color-Word Task. Analysis showed practice by High and Middle scoring groups on Aggressive Responding had a significantly smaller effect than that by Low scoring groups. The pathogenic mechanisms by which hostility may underlie coronary artery disease were discussed. PMID:12776844

  17. Subclassification of School Phobic Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie; And Others

    The confusion surrounding all aspects of school refusal may rest partly on the misguided assumption that the disturbance represents a single syndrome. Five consistently emerging variables which may help distinguish among school phobic types were abstracted from the literature: extensiveness of disturbance, mode of onset, age, fear source, and…

  18. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  19. Response of Ionosphere to the Tropospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, A. K.; Dube, A.; Singh, R.; Cohen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out response of the ionosphere to the various cases of tropical cyclones. The main process involved is suggested through Atmospheric Gravity waves (AGWs) originating from strong convective systems, propagating upward upto the ionospheric heights and perturbing ionospheric parameters (Bishop et al., 2006). We have used ground and satellite data to extract cyclone induced perturbations at different ionospheric heights along with the various parameters of AGWs during cyclones and associated thunderstorm. The initial results suggest that there is increase in total electron content of the ionosphere with wave like signatures in ionosphere. The satellite observation in optical band shows presence of concentric gravity wave pattern associated with troposphere disturbances with horizontal wavelength of ~50-200km and periods ranging from hours to days. The ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF) measurement shows fluctuations in VLF navigational transmitter signal passing over the region of disturbance. The lightning data from GLD360 lightning network shows intense activity associated with cyclones and increase in lightning peak current and energy during main phase of cyclones which seems to be sufficient enough to derive ionospheric disturbances in the ionosphere. This multi-instrument analysis provide detail information of the three dimensional structure of cyclone and their effect at different altitudes of the ionosphere in the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software - RWDMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaurock, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The RWDMES is a tool for modeling the disturbances imparted on spacecraft by spinning reaction wheels. Reaction wheels are usually the largest disturbance source on a precision pointing spacecraft, and can be the dominating source of pointing error. Accurate knowledge of the disturbance environment is critical to accurate prediction of the pointing performance. In the past, it has been difficult to extract an accurate wheel disturbance model since the forcing mechanisms are difficult to model physically, and the forcing amplitudes are filtered by the dynamics of the reaction wheel. RWDMES captures the wheel-induced disturbances using a hybrid physical/empirical model that is extracted directly from measured forcing data. The empirical models capture the tonal forces that occur at harmonics of the spin rate, and the broadband forces that arise from random effects. The empirical forcing functions are filtered by a physical model of the wheel structure that includes spin-rate-dependent moments (gyroscopic terms). The resulting hybrid model creates a highly accurate prediction of wheel-induced forces. It accounts for variation in disturbance frequency, as well as the shifts in structural amplification by the whirl modes, as the spin rate changes. This software provides a point-and-click environment for producing accurate models with minimal user effort. Where conventional approaches may take weeks to produce a model of variable quality, RWDMES can create a demonstrably high accuracy model in two hours. The software consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the user to specify all analysis parameters, to evaluate analysis results and to iteratively refine the model. Underlying algorithms automatically extract disturbance harmonics, initialize and tune harmonic models, and initialize and tune broadband noise models. The component steps are described in the RWDMES user s guide and include: converting time domain data to waterfall PSDs (power spectral

  1. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  2. Disturbance regime and disturbance interactions in Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Thomas T.; Hadley, Keith S.; Nel, Elizabeth M.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Reid, Marion; Villalba, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    1 The spatial and temporal patterns of fire, snow avalanches and spruce beetle out-breaks were investigated in Marvine Lakes Valley in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in forests of Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesiiand Populus tremuloides. Dates and locations of disturbances were determined by dendrochronological techniques. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to calculate areas affected by the different disturbance agents and to examine the spatial relationships of the different disturbances. 2 In the Marvine Lakes Valley, major disturbance was caused by fire in the 1470s, the 1630s and the 1870s and by spruce beetle outbreak in c. 1716, 1827 and 1949. 3 Since c. 1633, 9% of the Marvine Lakes Valley has been affected by snow avalanches, 38.6% by spruce beetle outbreak and 59.1% by fire. At sites susceptible to avalanches, avalanches occur at a near-annual frequency. The mean return intervals for fire and spruce beetle outbreaks are 202 and 116.5 years, respectively. Turnover times for fire and spruce beetle outbreaks are 521 and 259 years, respectively. 4 Several types of disturbance interaction were identified. For example, large and severe snow avalanches influence the spread of fire. Similarly, following a stand-devastating fire or avalanche, Picea populations will not support a spruce beetle outbreak until individual trees reach a minimum diameter which represents at least 70 years' growth. Thus, recent fires and beetle outbreaks have nonoverlapping distributions.

  3. Abnormal Disturbance Mechanism of Sub-100 nm NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Seok Jin; Yang, Hea Jong; Noh, Keum Hwan; Lee, Hee Gee; Woo, Won Sik; Lee, Joo Yeop; Lee, Min Kyu; Choi, Won Yol; Hwang, Kyoung Pil; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Sim, Sa Yong; Kim, Sook Kyoung; Chang, Hee Hyoun; Bae, Gi Hyoun

    2006-08-01

    An abnormal program disturbance mode was found in 32-string NAND flash memory which was fabricated with 0.09 μm complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor shallow trench isolation (CMOS STI) process technology. This new disturbance mainly occurs in cells next to source select line (SSL) transistor and is not suppressed even when program bias is not applied. This is strongly related to the boosted channel bias level and the interface state which is located between the tunnel oxide and the silicon substrate. This unexpected program disturbance is a hot carrier program which results from the high electric field between the SSL transistor and its nearest cell and the leakage current to the boosted channel. The leakage current to the channel is due to the interface state of the SSL transistor, not the gate induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect. We present a brief model of this abnormal program disturbance mechanism.

  4. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of disturbance wave in a hypersonic boundary layer due to single-frequency entropy disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing; Shi, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    By using a high-order accurate finite difference scheme, direct numerical simulation of hypersonic flow over an 8° half-wedge-angle blunt wedge under freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance is conducted; the generation and the temporal and spatial nonlinear evolution of boundary layer disturbance waves are investigated. Results show that, under the freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance, the entropy state of boundary layer is changed sharply and the disturbance waves within a certain frequency range are induced in the boundary layer. Furthermore, the amplitudes of disturbance waves in the period phase are larger than that in the response phase and ablation phase and the frequency range in the boundary layer in the period phase is narrower than that in these two phases. In addition, the mode competition, dominant mode transformation, and disturbance energy transfer exist among different modes both in temporal and in spatial evolution. The mode competition changes the characteristics of nonlinear evolution of the unstable waves in the boundary layer. The development of the most unstable mode along streamwise relies more on the motivation of disturbance waves in the upstream than that of other modes on this motivation. PMID:25143983

  5. Temporal and Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Disturbance Wave in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer due to Single-Frequency Entropy Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongqing; Shi, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    By using a high-order accurate finite difference scheme, direct numerical simulation of hypersonic flow over an 8° half-wedge-angle blunt wedge under freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance is conducted; the generation and the temporal and spatial nonlinear evolution of boundary layer disturbance waves are investigated. Results show that, under the freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance, the entropy state of boundary layer is changed sharply and the disturbance waves within a certain frequency range are induced in the boundary layer. Furthermore, the amplitudes of disturbance waves in the period phase are larger than that in the response phase and ablation phase and the frequency range in the boundary layer in the period phase is narrower than that in these two phases. In addition, the mode competition, dominant mode transformation, and disturbance energy transfer exist among different modes both in temporal and in spatial evolution. The mode competition changes the characteristics of nonlinear evolution of the unstable waves in the boundary layer. The development of the most unstable mode along streamwise relies more on the motivation of disturbance waves in the upstream than that of other modes on this motivation. PMID:25143983

  6. Low-disturbance wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Applin, Z. T.; Stainback, P. C.; Maestrello, L.

    1986-01-01

    During the past years, there was an extensive program under way at the Langley Research Center to upgrade the flow quality in several of the large wind tunnels. This effort has resulted in significant improvements in flow quality in these tunnels and has also increased the understanding of how and where changes in existing and new wind tunnels are most likely to yield the desired improvements. As part of this ongoing program, flow disturbance levels and spectra were measured in several Langley tunnels before and after modifications were made to reduce acoustic and vorticity fluctuations. A brief description of these disturbance control features is given for the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, the 4 x 7 Meter Tunnel, and the 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. To illustrate typical reductions in disturbance levels obtained in these tunnels, data from hot-wire or acoustic sensors are presented. A concept for a subsonic quiet tunnel designed to study boundary layer stability and transition is also presented. Techniques developed at Langley in recent years to eliminate the high intensity and high-frequency acoustic disturbances present in all previous supersonic wind tunnels are described. In conclusion, the low-disturbance levels present in atmospheric flight can now be simulated in wind tunnels over the speed range from low subsonic through high supersonic.

  7. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients' quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1) blockers. PMID:27242950

  8. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Okun, Michele L

    2016-07-01

    The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is an increased reporting of sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence implicating significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, with adverse outcomes, such as an increase in depressive symptomatology or the development postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant, and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD. PMID:27222140

  9. A meta-analysis of soil microbial biomass responses to forest disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Sandra R.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to increase the frequency and severity of forest disturbances, with uncertain consequences for soil microbial communities and their contribution to ecosystem C dynamics. To address this uncertainty, we conducted a meta-analysis of 139 published soil microbial responses to forest disturbances. These disturbances included abiotic (fire, harvesting, storm) and biotic (insect, pathogen) disturbances. We hypothesized that soil microbial biomass would decline following forest disturbances, but that abiotic disturbances would elicit greater reductions in microbial biomass than biotic disturbances. In support of this hypothesis, across all published studies, disturbances reduced soil microbial biomass by an average of 29.4%. However, microbial responses differed between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Microbial responses were significantly negative following fires, harvest, and storms (48.7, 19.1, and 41.7% reductions in microbial biomass, respectively). In contrast, changes in soil microbial biomass following insect infestation and pathogen-induced tree mortality were non-significant, although biotic disturbances were poorly represented in the literature. When measured separately, fungal and bacterial responses to disturbances mirrored the response of the microbial community as a whole. Changes in microbial abundance following disturbance were significantly positively correlated with changes in microbial respiration. We propose that the differential effect of abiotic and biotic disturbances on microbial biomass may be attributable to differences in soil disruption and organic C removal from forests among disturbance types. Altogether, these results suggest that abiotic forest disturbances may significantly decrease soil microbial abundance, with corresponding consequences for microbial respiration. Further studies are needed on the effect of biotic disturbances on forest soil microbial communities and soil C dynamics. PMID:23801985

  10. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Disturbance generation in supersonic jets under acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimshtein, V. G.

    1994-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction of saw-toothed high-intensity sound waves (sound pressure level (SPL) = 160-170 dB) with an axisymmetrical supersonic air jet. The flow and sound waves were visualized by the direct shadowgraph method using a spark light source with exposure time of 2 x 10(exp -7) s. It is shown that disturbance increase increment in a supersonic jet under external acoustic excitation depends on the angle of incidence of the sound wave to the jet boundary. The most intensive increase in jet disturbances occurs at an oblique sound incidence when the sound phase velocity along the boundary approaches the disturbance propagation velocity. For sufficiently intense jet disturbances, a shock wave formation induced by and moving with these disturbances may arise. Sound interaction with a supersonic jet takes place within a small flow zone near the nozzle exit; disturbances already developed are not noticeably affected by the sound intensity of 170 dB reached in the experiment.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders appear to be frequent comorbidities in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness commonly occur in patients with FTD and significantly contribute to caregiver burden and burnout. Sleep is severely fragmented in FTD patients, likely secondary to behavioral disturbances, other primary sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and restless leg syndrome, and neurodegeneration of nuclei involved in sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of primary sleep disorders may improve excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality and may improve daytime cognitive functioning. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is rare in FTD and may be confused with excessive nocturnal activity due to disturbed circadian rhythm. The relationship between FTD, sleep quality, and sleep disorders requires further study to better understand the contribution of disturbed sleep to daytime neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in FTD. Further, future studies should focus on comparing sleep disturbances between different FTD syndromes, especially behavioral variant FTD and primary progressive aphasia. Comorbid sleep disorders should be promptly sought and treated in patients with FTD to improve patient and caregiver quality of life. PMID:27485946

  13. Identifying, Assisting the Disturbed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia L.; Schaefer, William

    1986-01-01

    Educators are in an excellent position to identify seriously troubled young people. Major causes of adolescent problems are discussed, including drugs, parental failure, and biochemical disturbances. Educators can best intervene by becoming aware of support services within their own school and community. (TE)

  14. State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

  15. [Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly].

    PubMed

    Mahlberg, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in the elderly. Endogen regulation mechanisms are often unstable. Light treatment and melatonin are proved chronobiological interventions. Cataract surgery is effective to enhance the sleep-wake-rhythm.Mandibular advancement devices are a reliable alternative to continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). PMID:27509339

  16. RESILIENCE OF ECOSYSTEMS TO DISTURBANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilience, in an ecological context, is one of several terms that characterize the response of an ecosystem to disturbance. Other such terms include persistence, resistance and stability. Two definitions of resilience have become prominent in the literature, both of which derive...

  17. Scaling Stream Flow Response to Forest Disturbance: the SID Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttle, J. M.; Beall, F. D.; Creed, I. F.; Gordon, A. M.; Mackereth, R.; McLaughlin, J. W.; Sibley, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    We do not have a good understanding of the hydrologic implications of forest harvesting in Ontario, either for current or alternative management approaches. Attempts to address these implications face a three-fold problem: data on hydrologic response to forest disturbance in Ontario are lacking; most studies of these responses have been in regions with forest cover and hydrologic conditions that differ from the Ontario context; and these studies have generally been conducted at relatively small scales (<1 km2). It is generally assumed that hydrologic changes induced by forest disturbance should diminish with increasing scale due to the buffering capacity of large drainage basins. Recent modeling exercises and reanalysis of paired-basin results call this widespread applicability of this assumption into question, with important implications for assessing the cumulative impacts of forest disturbance on basin stream flow. The SID (Scalable Indicators of Disturbance) project combines stream flow monitoring across basin scales with the RHESSys modeling framework to identify forest disturbance impacts on stream flow characteristics in Ontario's major forest ecozones. As a precursor to identifying stream flow response to forest disturbance, we are examining the relative control of basin geology, topography, typology and topology on stream flow characteristics under undisturbed conditions. This will assist in identifying the dominant hydrologic processes controlling basin stream flow that must be incorporated into the RHESSys model framework in order to emulate forest disturbance and its hydrologic impacts. We present preliminary results on stream flow characteristics in a low-relief boreal forest landscape, and explore how the dominant processes influencing these characteristics change with basin scale in this landscape under both reference and disturbance conditions.

  18. Disturbance frequency influences patch dynamics in stream benthic algal communities.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Mark E; Harris, Rebecca M L; Armitage, Patrick D; Milner, Alexander M

    2008-04-01

    Disturbance is integral to the organisation of riverine ecosystems. Fluctuating low flows caused by supra-seasonal drought and water management periodically dewater habitat patches, potentially creating heterogeneity in the taxonomic composition and successional dynamics of benthic communities. The frequency of disturbance induced by low flows is contingent upon the topography of the river bed and thus varies among patches. We investigated whether the frequency of patch dewatering influenced the structure and temporal dynamics of benthic algal communities attached to the upper surfaces of stones in stream mesocosms (4 m2). In a 693-day disturbance experiment, we applied short dewatering disturbances (6 days) at high (33-day cycles) and low frequencies (99-day cycles) and compared algal assemblages with undisturbed controls at 21 endpoints. In the absence of disturbance, epilithic space was dominated by the green encrusting alga Gongrosira incrustans. However, drying disturbances consistently reduced the dominance of the green alga, and crust abundance decreased with increasing disturbance frequency, thereby opening space for a diversity of mat-forming diatoms. The response of mat diatoms to disturbance varied markedly during the experiment, from strong reductions in the abundance of loosely attached mats in mid-late 2000 to the exploitation of open space by closely adhering mats in 2001. Contrary responses were attributed to changes in the species composition of mat diatoms, which influenced the physiognomy and hence stress-resistance and resilience of the assemblage. Our results indicate that patchy dewatering of habitat patches during periods of low flow influences the successional dynamics of algae, thereby creating distinctive mosaics on the stream bed. PMID:18193289

  19. Predictive Feedback and Feedforward Control for Systems with Unknown Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Eure, Kenneth W.

    1998-01-01

    Predictive feedback control has been successfully used in the regulation of plate vibrations when no reference signal is available for feedforward control. However, if a reference signal is available it may be used to enhance regulation by incorporating a feedforward path in the feedback controller. Such a controller is known as a hybrid controller. This paper presents the theory and implementation of the hybrid controller for general linear systems, in particular for structural vibration induced by acoustic noise. The generalized predictive control is extended to include a feedforward path in the multi-input multi-output case and implemented on a single-input single-output test plant to achieve plate vibration regulation. There are cases in acoustic-induce vibration where the disturbance signal is not available to be used by the hybrid controller, but a disturbance model is available. In this case the disturbance model may be used in the feedback controller to enhance performance. In practice, however, neither the disturbance signal nor the disturbance model is available. This paper presents the theory of identifying and incorporating the noise model into the feedback controller. Implementations are performed on a test plant and regulation improvements over the case where no noise model is used are demonstrated.

  20. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  1. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  2. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Albertson, V.D.; Bozoki, B.; Feero, W.E.; Kappenman, J.G.; Larsen, E.V.; Nordell, D.E.; Ponder, J.; Prabhakara, F.S.; Thompson, K.; Walling, R.

    1993-07-01

    In the northern hemisphere, the aurora borealis is visual evidence of simultaneous fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field (geomagnetic field). These geomagnetic disturbances (GMD's), or geomagnetic storms, can affect a number of man-made systems, including electric power systems. The GMD's are caused by the electromagnetic interaction of the solar wind plasma of protons and electrons with the geomagnetic field. These dynamic impulses in the solar wind are due to solar flares, coronal holes, and disappearing filaments, and reach the earth from one to six days after being emitted by a solar event. Instances of geomagnetic storms affecting telegraph systems were noted in England in 1846, and power system disturbances linked to GMD's were first reported in the United States in 1940. This Working Group report is a summary of the state of knowledge and research activity to the present time, and covers the GMD/Geomagnetically-induced currents (GIC) phenomena, transformer effects, the impact on generators, protective relay effects, and communication system effects. It also summarizes modeling and predicting GIC, measuring and monitoring GIC, mitigation methods, system operating guidelines during GMD's, and alerting and forecasting procedures and needs for the power industry.

  3. Gut microbiota disturbance during antibiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Manuel; Martins dos Santos, Vitor AP; Ott, Stephan J; Moya, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota responds to different antibiotics in different ways and that while some antibiotics do not induce disturbances of the community, others drastically influence the richness, diversity, and prevalence of bacterial taxa. However, the metabolic consequences thereof, independent of the degree of the community shifts, are not clearly understood. In a recent article, we used an integrative OMICS approach to provide new insights into the metabolic shifts caused by antibiotic disturbance. The study presented here further suggests that specific bacterial lineage blooms occurring at defined stages of antibiotic intervention are mostly associated with organisms that possess improved survival and colonization mechanisms, such as those of the Enterococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Akkermansia genera. The study also provides an overview of the most variable metabolic functions affected as a consequence of a β-lactam antibiotic intervention. Thus, we observed that anabolic sugar metabolism, the production of acetyl donors and the synthesis and degradation of intestinal/colonic epithelium components were among the most variable functions during the intervention. We are aware that these results have been established with a single patient and will require further confirmation with a larger group of individuals and with other antibiotics. Future directions for exploration of the effects of antibiotic interventions are discussed. PMID:24418972

  4. Central neurotransmitter disturbances underlying developmental neurotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, M; Swaab, D F

    1986-01-01

    Transmission of information among neurons is of a chemical nature. The activity of the neurotransmitter in the brain is regulated by the spontaneous activity of neurotransmitter cell body and the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Neurotransmitters are present at very early stages of brain development; they do not only mediate the behavioral-physiological responses of the immature animal, but have trophic effects on the maturation of target neurons as well. Many centrally acting drugs which are frequently used also during pregnancy for the treatment of depression, hypertension, epilepsy, asthma, insomnia, hyperkinetism and other neurological and psychiatric disorders act directly on brain neurotransmitters (in particular monoamines) and behavioral states. Chronic administration of drugs acting on monoamines (such as clonidine, imipramine, alpha-methyl-Dopa, reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, diazepam) disturb the spontaneous activity and behavioral state dependency of the monoaminergic cells, influences neurotransmitter turnover and change the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Sensory deprivation during a critical period of development is known to produce permanent effect on the brain; e.g., monocular deprivation during a particular period of development in a kitten leads to a rewiring of the connectivity in the visual system in the adult cat. Disturbances in neurotransmitter activity during early life will induce a comparable reorganization of the chemical structure of the adult brain. PMID:2878401

  5. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  6. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  7. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  8. Entropic error-disturbance relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Patrick; Furrer, Fabian

    2014-03-01

    We derive an entropic error-disturbance relation for a sequential measurement scenario as originally considered by Heisenberg, and we discuss how our relation could be tested using existing experimental setups. Our relation is valid for discrete observables, such as spin, as well as continuous observables, such as position and momentum. The novel aspect of our relation compared to earlier versions is its clear operational interpretation and the quantification of error and disturbance using entropic quantities. This directly relates the measurement uncertainty, a fundamental property of quantum mechanics, to information theoretical limitations and offers potential applications in for instance quantum cryptography. PC is funded by National Research Foundation Singapore and Ministry of Education Tier 3 Grant ``Random numbers from quantum processes'' (MOE2012-T3-1-009). FF is funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI grant No. 24-02793.

  9. [Locomotion disturbances in Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Krystkowiak, P

    2010-02-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), perturbed locomotion occurs early in the course of the disease and presents numerous clinical features. The gait disorders in HD might best be defined as a timing disorder; however, hypokinesia (i.e. a decrease in stride length) also plays an important role in disturbed locomotion as HD progresses. Gait impairments are particularly important because they lead to an increased risk of falls. Falls risk factors and consequences depend on the stage of the disease. A satisfactory therapeutic strategy for gait impairments is a serious challenge: the use of a metronome during gait in HD patients does not effectively improve their gait. Attention deficits in HD may be a major determinant of this failure. The effect of antichoreic medications on gait is still controversial because of the absence of specific evaluation of these medications on gait disturbances. PMID:19604530

  10. Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K

    1982-01-01

    Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered. PMID:7166130

  11. Interplanetary Disturbances Affecting Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sun somehow accelerates the solar wind, an incessant stream of plasma originating in coronal holes and some, as yet unidentified, regions. Occasionally, coronal, and possibly sub-photospheric structures, conspire to energize a spectacular eruption from the Sun which we call a coronal mass ejection (CME). These can leave the Sun at very high speeds and travel through the interplanetary medium, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the ambient background plasma. These interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) can drive shocks which in turn accelerate particles, but also have a distinct intrinsic magnetic structure which is capable of disturbing the Earth's magnetic field and causing significant geomagnetic effects. They also affect other planets, so they can and do contribute to space weather throughout the heliosphere. This paper presents a historical review of early space weather studies, a modern-day example, and discusses space weather throughout the heliosphere.

  12. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  13. Sources and causes of upper atmospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Chang

    1991-04-01

    In the past three years we conducted theoretical and experimental studies of some naturally occurring ionospheric disturbances. Periodic amplitude variations of satellite beacon signals were observed as the precursors of the plumes of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. Some outstanding features of explosive spread F reported in Woodman and La Hoz and Woodman and Kudeki can be reasonably understood in terms of the lightning induced electromagnetic effects. The spectral broadening of monochromatic VLF radio signals detected by satellites in the topside ionospheric was attributed to the nonlinear scattering of waves off ionospheric density irregularities. Furthermore, the irregularity anisotropy can give rise to prominent effects on the Faraday polarization fluctuations of linearly polarized radio signals. This fact can be used to develop the radio diagnostics of the anisotropic nature of ionospheric irregularities, namely, to determine the geometry of field-aligned density irregularities. Efforts were also made on the reduction of ionospheric effects on the polarization measurements during satellite tracking.

  14. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  15. Nonlinear responses of mesospheric emission layers to wave disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexey

    2016-09-01

    Model-based investigations of the wave-induced responses of O(1S), O2(b,0-0) and OH(8-3) emissions have been performed. A series of digital experiments performed using the one-dimensional simulation model proposed by Liu and Swenson (2003) demonstrated that, in addition to the variable component, the wave disturbance of airglow emissions has a constant component. This component is the enhancement/depletion of the background emission intensity of an emission layer. To interpret its appearance, the simplest analytical model of airglow disturbance due to a gravity wave has been constructed. This model indicates that enhancement/depletion of the background emission intensity is a nonlinear airglow response to a wave disturbance. Its magnitude depends quadratically on the wave amplitude and can reach a few dozen percent relative to the value of the zenith brightness of the unperturbed OH(8-3)/O(1S) emission layer.

  16. Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Not? Print Email Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our ... e-mail address below. Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not? By: Deborah I. Friedman, MD, MPH ...

  17. Medium term ecohydrological response of peatland bryophytes to canopy disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Rhoswen; Kettridge, Nick; Krause, Stefan; Devito, Kevin; Granath, Gustaf; Petrone, Richard; Mandoza, Carl; Waddington, James Micheal

    2016-04-01

    Canopy disturbance in northern forested peatlands is widespread. Canopy changes impact the ecohydrological function of moss and peat, which provide the principal carbon store within these carbon rich ecosystems. Different mosses have contrasting contributions to carbon and water fluxes (e.g. Sphagnum fuscum and Pleurozium schreberi) and are strongly influenced by canopy cover. As a result, changes in canopy cover lead to long-term shifts in species composition and associated ecohydrological function. Despite this, the medium-term response to such disturbance, the associated lag in this transition to a new ecohydrological and biogeochemical regime, is not understood. Here we investigate this medium term ecohydrological response to canopy removal using a randomised plot design within a north Albertan peatland. We show no significant ecohydrological change in treatment plots four years after canopy removal. Notably, Pleurozium schreberi and Sphagnum fuscum remained within respective plots post treatment and there was no significant difference in plot resistance to evapotranspiration or carbon exchange. Our results show that canopy removal alone has little impact on bryophyte ecohydrology in the short/medium term. This resistance to disturbance contrasts strongly with dramatic short-term changes observed within mineral soils suggesting that concurrent shifts in the large scale hydrology induced within such disturbances are necessary to cause rapid ecohydrological transitions. Understanding this lagged response is critical to determine the decadal response of carbon and water fluxes in response to disturbance and the rate at which important medium term ecohydrological feedbacks are invoked.

  18. Network response to disturbances in large sand-bed braided rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurman, F.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    The reach-scale effects of human-induced disturbances on the channel network in large braided rivers are a challenge to understand and to predict. In this study, we simulated different types of disturbances in a large braided river to get insight into the propagation of disturbances through a braided channel network. The results showed that the disturbances initiate an instability that propagates in the downstream direction by means of alteration of water and sediment division at bifurcations. These adjustments of the bifurcations change the migration and shape of bars, with a feedback to the upstream bifurcation and alteration of the approaching flow to the downstream bifurcation. This way, the morphological effect of a disturbance amplifies in the downstream direction. Thus, the interplay of bifurcation instability and asymmetrical reshaping of bars was found to be essential for propagation of the effects of a disturbance. The study also demonstrated that the large-scale bar statistics are hardly affected.

  19. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  20. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  1. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  2. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  3. Disturbance regimes and ecological responses across sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances affect ecosystems in almost limitless ways. The effects of disturbances extend beyond the initial impacts that are usually visible to the human eye. Therefore, for many disturbances long-term data are needed to unravel their effects. This chapter first presents characteristics of distu...

  4. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  5. Are impacts of an exotic predator on a stream food web influenced by disturbance history?

    PubMed

    Nyström, Per; McIntosh, Angus R

    2003-07-01

    Predatory species have been introduced to habitats spanning a wide range of environmental conditions. To better understand the consequences of predation in natural communities we need to examine how variations in abiotic factors modify the influence of predation. The effects of introduced predators may vary amongst habitats if natural disturbance affects the abundance and taxonomic composition of consumers and their resources, or the predator alters recolonisation after disturbance. We tested whether a bed-moving disturbance altered subsequent interactions involving native and introduced predatory fish, invertebrate grazers and algae in experimental channels within a New Zealand stream. Disturbance reduced the abundance of invertebrates by 84%, and induced mortality of Conoesucidae caddisflies. However, the relative abundance of taxa changed little immediately following the disturbance. Invertebrate communities recovered following disturbance in fishless channels and those with native galaxiids (Galaxias vulgaris), and were almost indistinguishable from undisturbed fishless controls after 2 weeks. Invertebrate abundance declined and algal abundance increased in channels with exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) and their effect was strongest in previously disturbed channels. However, predators and disturbance only had interactive effects on grazer emigration rates. Trout affected grazers through direct consumption (e.g. Conoesucidae caddisflies), and induced higher emigration rates of grazers from channels via drift (e.g. the mayfly Deleatidium). The effects of predatory trout and galaxiids combined differed in disturbed and stable channels. The observed combined effects of predatory trout and galaxiids on invertebrate grazers were lower than expected in stable channels partly due to low emigration rates of Conoesucidae, whereas emigration of grazers was higher than expected in the disturbed channels. The biomass of algae was higher than expected in disturbed channels

  6. Determination of travelling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degenhardt, W.; Hartmann, G. H.; Davies, K.

    1978-01-01

    A total of 35 days of Faraday rotation data was obtained from the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment operating with the closely spaced network of Elbert, Table Mountain, and Fort Morgan. The 140-MHz Faraday bandpass data are uncorrelated in the transmission range from 8 to 45 minutes. There are distinct, well correlated, and time-displaced maxima and minima that allow the calculation of the speed and direction of horizontal motions of plane fronts of disturbances in the ionosphere. For some selected events, velocities between 88 and 278 m/sec were obtained.

  7. [Esophageal motor disturbances in sclerodermia].

    PubMed

    Stanciu, C; Cijevschi, C; Dobrescu, A; Petrescu, Z

    1981-01-01

    By the manometric method the esophageal motility in 14 patients with sclerodermia was studied. All patients presented an esophageal motor dysfunction characterized by the decrease in amplitude of the spohageal contractions, presence of aperistaltic contractions, decrease of basal pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and its incomplete relaxation at deglutition. These esophageal motor disturbances may appear in association or separately in the same patient. The pathogenesis of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia is not yet fully understood. Besides the theoretical interest, the knowledge of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia has also a practical value in respect of the tretment which is to be set up. PMID:25528800

  8. Toward a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land-Surface Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2010-12-01

    A prototype National Early Warning System (EWS) for Forest Disturbances was established in 2010 by producing national maps showing potential forest disturbance across the conterminous United States at 231m resolution every 8 days. Each map is based on Land-Surface Phenology (LSP), calculated using temporally smoothed MODIS MOD13 imagery obtained over the preceding 24-day analysis window. Potential disturbance maps are generated by comparing a spatially and temporally specific historical expectation of normal NDVI "greenness" with NDVI "greenness" from a series of current satellite views. Three different disturbance products are produced using differing lengths of historical baseline periods to calculate the expected normal greenness. The short-term baseline products show only disturbances newer than one year ago, while the intermediate baseline products show disturbances since the prior three years, and the long-term baseline products show all disturbances over the MODIS historical period. A Forest Change Assessment Viewer website, http://ews.forestthreats.org/NPDE/NPDE.html, showcases the three most recent national disturbance maps in full spatial context. Although 2010 was a wet el Nino year without major forest problems, disturbances in 2010 in MI, NY, CO and LA will be highlighted. Forest disturbances caused by wildfire, hurricanes, tornadoes, hail, ice storms, and defoliating insects, including fall cankerworms, forest tent caterpillars, gypsy moths, baldcypress leafrollers and winter moths were successfully detected during the 2009 and 2010 field seasons. The EWS was used in 2010 to detect and alert Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Aerial Disturbance Survey personnel to an otherwise-unknown outbreak of forest tent caterpillar and baldcypress leafroller in the Atchafalaya and Pearl River regions of southern Louisiana. A local FHM Program Coordinator verified these EWS-detected outbreaks. Many defoliator-induced disturbances were ephemeral, and were followed by

  9. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two.

  10. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-10-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. 12 figs.