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  1. Chemically induced compaction bands in geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in oil production and may provide useful information on various geological processes. Various mechanisms can be involved at different scales: the micro scale (e.g. the grain scale), the meso scale (e.g. the Representative Element Volume) and the macro scale (e.g. the structure). Moreover, hydro-chemo-mechanical couplings might play an important role in triggering instabilities in the form of compaction bands. Compaction bands can be seen as an instability of the underneath mathematical problem leading to localization of deformation [1,2,3]. Here we explore the conditions of compaction banding in quartz-based geomaterials by considering the effect of chemical dissolution and precipitation [4,5]. In due course of the loading process grain crushing affects the residual strength, the porosity and the permeability of the material. Moreover, at the micro-level, grain crushing results in an increase of the grain specific surface, which accelerates the dissolution [6]. Consequently, the silica is removed more rapidly from the grain skeleton and the overall mechanical properties are degraded due to chemical factors. The proposed model accounts for these phenomena. In particular, the diffusion of the diluted in the water silica is considered through the mass balance equation of the porous medium. The reduction of the mechanical strength of the material is described through a macroscopic failure criterion with chemical softening. The grain size reduction is related to the total energy input [7]. A grain size and porosity dependent permeability law is adopted. These degradation mechanisms are coupled with the dissolution/precipitation reaction kinetics. The obtained hydro-chemo-mechanical model is used to investigate the conditions, the material parameters and the chemical factors inducing compaction bands formation. References [1] J.W. Rudnicki, and J.R. Rice. "Conditions for the Localization of Deformation in Pressure

  2. Modeling compaction-induced energy dissipation of granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, K.A.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-12-31

    A thermodynamically consistent model is developed for the compaction of granular solids. The model is an extension of the single phase limit of two-phase continuum models used to describe Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) experiments. The focus is on the energetics and dissipation of the compaction process. Changes in volume fraction are partitioned into reversible and irreversible components. Unlike conventional DDT models, the model is applicable from the quasi-static to dynamic compaction regimes for elastic, plastic, or brittle materials. When applied to the compaction of granular HMX (a brittle material), the model predicts results commensurate with experiments including stress relaxation, hysteresis, and energy dissipation. The model provides a suitable starting point for the development of thermal energy localization sub-scale models based on compaction-induced dissipation.

  3. Contribution of stress wave and cavitation bubble in evaluation of cell-cell adhesion by femtosecond laser-induced impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Takanori; Li, Po-Lin; Wang, Wen-Zhe; Deng, Jia-Huei; Lu, Yun-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2014-10-01

    When an intense femtosecond laser is focused in a cell culture medium, shock wave, stress wave, and cavitation bubble are generated at the laser focal point. Cell-cell adhesion can be broken at the cellular level by the impacts of these factors. We have applied this breaking of the adhesion to an estimation of the cell-cell adhesion strength. In this application, it is important to identify which of these factors is the dominant factor that breaks the adhesion. Here we investigated this issue using streptavidin-coated microbeads adhering to a biotin-coated substrate as a mimic of the cell-cell adhesion. The results indicated that the break was induced mainly by the stress wave, not by the impact of the cavitation bubble.

  4. Human papillomavirus 16 E5 induces bi-nucleated cell formation by cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Lulin; Plafker, Kendra; Vorozhko, Valeriya; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Hanigan, Marie H.; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Plafker, Scott M.; Angeletti, Peter C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2009-02-05

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 is a DNA virus encoding three oncogenes - E5, E6, and E7. The E6 and E7 proteins have well-established roles as inhibitors of tumor suppression, but the contribution of E5 to malignant transformation is controversial. Using spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), we demonstrate that expression of HPV16 E5 is necessary and sufficient for the formation of bi-nucleated cells, a common characteristic of precancerous cervical lesions. Expression of E5 from non-carcinogenic HPV6b does not produce bi-nucleate cells. Video microscopy and biochemical analyses reveal that bi-nucleates arise through cell-cell fusion. Although most E5-induced bi-nucleates fail to propagate, co-expression of HPV16 E6/E7 enhances the proliferation of these cells. Expression of HPV16 E6/E7 also increases bi-nucleated cell colony formation. These findings identify a new role for HPV16 E5 and support a model in which complementary roles of the HPV16 oncogenes lead to the induction of carcinogenesis.

  5. Cell-cell contact and matrix adhesion promote αSMA expression during TGFβ1-induced epithelial-myofibroblast transition via Notch and MRTF-A.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Joseph W; Mistry, Krunal; Detweiler, Dayne; Wang, Clayton; Gomez, Esther W

    2016-01-01

    During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cells lose cell-cell adhesion, exhibit morphological changes, and upregulate the expression of cytoskeletal proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that complete disruption of cell-cell contact can promote transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced EMT and the expression of the myofibroblast marker alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Furthermore, increased cell spreading mediates TGFβ1-induced αSMA expression during EMT. Here, we sought to examine how the presence of partial cell-cell contacts impacts EMT. A microfabrication approach was employed to decouple the effects of cell-cell contact and cell-matrix adhesion in TGFβ1-induced EMT. When cell spreading is controlled, the presence of partial cell-cell contacts enhances expression of αSMA. Moreover, cell spreading and intercellular contacts together control the subcellular localization of activated Notch1 and myocardin related transcription factor (MRTF)-A. Knockdown of Notch1 or MRTF-A as well as pharmacological inhibition of these pathways abates the cell-cell contact mediated expression of αSMA. These data suggest that the interplay between cell-matrix adhesion and intercellular adhesion is an important determinant for some aspects of TGFβ1-induced EMT. PMID:27194451

  6. Cell-cell contact and matrix adhesion promote αSMA expression during TGFβ1-induced epithelial-myofibroblast transition via Notch and MRTF-A

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Joseph W.; Mistry, Krunal; Detweiler, Dayne; Wang, Clayton; Gomez, Esther W.

    2016-01-01

    During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cells lose cell-cell adhesion, exhibit morphological changes, and upregulate the expression of cytoskeletal proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that complete disruption of cell-cell contact can promote transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced EMT and the expression of the myofibroblast marker alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Furthermore, increased cell spreading mediates TGFβ1-induced αSMA expression during EMT. Here, we sought to examine how the presence of partial cell-cell contacts impacts EMT. A microfabrication approach was employed to decouple the effects of cell-cell contact and cell-matrix adhesion in TGFβ1-induced EMT. When cell spreading is controlled, the presence of partial cell-cell contacts enhances expression of αSMA. Moreover, cell spreading and intercellular contacts together control the subcellular localization of activated Notch1 and myocardin related transcription factor (MRTF)-A. Knockdown of Notch1 or MRTF-A as well as pharmacological inhibition of these pathways abates the cell-cell contact mediated expression of αSMA. These data suggest that the interplay between cell-matrix adhesion and intercellular adhesion is an important determinant for some aspects of TGFβ1-induced EMT. PMID:27194451

  7. Tidal torque induced by orbital decay in compact object binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, Simone; Rossi, Elena M.

    2013-01-01

    As we observe in the moon-earth system, tidal interactions in binary systems can lead to angular momentum exchange. The presence of viscosity is generally regarded as the condition for such transfer to happen. In this paper, we show how the orbital evolution can cause a persistent torque between the binary components, even for inviscid bodies. This preferentially occurs at the final stage of coalescence of compact binaries, when the orbit shrinks successively by gravitational waves and plunging on a time-scale shorter than the viscous time-scale. The total orbital energy transferred to the secondary by this torque is ˜10-2 of its binding energy. We further show that this persistent torque induces a differentially rotating quadrupolar perturbation. Specializing to the case of a secondary neutron star, we find that this non-equilibrium state has an associated free energy of 1047-1048 erg, just prior to coalescence. This energy is likely stored in internal fluid motions, with a sizeable amount of differential rotation. By tapping this free energy reservoir, a pre-existing weak magnetic field could be amplified up to a strength of ≈1015 G. Such a dynamically driven tidal torque can thus recycle an old neutron star into a magnetar, with possible observational consequences at merger.

  8. Chemically induced compaction bands: Triggering conditions and band thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2014-02-01

    During compaction band formation, various mechanisms can be involved at different scales. Mechanical and chemical degradation of the solid skeleton and grain damage are important factors that may trigger instabilities in the form of compaction bands. Here we explore the conditions of compaction band formation in quartz- and carbonate-based geomaterials by considering the effect of chemical dissolution and grain breakage. As the stresses/deformations evolve, the grains of the material break, leading to an increase of their specific surface. Consequently, their dissolution is accelerated and chemical softening is triggered. By accounting for (a) the mass diffusion of the system, (b) a macroscopic failure criterion with dissolution softening, and (c) the reaction kinetics at the microlevel, a model is proposed and the conditions for compaction instabilities are investigated. Distinguishing the microscale (grain level) from the macrolevel (representative elementary volume) and considering the heterogeneous microstructure of the representative elementary volume, it is possible to discuss the thickness and periodicity of compaction bands. Two case studies are investigated. The first one concerns a sandstone rock reservoir which is water flooded and the second one a carbonate rock in which CO2 is injected for storage. It is shown that compaction band instabilities are possible in both cases.

  9. Natural and Laboratory-Induced Compaction Bands in Aztec Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, B. C.; Lee, H.

    2002-12-01

    The Aztec sandstone used in this research is from the Valley of Fire State Park area, Nevada. This Jurassic aeolian sandstone is extremely weak (uniaxial compressive strength of 1-2 MPa); porosity averages 26%; grains are subrounded and have a bimodal size distribution (0.1 mm and 0.5 mm); its mineral composition (K. Sternlof, personal comm.) is 93% quartz, 5% k-spar, and 2% kaolinite, Fe carbonate and others; grain bonding is primarily through suturing. Sternlof et al. (EOS, November, 2001) observed substantial exposure of mainly compactive deformation bands in the Aztec sandstone. We studied an SEM image of a compaction band found in a hand sample of the Aztec sandstone. We also conducted a drilling test in a 130x130x180 mm prismatic specimen subjected to a preset far-field true triaxial stress condition (\\sigmah = 15 MPa, \\sigmav = 25 MPa, \\sigmaH = 40 MPa). Drilling of a 20 mm dia. vertical hole created a long fracture-like thin tabular breakout along the \\sigmah springline and perpendicular to \\sigmaH direction. SEM analysis of the zones ahead of the breakout tips revealed narrow bands of presumed debonded intact grains interspersed with grain fragments. We infer that the fragments were formed from multiple splitting or crushing of compacted grains in the band of high compressive stress concentration developed along the \\sigmah springline. SEM images away from the breakout tip surroundings showed no such fragments. SEM study of the natural compaction band showed a similar arrangement of mainly intact grains surrounded by grain fragments. Using the Optimas optical software package, we found the percentage of pore area within the band ahead of the breakout tips to average 17%; outside of this zone it was 23%. In the natural compaction band pore area occupied 8.5% of the band; in the host rock adjacent to the compaction band it averaged 19%. These readings strongly suggest porosity reduction due to compaction in both cases. The close resemblance between the

  10. Gluon Vortices and Induced Magnetic Field in Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Efrain J.

    2007-10-26

    The natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of compact stars, many of which have very large magnetic fields, especially the so called magnetars. In this paper we discuss how a color superconducting core can serve to generate and enhance the stellar magnetic field without appealing to a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo mechanism.

  11. Performance Characteristics of Compact Mobile LIFS (Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectrum) Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, Takayuki; Nishizawa, Naoto; Sakurai, Kosuke; Suganumata, Hikaru; Tsukada, Shodai; Song, Sung-Moo; Park, Ho-Dong; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-06-01

    We developed a compact but versatile laser-induced fluorescence spectrum (LIFS) lidar that has potential use for material or aerosol identification outside experimental rooms. The compactness and mobility of the LIFS lidar means observations can be more freely conducted at any place and any time. Its performance characteristics were validated by threedimensional fluorescence imaging of targets and remote detection of quasi bio/organic aerosols.

  12. Staphylococcal enterotoxin induced mitogenesis: toxin binding and cell-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Buxser, E S; Bonventre, P F; Archer, D L

    1983-07-01

    The binding characteristics of 125I-labelled staphylococcal enterotoxin A (125I-SEA), a T-cell mitogen, to murine lymphoid cell subpopulations were analyzed. Both T- and B-lymphocytes from murine spleens possess specific binding sites for SEA, as do T-lymphocytes from thymus. B-lymphocytes appear to have a greater capacity for binding of 125-SEA than do T-lymphocytes from either thymus or spleen. Enterotoxin did not specifically bind to thioglycollate-induced peritoneal exudate cells (PECs), used as a source of macrophages. Adherent PECs however, incorporated 125-ISEA by fluid phase endocytosis. When exposed to SEA and thoroughly washed, macrophages stimulate lymphocyte mitogenesis in spleen or thymus cell cultures not directly exposed to toxin. Maximum mitogenic stimulation took place only when both PECs and lymphocytes were exposed to SEA. The presence of splenic B-lymphocytes enhanced the mitogenic response of thymus derived T-cells to SEA. Thus, B-lymphocytes appear to contribute to SEA mitogenesis. These data suggest that mitogenic stimulation and possibly other immunological phenomena associated with SEA occur as a result of complex interactions between cellular components of the immune system. PMID:6605472

  13. Flow-induced compaction of a deformable porous medium.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Duncan R; Nijjer, Japinder S; Worster, M Grae; Neufeld, Jerome A

    2016-02-01

    Fluid flowing through a deformable porous medium imparts viscous drag on the solid matrix, causing it to deform. This effect is investigated theoretically and experimentally in a one-dimensional configuration. The experiments consist of the downwards flow of water through a saturated pack of small, soft, hydrogel spheres, driven by a pressure head that can be increased or decreased. As the pressure head is increased, the effective permeability of the medium decreases and, in contrast to flow through a rigid medium, the flux of water is found to increase towards a finite upper bound such that it becomes insensitive to changes in the pressure head. Measurements of the internal deformation, extracted by particle tracking, show that the medium compacts differentially, with the porosity being lower at the base than at the upper free surface. A general theoretical model is derived, and the predictions of the model give good agreement with experimental measurements from a series of experiments in which the applied pressure head is sequentially increased. However, contrary to theory, all the experimental results display a distinct and repeatable hysteresis: the flux through the material for a particular applied pressure drop is appreciably lower when the pressure has been decreased to that value compared to when it has been increased to the same value. PMID:26986422

  14. Flow-induced compaction of a deformable porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Duncan R.; Nijjer, Japinder S.; Worster, M. Grae; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2016-02-01

    Fluid flowing through a deformable porous medium imparts viscous drag on the solid matrix, causing it to deform. This effect is investigated theoretically and experimentally in a one-dimensional configuration. The experiments consist of the downwards flow of water through a saturated pack of small, soft, hydrogel spheres, driven by a pressure head that can be increased or decreased. As the pressure head is increased, the effective permeability of the medium decreases and, in contrast to flow through a rigid medium, the flux of water is found to increase towards a finite upper bound such that it becomes insensitive to changes in the pressure head. Measurements of the internal deformation, extracted by particle tracking, show that the medium compacts differentially, with the porosity being lower at the base than at the upper free surface. A general theoretical model is derived, and the predictions of the model give good agreement with experimental measurements from a series of experiments in which the applied pressure head is sequentially increased. However, contrary to theory, all the experimental results display a distinct and repeatable hysteresis: the flux through the material for a particular applied pressure drop is appreciably lower when the pressure has been decreased to that value compared to when it has been increased to the same value.

  15. Antibodies to CD9, a Tetraspan Transmembrane Protein, Inhibit Canine Distemper Virus-Induced Cell-Cell Fusion but Not Virus-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Erik; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Gassen, Uta; Rima, Bert; ter Meulen, Volker; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a life-threatening disease in several carnivores including domestic dogs. Recently, we identified a molecule, CD9, a member of the tetraspan transmembrane protein family, which facilitates, and antibodies to which inhibit, the infection of tissue culture cells with CDV (strain Onderstepoort). Here we describe that an anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (MAb K41) did not interfere with binding of CDV to cells and uptake of virus. In addition, in single-step growth experiments, MAb K41 did not induce differences in the levels of viral mRNA and proteins. However, the virus release of syncytium-forming strains of CDV, the virus-induced cell-cell fusion in lytically infected cultures, and the cell-cell fusion of uninfected with persistently CDV-infected HeLa cells were strongly inhibited by MAb K41. These data indicate that anti-CD9 antibodies selectively block virus-induced cell-cell fusion, whereas virus-cell fusion is not affected. PMID:10906209

  16. Entropic attraction: Polymer compaction and expansion induced by nano-particles in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Guo-Jun; Chien, Fan-Tso; Luzhbin, Dmytro; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2015-05-01

    We investigated nanoparticle (NP)-induced coil-to-globule transition of a semi-flexible polymer in a confined suspension of ideal NP using Langevin dynamics. DNA molecules are often found to be highly compact, bound with oppositely charged proteins in a crowded environment within cells and viruses. Recent studies found that high concentration of electrostatically neutral NP also condenses DNA due to entropically induced depletion attraction between DNA segments. Langevin dynamics simulations with a semi-flexible chain under strong confinement were performed to investigate the competition between NP-induced monomer-monomer and monomer-wall attraction under different confinement heights and NP volume fractions. We found that whether NP induce polymer segments to adsorb to the walls and swell or to attract one another and compact strongly depends on the relative strength of the monomer-wall and the NP-wall interactions.

  17. Macromolecular crowding induced elongation and compaction of single DNA molecules confined in a nanochannel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ce; Shao, Pei Ge; van Kan, Jeroen A.; van der Maarel, Johan R. C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dextran nanoparticles on the conformation and compaction of single DNA molecules confined in a nanochannel was investigated with fluorescence microscopy. It was observed that the DNA molecules elongate and eventually condense into a compact form with increasing volume fraction of the crowding agent. Under crowded conditions, the channel diameter is effectively reduced, which is interpreted in terms of depletion in DNA segment density in the interfacial region next to the channel wall. Confinement in a nanochannel also facilitates compaction with a neutral crowding agent at low ionic strength. The threshold volume fraction for condensation is proportional to the size of the nanoparticle, due to depletion induced attraction between DNA segments. We found that the effect of crowding is not only related to the colligative properties of the agent and that confinement is also important. It is the interplay between anisotropic confinement and osmotic pressure which gives the elongated conformation and the possibility for condensation at low ionic strength. PMID:19805352

  18. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    PubMed

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. PMID:27475854

  19. Mechanism of moisture induced variations in true density and compaction properties of microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2008-01-01

    A single lot of MCC powder (Avicel PH102) was equilibrated at 0%, 11.35%, 21.6%, 38.2%, 52%, 57.5%, 75% and 84.3% relative humidity. Each equilibrated powder was compressed. Tablet density and tensile strength were measured as a function of pressure. Powder true density, tabletability, compressibility, compactibility and plasticity were obtained as a function of water content. The true density of MCC ranged 1.42-1.46 g/cm(3) and exhibited a maximum between approximately 3% and approximately 5% (wt%) moisture. Moisture up to approximately 3.3%, corresponding to monolayer coverage, did not induce profound change in MCC plasticity nor bonding strength despite reduced T(g). Consequently, the compaction properties were largely insensitive to moisture variation below 3.3% water. Above 3.3% water, higher moisture content corresponded to improved plasticity, due to the plasticizing effects of water above the critical water content, and consequently larger interparticulate bonding area when compressed. Effects of plasticization by water on bonding area were significant at low compaction pressures but diminish at higher pressures. At above 3.3% water, increasing moisture content also reduced bonding strength. Due to the interplay among the plasticity, compaction pressure and bonding strength, tablet tensile strength peaked in the range of 3.3-5.6% moisture. PMID:17669609

  20. Feasibility of time-lapse AVO and AVOA analysis to monitor compaction-induced seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.-X.; Angus, D. A.; Yuan, S. Y.; Xu, Y. G.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrocarbon reservoir production generally results in observable time-lapse physical property changes, such as velocity increases within a compacting reservoir. However, the physical property changes that lead to velocity changes can be difficult to isolate uniquely. Thus, integrated hydro-mechanical simulation, stress-sensitive rock physics models and time-lapse seismic modelling workflows can be employed to study the influence of velocity changes and induced seismic anisotropy due to reservoir compaction. We study the influence of reservoir compaction and compartmentalization on time-lapse seismic signatures for reflection amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and azimuth (AVOA). Specifically, the time-lapse AVO and AVOA responses are predicted for two models: a laterally homogeneous four-layer dipping model and a laterally heterogeneous graben structure reservoir model. Seismic reflection coefficients for different offsets and azimuths are calculated for compressional (P-P) and converted shear (P-S) waves using an anisotropic ray tracer as well as using approximate equations for AVO and AVOA. The simulations help assess the feasibility of using time-lapse AVO and AVOA signatures to monitor reservoir compartmentalization as well as evaluate induced stress anisotropy due to changes in the effective stress field. The results of this study indicate that time-lapse AVO and AVOA analysis can be applied as a potential means for qualitatively and semi-quantitatively linking azimuthal anisotropy changes caused by reservoir production to pressure/stress changes.

  1. Modeling energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction of granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, K.A.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    A simple extension of a conventional two-phase continuum model of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in energetic granular material is given to account for energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction. To this end, the conventional model equations are supplemented by a relaxation equation that accounts for irreversible changes in solid volume fraction due to intergranular friction, plastic deformation of granules, and granule fracture. The proposed model, which is consistent with the Second Law of Thermodynamics for a two-phase mixture, is demonstrated by applying it to the quasi-static compaction of granular HMX. The model predicts results commensurate with experimental data including stress relaxation and substantial dissipation; such phenomena have not been previously accounted for by two-phase DDT models. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Metastasis-associated 5T4 antigen disrupts cell-cell contacts and induces cellular motility in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Carsberg, C J; Myers, K A; Stern, P L

    1996-09-27

    The 5T4 antigen is defined by a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for human trophoblast. It is also expressed by many types of tumour cell and has been associated with metastasis and poor clinical outcome in a number of cancers. This pattern of expression is consistent with a mechanistic involvement of 5T4 molecules in the spread of cancer cells. The 5T4 antigen is a transmembrane glycoprotein with a 310 amino acid extracellular domain and a 44 amino acid cytoplasmic domain. Transfection of full-length 5T4 cDNA into epithelial cells alters cell-cell contacts and cellular motility. Thus, in 5T4-transfected CL-S1 murine mammary cells, 5T4 expression is associated with dendritic morphology, accompanied by abrogation of actin/cadherin-containing contacts and increased motility. In transfected MDCK canine kidney epithelial cells, 5T4 over-expression also results in increased motility, but disruption of cell-cell contacts, either by culturing cells in low calcium medium or by addition of HGF/SF, is needed. The effects of 5T4 expression on morphology and motility are separable since cells transfected with a truncated form of 5T4 cDNA in which the cytoplasmic domain is deleted reveal that the latter is necessary to abrogate actin/cadherin-containing contacts but does not influence the effects on motility. Thus, 5T4 molecules can deliver signals through both the extracellular and intracellular domains, and the resultant effects are consistent with a role for 5T4 molecules in invasion processes. PMID:8895545

  3. Thy-1-mediated Cell -Cell Contact Induces Astrocyte Migration through the Engagement of αVβ3 Integrin and Syndecan-4

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Milene; Muñoz, Nicolás; Valdivia, Alejandra; Alvarez, Alvaro; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Areli; Schneider, Pascal; Burridge, Keith; Quest, Andrew F. G.; Leyton, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins occurs through interactions with integrins that bind to Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptides, and syndecan-4, which recognizes the heparin-binding domain (HBD) of other proteins. Both receptors trigger signaling pathways, including those that activate RhoGTPases such as RhoA and Rac1. This sequence of events modulates cell adhesion to the ECM and cell migration. Using a neuron-astrocyte model, we have reported that the neuronal protein Thy-1 engages αVβ3 integrin and syndecan-4 to induce RhoA activation and strong astrocyte adhesion to their underlying substrate. Thus, because cell-cell interactions and strong cell attachment to the matrix are considered antagonistic to cell migration, we hypothesized that Thy-1 stimulation of astrocytes should preclude cell migration. Here, we studied the effect of Thy-1 expressing neurons on astrocyte polarization and migration using a wound-healing assay and immunofluorescence analysis. Signaling molecules involved were studied by affinity precipitations, western blots and the usage of specific antibodies. Intriguingly, Thy-1 interaction with its two receptors was found to increase astrocyte polarization and migration. The latter events required interactions of these receptors with both the RGD-like sequence and the HBD of Thy-1. Additionally, prolonged Thy-1-receptor interactions inhibited RhoA activation while activating FAK, PI3K and Rac1. Therefore, sustained engagement of integrin and syndecan-4 with the neuronal surface protein Thy-1 induces astrocyte migration. Interestingly we identify here, a cell-cell interaction that although initially induces strong cell attachment, upon persistant stimulation favors cell migration by engaging the same signaling receptors and molecules as those utilized by ECM proteins to stimulate cell movement. PMID:23481656

  4. EB1 Levels Are Elevated in Ascorbic Acid (AA)-stimulated Osteoblasts and Mediate Cell-Cell Adhesion-induced Osteoblast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Pustylnik, Sofia; Fiorino, Cara; Nabavi, Noushin; Zappitelli, Tanya; da Silva, Rosa; Aubin, Jane E.; Harrison, Rene E.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that function as the major bone-producing cells of the body. Differentiation cues including ascorbic acid (AA) stimulation provoke intracellular changes in osteoblasts leading to the synthesis of the organic portion of the bone, which includes collagen type I α1, proteoglycans, and matrix proteins, such as osteocalcin. During our microarray analysis of AA-stimulated osteoblasts, we observed a significant up-regulation of the microtubule (MT) plus-end binding protein, EB1, compared with undifferentiated osteoblasts. EB1 knockdown significantly impaired AA-induced osteoblast differentiation, as detected by reduced expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Intracellular examination of AA-stimulated osteoblasts treated with EB1 siRNA revealed a reduction in MT stability with a concomitant loss of β-catenin distribution at the cell cortex and within the nucleus. Diminished β-catenin levels in EB1 siRNA-treated osteoblasts paralleled an increase in phospho-β-catenin and active glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a kinase known to target β-catenin to the proteasome. EB1 siRNA treatment also reduced the expression of the β-catenin gene targets, cyclin D1 and Runx2. Live immunofluorescent imaging of differentiated osteoblasts revealed a cortical association of EB1-mcherry with β-catenin-GFP. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed an interaction between EB1 and β-catenin. We also determined that cell-cell contacts and cortically associated EB1/β-catenin interactions are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. Finally, using functional blocking antibodies, we identified E-cadherin as a major contributor to the cell-cell contact-induced osteoblast differentiation. PMID:23740245

  5. EphrinA1-EphA2 Signal Induces Compaction and Polarization of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells by Inactivating Ezrin through Negative Regulation of RhoA*

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, Yuki; Miura, Koichi; Sabe, Hisataka; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    The epithelial cells exhibit either a columnar or a flat shape dependent on extracellular stimuli or the cell-cell adhesion. Membrane-anchored ephrinA stimulates EphA receptor tyrosine kinases as a ligand in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner. The mechanism through which ephrinA1/EphA2 signal regulates the cell morphology remains elusive. We demonstrate here that ephrinA1/EphA2 signal induces compaction and enhanced polarization (columnar change) of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells by regulating Ezrin, a linker that connects plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Activation of EphA2 resulted in RhoA inactivation through p190RhoGAP-A and subsequent dephosphorylation of Ezrin on Thr-567 phosphorylated by Rho kinase. Consistently, the cells expressing an active mutant of Ezrin in which Thr-567 was replaced with Asp did not change their shape in response to ephrinA1. Furthermore, depletion of Ezrin led to compaction and enhanced polarization without ephrinA1 stimulation, suggesting the role for active Ezrin in keeping the flat cell shape. Ezrin localized to apical domain irrespective of ephrinA1 stimulation, whereas phosphorylated Ezrin on the apical domain was reduced by ephrinA1 stimulation. Collectively, ephrinA1/EphA2 signal negatively regulates Ezrin and promotes the alteration of cell shape, from flat to columnar shape. PMID:21979959

  6. Pressure–temperature evolution of primordial solar system solids during impact-induced compaction

    PubMed Central

    Bland, P. A.; Collins, G. S.; Davison, T. M.; Abreu, N. M.; Ciesla, F. J.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Moore, J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to becoming chondritic meteorites, primordial solids were a poorly consolidated mix of mm-scale igneous inclusions (chondrules) and high-porosity sub-μm dust (matrix). We used high-resolution numerical simulations to track the effect of impact-induced compaction on these materials. Here we show that impact velocities as low as 1.5 km s−1 were capable of heating the matrix to >1,000 K, with pressure–temperature varying by >10 GPa and >1,000 K over ~100 μm. Chondrules were unaffected, acting as heat-sinks: matrix temperature excursions were brief. As impact-induced compaction was a primary and ubiquitous process, our new understanding of its effects requires that key aspects of the chondrite record be re-evaluated: palaeomagnetism, petrography and variability in shock level across meteorite groups. Our data suggest a lithification mechanism for meteorites, and provide a ‘speed limit’ constraint on major compressive impacts that is inconsistent with recent models of solar system orbital architecture that require an early, rapid phase of main-belt collisional evolution. PMID:25465283

  7. Pressure-temperature evolution of primordial solar system solids during impact-induced compaction.

    PubMed

    Bland, P A; Collins, G S; Davison, T M; Abreu, N M; Ciesla, F J; Muxworthy, A R; Moore, J

    2014-01-01

    Prior to becoming chondritic meteorites, primordial solids were a poorly consolidated mix of mm-scale igneous inclusions (chondrules) and high-porosity sub-μm dust (matrix). We used high-resolution numerical simulations to track the effect of impact-induced compaction on these materials. Here we show that impact velocities as low as 1.5 km s(-1) were capable of heating the matrix to >1,000 K, with pressure-temperature varying by >10 GPa and >1,000 K over ~100 μm. Chondrules were unaffected, acting as heat-sinks: matrix temperature excursions were brief. As impact-induced compaction was a primary and ubiquitous process, our new understanding of its effects requires that key aspects of the chondrite record be re-evaluated: palaeomagnetism, petrography and variability in shock level across meteorite groups. Our data suggest a lithification mechanism for meteorites, and provide a 'speed limit' constraint on major compressive impacts that is inconsistent with recent models of solar system orbital architecture that require an early, rapid phase of main-belt collisional evolution. PMID:25465283

  8. Field-scale and wellbore modeling of compaction-induced casing failures

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, L.B. Jr.; Gwinn, R.L.; Moroney, T.A.; Deitrick, G.L.

    1999-06-01

    Presented in this paper are the results and verification of field- and wellbore-scale large deformation, elasto-plastic, geomechanical finite element models of reservoir compaction and associated casing damage. The models were developed as part of a multidisciplinary team project to reduce the number of costly well failures in the diatomite reservoir of the South Belridge Field near Bakersfield, California. Reservoir compaction of high porosity diatomite rock induces localized shearing deformations on horizontal weak-rock layers and geologic unconformities. The localized shearing deformations result in casing damage or failure. Two-dimensional, field-scale finite element models were used to develop relationships between field operations, surface subsidence, and shear-induced casing damage. Pore pressures were computed for eighteen years of simulated production and water injection, using a three-dimensional reservoir simulator. The pore pressures were input to the two-dimensional geomechanical field-scale model. Frictional contact surfaces were used to model localized shear deformations. To capture the complex casing-cement-rock interaction that governs casing damage and failure, three-dimensional models of a wellbore were constructed, including a frictional sliding surface to model localized shear deformation. Calculations were compared to field data for verification of the models.

  9. An Inducible Cell-Cell Fusion System with Integrated Ability to Measure the Efficiency and Specificity of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herschhorn, Alon; Finzi, Andres; Jones, David M.; Courter, Joel R.; Sugawara, Akihiro; Smith, Amos B.; Sodroski, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) mediate virus entry by fusing the viral and target cell membranes, a multi-step process that represents an attractive target for inhibition. Entry inhibitors with broad-range activity against diverse isolates of HIV-1 may be extremely useful as lead compounds for the development of therapies or prophylactic microbicides. To facilitate the identification of such inhibitors, we have constructed a cell-cell fusion system capable of simultaneously monitoring inhibition efficiency and specificity. In this system, effector cells stably express a tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) that enables tightly inducible expression of both HIV-1 Env and the Renilla luciferase (R-Luc) reporter protein. Target cells express the HIV-1 receptors, CD4 and CCR5, and carry the firefly luciferase (F-Luc) reporter gene under the control of a tTA-responsive promoter. Thus, Env-mediated fusion of these two cell types allows the tTA to diffuse to the target cell and activate the expression of the F-Luc protein. The efficiency with which an inhibitor blocks cell-cell fusion is measured by a decrease in the F-Luc activity, while the specificity of the inhibitor is evaluated by its effect on the R-Luc activity. The system exhibited a high dynamic range and high Z'-factor values. The assay was validated with a reference panel of inhibitors that target different steps in HIV-1 entry, yielding inhibitory concentrations comparable to published virus inhibition data. Our system is suitable for large-scale screening of chemical libraries and can also be used for detailed characterization of inhibitory and cytotoxic properties of known entry inhibitors. PMID:22069466

  10. Compact acid-induced state of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin retains its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Naeem, A; Saleemuddin, M; Khan, R H

    2009-10-01

    The effects of pH on Clitoria ternatea agglutinin (CTA) were studied by spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, and by measuring carbohydrate specificity. At pH 2.6, CTA lacks well-defined tertiary structure, as seen by fluorescence and near-UV CD spectra. Far-UV CD spectra show retention of 50% native-like secondary structure. The mean residue ellipticity at 217 nm plotted against pH showed a transition around pH 4.0 with loss of secondary structure leading to the formation of an acid-unfolded state. This state is relatively less denatured than the state induced by 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. With a further decrease in pH, this unfolded state regains ~75% secondary structure at pH 1.2, leading to the formation of the A-state with native-like near-UV CD spectral features. Enhanced 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate binding was observed in A-state, indicating a "molten-globule" like conformation with exposed hydrophobic residues. Acrylamide quenching data exhibit reduced accessibility of quencher to tryptophan, suggesting a compact conformation at low pH. Size-exclusion chromatography shows the presence of a compact intermediate with hydrodynamic size corresponding to a monomer. Thermal denaturation of the native state was cooperative single-step transition and of the A-state was non-cooperative two-step transition. A-State regains 72% of the carbohydrate-binding activity. PMID:19916921

  11. Compact low-cost detector for in vivo assessment of microphytobenthos using laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. B.; Vieira, S.; Marques da Silva, J.; Lavrov, A.; Leite, E.; Cartaxana, P.

    2013-03-01

    The development of a compact low-cost detector for non-destructive assessment of microphytobenthos using laser induced fluorescence was described. The detector was built from a specially modified commercial miniature fiber optic spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB4000). Its usefulness is experimentally verified by the study of diatom-dominated biofilms inhabiting the upper layers of intertidal sediments of the Tagus Estuary, Portugal. It is demonstrated that, operating with a laser emitter producing 30 mJ pulses at the wavelength of 532 nm, the detector is capable to record fluorescence signals with sufficient intensity for the quantitative biomass characterization of the motile epipelic microphytobenthic communities and to monitor their migratory activity. This paves the way for building an entire emitter-detector LIF system for microphytobenthos monitoring, which will enable microalgae communities occupying hardly accessible intertidal flats to be monitored in vivo at affordable cost.

  12. A compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2011-07-01

    The gradual loss of efficiency during field operation poses a fundamental challenge for economic viability of any solar cell technology. Well known examples include light-induced degradation in Si-based cell (Staebler-Wronski effect), Cu diffusion in thin film (copper indium gallium selenide) cell, hot-spot degradation in series connected modules, etc. Here we develop a compact model for an intrinsic degradation concern for bulk heterojunction type organic photovoltaic (BH-OPV) cells that involve continued (thermal) phase segregation of the donor-acceptor molecules leading to characteristic loss of efficiency and performance. Our approach interprets a number of BH-OPV device degradation measurements within a common framework and suggests/rationalizes intuitive routes for lifetime improvement for such technologies.

  13. Condensin II Promotes the Formation of Chromosome Territories by Inducing Axial Compaction of Polyploid Interphase Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christopher R.; Hartl, Tom A.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleus is both spatially and functionally partitioned. This organization contributes to the maintenance, expression, and transmission of genetic information. Though our ability to probe the physical structure of the genome within the nucleus has improved substantially in recent years, relatively little is known about the factors that regulate its organization or the mechanisms through which specific organizational states are achieved. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II induces axial compaction of interphase chromosomes, globally disrupts interchromosomal interactions, and promotes the dispersal of peri-centric heterochromatin. These Condensin II activities compartmentalize the nucleus into discrete chromosome territories and indicate commonalities in the mechanisms that regulate the spatial structure of the genome during mitosis and interphase. PMID:22956908

  14. Clustering and Mobility of HIV-1 Env at Viral Assembly Sites Predict Its Propensity To Induce Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nathan H.; Chan, Jany; Lambelé, Marie

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Env mediates virus attachment to and fusion with target cell membranes, and yet, while Env is still situated at the plasma membrane of the producer cell and before its incorporation into newly formed particles, Env already interacts with the viral receptor CD4 on target cells, thus enabling the formation of transient cell contacts that facilitate the transmission of viral particles. During this first encounter with the receptor, Env must not induce membrane fusion, as this would prevent the producer cell and the target cell from separating upon virus transmission, but how Env's fusion activity is controlled remains unclear. To gain a better understanding of the Env regulation that precedes viral transmission, we examined the nanoscale organization of Env at the surface of producer cells. Utilizing superresolution microscopy (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy [STORM]) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we quantitatively assessed the clustering and dynamics of Env upon its arrival at the plasma membrane. We found that Gag assembly induced the aggregation of small Env clusters into larger domains and that these domains were completely immobile. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env abrogated Gag's ability to induce Env clustering and restored Env mobility at assembly sites, both of which correlated with increased Env-induced fusion of infected and uninfected cells. Hence, while Env trapping by Gag secures Env incorporation into viral particles, Env clustering and its sequestration at assembly sites likely also leads to the repression of its fusion function, and thus, by preventing the formation of syncytia, Gag helps to secure efficient transfer of viral particles to target cells. PMID:23637402

  15. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  16. Reversine Induced Multinucleated Cells, Cell Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Yen; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chen, Ping-Tzu; Tseng, Ya-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Reversine, an A3 adenosine receptor antagonist, has been shown to induce differentiated myogenic-lineage committed cells to become multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells. We and others have reported that reversine has an effect on human tumor suppression. This study revealed anti-tumor effects of reversine on proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy induction in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Treatment of these cells with reversine suppressed cell growth in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, polyploidy occurred after reversine treatment. In addition, caspase-dependent apoptosis and activation of autophagy by reversine in a dosage-dependent manner were also observed. We demonstrated in this study that reversine contributes to growth inhibition, apoptosis and autophagy induction in human lung cancer cells. Therefore, reversine used as a potential therapeutic agent for human lung cancer is worthy of further investigation. PMID:27385117

  17. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  18. DNA strand breaks induced by soft X-ray pulses from a compact laser plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei, Daniel; Wiechec, Anna; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Bartnik, Andrzej; Davídková, Marie; Vyšín, Luděk; Juha, Libor; Pina, Ladislav; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2016-03-01

    Application of a compact laser plasma source of soft X-rays in radiobiology studies is demonstrated. The source is based on a laser produced plasma as a result of irradiation of a double-stream gas puff target with nanosecond laser pulses from a commercially available Nd:YAG laser. The source allows irradiation of samples with soft X-ray pulses in the "water window" spectral range (wavelength: 2.3-4.4 nm; photon energy: 280-560 eV) in vacuum or a helium atmosphere at very high-dose rates and doses exceeding the kGy level. Single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DBS) induced in DNA plasmids pBR322 and pUC19 have been measured. The different conformations of the plasmid DNA were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. An exponential decrease in the supercoiled form with an increase in linear and relaxed forms of the plasmids has been observed as a function of increasing photon fluence. Significant difference between SSB and DSB in case of wet and dry samples was observed that is connected with the production of free radicals in the wet sample by soft X-ray photons and subsequent affecting the plasmid DNA. Therefore, the new source was validated to be useful for radiobiology experiments.

  19. A Compact Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Model in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yi Ping; Cai, Jun; Shields, Lisa B E; Tuchek, Chad A; Shi, Riyi; Li, Jianan; Shields, Christopher B; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a common injury on the battlefield and often results in permanent cognitive and neurological abnormalities. We report a novel compact device that creates graded bTBI in mice. The injury severity can be controlled by precise pressures that mimic Friedlander shockwave curves. The mouse head was stabilized with a head fixator, and the body was protected with a metal shield; shockwave durations were 3 to 4 milliseconds. Reflective shockwave peak readings at the position of the mouse head were 12 6 2.6 psi, 50 6 20.3 psi, and 100 6 33.1 psi at 100, 200, and 250 psi predetermined driver chamber pressures, respectively. The bTBIs of 250 psi caused 80% mortality, which decreased to 27% with the metal shield. Brain and lung damage depended on the shockwave duration and amplitude. Cognitive deficits were assessed using the Morris water maze, Y-maze, and open-field tests. Pathological changes in the brain included disruption of the blood-brain barrier, multifocal neuronal and axonal degeneration, and reactive gliosis assessed by Evans Blue dye extravasation, silver and Fluoro-Jade B staining, and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry, respectively. Behavioral and pathological changes were injury severity-dependent. This mouse bTBI model may be useful for investigating injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies associated with bTBI. PMID:26802177

  20. Engineered Microvessels with Strong Alignment and High Lumen Density Via Cell-Induced Fibrin Gel Compaction and Interstitial Flow

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Kristen T.; Dries-Devlin, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engineered microvessels with clinically relevant characteristics is a critical step toward the creation of engineered myocardium. Alignment is one such characteristic that must be achieved, as it both mimics native capillary beds and provides natural inlet and outlet sides for perfusion. A second characteristic that is currently deficient is cross-sectional lumen density, typically under 100 lumens/mm2; the equivalent value for human myocardium is 2000 lumens/mm2. Therefore, this study examined the effects of gel compaction and interstitial flow on microvessel alignment and lumen density. Strong microvessel alignment was achieved via mechanically constrained cell-induced fibrin gel compaction following vasculogenesis, and high lumen density (650 lumens/mm2) was achieved by the subsequent application of low levels of interstitial flow. Low interstitial flow also conferred microvessel barrier function. PMID:24083839

  1. DNA Compaction Induced by a Cationic Polymer or Surfactant Impact Gene Expression and DNA Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Bartles, Andrew; Muck, Joscha; Dias, Rita S.; Carnerup, Anna M.; Zink, Daniele; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in achieving gene regulation in biotechnological and biomedical applications by using synthetic DNA-binding agents. Most studies have so far focused on synthetic sequence-specific DNA-binding agents. Such approaches are relatively complicated and cost intensive and their level of sophistication is not always required, in particular for biotechnological application. Our study is inspired by in vivo data that suggest that DNA compaction might contribute to gene regulation. This study exploits the potential of using synthetic DNA compacting agents that are not sequence-specific to achieve gene regulation for in vitro systems. The semi-synthetic in vitro system we use include common cationic DNA-compacting agents, poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which we apply to linearized plasmid DNA encoding for the luciferase reporter gene. We show that complexing the DNA with either of the cationic agents leads to gene expression inhibition in a manner that depends on the extent of compaction. This is demonstrated by using a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system. We show that compaction can also protect DNA against degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our study shows that these effects are reversible and DNA can be released from the complexes. Release of DNA leads to restoration of gene expression and makes the DNA susceptible to degradation by Dnase. A highly charged polyelectrolyte, heparin, is needed to release DNA from dendrimers, while DNA complexed with CTAB dissociates with the non-ionic surfactant C12E5. Our results demonstrate the relation between DNA compaction by non-specific DNA-binding agents and gene expression and gene regulation can be achieved in vitro systems in a reliable dose-dependent and reversible manner. PMID:24671109

  2. The effect of mineralogy and grain breakage on shear-induced noise and auto-acoustic compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of granular flows is strongly dependent on shear rate. At relatively slow shear velocities, a granular flow will support stresses elastically through force chains in the quasi-static regime. At relatively high shear velocities, it will support stresses by transferring momentum in higher velocity grain collisions in the grain-inertial regime, which results in dilation of the flow. Experiments conducted using a commercial torsional rheometer (TA AR-2000ex) found that at intermediate shear velocities, force chain collapse in angular sand samples produces sound waves capable of vibrating the shear zone enough to cause compaction. Sound produced by spherical glass beads during shearing was of lower amplitude and no compaction effect was observed. In order to characterize both the source of acoustic energy produced during shearing of angular grains and its associated compaction effect, we used the same experimental set up to observe how volumetric and acoustic response to shear stress changes with mineralogy, specifically varying grain hardness and shear modulus. A comparison of angular quartz beach sand (Mohs hardness of 7 and shear modulus of 31.14 GPa) with angular aluminum oxide grit of the same size (Mohs hardness of 9 and shear modulus of 124 GPa) shows markedly different behavior, with the aluminum oxide mixture producing lower noise amplitudes during shearing and showing no compaction at intermediate shear rates. Combined with grain size and shape analysis, the implication is that shear-induced noise is the result of grain fracture rather than shear interactions and is dependent on the relative strength of individual grains. Combined with recent and ongoing work characterizing the effect of mean grain size and polydispersity on shear-induced volumetric and acoustic response, we are moving towards a more complete incorporation of field-observable variables into predictions of natural granular mixtures.

  3. Exploration for shallow, compaction-induced gas accumulations, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, D.W.

    1996-06-01

    Commercial quantities of gas have been produced from shallow sandstone reservoirs of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The two largest accumulations discovered to date, Oedekoven and Chan pools, were drilled on prospects which invoked differential compaction as a mechanism for gas entrapment and prospect delineation. Gas is believed to have accumulated in localized structural highs early in the burial history of lenticular sands. Structural relief is due to the compaction contrast between sand and stratigraphically-equivalent fine-grained sediments. A shallow Fort Union gas play was based on reports of shallow gas shows, the occurrence of thick coals which could have served as sources for bacterial gas, and the presence of lenticular sandstones which may have promoted the development of compaction structures early in the burial process, to which bacterial gas migrated. Five geologic elements related to compactional trap development were used to rank prospects. Drilling of the Oedekoven prospect, which possessed all prospect elements, led to the discovery of the Oedekoven Fort Union gas pool at a depth of 340 ft (104 m). The uncemented, very fine grained, well-sorted {open_quotes}Canyon sand{close_quotes} pay has extremely high intergranular porosity. Low drilling and completion costs associated with shallow, high-permeability reservoirs, an abundance of subsurface control with which to delineate prospects, and existing gas-gathering systems make Fort Union sandstones attractive primary targets in shallow exploration efforts as well as secondary objectives in deeper drilling programs.

  4. Exploration for shallow compaction-induced gas accumulations in sandstones of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Commercial quantities of gas have been produced from shallow sandstone reservoirs of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The two largest accumulations discovered to date, Oedekoven and Chan pools, were drilled on prospects which invoked differential compaction as a mechanism for gas entrapment and prospect delineation. Coal-sourced bacterial gas may have accumulated in localized structural highs early in the burial history of lenticular sand bodies and associated sediments. Structural relief is due to the compaction contrast between sand and stratigraphically equivalent fine-grained sediments. A shallow gas play targeting sandstones as potential reservoirs was initiated in the Recluse area in response as sources for bacterial gas, and the presence of lenticular sandstones that may have promoted the development of compaction structures early in the burial process, to which early-formed bacterial gas migrated. Prospects were ranked based on a number of geologic elements related to compaction-induced trap development. Drilling of the Oedekoven prospect, which possessed all prospect elements, led to the discovery and development of the Oedekoven Fort Union gas pool, which has produced nearly 2 BCF of gas from a depth of 340 ft. Production figures from the Oedekoven and Chan pools demonstrate the commercial gas potential of Fort Union sandstone reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The shallow depths of the reservoirs, coupled with low drilling and completion costs, an abundance of subsurface control with which to delineate prospects, and an existing network of gas-gathering systems, make them attractive primary targets in shallow exploration efforts as well as secondary objectives in deeper drilling programs.

  5. Self-Consolidation Mechanism of Nanostructured Ti5Si3 Compact Induced by Electrical Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. H.; Cheon, Y. W.; Jo, Y. H.; Seong, J. G.; Jo, Y. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Noh, M. S.; Jeong, H. G.; Van Tyne, C. J.; Chang, S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical discharge using a capacitance of 450 μF at 7.0 and 8.0 kJ input energies was applied to mechanical alloyed Ti5Si3 powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti5Si3 with no compositional deviation was obtained in times as short as 159 μsec by the discharge. During an electrical discharge, the heat generated is the required parameter possibly to melt the Ti5Si3 particles and the pinch force can pressurize the melted powder without allowing the formation of pores. Followed rapid cooling preserved the nanostructure of consolidated Ti5Si3 compact. Three stepped processes during an electrical discharge for the formation of nanostructured Ti5Si3 compact are proposed: (a) a physical breakdown of the surface oxide of Ti5Si3 powder particles, (b) melting and condensation of Ti5Si3 powder by the heat and pinch pressure, respectively, and (c) rapid cooling for the preservation of nanostructure. Complete conversion yielding a single phase Ti5Si3 is primarily dominated by the solid-liquid mechanism. PMID:25884039

  6. A Histone-Like Protein Induces Plasmid DNA to Form Liquid Crystals in Vitro and Gene Compaction in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiyong; Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Fan, Shenglan; Yao, Yanchen

    2013-01-01

    The liquid crystalline state is a universal phenomenon involving the formation of an ordered structure via a self-assembly process that has attracted attention from numerous scientists. In this study, the dinoflagellate histone-like protein HCcp3 is shown to induce super-coiled pUC18 plasmid DNA to enter a liquid crystalline state in vitro, and the role of HCcp3 in gene condensation in vivo is also presented. The plasmid DNA (pDNA)-HCcp3 complex formed birefringent spherical particles with a semi-crystalline selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) pattern. Circular dichroism (CD) titrations of pDNA and HCcp3 were performed. Without HCcp3, pUC18 showed the characteristic B conformation. As the HCcp3 concentration increased, the 273 nm band sharply shifted to 282 nm. When the HCcp3 concentration became high, the base pair (bp)/dimer ratio fell below 42/1, and the CD spectra of the pDNA-HCcp3 complexes became similar to that of dehydrated A-form DNA. Microscopy results showed that HCcp3 compacted the super-coiled gene into a condensed state and that inclusion bodies were formed. Our results indicated that HCcp3 has significant roles in gene condensation both in vitro and in histone-less eukaryotes in vivo. The present study indicates that HCcp3 has great potential for applications in non-viral gene delivery systems, where HCcp3 may compact genetic material to form liquid crystals. PMID:24322443

  7. Hydrothermal processes at Milos Island (Greek Cyclades) and the mechanisms of compaction-induced phreatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F. Jh.; Rabinowicz, M.; Boulègue, J.

    2003-05-01

    The few-hundred-meters-thick rhyolitic tuff layers that cover the volcanic island of Milos host intense hydrothermal alteration which completely transforms the tuffs into clays and locally into microcrystalline quartz aggregates. At the top of one of these quartz layers hundreds of 15-20-m-large and 3-4-m-deep craters are found, randomly scattered over a 1-2-km 2 area. In another area craters with smaller diameters (1-2 m) and depths (0.5-1 m) are found. Geochemical data reveal that the quartz results from the leaching of the tuff or clay layers by a high-temperature (100-200°C) flow of steam and gas. Because of their micrometer size, the quartz grains have a viscous rheology due to solution transfer creep: the effective viscosity is as low as 10 14 Pa s. As a result the steam- or water-saturated porous quartz layers deform by compaction. The compaction length is about 3 and 15 m when the fluid is superheated steam and water, respectively. When the upwelling fluid flow encounters a region with a reduced porosity, compaction generates pocket-like domains of enhanced porosity. These pockets propagate toward the surface by deforming the solid framework of the porous layer. One-dimensional simulations of the porosity waves show that the steam or water concentration in the pockets likely exceeds 70%. The fluid compressibility and viscosity drastically influence the development of the waves. For steam-like (water-like) fluids the size of the pockets is about 15-20 m (3-4 m) and their velocity is about 50-60 m/yr (2-4 m/yr). The fluid overpressure carried by the waves is about 3-4 bar and 0.3-0.5 bar when the fluid is steam-like and water-like, respectively. For steam-like fluids, the 2-4 bar overpressures at the top of the waves are able to re-open healed fissures at a depth of about 5-10 m. Then, the steam catastrophically escapes from the rocks through these fissures and the eruption proceeds as a caldera collapse. This leads to the suggestion that the arrival of

  8. Reversible DNA compaction.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    In this review we summarize and discuss the different methods we can use to achieve reversible DNA compaction in vitro. Reversible DNA compaction is a natural process that occurs in living cells and viruses. As a result these process long sequences of DNA can be concentrated in a small volume (compacted) to be decompacted only when the information carried by the DNA is needed. In the current work we review the main artificial compacting agents looking at their suitability for decompaction. The different approaches used for decompaction are strongly influenced by the nature of the compacting agent that determines the mechanism of compaction. We focus our discussion on two main artificial compacting agents: multivalent cations and cationic surfactants that are the best known compacting agents. The reversibility of the process can be achieved by adding chemicals like divalent cations, alcohols, anionic surfactants, cyclodextrins or by changing the chemical nature of the compacting agents via pH modifications, light induced conformation changes or by redox-reactions. We stress the relevance of electrostatic interactions and self-assembly as a main approach in order to tune up the DNA conformation in order to create an on-off switch allowing a transition between coil and compact states. The recent advances to control DNA conformation in vitro, by means of molecular self-assembly, result in a better understanding of the fundamental aspects involved in the DNA behavior in vivo and serve of invaluable inspiration for the development of potential biomedical applications. PMID:24444152

  9. RNAi-mediated knock-down of arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 expression induces E-cadherin up-regulation and cell-cell contact growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Jacky M; Butcher, Neville J; Cullinane, Carleen; Humbert, Patrick O; Minchin, Rodney F

    2011-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biotransformation of arylamine and hydrazine substrates. It also has a role in the catabolism of the folate metabolite p-aminobenzoyl glutamate. Recent bioinformatics studies have correlated NAT1 expression with various cancer subtypes. However, a direct role for NAT1 in cell biology has not been established. In this study, we have knocked down NAT1 in the colon adenocarcinoma cell-line HT-29 and found a marked change in cell morphology that was accompanied by an increase in cell-cell contact growth inhibition and a loss of cell viability at confluence. NAT1 knock-down also led to attenuation in anchorage independent growth in soft agar. Loss of NAT1 led to the up-regulation of E-cadherin mRNA and protein levels. This change in E-cadherin was not attributed to RNAi off-target effects and was also observed in the prostate cancer cell-line 22Rv1. In vivo, NAT1 knock-down cells grew with a longer doubling time compared to cells stably transfected with a scrambled RNAi or to parental HT-29 cells. This study has shown that NAT1 affects cell growth and morphology. In addition, it suggests that NAT1 may be a novel drug target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:21347396

  10. Direct Cell-Cell Contact between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells Induces a Pericyte-Like Phenotype In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R. Geoff; Nerlich, Michael; Alini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering techniques for the regeneration of large bone defects require sufficient vascularisation of the applied constructs to ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. In our previous work, prevascularised 3D scaffolds have been successfully established by coculture of bone marrow derived stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We identified stabilising pericytes (PCs) as part of newly formed capillary-like structures. In the present study, we report preliminary data on the interactions between MSCs and EPCs, leading to the differentiation of pericyte-like cells. MSCs and EPCs were seeded in transwell cultures, direct cocultures, and single cultures. Cells were cultured for 10 days in IMDM 10% FCS or IMDM 5% FCS 5% platelet lysate medium. Gene expression of PC markers, CD146, NG2, αSMA, and PDGFR-β, was analysed using RT-PCR at days 0, 3, 7, and 10. The upregulation of CD146, NG2, and αSMA in MSCs in direct coculture with EPCs advocates the MSCs' differentiation towards a pericyte-like phenotype in vitro. These results suggest that pericyte-like cells derive from MSCs and that cell-cell contact with EPCs is an important factor for this differentiation process. These findings emphasise the concept of coculture strategies to promote angiogenesis for cell-based tissue engineered bone grafts. PMID:24563864

  11. Layout-Aware Compact Model of MOSFET Characteristics Variations Induced by STI Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kenta; Sato, Takashi; Amakawa, Shuhei; Nakayama, Noriaki; Masu, Kazuya; Kumashiro, Shigetaka

    A compact model is proposed for accurately incorporating effects of STI (shallow trench isolation) stress into post-layout simulation by making layout-dependent corrections to SPICE model parameters. The model takes in-plane (longitudinal and transverse) and normal components of the layout-dependent stress into account, and model formulas are devised from physical considerations. Not only can the model handle the shape of the active-area of any MOSFET conforming to design rules, but also considers distances to neighboring active-areas. Extraction of geometrical parameters from the layout can be performed by standard LVS (layout versus schematic) tools, and the corrections can subsequently be back-annotated into the netlist. The paper spells out the complete formulation by presenting expressions for the mobility and the threshold voltage explicitly by way of example. The model is amply validated by comparisons with experimental data from 90nm-and 65nm-CMOS technologies having the channel orientations of, respectively, ‹110› and ‹100›, both on a (100) surface. The worst-case standard errors turn out to be as small as 1.7% for the saturation current and 8mV for the threshold voltage, as opposed to ˜20% and ˜50mV without the model. Since device characteristics variations due to STI stress constitute a significant part of what have conventionally been treated as random variations, use of the proposed model could enable one to greatly narrow the guardbands required to guarantee a desired yield, thereby facilitating design closure.

  12. PML induces compaction, TRF2 depletion and DNA damage signaling at telomeres and promotes their alternative lengthening.

    PubMed

    Osterwald, Sarah; Deeg, Katharina I; Chung, Inn; Parisotto, Daniel; Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl; Erfle, Holger; Rippe, Karsten

    2015-05-15

    The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism allows cancer cells to escape senescence and apoptosis in the absence of active telomerase. A characteristic feature of this pathway is the assembly of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (APBs) at telomeres. Here, we dissected the role of APBs in a human ALT cell line by performing an RNA interference screen using an automated 3D fluorescence microscopy platform and advanced 3D image analysis. We identified 29 proteins that affected APB formation, which included proteins involved in telomere and chromatin organization, protein sumoylation and DNA repair. By integrating and extending these findings, we found that APB formation induced clustering of telomere repeats, telomere compaction and concomitant depletion of the shelterin protein TRF2 (also known as TERF2). These APB-dependent changes correlated with the induction of a DNA damage response at telomeres in APBs as evident by a strong enrichment of the phosphorylated form of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Accordingly, we propose that APBs promote telomere maintenance by inducing a DNA damage response in ALT-positive tumor cells through changing the telomeric chromatin state to trigger ATM phosphorylation. PMID:25908860

  13. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  14. Light-induced atomic desorption in a compact system for ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Torralbo-Campo, Lara; Bruce, Graham D; Smirne, Giuseppe; Cassettari, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) of alkali atoms from the inner surface of a vacuum chamber has been employed in cold atom experiments for the purpose of modulating the alkali background vapour. This is beneficial because larger trapped atom samples can be loaded from vapour at higher pressure, after which the pressure is reduced to increase the lifetime of the sample. We present an analysis, based on the case of rubidium atoms adsorbed on pyrex, of various aspects of LIAD that are useful for this application. Firstly, we study the intensity dependence of LIAD by fitting the experimental data with a rate-equation model, from which we extract a correct prediction for the increase in trapped atom number. Following this, we quantify a figure of merit for the utility of LIAD in cold atom experiments and we show how it can be optimised for realistic experimental parameters. PMID:26458325

  15. Light-induced atomic desorption in a compact system for ultracold atoms

    PubMed Central

    Torralbo-Campo, Lara; Bruce, Graham D.; Smirne, Giuseppe; Cassettari, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) of alkali atoms from the inner surface of a vacuum chamber has been employed in cold atom experiments for the purpose of modulating the alkali background vapour. This is beneficial because larger trapped atom samples can be loaded from vapour at higher pressure, after which the pressure is reduced to increase the lifetime of the sample. We present an analysis, based on the case of rubidium atoms adsorbed on pyrex, of various aspects of LIAD that are useful for this application. Firstly, we study the intensity dependence of LIAD by fitting the experimental data with a rate-equation model, from which we extract a correct prediction for the increase in trapped atom number. Following this, we quantify a figure of merit for the utility of LIAD in cold atom experiments and we show how it can be optimised for realistic experimental parameters. PMID:26458325

  16. HCHO Measurements Using an Ultra-Compact Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument During BEARPEX 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digangi, J. P.; Paul, J.; Henry, S. B.; Kammrath, A.; Keutsch, F.

    2009-12-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is central to the production of tropospheric ozone smog and the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The oxidation of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs), such as isoprene and terpenes emitted from forests, can result in elevated ozone and aerosol concentrations in rural areas away from urban pollution. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most ubiquitous VOC oxidation products and thus an important tracer of VOC oxidation. Measurements of HCHO gradients and fluxes in forests can provide valuable insight into rapid BVOC oxidation inside the forest canopy. We present field measurements of formaldehyde concentrations and gradients taken with the first deployment of the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) Instrument during the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) 2009 at a rural forest in the Sierra Nevada mountains. The instrument utilizes a novel fiber laser from NovaWave Technologies which is < 1ft3 and requires < 100 W power. The detection limit (3σ) during BEARPEX 2009 was ~ 1 ppbv/s, but modifications will improve the detection limit to < 40 pptv/s, or < 6 pptv/min. Large nighttime gradients through the canopy were observed with larger HCHO concentrations above the canopy, whereas smaller reverse gradients were observed during the day. These results will be discussed in the context of rapid in-canopy BVOC oxidation and the uncertainties in the HOx budget inside forest canopies. We will also discuss the capability of the instrument to measure HCHO fluxes via eddy correlation.

  17. Compact imaging spectrometer for induced emissions. Final technical report, 31 March 1986-1 February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, D.G.

    1988-09-01

    On the basis of spectral measurements made from the Space Shuttle and on models of the possible Space Station external environment, it appears likely that, even at the planned altitudes of Space Station, photon emissions will be induced. These emissions will occur to some degree throughout the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrum. The emissions arise from a combination of processes including gas phase collisions between relatively energetic ambient and surface emitted or re-emitted atoms or molecules, where the surface raises some species to excited energy states. At the present time it is not possible to model these processes or the anticipated intensity levels with any accuracy, as a number of fundamental parameters needed for such calculations are still poorly known or unknown. However, it is possible that certain spectral line and band features will exceed the desired goal that concomitant emissions not exceed the natural zodiacal background. Also, in the near infrared and infrared, it appears that this level will be exceeded to a significant degree. Therefore it will be necessary to monitor emission levels in the vicinity of Space Station, both in order to establish the levels and to better model the environment. A small spectrometer is briefly described which is suitable for monitoring the spectrum from 1200 A to less than or equal to 12,000 A. The instrument uses focal plane array detectors to image this full spectral range simultaneously. The spectral resolution is 4 to 12 A, depending on the portion of the wavelength range.

  18. Universal scaling of crowding-induced DNA mobility is coupled with topology-dependent molecular compaction and elongation.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Stephanie M; Chapman, Cole D; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M

    2015-10-21

    Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and particle-tracking techniques, we elucidate the role DNA topology plays in the diffusion and conformational dynamics of crowded DNA molecules. We focus on large (115 kbp), double-stranded ring and linear DNA crowded by varying concentrations (0-40%) of dextran (10, 500 kDa) that mimic cellular conditions. By tracking the center-of-mass and measuring the lengths of the major and minor axes of single DNA molecules, we characterize both DNA mobility reduction as well as crowding-induced conformational changes (from random spherical coils). We reveal novel topology-dependent conformations, with single ring molecules undergoing compaction to ordered spherical configurations ∼20% smaller than dilute random coils, while linear DNA elongates by ∼2-fold. Surprisingly, these highly different conformations result in nearly identical exponential mobility reduction dependent solely on crowder volume fraction Φ, revealing a universal critical crowding concentration of Φc≅ 2.3. Beyond Φc DNA exhibits topology-independent conformational relaxation dynamics despite highly distinct topology-driven conformations. Our collective results reveal that topology-dependent conformational changes, unique to crowded environments, enable DNA to overcome the classically expected mobility reduction that high-viscosity crowded environments impose. Such coupled universal dynamics suggest a mechanism for DNA to maintain sufficient mobility required for wide-ranging biological processes despite severe cellular crowding. PMID:26303877

  19. Temperature-insensitive compact phase-shifted long-period gratings induced by surface deformation in single-mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijie; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhu, Yinian

    2015-12-01

    We present a temperature-insensitive compact phase-shifted long-period grating (PS-LPG) induced by using focused pulse CO2 laser via point-by-point technique. By introducing a phase shift with 1800° ( π shift) in the center of the long-period grating (~420 µm per period, 20 periodicity in total), the original coupling resonance at 1318.55 nm splits into two symmetrical spectral peaks at 1283 and 1348 nm. FWHM between those two peaks is 36.55 nm, and the power intensities of two peaks are the same as -10.2 dB. The thermal characteristic of the PS-LPGs is around 8.8 pm/°C that is less than that of fiber Bragg grating (12 pm/°C). As a result, such fiber grating devices can be applied in a laser cavity as an all-fiber filter. Variation of phase shifts in LPGs give rise to different spectral peaks of coupled resonance, which makes the proposed PS-LPGs as a good candidate for the applications in sensing networks and optical telecommunications.

  20. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  1. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  2. DUAL-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF 140 COMPACT, FLAT-SPECTRUM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FOR SCINTILLATION-INDUCED VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Koay, J. Y.; Macquart, J.-P.; Bignall, H. E.; Reynolds, C.; Rickett, B. J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Pursimo, T.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Ojha, R.

    2011-10-15

    The 4.9 GHz Micro-Arcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey detected a drop in interstellar scintillation (ISS) for sources at redshifts z {approx}> 2, indicating an apparent increase in angular diameter or a decrease in flux density of the most compact components of these sources relative to their extended emission. This can result from intrinsic source size effects or scatter broadening in the intergalactic medium (IGM) in excess of the expected (1 + z){sup 1/2} angular diameter scaling of brightness temperature limited sources resulting from cosmological expansion. We report here 4.9 GHz and 8.4 GHz observations and data analysis for a sample of 140 compact, flat-spectrum sources which may allow us to determine the origin of this angular diameter-redshift relation by exploiting their different wavelength dependences. In addition to using ISS as a cosmological probe, the observations provide additional insight into source morphologies and the characteristics of ISS. As in the MASIV Survey, the variability of the sources is found to be significantly correlated with line-of-sight H{alpha} intensities, confirming its link with ISS. For 25 sources, time delays of about 0.15-3 days are observed between the scintillation patterns at both frequencies, interpreted as being caused by a shift in core positions when probed at different optical depths. Significant correlation is found between ISS amplitudes and source spectral index; in particular, a large drop in ISS amplitudes is observed at {alpha} < -0.4 confirming that steep spectrum sources scintillate less. We detect a weakened redshift dependence of ISS at 8.4 GHz over that at 4.9 GHz, with the mean variance at four-day timescales reduced by a factor of 1.8 in the z > 2 sources relative to the z < 2 sources, as opposed to the factor of three decrease observed at 4.9 GHz. This suggests scatter broadening in the IGM, but the interpretation is complicated by subtle selection effects that will be

  3. Dual-Frequency Observations of 140 Compact, Flat-Spectrum Active Galactic Nuclei for Scintillation-Induced Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koay, J. Y.; Macquart, J.- P.; Rickett, B. J.; Bignall, H. E.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Reynolds, C.; Jauncey, D. L.; Pursimo, T.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Ojha, R.

    2012-01-01

    The 4.9 GHz Micro-Arcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey detected a drop in Interstellar Scintillation (ISS) for sources at red shifts z > or approx. 2, indicating an apparent increase in angular diameter or a decrease in flux density of the most compact components of these sources, relative to their extended emission. This can result from intrinsic source size effects or scatter broadening in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) , in excess of the expected (1+z)1/2 angular diameter scaling of brightness temperature limited sources resulting from cosmological expansion. We report here 4.9 GHz and 8.4 GHz observations and data analysis for a sample of 140 compact, fiat-spectrum sources which may allow us to determine the origin of this angular diameter-redshift relation by exploiting their different wavelength dependences. In addition to using ISS as a cosmological probe, the observations provide additional insight into source morphologies and the characteristics of ISS. As in the MASIV Survey, the variability of the sources is found to be significantly correlated with line-of-sight H(alpha) intensities, confirming its link with ISS. For 25 sources, time delays of about 0.15 to 3 days are observed between the scintillation patterns at both frequencies, interpreted as being caused by a shift in core positions when probed at different optical depths. Significant correlation is found between ISS amplitudes and source spectral index; in particular, a large drop in ISS amplitudes is observed at alpha < -0.4 confirming that steep spectrum sources scintillate less. We detect a weakened redshift dependence of ISS at 8.4 GHz over that at 4.9 GHz, with the mean variance at 4-day timescales reduced by a factor of 1.8 in the z > 2 sources relative to the z < 2 sources, as opposed to the factor of 3 decrease observed at 4.9 GHz. This suggests scatter broadening in the IGM, but the interpretation is complicated by subtle selection effects that will be explored

  4. Regulation of cell-cell fusion by nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Augelli, Michael J; Cheung, Bettina; Kinser, Emily R; Cleary, Barnett; Kumar, Priyanka; Wang, Renhao; Sawyer, Andrew J; Li, Rui; Schwarz, Udo D; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion is fundamental to a multitude of biological processes ranging from cell differentiation and embryogenesis to cancer metastasis and biomaterial-tissue interactions. Fusogenic cells are exposed to biochemical and biophysical factors, which could potentially alter cell behavior. While biochemical inducers of fusion such as cytokines and kinases have been identified, little is known about the biophysical regulation of cell-cell fusion. Here, we designed experiments to examine cell-cell fusion using bulk metallic glass (BMG) nanorod arrays with varying biophysical cues, i.e. nanotopography and stiffness. Through independent variation of stiffness and topography, we found that nanotopography constitutes the primary biophysical cue that can override biochemical signals to attenuate fusion. Specifically, nanotopography restricts cytoskeletal remodeling-associated signaling, which leads to reduced fusion. This finding expands our fundamental understanding of the nanoscale biophysical regulation of cell fusion and can be exploited in biomaterials design to induce desirable biomaterial-tissue interactions. PMID:27615159

  5. VIBRATION COMPACTION

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.

    1962-07-01

    A method of compacting a powder in a metal container is described including the steps of vibrating the container at above and below the resonant frequency and also sweeping the frequency of vibration across the resonant frequency several times thereby following the change in resonant frequency caused by compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  6. Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Reveals Highly-Compact Intermediates in the Collision Induced Dissociation of Charge-Reduced Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornschein, Russell E.; Niu, Shuai; Eschweiler, Joseph; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Protocols that aim to construct complete models of multiprotein complexes based on ion mobility and mass spectrometry data are becoming an important element of integrative structural biology efforts. However, the usefulness of such data is predicated, in part, on an ability to measure individual subunits removed from the complex while maintaining a compact/folded state. Gas-phase dissociation of intact complexes using collision induced dissociation is a potentially promising pathway for acquiring such protein monomer size information, but most product ions produced are possessed of high charge states and elongated/string-like conformations that are not useful in protein complex modeling. It has previously been demonstrated that the collision induced dissociation of charge-reduced protein complexes can produce compact subunit product ions; however, their formation mechanism is not well understood. Here, we present new experimental evidence for the avidin (64 kDa) and aldolase (157 kDa) tetramers that demonstrates significant complex remodeling during the dissociation of charge-reduced assemblies. Detailed analysis and modeling indicates that highly compact intermediates are accessed during the dissociation process by both complexes. Here, we present putative pathways that describe the formation of such ions, as well as discuss the broader significance of such data for structural biology applications moving forward.

  7. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications. PMID:27036765

  8. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  9. Compaction process in sedimentary basins: the role of stiffness increase and hardening induced by large plastic strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deudé, V.; Dormieux, L.; Maghous, S.; Barthélémy, J. F.; Bernaud, D.

    2004-11-01

    This paper is devoted to the simulation of large strain compaction process in sedimentary basins. Special attention is paid to the effects of large porosity changes on the elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the sediment material. The latter are introduced in the constitutive behaviour in the framework of a micromechanical reasoning. In particular, the proposed approach avoids the problem of negative porosities that are predicted by classical models under high confining pressures.Some closed-form solutions are presented in the simplified case of one-dimensional compaction. While the influence of stiffness increase is shown to be negligible as regards the compaction law, it proves to affect significantly the stress and porosity profiles. Copyright

  10. Ureilite compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D.; Agee, C. B.

    1988-03-01

    Ureilite meteorites show the simple mineralogy and compact recrystallized textures of adcumulate rock or melting residues. A certain amount of controversy exists about whether they are in fact adcumulate rocks or melting residues and about the nature of the precursor liquid or solid assemblage. The authors undertook a limited experimental study which made possible the evaluation of the potential of the thermal migration mechanism (diffusion on a saturation gradient) for forming ureilite-like aggregates from carbonaceous chondrite precursors. They find that the process can produce compact recrystallized aggregates of silicate crystals which do resemble the ureilities and other interstitial-liquid-free adcumulate rocks in texture.

  11. Evaluating energy sorghum harvest thresholds and tillage cropping systems to offset negative environmental impacts and harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meki, M. N.; Snider, J. L.; Kiniry, J. R.; Raper, R. L.; Rocateli, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Energy sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) could be the ideal feedstock for the cellulosic ethanol industry because of its robust establishment, broader adaptability and drought tolerance, water and nutrient use efficiency, and the relatively high annual biomass yields. Of concern, however, is the limited research data on harvest thresholds, subsequent environmental impacts and the potential cumulative effects of harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. Indiscriminate harvests of the high volume wet energy sorghum biomass, coupled with repeated field passes, could cause irreparable damage to the soil due to compaction. Furthermore, biomass harvests result in lower soil organic matter returns to the soil, making the soil even more susceptible to soil compaction. Compacted soils result in poor root zone aeration and drainage, more losses of nitrogen from denitrification, and restricted root growth, which reduces yields. Given the many positive attributes of conservation tillage and crop residue retention, our research and extension expectations are that sustainable energy sorghum cropping systems ought to include some form of conservation tillage. The challenge is to select cropping and harvesting systems that optimize feedstock production while ensuring adequate residue biomass to sustainably maintain soil structure and productivity. Producers may have to periodically subsoil-till or plow-back their lands to alleviate problems of soil compaction and drainage, weeds, insects and disease infestations. Little, however, is known about the potential impact of these tillage changes on soil productivity, environmental integrity, and sustainability of bioenergy agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, 'safe' energy sorghum feedstock removal thresholds have yet to be established. We will apply the ALMANAC biophysical model to evaluate permissible energy sorghum feedstock harvest thresholds and the effects of subsoil tillage and periodically plowing no-tilled (NT) energy sorghum

  12. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  13. A simple model for DNA bridging proteins and bacterial or human genomes: bridging-induced attraction and genome compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Brackley, C. A.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2015-02-01

    We present computer simulations of the phase behaviour of an ensemble of proteins interacting with a polymer, mimicking non-specific binding to a piece of bacterial DNA or eukaryotic chromatin. The proteins can simultaneously bind to the polymer in two or more places to create protein bridges. Despite the lack of any explicit interaction between the proteins or between DNA segments, our simulations confirm previous results showing that when the protein-polymer interaction is sufficiently strong, the proteins come together to form clusters. Furthermore, a sufficiently large concentration of bridging proteins leads to the compaction of the swollen polymer into a globular phase. Here we characterise both the formation of protein clusters and the polymer collapse as a function of protein concentration, protein-polymer affinity and fibre flexibility.

  14. Compact magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Gillespie, B. A.; Mosher, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    A compact magnetograph system based on solid Fabry-Perot interferometers as the spectral isolation elements was studied. The theory of operation of several Fabry-Perot systems, the suitability of various magnetic lines, signal levels expected for different modes of operation, and the optimal detector systems were investigated. The requirements that the lack of a polarization modulator placed upon the electronic signal chain was emphasized. The PLZT modulator was chosen as a satisfactory component with both high reliability and elatively low voltage requirements. Thermal control, line centering and velocity offset problems were solved by a Fabry-Perot configuration.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of CoFe2O4 submicron compact spheres and tunable coercivity induced via low-temperature thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Xue, Fei; Tian, Yahui

    2015-10-01

    Compact CoFe2O4 submicron spheres were successfully prepared by a typical solvothermal synthesis method using potassium acetate as protective agent. The as-prepared spheres exhibited the onset of superparamagnetism. The saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr), coercivity (Hc) and remanence ratio R (Mr/Ms) were 46.79 emu/g, 0.84 emu/g, 18.4 Oe and 0.018, respectively. Followed by thermal treatment at 250-600 °C, the annealed spheres exhibited a sharp increment in coercivity without significant growth in crystal size. The coercivity of the sample annealed at 250 °C was 597.5 Oe and the sample annealed at 600 °C was increased to 1371.7 Oe. The probable mechanism of the increment in coercivity was suggested to be induced by the enhanced exchange interactions as the organics degraded in thermal treatment.

  16. Biological effect of shock waves on rat brain: pathological evaluation by compact Ho:YAG-laser-induced cavitational shock wave generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Hirano, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Sato, Motoyuki; Shirane, R.; Takayama, Kazuya; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2003-07-01

    To introduce shock wave as a new treatment modality for the lesions in the vicinity of brain and skull, pressure-dependent brain damages after exposure of shock wave were investigated. A novel compact Ho:YAG laser-induced cavitational shock wave generator (diameter: 15 mm, weight: 20g) was used intstead of clinical lithotriptors due to their wide distribution of shock waves. In the first part, we have developed and investigated characteristics of present generator by means of high-speed photography, shadowgraphy, and pressure measurement. Generation of localized shock wave without harmful effect of laser was observed after irradiation of Ho:YAG laser in the brass tube with internal water supply. Mechanical effect of accompanying laser-induced liquid jet was mitigated after placement of latex diaphragm with acrylic water reservoir. Maximum overpressure of generated shock wave was 15 MPa before placement of diaphragm, and 5 MPa after placement of diaphragm. In the second part, shock wave-induced brain damages were investigated in 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats. While subarachnoid hemorrhage could be observed between 1 and 5 MPa, intracerebral hemorrhage, and laceration of tissue were also observed above 5 MPa. We therefore conclude that overpressure of exposing shock wave over brain surface should be managed under 1 MPa.

  17. C-terminal 13-residue truncation induces compact trigger factor conformation and severely impairs its dimerization ability.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Yu, Ling; Kihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding within bacteria. TF possesses a three-state equilibrium in vivo: monomeric TF bound to ribosome, free monomeric, and dimeric TF in cytoplasm. TF consists of an N-terminal ribosome binding domain, a middle peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domain and a C-terminal domain involved in substrate binding and dimerization. Investigation of the effect of C-terminal 13 region on TF structure and function will help to further the understanding of its mechanism as a chaperone in vitro and in vivo. Here we present TF419, a TF mutant from which the C-terminal 13 residues were deleted to investigate the role of these residues in the structure stability and function of intact molecules. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence measurements and limited proteolysis results suggested that TF transitioned to a compact conformation when the Cterminal 13 residues were truncated. Further biochemical results reveal that TF dimerization was decreased as a result of the truncation. These results suggested that the C-terminal 13 residues play an important role in structural stability and chaperone function of TF. PMID:24555433

  18. Asymmetric wavefront aberrations and pupillary shapes induced by electrical stimulation of ciliary nerve in cats measured with compact wavefront aberrometer.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Suguru; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Hirohara, Yoko; Endo, Takao; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Fujikado, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the wavefront aberrations and pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. Seven eyes of seven cats were studied under general anesthesia. Trains of monophasic pulses (current, 0.1 to 1.0 mA; duration, 0.5 ms/phase; frequency, 5 to 40 Hz) were applied to the lateral or medial branch of the short ciliary nerve near the posterior pole of the eye. A pair of electrodes was hooked onto one or both branch of the short ciliary nerve. The electrodes were placed about 5 mm from the scleral surface. The wavefront aberrations were recorded continuously for 2 seconds before, 8 seconds during, and for 20 seconds after the electrical stimulation. The pupillary images were simultaneously recorded during the stimulation period. Both the wavefront aberrations and the pupillary images were obtained 10 times/sec with a custom-built wavefront aberrometer. The maximum accommodative amplitude was 1.19 diopters (D) produced by electrical stimulation of the short ciliary nerves. The latency of the accommodative changes was very short, and the accommodative level gradually increased up to 4 seconds and reached a plateau. When only one branch of the ciliary nerve was stimulated, the pupil dilated asymmetrically, and the oblique astigmatism and one of the asymmetrical wavefront terms was also altered. Our results showed that the wavefront aberrations and pupillary dilations can be measured simultaneously and serially with a compact wavefront aberrometer. The asymmetric pupil dilation and asymmetric changes of the wavefront aberrations suggest that each branch of the ciliary nerve innervates specific segments of the ciliary muscle and dilator muscle of the pupil. PMID:25144536

  19. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Kavita; Munshi, Prabhat; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission Hα (656 nm) and Hβ (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design.

  20. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Kavita; Munshi, Prabhat; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission H(α) (656 nm) and H(β) (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design. PMID:27036771

  1. Compaction behavior of roller compacted ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvatkumar; Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-06-01

    The effect of roller compaction pressure on the bulk compaction of roller compacted ibuprofen was investigated using instrumented rotary tablet press. Three different roller pressures were utilized to prepare granules and Heckel analysis, Walker analysis, compressibility, and tabletability were performed to derive densification, deformation, course of volume reduction and bonding phenomenon of different pressure roller compacted granules. Nominal single granule fracture strength was obtained by micro tensile testing. Heckel analysis indicated that granules prepared using lower pressure during roller compaction showed lower yield strength. The reduction in tabletability was observed for higher pressure roller compacted granules. The reduction in tabletability supports the results of granule size enlargement theory. Apart from the granule size enlargement theory, the available fines and relative fragmentation during compaction is responsible for higher bonding strength and provide larger areas for true particle contact at constant porosity for lower pressure roller compacted granules. Overall bulk compaction parameters indicated that granules prepared by lower roller compaction pressure were advantageous in terms of tabletability and densification. Overall results suggested that densification during roller compaction affects the particle level properties of specific surface area, nominal fracture strength, and compaction behavior. PMID:18280716

  2. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  3. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  4. Macrophages and Cell-Cell Spread of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Waki, Kayoko; Freed, Eric O.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and their resistance to virus-induced cytopathic effects allows them to serve as reservoirs for long-term infection. Thus, exploring the mechanisms of virus transmission from macrophages to target cells such as other macrophages or T lymphocytes is central to our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, and is vital to the development of vaccines and novel antiretroviral therapies. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of cell-cell transmission in macrophages. PMID:21552427

  5. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, K.; Staňková, A.; Häkkänen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2007-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r2 > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  6. Hadamard transform microchip electrophoresis combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection using a compact neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser emitting at 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Kazuki; Kaneta, Takashi; Imasaka, Totaro

    2009-05-01

    Hadamard transform electrophoresis combined with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection on a microchip was demonstrated. A compact, diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser was employed as the light source for LIF detection. The analytical conditions were optimized using rhodamine B as the analyte. Under optimal conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the analyte was improved by a factor of 7.5 by means of Hadamard transformation based on a 255-order cyclic S matrix. Additionally, the relationship between fluorescence intensity and analyte concentration was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 in the inverse Hadamard transformed data at the concentration range from 25 to 100 pM. The results indicate that the present method is applicable to quantitative analysis at the concentration lower than the concentration limit of detection in a conventional method. The concentration limit of detection was ˜25 pM (the relative standard deviation of the peak height was 5.2%). The present technique was successfully applied to the separation of a mixture containing 1.9 nM phenylalanine and 1.9 nM glutamic acid labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate. The S/Ns of the analyte peaks were improved up to ˜10 in the inverse Hadamard transformed data derived from a 127-order cyclic S matrix, while neither peak was lower than the limit of detection (S/N<3) in conventional microchip electrophoresis by a single injection.

  7. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wazed; Sultana, Parveen; Joshi, Mangala; Rajendran, Subbiyan

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out. PMID:27127070

  8. THE MASS-LOSS-INDUCED ECCENTRIC KOZAI MECHANISM: A NEW CHANNEL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLOSE COMPACT OBJECT-STELLAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Todd A. E-mail: thompson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2013-03-20

    Over a broad range of initial inclinations and eccentricities, an appreciable fraction of hierarchical triple star systems with similar masses are essentially unaffected by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism (KM) until the primary in the central binary evolves into a compact object. Once it does, it may be much less massive than the other components in the ternary, enabling the 'eccentric Kozai mechanism (EKM)': the mutual inclination between the inner and outer binaries can flip signs driving the inner binary to very high eccentricity, leading to a close binary or collision. We demonstrate this 'mass-loss-induced eccentric Kozai' (MIEK) mechanism by considering an example system and defining an ad hoc minimal separation between the inner two members at which tidal effects become important. For fixed initial masses and semimajor axes, but uniform distributions of eccentricity and cosine of the mutual inclination, {approx}10% of systems interact tidally or collide while the primary is on the main sequence (MS) due to the KM or EKM. Those affected by the EKM are not captured by earlier quadrupole-order secular calculations. We show that fully {approx}30% of systems interact tidally or collide for the first time as the primary swells to AU scales, mostly as a result of the KM. Finally, {approx}2% of systems interact tidally or collide for the first time after the primary sheds most of its mass and becomes a white dwarf (WD), mostly as a result of the MIEK mechanism. These findings motivate a more detailed study of mass loss in triple systems and the formation of close neutron star (NS)/WD-MS and NS/WD-NS/WD binaries without an initial common envelope phase.

  9. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2009-02-03

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  10. Proteomics of cell-cell interactions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, Rafael S; Sandim, Vanessa; Collino, Federica; Carvalho, Adriana B; Dias, Juliana; da Costa, Milene R; Zingali, Russolina B; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of cell-cell communications are now under intense study by proteomic approaches. Proteomics has unraveled changes in protein profiling as the result of cell interactions mediated by ligand/receptor, hormones, soluble factors, and the content of extracellular vesicles. Besides being a brief overview of the main and profitable methodologies now available (evaluating theory behind the methods, their usefulness, and pitfalls), this review focuses on-from a proteome perspective-some signaling pathways and post-translational modifications (PTMs), which are essential for understanding ischemic lesions and their recovery in two vital organs in mammals, the heart, and the kidney. Knowledge of misdirection of the proteome during tissue recovery, such as represented by the convergence between fibrosis and cancer, emerges as an important tool in prognosis. Proteomics of cell-cell interaction is also especially useful for understanding how stem cells interact in injured tissues, anticipating clues for rational therapeutic interventions. In the effervescent field of induced pluripotency and cell reprogramming, proteomic studies have shown what proteins from specialized cells contribute to the recovery of infarcted tissues. Overall, we conclude that proteomics is at the forefront in helping us to understand the mechanisms that underpin prevalent pathological processes. PMID:26552723

  11. Mechanical compaction directly modulates the dynamics of bile canaliculi formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Toh, Yi-Chin; Li, Qiushi; Nugraha, Bramasta; Zheng, Baixue; Lu, Thong Beng; Gao, Yi; Ng, Mary Mah Lee; Yu, Hanry

    2013-02-01

    Homeostatic pressure-driven compaction is a ubiquitous mechanical force in multicellular organisms and is proposed to be important in the maintenance of multicellular tissue integrity and function. Previous cell-free biochemical models have demonstrated that there are cross-talks between compaction forces and tissue structural functions, such as cell-cell adhesion. However, its involvement in physiological tissue function has yet to be directly demonstrated. Here, we use the bile canaliculus (BC) as a physiological example of a multicellular functional structure in the liver, and employ a novel 3D microfluidic hepatocyte culture system to provide an unprecedented opportunity to experimentally modulate the compaction states of primary hepatocyte aggregates in a 3D physiological-mimicking environment. Mechanical compaction alters the physical attributes of the hepatocyte aggregates, including cell shape, cell packing density and cell-cell contact area, but does not impair the hepatocytes' remodeling and functional capabilities. Characterization of structural and functional polarity shows that BC formation in compact hepatocyte aggregates is accelerated to as early as 12 hours post-seeding; whereas non-compact control requires 48 hours for functional BC formation. Further dynamic immunofluorescence imaging and gene expression profiling reveal that compaction accelerated BC formation is accompanied by changes in actin cytoskeleton remodeling dynamics and transcriptional levels of hepatic nuclear factor 4α and Annexin A2. Our report not only provides a novel strategy of modeling BC formation for in vitro hepatology research, but also shows a first instance that homeostatic pressure-driven compaction force is directly coupled to the higher-order multicellular functions. PMID:23233209

  12. Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Quodbach, Julian; Mosig, Johanna; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist. PMID:24300366

  13. Compaction behavior of isomalt after roll compaction.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Mosig, Johanna; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist. PMID:24300366

  14. Strings in compact cosmological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Konechny, Anatoly

    2013-10-01

    We confront the problem of giving a fundamental definition to perturbative string theory in spacetimes with totally compact space (taken to be a torus for simplicity, though the nature of the problem is very general) and non-compact time. Due to backreaction induced by the presence of even a single string quantum, the usual formulation of perturbative string theory in a fixed classical background is infrared-divergent at all subleading orders in the string coupling, and needs to be amended. The problem can be seen as a closed string analogue of D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings (a situation displaying extremely similar infrared divergences). Inspired by the collective coordinate treatment of the D0-brane recoil, whereby the translational modes of the D0-brane are introduced as explicit dynamical variables in the path integral, we construct a similar formalism for the case of string-induced gravitational backreaction, in which the spatially uniform modes of the background fields on the compact space are quantized explicitly. The formalism can equally well be seen as an ultraviolet completion of a minisuperspace quantum cosmology with string degrees of freedom. We consider the amplitudes for the universe to have two cross-sections with specified spatial properties and string contents, and show (at the first non-trivial order) that they are finite within our formalism.

  15. Cell-cell interactions on solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Louis, Nancy A; Daniels, Dionne; Colgan, Sean P

    2006-01-01

    Models to study molecular, biochemical, and functional responses in vitro generally incorporate an individual cell type or group of cells organized in a random fashion. Normal physiological responses in vivo require that individual cell types be oriented in an organized fashion with three-dimensional architecture and appropriately positioned cellular interfaces. Much recent progress has been made in the development and implementation of models to study cell-cell contact using substrate grown cells. Here, we summarize the use of membrane permeable supports to study functional responses in appropriately positioned cell types. These models incorporate two or more different cells cultured in physiologically positioned locales on solid substrates. Models incorporating nonadherent cells (e.g., leukocytes) in co-culture with such models also are discussed. Such models have been used extensively to discovery both cell-bound as well as soluble mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:16799188

  16. ACOUSTIC COMPACTION LAYER DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The depth and strength of compacted layers in fields have been determined traditionally using the ASAE standardized cone penetrometer method. However, an on-the-go method would be much faster and much less labor intensive. The soil measurement system described here attempts to locate the compacted...

  17. Dynamical compactness and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen; Khilko, Danylo; Kolyada, Sergiĭ; Zhang, Guohua

    2016-05-01

    To link the Auslander point dynamics property with topological transitivity, in this paper we introduce dynamically compact systems as a new concept of a chaotic dynamical system (X , T) given by a compact metric space X and a continuous surjective self-map T : X → X. Observe that each weakly mixing system is transitive compact, and we show that any transitive compact M-system is weakly mixing. Then we discuss the relationships between it and other several stronger forms of sensitivity. We prove that any transitive compact system is Li-Yorke sensitive and furthermore multi-sensitive if it is not proximal, and that any multi-sensitive system has positive topological sequence entropy. Moreover, we show that multi-sensitivity is equivalent to both thick sensitivity and thickly syndetic sensitivity for M-systems. We also give a quantitative analysis for multi-sensitivity of a dynamical system.

  18. Stabilization of compactible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Compaction properties of isomalt.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Gerad K; Engelhart, Jeffrey J P; Eissens, Anko C

    2009-08-01

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of ispomalt were studied. The types used were the standard product sieved isomalt, milled isomalt and two types of agglomerated isomalt with a different ratio between 6-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-d-sorbitol (GPS) and 1-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-d-mannitol dihydrate (GPM). Powder flow properties, specific surface area and densities of the different types were investigated. Compactibility was investigated by compression of the tablets on a compaction simulator, simulating the compression on high-speed tabletting machines. Lubricant sensitivity was measured by compressing unlubricated tablets and tablets lubricated with 1% magnesium stearate on an instrumented hydraulic press. Sieved isomalt had excellent flow properties but the compactibility was found to be poor whereas the lubricant sensitivity was high. Milling resulted in both a strong increase in compactibility as an effect of the higher surface area for bonding and a decrease in lubricant sensitivity as an effect of the higher surface area to be coated with magnesium stearate. However, the flow properties of milled isomalt were too bad for use as filler-binder in direct compaction. Just as could be expected, agglomeration of milled isomalt by fluid bed agglomeration improved flowability. The good compaction properties and the low lubricant sensitivity were maintained. This effect is caused by an early fragmentation of the agglomerated material during the compaction process, producing clean, lubricant-free particles and a high surface for bonding. The different GPS/GPM ratios of the agglomerated isomalt types studied had no significant effect on the compaction properties. PMID:19327398

  20. A coronary artery disease-associated gene product, JCAD/KIAA1462, is a novel component of endothelial cell-cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masaya; Higashi, Tomohito; Masuda, Sayuri; Komori, Takahide; Furuse, Mikio

    2011-09-23

    Cell-cell junctions play crucial roles in the organization and function of epithelial and endothelial cellular sheets. Here, we have identified the protein product for KIAA1462 gene, whose single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have recently reported to be associated with coronary artery disease, as a novel component of cell-cell junctions. We propose the name of KIAA1462 protein junctional protein associated with coronary artery disease (JCAD). JCAD is a ∼145 kDa protein without any known domains but contains a proline-rich region. Immunolocalization studies revealed that JCAD is specifically localized at cell-cell junctions in endothelial cells but not in epithelial cells. The accumulation of JCAD at cell-cell junctions in cultured endothelial cells was impaired by RNAi-mediated suppression of VE-cadherin expression. In cell adhesion-deficient mouse L fibroblasts, JCAD was recruited to cell-cell contacts when cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion was induced. These results indicate that JCAD is a component of VE-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions in endothelial cells. This study also suggests the implication of endothelial cell-cell adhesion in coronary artery disease. PMID:21884682

  1. Compact microchannel system

    DOEpatents

    Griffiths, Stewart

    2003-09-30

    The present invention provides compact geometries for the layout of microchannel columns through the use of turns and straight channel segments. These compact geometries permit the use of long separation or reaction columns on a small microchannel substrate or, equivalently, permit columns of a fixed length to occupy a smaller substrate area. The new geometries are based in part on mathematical analyses that provide the minimum turn radius for which column performance in not degraded. In particular, we find that straight channel segments of sufficient length reduce the required minimum turn radius, enabling compact channel layout when turns and straight segments are combined. The compact geometries are obtained by using turns and straight segments in overlapped or nested arrangements to form pleated or coiled columns.

  2. Dark compact planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We investigate compact objects formed by dark matter admixed with ordinary matter made of neutron-star matter and white-dwarf material. We consider non-self annihilating dark matter with an equation of state given by an interacting Fermi gas. We find new stable solutions, dark compact planets, with Earth-like masses and radii from a few Km to few hundred Km for weakly interacting dark matter which are stabilized by the mutual presence of dark matter and compact star matter. For the strongly interacting dark matter case, we obtain dark compact planets with Jupiter-like masses and radii of few hundred Km. These objects could be detected by observing exoplanets with unusually small radii. Moreover, we find that the recently observed 2 M⊙ pulsars set limits on the amount of dark matter inside neutron stars which is, at most, 1 0-6 M⊙ .

  3. Compact baby Skyrmions

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, C.; Klimas, P.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2009-11-15

    For the baby Skyrme model with a specific potential, compacton solutions, i.e., configurations with a compact support and parabolic approach to the vacuum, are derived. Specifically, in the nontopological sector, we find spinning Q-balls and Q-shells, as well as peakons. Moreover, we obtain compact baby skyrmions with nontrivial topological charge. All these solutions may form stable multisoliton configurations provided they are sufficiently separated.

  4. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell-cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paksa, Azadeh; Bandemer, Jan; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Razin, Nitzan; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Minina, Sofia; Meyen, Dana; Biundo, Antonio; Leidel, Sebastian A; Peyrieras, Nadine; Gov, Nir S; Keller, Philipp J; Raz, Erez

    2016-01-01

    The precise positioning of organ progenitor cells constitutes an essential, yet poorly understood step during organogenesis. Using primordial germ cells that participate in gonad formation, we present the developmental mechanisms maintaining a motile progenitor cell population at the site where the organ develops. Employing high-resolution live-cell microscopy, we find that repulsive cues coupled with physical barriers confine the cells to the correct bilateral positions. This analysis revealed that cell polarity changes on interaction with the physical barrier and that the establishment of compact clusters involves increased cell-cell interaction time. Using particle-based simulations, we demonstrate the role of reflecting barriers, from which cells turn away on contact, and the importance of proper cell-cell adhesion level for maintaining the tight cell clusters and their correct positioning at the target region. The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function. PMID:27088892

  5. Role of the microtubule-targeting drug vinflunine on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vinflunine (VFL) is a microtubule-targeting drug that suppresses microtubule dynamics, showing anti-metastatic properties both in vitro and in living cancer cells. An increasing body of evidence underlines the influence of the microtubules dynamics on the cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions. E-cadherin is a marker of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a tumour suppressor; its reduced levels in carcinoma are associated with poor prognosis. In this report, we investigate the role of VFL on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells. Methods Human bladder epithelial tumour cell lines HT1376, 5637, SW780, T24 and UMUC3 were used to analyse cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions under VFL treatment. VFL effect on growth inhibition was measured by using a MTT colorimetric cell viability assay. Western blot, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to assess the roles of VFL effect on cell-cell adhesions, epithelial-to-mesenchymal markers and apoptosis. The role of the proteasome in controlling cell-cell adhesion was studied using the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Results We show that VFL induces cell death in bladder cancer cells and activates epithelial differentiation of the remaining living cells, leading to an increase of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion and a reduction of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin or vimentin. Moreover, while E-cadherin is increased, the levels of Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for E-cadherin, were significantly reduced in presence of VFL. In 5637, this reduction on Hakai expression was blocked by MG132 proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the proteasome pathway could be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in its degradation. Conclusions Our findings underscore a critical function for VFL in cell-cell adhesions of epithelial bladder tumour cells, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which VFL may impact upon EMT and metastasis. PMID:25012153

  6. Quantitative methods for analyzing cell-cell adhesion in development.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Jubin; Franz, Clemens M

    2015-05-01

    During development cell-cell adhesion is not only crucial to maintain tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, it also activates signalling pathways important for the regulation of different cellular processes including cell survival, gene expression, collective cell migration and differentiation. Importantly, gene mutations of adhesion receptors can cause developmental disorders and different diseases. Quantitative methods to measure cell adhesion are therefore necessary to understand how cells regulate cell-cell adhesion during development and how aberrations in cell-cell adhesion contribute to disease. Different in vitro adhesion assays have been developed in the past, but not all of them are suitable to study developmentally-related cell-cell adhesion processes, which usually requires working with low numbers of primary cells. In this review, we provide an overview of different in vitro techniques to study cell-cell adhesion during development, including a semi-quantitative cell flipping assay, and quantitative single-cell methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) or dual micropipette aspiration (DPA). Furthermore, we review applications of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based molecular tension sensors to visualize intracellular mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion sites. Finally, we describe a recently introduced method to quantitate cell-generated forces directly in living tissues based on the deformation of oil microdroplets functionalized with adhesion receptor ligands. Together, these techniques provide a comprehensive toolbox to characterize different cell-cell adhesion phenomena during development. PMID:25448695

  7. Shock compaction of high- Tc superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S.T.; Nellis, W.J.; McCandless, P.C.; Brocious, W.F. ); Seaman, C.L.; Early, E.A.; Maple, M.B. . Dept. of Physics); Kramer, M.J. ); Syono, Y.; Kikuchi, M. )

    1990-09-01

    We present the results of shock compaction experiments on high-{Tc} superconductors and describe the way in which shock consolidation addresses critical problems concerning the fabrication of high J{sub c} bulk superconductors. In particular, shock compaction experiments on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that shock-induced defects can greatly increase intragranular critical current densities. The fabrication of crystallographically aligned Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} samples by shock-compaction is also described. These experiments demonstrate the potential of the shock consolidation method as a means for fabricating bulk high-{Tc} superconductors having high critical current densities.

  8. COMPACT SCHOOL AND $$ SAVINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAIR, W.G.

    A REVIEW OF THE CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING THE USE OF A TOTAL ENERGY SYSTEM WITHIN A SCHOOL BUILDING STATES THE WINDOWLESS, COMPACT SCHOOL OFFERS MORE EFFICIENT SPACE UTILIZATION WITH LESS AREA REQUIRED FOR GIVEN STUDENT POPULATION AND LOWER OPERATION COSTS. THE AUTHOR RECOMMENDS THAT THESE BUILDINGS BE WINDOWLESS TO REDUCE HEAT COSTS, HOWEVER, AT…

  9. Compact optical transconductance varistor

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, Stephen

    2015-09-22

    A compact radiation-modulated transconductance varistor device having both a radiation source and a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material (PWBSM) integrally formed on a substrate so that a single interface is formed between the radiation source and PWBSM for transmitting PWBSM activation radiation directly from the radiation source to the PWBSM.

  10. Limestone compaction: an enigma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Halley, Robert B.; Hudson, J. Harold; Lidz, Barbara H.

    1977-01-01

    Compression of an undisturbed carbonate sediment core under a pressure of 556 kg/cm2 produced a “rock” with sedimentary structures similar to typical ancient fine-grained limestones. Surprisingly, shells, foraminifera, and other fossils were not noticeably crushed, which indicates that absence of crushed fossils in ancient limestones can no longer be considered evidence that limestones do not compact.

  11. A Compact Wakefield Measurement Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.

    2015-10-01

    The conceptual design of a compact, photoinjector-based, facility for high precision measurements of wakefields is presented. This work is motivated by the need for a thorough understanding of beam induced wakefield effects for any future linear collider. We propose to use a high brightness photoinjector to generate (approximately) a 2 nC, 2 mm-mrad drive beam at 20 MeV to excite wakefields and a second photoinjector to generate a 5 MeV, variably delayed, trailing witness beam to probe both the longitudinal and transverse wakefields in the structure under test. Initial estimates show that we can detect a minimum measurable dipole transverse wake function of 0.1 V/pC/m/mm and a minimum measurable monopole longitudinal wake function of 2.5 V/pC/m. Simulations results for the high brightness photoinjector, calculations of the facility's wakefield measurement resolution, and the facility layout are presented.

  12. Progress in Compact Toroid Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2002-09-01

    The term "compact toroids" as used here means spherical tokamaks, spheromaks, and field reversed configurations, but not reversed field pinches. There are about 17 compact toroid experiments under construction or operating, with approximate parameters listed in Table 1.

  13. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) modulates cell-cell interactions mediated by classic cadherins.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, S V; Balzar, M; Winter, M J; Bakker, H A; Briaire-de Bruijn, I H; Prins, F; Fleuren, G J; Warnaar, S O

    1997-12-01

    The contribution of noncadherin-type, Ca2+-independent cell-cell adhesion molecules to the organization of epithelial tissues is, as yet, unclear. A homophilic, epithelial Ca2+-independent adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) is expressed in most epithelia, benign or malignant proliferative lesions, or during embryogenesis. Here we demonstrate that ectopic Ep-CAM, when expressed in cells interconnected by classic cadherins (E- or N-cadherin), induces segregation of the transfectants from the parental cell type in coaggregation assays and in cultured mixed aggregates, respectively. In the latter assay, Ep-CAM-positive transfectants behave like cells with a decreased strength of cell-cell adhesion as compared to the parental cells. Using transfectants with an inducible Ep-CAM-cDNA construct, we demonstrate that increasing expression of Ep-CAM in cadherin-positive cells leads to the gradual abrogation of adherens junctions. Overexpression of Ep-CAM has no influence on the total amount of cellular cadherin, but affects the interaction of cadherins with the cytoskeleton since a substantial decrease in the detergent-insoluble fraction of cadherin molecules was observed. Similarly, the detergent-insoluble fractions of alpha- and beta-catenins decreased in cells overexpressing Ep-CAM. While the total beta-catenin content remains unchanged, a reduction in total cellular alpha-catenin is observed as Ep-CAM expression increases. As the cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions diminish, Ep-CAM-mediated intercellular connections become predominant. An adhesion-defective mutant of Ep-CAM lacking the cytoplasmic domain has no effect on the cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions. The ability of Ep-CAM to modulate the cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions, as demonstrated in the present study, suggests a role for this molecule in development of the proliferative, and probably malignant, phenotype of epithelial cells, since an increase of Ep-CAM expression was observed in vivo in association

  14. Compact Spreader Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  15. Compact waveguide splitter networks.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yusheng; Song, Jiguo; Kim, Seunghyun; Hu, Weisheng; Nordin, Gregory P

    2008-03-31

    We demonstrate compact waveguide splitter networks in siliconon- insulator (SOI) rib waveguides using trench-based splitters (TBSs) and bends (TBBs). Rather than a 90 degrees geometry, we use 105 degrees TBSs to facilitate reliable fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches suitable for 50/50 splitting when filled with SU8. Three dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation is used for splitter and bend design. Measured TBB and TBS optical efficiencies are 84% and 68%, respectively. Compact 105 degrees 1 x 4, 1 x 8, and 1 x 32 trench-based splitter networks (TBSNs) are demonstrated. The measured total optical loss of the 1 x 32 TBSN is 9.15 dB. Its size is only 700 microm x 1600 microm for an output waveguide spacing of 50 microm. PMID:18542598

  16. Compact infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Hong, S.; Moacanin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband IR detector integrated into compact package for pollution monitoring and weather prediction is small, highly responsive, and immune to high noise. Sensing material is transparent sheet metalized with reflecting coating and overcoated with black material on same side. Pulse produced by chopping of infrared source beam creates transient "thermal lens" that temporarily defocuses laser beam probe. Detector monitoring beam measures defocusing which parallels infrared intensity.

  17. Compact power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Dieckamp, Herman M.; Wilson, Lewis A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector.

  18. Compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kays, W.M.; London, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This third edition is an update of the second edition published in 1964. New data and more modern theoretical solutions for flow in the simple geometries are included, although this edition does not differ radically from the second edition. It contains basic test data for eleven new surface configurations, including some of the very compact ceramic matrices. Al dimensions are given in both the English and the Systeme International (SI) system of units.

  19. Granule consolidation during compaction.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, M H

    1976-03-01

    The deformation of small cylindrical aggregates of dibasic calcium phosphate was measured during compaction. An analogy between these aggregates and cylindrical granules was proposed. No change in the original shape of the aggregates occurred; the cylindrical shape was maintained even at high compaction pressures. Relaxation of the aggregates occurred at pressures higher than 420 MNm-2 (60.9 x 10(3) lb in.-2) when removed from the compacts, but no relaxation took place at pressures below this value. In addition, the aggregates relaxed by an increase in thickness only; there was no corresponding change in diameter. Up to a pressure of 200 MNm-2 (29.0 x 10(3) lb in.-2), an increase in aggregate diameter occurred, which was accompanied by a reduction in thickness. This change produced only a small reduction in volume, which was attributable to interparticulate slippage resulting in a closer packed arrangement. At a pressure of 200 MNm-2, the aggregate diameter no longer increased because solid bridges were formed between the particles and the die wall, preventing further spreading. From 200 to 420 MNm-2, failure of the material occurred by plastic deformation, which produced only a decrease in aggregate thickness. From 420 to 800 MNm-2 (116.0 x 10(3) lb in.-2), a structure was formed that could support the applied load without further reduction of thickness, and this structure was shown to behave elastically. PMID:1263085

  20. Engineering multicellular systems by cell-cell communication

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Anand; Tanouchi, Yu; Collins, Cynthia; You, Lingchong

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology encompasses the design of new biological parts and systems as well as the modulation of existing biological networks to generate novel functions. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the engineering of population-level behaviors using cell-cell communication. From the engineering perspective, cell-cell communication serves as a versatile regulatory module that enables coordination among cells in and between populations and facilitates the generation of reliable dynamics. In addition to exploring biological “design principles” via the construction of increasingly complex dynamics, communication-based synthetic systems can be used as well-defined model systems to study ecological and social interactions such as competition, cooperation and predation. Here we discuss the dynamic properties of cell-cell communication modules, how they can be engineered for synthetic circuit design, and applications of these systems. PMID:19733047

  1. Pulsatile cell-autonomous contractility drives compaction in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Maître, Jean-Léon; Niwayama, Ritsuya; Turlier, Hervé; Nédélec, François; Hiiragi, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Mammalian embryos initiate morphogenesis with compaction, which is essential for specifying the first lineages of the blastocyst. The 8-cell-stage mouse embryo compacts by enlarging its cell-cell contacts in a Cdh1-dependent manner. It was therefore proposed that Cdh1 adhesion molecules generate the forces driving compaction. Using micropipette aspiration to map all tensions in a developing embryo, we show that compaction is primarily driven by a twofold increase in tension at the cell-medium interface. We show that the principal force generator of compaction is the actomyosin cortex, which gives rise to pulsed contractions starting at the 8-cell stage. Remarkably, contractions emerge as periodic cortical waves when cells are disengaged from adhesive contacts. In line with this, tension mapping of mzCdh1(-/-) embryos suggests that Cdh1 acts by redirecting contractility away from cell-cell contacts. Our study provides a framework to understand early mammalian embryogenesis and original perspectives on evolutionary conserved pulsed contractions. PMID:26075357

  2. Compact laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.B.

    1974-02-26

    A compact laser amplifier system is described in which a plurality of face-pumped annular disks, aligned along a common axis, independently radially amplify a stimulating light pulse. Partially reflective or lasing means, coaxially positioned at the center of each annualar disk, radially deflects a stimulating light directed down the common axis uniformly into each disk for amplification, such that the light is amplified by the disks in a parallel manner. Circumferential reflecting means coaxially disposed around each disk directs amplified light emission, either toward a common point or in a common direction. (Official Gazette)

  3. Photometry of compact galaxies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.; Usher, P. D.; Barrett, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Photometric histories of the N galaxies 3C 390.3 and PKS 0521-36. Four other compact galaxies, Markarian 9, I Zw 92, 2 Zw 136, and III Zw 77 showed no evidence of variability. The photometric histories were obtained from an exhaustive study of those plates of the Harvard collection taken with large aperture cameras. The images of all galaxies reported were indistinguishable from stars due to the camera f-ratios and low surface brightness of the outlying nebulosities of the galaxies. Standard techniques for the study of variable stars are therefore applicable.

  4. Compact Q-balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.; da Rocha, R.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space-time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  5. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S S; O' Hara, J F; Rybarcyk, L J

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  6. Compact multiframe blind deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Hope, Douglas A; Jefferies, Stuart M

    2011-03-15

    We describe a multiframe blind deconvolution (MFBD) algorithm that uses spectral ratios (the ratio of the Fourier spectra of two data frames) to model the inherent temporal signatures encoded by the observed images. In addition, by focusing on the separation of the object spectrum and system transfer functions only at spatial frequencies where the measured signal is above the noise level, we significantly reduce the number of unknowns to be determined. This "compact" MFBD yields high-quality restorations in a much shorter time than is achieved with MFBD algorithms that do not model the temporal signatures; it may also provide higher-fidelity solutions. PMID:21403711

  7. Compact Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

  8. Compact gate valve

    DOEpatents

    Bobo, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a double-disc gate valve which is compact, comparatively simple to construct, and capable of maintaining high closing pressures on the valve discs with low frictional forces. The valve casing includes axially aligned ports. Mounted in the casing is a sealed chamber which is pivotable transversely of the axis of the ports. The chamber contains the levers for moving the valve discs axially, and an actuator for the levers. When an external drive means pivots the chamber to a position where the discs are between the ports and axially aligned therewith, the actuator for the levers is energized to move the discs into sealing engagement with the ports.

  9. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  10. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  11. METHOD OF FORMING ELONGATED COMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Larson, H.F.

    1959-05-01

    A powder compacting procedure and apparatus which produces elongated compacts of Be is described. The powdered metal is placed in a thin metal tube which is chemically compatible to lubricant, powder, atmosphere, and die material and will undergo a high degree of plastic deformation and have intermediate hardness. The tube is capped and placed in the die, and punches are applied to the ends. During the compacting stroke the powder seizes the tube and a thickening and shortening of the tube occurs. The tube is easily removed from the die, split, and peeled from the compact. (T.R.H.)

  12. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan

    2009-11-09

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  16. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  17. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  18. Compact SPS - Power delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospisil, M.; Pospisilova, L.

    1982-09-01

    The power deliverable by a compact solar Space Power Station (SPS) is a function of its outer surface shape. Methods of fitting the power delivery curve of such a system to different patterns of daily power demand are considered that involve the appropriate choice of the number of satellites, their maximal power, height to width ratio and the shift of longitude with respect to the receiving station. Changes in the daily delivery curve can be made by altering the longitudes and orientations of the satellites. Certain limitations to the choice of parameters exist, such as: the height to width ratio should be near 1.2, and the sum of longitude and orientation changes will probably not be greater than 50 deg. The optimization of the peak to average power ratio is also discussed.

  19. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  20. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  1. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  2. Compact ultraviolet laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Brian Walter

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation presents theoretical analysis and experimental investigation of a compact ultraviolet laser, comprising an unstable resonator semiconductor (URSL) laser-pumped potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) periodically segmented waveguide (PSW) laser. A comprehensive survey of existing short wavelength visible and near ultraviolet laser technologies suitable for the development of compact ultraviolet lasers is presented. This survey establishes the suitability of a diode-pumped KTP PSW laser as an attractive approach for developing a compact ultraviolet laser. Requirements for an efficient diode-pumped KTP PSW laser are given, leading to the selection of a frequency-stabilized URSL and hydrothermal KTP PSWs as the component technologies to be developed and integrated. Since the design requirements for the URSL and KTP PSW are critically dependent on a thorough understanding of the spatial mode properties of KTP PSWs, analyses and modeling of the spatial mode properties of these devices is presented using effective index method (EIM) and beam propagation method (BPM) models. In addition, a new expression for the normalized conversion efficiency is presented which explicitly incorporates the dependence of this important parameter on the lateral variation of the refractive index and d coefficient. To assess the theoretical performance of an URSL-pumped KTP PSW, the BPM model was extended to incorporate second harmonic generation. This represents an important contribution to the development of numerical methods for modeling nonlinear waveguides, in general, and provides important information on the cooperative effects of diffraction and spatial mode beating on the SHG output from KTP PSWs. Extensive optical characterization of NUV SHG in hydrothermal KTP PSWs using an argon-ion laser-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser as the infrared laser pump source is presented. Spectral characterization, spatial mode characterization, and the temperature dependence of the QPM

  3. Compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Hamdan, Khaled; Hewett, Jacqueline; Makaryceva, Juljia; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Padgett, Miles J.

    2002-05-01

    We describe a compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for in vivo point monitoring of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and autofluorescence, as a non-invasive method of differentiating normal and cancerous tissue. This instrument incorporates a 405nm diode laser with a shutter to prevent exposure of tissue to harmful light doses and reduce photobleaching, a bifurcated optical fibre to allow illumination of tissue and collection of fluorescence with a single fibre, a compact grating spectrometer for collection of spectra and a PC for system control. We present spectra obtained using this system both during routine gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy for cancer detection and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) for monitoring of treatment progress. These results illustrate the potential of the system to be used for fluorescence monitoring in a variety of clinical applications.

  4. Correlation between cell-cell contact formation and activation of protein kinase C in a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nagao, S; Kitajima, Y; Nagata, K; Inoue, S; Yaoita, H; Nozawa, Y

    1989-02-01

    Formation of desmosomal cell-cell contact associated with reorganization of keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) was observed when cultured cells of a cell line of human skin squamous cell carcinoma were transferred from low (0.07 mM) calcium to high (1.87 mM) calcium medium. At low calcium, cells were dispersed without desmosomal cell-cell contact and the KIFs were mostly concentrated around the nucleus. After 15 min of the transfer, cells contacted each other and formed small colonies and the KIFs initiated to show a radial arrangement. In addition to the cell-cell contact formation and rearrangement of KIFs, the transfer induced fourfold increase of particulate-associated protein kinase C (C-kinase) activity. When 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (PMA), which specifically activates C-kinase, was added to the cells grown at low calcium medium, cell-cell contact formation and radial arrangement of KIF bundles almost identical to those induced by the transfer to high calcium medium were observed. These data suggest a correlation between an increase in C-kinase activity and formation of cell-cell contacts associated with rearrangements of KIFs. PMID:2465349

  5. Compost improves compacted urban soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urban construction sites usually result in compacted soils that limit infiltration and root growth. The purpose of this study was to determine if compost, aeration, and/or prairie grasses can remediate a site setup as a simulated post-construction site (compacted). Five years after establishing the ...

  6. The Meaning of a Compact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasescha, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To mark the 30th anniversary of "Campus Compact," leaders from across the network came together in the summer of 2015 to reaffirm a shared commitment to the public purposes of higher education. Campus Compact's 30th Anniversary Action Statement of Presidents and Chancellors is the product of that collective endeavor. In signing the…

  7. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; /SLAC

    2012-05-17

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  8. Direct cell-cell contact with the vascular niche maintains quiescent neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ottone, Cristina; Krusche, Benjamin; Whitby, Ariadne; Clements, Melanie; Quadrato, Giorgia; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Adams, Ralf H.; Parrinello, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The vasculature is a prominent component of the subventricular zone neural stem cell niche. Although quiescent neural stem cells physically contact blood vessels at specialised endfeet, the significance of this interaction is not understood. In contrast, it is well established that vasculature-secreted soluble factors promote lineage progression of committed progenitors. Here we specifically investigated the role of cell-cell contact-dependent signalling in the vascular niche. Unexpectedly, we find that direct cell-cell interactions with endothelial cells enforces quiescence and promotes stem cell identity. Mechanistically, endothelial ephrinB2 and Jagged1 mediate these effects by suppressing cell-cycle entry downstream of mitogens and inducing stemness genes to jointly inhibit differentiation. In vivo, endothelial-specific ablation of either of the genes which encode these proteins, Efnb2 and Jag1 respectively, aberrantly activates quiescent stem cells, resulting in depletion. Thus, we identify the vasculature as a critical niche compartment for stem cell maintenance, furthering our understanding of how anchorage to the niche maintains stem cells within a pro-differentiative microenvironment. PMID:25283993

  9. KIF17 regulates RhoA-dependent actin remodeling at epithelial cell-cell adhesions.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Bipul R; Espenel, Cedric; Libanje, Fotine; Raingeaud, Joel; Morgan, Jessica; Jaulin, Fanny; Kreitzer, Geri

    2016-03-01

    The kinesin KIF17 localizes at microtubule plus-ends where it contributes to regulation of microtubule stabilization and epithelial polarization. We now show that KIF17 localizes at cell-cell adhesions and that KIF17 depletion inhibits accumulation of actin at the apical pole of cells grown in 3D organotypic cultures and alters the distribution of actin and E-cadherin in cells cultured in 2D on solid supports. Overexpression of full-length KIF17 constructs or truncation mutants containing the N-terminal motor domain resulted in accumulation of newly incorporated GFP-actin into junctional actin foci, cleared E-cadherin from cytoplasmic vesicles and stabilized cell-cell adhesions to challenge with calcium depletion. Expression of these KIF17 constructs also increased cellular levels of active RhoA, whereas active RhoA was diminished in KIF17-depleted cells. Inhibition of RhoA or its effector ROCK, or expression of LIMK1 kinase-dead or activated cofilin(S3A) inhibited KIF17-induced junctional actin accumulation. Interestingly, KIF17 activity toward actin depends on the motor domain but is independent of microtubule binding. Together, these data show that KIF17 can modify RhoA-GTPase signaling to influence junctional actin and the stability of the apical junctional complex of epithelial cells. PMID:26759174

  10. Fragmentation and constitutive response of tailored mesostructured aluminum compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Andrew M.; Braithwaite, Christopher H.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Krywopusk, Nicholas M.; Gibbins, David J.; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2016-04-01

    The fragmentation and constitutive response of aluminum-based compacts were examined under dynamic conditions using mesostructured powder compacts in which the interfaces between the powders (sizes of 40, 100, and 400 μm) were tailored during the swaging fabrication process. Fragmentation was induced in ring samples of this material through explosive loading and was examined through high speed photography, laser interferometry, and soft capture of fragments. Fragment velocities of around 100 m/s were recorded. The fragment mass distributions obtained correlated in general with the interfacial strength of the compacts as well as with the powder size. Experimental results are compared with fragmentation theories to characterize the behavior of reactive powders based on the material's mesostructure by introducing the fracture toughness of the compacts. The mean fragment size is calculated using a modified form of Mott's theory and successfully compared with experimental results.

  11. Compact plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A compact plasma accelerator having components including a cathode electron source, an anodic ionizing gas source, and a magnetic field that is cusped. The components are held by an electrically insulating body having a central axis, a top axial end, and a bottom axial end. The cusped magnetic field is formed by a cylindrical magnet having an axis of rotation that is the same as the axis of rotation of the insulating body, and magnetized with opposite poles at its two axial ends; and an annular magnet coaxially surrounding the cylindrical magnet, magnetized with opposite poles at its two axial ends such that a top axial end has a magnetic polarity that is opposite to the magnetic polarity of a top axial end of the cylindrical magnet. The ionizing gas source is a tubular plenum that has been curved into a substantially annular shape, positioned above the top axial end of the annular magnet such that the plenum is centered in a ring-shaped cusp of the magnetic field generated by the magnets. The plenum has one or more capillary-like orifices spaced around its top such that an ionizing gas supplied through the plenum is sprayed through the one or more orifices. The plenum is electrically conductive and is positively charged relative to the cathode electron source such that the plenum functions as the anode; and the cathode is positioned above and radially outward relative to the plenum.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  14. Compact neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  15. Compact Doppler magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Moynihan, Philip I.; Vaughan, Arthur H.; Cacciani, Alessandro

    1998-11-01

    We designed a low-cost flight instrument that images the full solar disk through two narrow band filters at the red nd blue 'wings' of the solar potassium absorption line. The images are produced on a 1024 X 1024 charge-coupled device with a resolution of 2 arcsec per pixel. Four filtergrams taken in a very short time at both wings in the left and right states of circular polarization are used to yield a Dopplergram and a magnetogram simultaneously. The noise-equivalent velocity associated with each pixel is less than 3 m/s. The measured signal is linearly proportional to the velocity in the range +/- 4000 m/s. The range of magnetic fields is from 3 to 3000 Gauss. The optical system of the instrument is simple and easily aligned. With a pixel size of 12 micrometers , the effective focal length is 126 cm. A Raleigh resolution limit of 4 arcsec is achieved with a 5-cm entrance apertures, providing an f/25 focal ratio. The foreoptic is a two-component telephoto lens serving to limit the overall optical length to 89 cm or less. The mass of the instrument is 14 kg. the power required is less than 30 Watts. The Compact Doppler Magnetograph can be used in space mission with severe mass and power requirements. It can also be effectively used for ground-based observations: large telescope, dome or other observatory facilities are not required.

  16. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  17. Tidal deformations of a spinning compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    The deformability of a compact object induced by a perturbing tidal field is encoded in the tidal Love numbers, which depend sensibly on the object's internal structure. These numbers are known only for static, spherically-symmetric objects. As a first step to compute the tidal Love numbers of a spinning compact star, here we extend powerful perturbative techniques to compute the exterior geometry of a spinning object distorted by an axisymmetric tidal field to second order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic deformations and new classes of induced Love numbers emerge. For example, a spinning object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second order in the spin. The deformations are encoded in a set of inhomogeneous differential equations which, remarkably, can be solved analytically in vacuum. We discuss certain subtleties in defining the tidal Love numbers in general relativity, which are due to the difficulty in separating the tidal field from the linear response of the object in the solution, even in the static case. By extending the standard procedure to identify the linear response in the static case, we prove analytically that the Love numbers of a Kerr black hole remain zero to second order in the spin. As a by-product, we provide the explicit form for a slowly-rotating, tidally-deformed Kerr black hole to quadratic order in the spin, and discuss its geodesic and geometrical properties.

  18. Compaction dynamics of a magnetized powder.

    PubMed

    Lumay, G; Dorbolo, S; Vandewalle, N

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated experimentally the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the compaction dynamics of a granular pile submitted to a series of taps. The granular material used to perform this study is a mixture of metallic and glass grains. The packing is immersed in homogeneous external magnetic field. The magnetic field induces an interaction between the metallic grains that constitutes the tunable cohesion. The compaction characteristic time and the asymptotic packing fraction have been measured as a function of the Bond number which is the ratio between the cohesive magnetic force and the grain weight. These measurements have been performed for different fractions of metallic beads in the pile. When the pile is only made of metallic grains, the characteristic compaction time increases as the square root of the Bond number. While the asymptotic packing fraction decreases as the inverse of the Bond number. For mixtures, when the fraction of magnetized grains in the pile is increased, the characteristic time increases while the asymptotic packing fraction decreases. A simple mesoscopic model based on the formation of granular chains along the magnetic field direction is proposed to explain the observed macroscopic properties of the packings. PMID:19905303

  19. The origin of ultra-compact binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Miyaji, Shigeki; Saio, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    The origin of ultra-compact binaries composed of a neutron star and a low-mass (about 0.06 solar mass) white dwarf is considered. Taking account of the systemic losses of mass and angular momentum, it was found that a serious difficulty exists in the scenarios which involve tidal captures of a normal star (a main sequence star or a red giant) by a neutron star. This difficulty can be avoided if a red giant star is captured by a massive white dwarf (M is approx. greater than 1.2 solar masses), which becomes a neutron star through the accretion induced collapse.

  20. Eccentric motion of spinning compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessmer, Manuel; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    The equations of motion for spinning compact binaries on eccentric orbits are treated perturbatively in powers of a fractional mass-difference ordering parameter. The solution is valid through first order in the mass-difference parameter. A canonical point transformation removes the leading-order terms of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian which induce a wiggling precession of the orbital angular momentum around the conserved total angular momentum, a precession which disappears in the case of equal masses or one single spin. Action-angle variables are applied that make a canonical perturbation theory easily treatable.

  1. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  2. Photosensitive Peptidomimetic for Light-Controlled, Reversible DNA Compaction.

    PubMed

    Schimka, Selina; Santer, Svetlana; Mujkić-Ninnemann, Nina M; Bléger, David; Hartmann, Laura; Wehle, Marko; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Santer, Mark

    2016-06-13

    Light-induced DNA compaction as part of nonviral gene delivery was investigated intensively in the past years, although the bridging between the artificial light switchable compacting agents and biocompatible light insensitive compacting agents was not achieved until now. In this paper, we report on light-induced compaction and decompaction of DNA molecules in the presence of a new type of agent, a multivalent cationic peptidomimetic molecule containing a photosensitive Azo-group as a branch (Azo-PM). Azo-PM is synthesized using a solid-phase procedure during which an azobenzene unit is attached as a side chain to an oligo(amidoamine) backbone. We show that within a certain range of concentrations and under illumination with light of appropriate wavelengths, these cationic molecules induce reversible DNA compaction/decompaction by photoisomerization of the incorporated azobenzene unit between a hydrophobic trans- and a hydrophilic cis-conformation, as characterized by dynamic light scattering and AFM measurements. In contrast to other molecular species used for invasive DNA compaction, such as widely used azobenzene containing cationic surfactant (Azo-TAB, C4-Azo-OCX-TMAB), the presented peptidomimetic agent appears to lead to different complexation/compaction mechanisms. An investigation of Azo-PM in close proximity to a DNA segment by means of a molecular dynamics simulation sustains a picture in which Azo-PM acts as a multivalent counterion, with its rather large cationic oligo(amidoamine) backbone dominating the interaction with the double helix, fine-tuned or assisted by the presence and isomerization state of the Azo-moiety. However, due to its peptidomimetic backbone, Azo-PM should be far less toxic than photosensitive surfactants and might represent a starting point for a conscious design of photoswitchable, biocompatible vectors for gene delivery. PMID:27030485

  3. Compact, Reliable EEPROM Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2010-01-01

    A compact, reliable controller for an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has been developed specifically for a space-flight application. The design may be adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for reliability in general and, in particular, for prevention of inadvertent writing of data in EEPROM cells. Inadvertent writes pose risks of loss of reliability in the original space-flight application and could pose such risks in other applications. Prior EEPROM controllers are large and complex and do not provide all reasonable protections (in many cases, few or no protections) against inadvertent writes. In contrast, the present controller provides several layers of protection against inadvertent writes. The controller also incorporates a write-time monitor, enabling determination of trends in the performance of an EEPROM through all phases of testing. The controller has been designed as an integral subsystem of a system that includes not only the controller and the controlled EEPROM aboard a spacecraft but also computers in a ground control station, relatively simple onboard support circuitry, and an onboard communication subsystem that utilizes the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD- 1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) The intent was to both maximize reliability while minimizing the size and complexity of onboard circuitry. In operation, control of the EEPROM is effected via the ground computers, the MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem, and the onboard support circuitry, all of which, in combination, provide the multiple layers of protection against inadvertent writes. There is no controller software, unlike in many prior EEPROM controllers; software can be a major contributor to unreliability, particularly in fault

  4. Compact dc link

    SciTech Connect

    Flairty, C. )

    1991-10-01

    The EPRI Compact Substation Project (a HVDC Converter Station) was developed, designed, and constructed per EPRI Agreement RP213. In December 1983, the converter station operated at its rating (100 MW power transmission and 300 kV dc bias plus 100 kV operating voltage). From January to May 1984, the converter station operated at various power transmission levels. Operation was intermittent due to a randomly occurring voltage breakdown. The voltage breakdown was isolated to the steel tanks containing the thyristor valves in an SF{sub 6} environment. The type of insulators stressed within the valve tanks were: (1) the epoxy cone shape insulators providing an interface to the bus entering the valve tank; (2) epoxy fiberglass hydraulic columns for the flow of the R113 refrigerant to and from the thyristor valves; and (3) the epoxy fiberglass support columns supporting the thyristor valves from the floor of the valve tank. The cause of the randomly occurring breakdown was investigated and determined to be the epoxy fiberglass support columns. The random dielectric breakdowns were due to excessive voltage gradients existing at the epoxy fiberglass support columns. This probably was caused by the misplacement of an internal insert within the column with respect to an external shield on the column. The cost and time to retrofit the support columns outweighed the benefits expected from resuming the project. Consequently, work was terminated and the equipment disassembled. Examination of the epoxy fiberglass support columns revealed several arcing tracks along the inside surface confirming the earlier hypothesis. 53 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  6. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  8. A Compact Beam Measurement Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Urs U.

    2016-03-01

    We present the design of a compact measurement device to determine the position of a beam in a radio optical setup. The unit is used to align the Terahertz optics of the GREAT instrument on the airborne astronomical observatory SOFIA.

  9. An isolated compact galaxy triplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shuai; Shao, Zheng-Yi; Shen, Shi-Yin; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man-I.; Yang, Ming; Yuan, Fang-Ting

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of an isolated compact galaxy triplet SDSS J084843.45+164417.3, which is first detected by the LAMOST spectral survey and then confirmed by a spectroscopic observation of the BFOSC mounted on the 2.16 meter telescope located at Xinglong Station, which is administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is found that this triplet is an isolated and extremely compact system, which has an aligned configuration and very small radial velocity dispersion. The member galaxies have similar colors and show marginal star formation activities. These results support the opinion that the compact triplets are well-evolved systems rather than hierarchically forming structures. This serendipitous discovery reveals the limitations of fiber spectral redshift surveys in studying such a compact system, and demonstrates the necessity of additional observations to complete the current redshift sample.

  10. A compact rotary vane attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1969-01-01

    Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.

  11. A Compact Beam Measurement Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Urs U.

    2016-08-01

    We present the design of a compact measurement device to determine the position of a beam in a radio optical setup. The unit is used to align the Terahertz optics of the GREAT instrument on the airborne astronomical observatory SOFIA.

  12. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  13. Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  14. Compact Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1988-01-01

    Longitudinal pumping by laser diodes increases efficiency. Improved holmium:yttrium lithium fluoride laser radiates as much as 56 mW of power at wavelength of 2.1 micrometer. New Ho:YLF laser more compact and efficient than older, more powerful devices of this type. Compact, efficient Ho:YLF laser based on recent successes in use of diode lasers to pump other types of solid-state lasers.

  15. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    and still be able to maintain a stable operation under extreme radioactivity and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. In the following sections, the description is given for the design and performance of this new compact PPAC, for studying the neutron-induced reactions on actinides using DANCE at LANL.

  16. On singular and sincerely singular compact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, Philip; Zilburg, Alon

    2016-08-01

    A third order dispersive equation ut +(um)x +1/b[ua∇2ub]x = 0 is used to explore two very different classes of compact patterns. In the first, the prevailing singularity at the edge induces traveling compactons, solitary waves with a compact support. In the second, the singularity induced at the perimeter of the initial excitation, entraps the dynamics within the domain's interior (nonetheless, certain very singular excitations may escape it). Here, overlapping compactons undergo interaction which may result in an interchange of their positions, or form other structures, all confined within their initial support. We conjecture, and affirm it empirically, that whenever the system admits more than one type of compactons, only the least singular compactons may be evolutionary. The entrapment due to singularities is also unfolded and confirmed numerically in a class of diffusive equations ut =uk∇2un with k > 1 and n > 0 with excitations entrapped within their initial support observed to converge toward a space-time separable structure. A similar effect is also found in a class of nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equations.

  17. Fragments of Target Cells are Internalized into Retroviral Envelope Protein-Expressing Cells during Cell-Cell Fusion by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Izumida, Mai; Kamiyama, Haruka; Suematsu, Takashi; Honda, Eri; Koizumi, Yosuke; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Ariyoshi, Koya; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses enter into host cells by fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env) induces the membrane fusion, and also mediates cell-cell fusion. There are two types of cell-cell fusions induced by the Env protein. Fusion-from-within is induced by fusion between viral fusogenic Env protein-expressing cells and susceptible cells, and virions induce fusion-from-without by fusion between adjacent cells. Although entry of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MLV) requires host cell endocytosis, the involvement of endocytosis in cell fusion is unclear. By fluorescent microscopic analysis of the fusion-from-within, we found that fragments of target cells are internalized into Env-expressing cells. Treatment of the Env-expressing cells with an endocytosis inhibitor more significantly inhibited the cell fusion than that of the target cells, indicating that endocytosis in Env-expressing cells is required for the cell fusion. The endocytosis inhibitor also attenuated the fusion-from-without. Electron microscopic analysis suggested that the membrane fusion resulting in fusion-from-within initiates in endocytic membrane dents. This study shows that two types of the viral cell fusion both require endocytosis, and provides the cascade of fusion-from-within. PMID:26834711

  18. The calcium-sensing receptor-dependent regulation of cell-cell adhesion and keratinocyte differentiation requires Rho and filamin A.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chia-Ling; Chang, Wenhan; Bikle, Daniel D

    2011-05-01

    Extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o)) functioning through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) induces E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and cellular signals mediating cell differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes. Previous studies indicate that CaR regulates cell-cell adhesion through Fyn/Src tyrosine kinases. In this study, we investigate whether Rho GTPase is a part of the CaR-mediated signaling cascade regulating cell adhesion and differentiation. Suppressing endogenous Rho A expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing blocked the Ca(2+)(o)-induced association of Fyn with E-cadherin and suppressed the Ca(2+)(o)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of β-, γ-, and p120-catenin and formation of intercellular adherens junctions. Rho A silencing also decreased the Ca(2+)(o)-stimulated expression of terminal differentiation markers. Elevating the Ca(2+)(o) level induced interactions among CaR, Rho A, E-cadherin, and the scaffolding protein filamin A at the cell membrane. Inactivation of CaR expression by adenoviral expression of a CaR antisense complementary DNA inhibited Ca(2+)(o)-induced activation of endogenous Rho. Ca(2+)(o) activation of Rho required a direct interaction between CaR and filamin A. Interference of CaR-filamin interaction inhibited Ca(2+)(o)-induced Rho activation and the formation of cell-cell junctions. These results indicate that Rho is a downstream mediator of CaR in the regulation of Ca(2+)(o)-induced E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:21209619

  19. Aquifer-system compaction, Tucson Basin and Avra Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater declines of several ft/yr since the 1940 's have induced aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence of as much as 0.5 ft in the Tucson basin and 1.1 ft in Avra Valley, Arizona. Aquifer system compaction is affected by the layering, hydraulic diffusivity, preconsolidation-stress threshold, and stress history of the aquifer system. Layering at extensometer sites can be categorized into three general groups that typify the fine-grained and coarse-grained layering within the Fort Lowell Formation and upper Tinaja beds. Data from the first group show almost as much elastic as inelastic compaction, a layering frequency of six layers/100 ft, and weighted-average aquitard thicknesses of 20 to 50 ft. Data from the second group show inelastic compaction, a layering frequency of two to three layers/100 ft, an average aquitard thickness of less than 20 ft. Data from the third group show inelastic compaction, a layering frequency of fewer than two layers/100 ft, an average aquitard thickness of more than 30 ft. A one-dimensional compaction model was applied to data from six extensometers to simulate aquifer-system compaction of less than 0.1 ft. Values of elastic and some values of inelastic specific storage are comparable to values estimated in California. Parts of the aquifer system appear to be in transition from predominantly elastic to inelastic compaction. Water level declines since 1940 at six extensometer sites are within an estimated preconsolidation-stress threshold of 50 to 150 ft. (USGS)

  20. Rhizosphere Compaction: Modeling a Bed of Multiple Aggregates Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, J. E.; Berli, M.; Tyler, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    The rhizosphere is the thin layer of soil that surrounds the roots. Its properties are different from the bulk, thus it is a critical environmental interface that controls water, nutrient and solute transport from the soil to the biosphere. At the aggregate scale, natural root-induced compaction may be surprisingly beneficial for the plants, as it increases contact areas between the aggregates and, contrary to traditional thinking, increases the hydraulic conductivity. We study the combined effect of compaction in a bed of multiple soil aggregates, before and after compaction for (a) a micro-balloon-induced compacted sample and (b) a natural root-induced compacted sample. Numerical models were constructed using X-ray micro-tomography (XMT) images to build the finite element meshes; the soil hydraulic properties (porosity and air-entry pressure), used to populate the models of the beds of aggregates, were estimated using XMT information, as the consolidation of the aggregates, due to the compaction results in a variable distribution of inter- and intra-aggregate porosity. The results show that root-induced compaction can be very beneficial for the plant, as it increases the hydraulic conductivity of the system. Thus, roots are able to extract more water than prior to compaction. The numerical modeling results were compared with a new theoretical hydraulic conductivity model.

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 Env-Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion by Lectins, Peptide T-20, and Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Balzarini, Jan; Düzgüneş, Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Broadly cross-reactive, neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies, including 2F5, 2G12, 4E10 and IgG1 b12, can inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro at very low concentrations. We examined the ability of these antibodies to inhibit cell-cell fusion between Clone69TRevEnv cells induced to express the viral envelope proteins, gp120/gp41 (Env), and highly CD4-positive SupT1 cells. The cells were loaded with green and red-orange cytoplasmic fluorophores, and fusion was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Results: Cell-cell fusion was inhibited completely by the carbohydrate binding proteins (CBPs), Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) agglutinin (HHA), and Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop) agglutinin (GNA), and by the peptide, T-20, at relatively low concentrations. Anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 antibodies, at concentrations much higher than those required for neutralization, were not particularly effective in inhibiting fusion. Monoclonal antibodies b12, m14 IgG and 2G12 had moderate inhibitory activity; the IC50 of 2G12 was about 80 µg/ml. Antibodies 4E10 and 2F5 had no inhibitory activity at the concentrations tested. Conclusions: These observations raise concerns about the ability of neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the spread of viral genetic material from infected cells to uninfected cells via cell-cell fusion. The interaction of gp120/gp41 with cell membrane CD4 may be different in cell-cell and virus-cell membrane fusion reactions, and may explain the differential effects of antibodies in these two systems. The fluorescence assay described here may be useful in high throughput screening of potential HIV fusion inhibitors. PMID:21660189

  2. Compact boson stars in K field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Grandi, N.; Klimas, P.; Sánchez-Guillén, J.; Wereszczyński, A.

    2010-11-01

    We study a scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term minimally coupled to gravity. We establish the existence of compact boson stars, that is, static solutions with compact support of the full system with self-gravitation taken into account. Concretely, there exist two types of solutions, namely compact balls on the one hand, and compact shells on the other hand. The compact balls have a naked singularity at the center. The inner boundary of the compact shells is singular, as well, but it is, at the same time, a Killing horizon. These singular, compact shells therefore resemble black holes.

  3. Modelling of compaction in planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Wladimir; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2014-07-01

    Aims: Compaction of initially porous material prior to melting is an important process that has influenced the interior structure and the thermal evolution of planetesimals in their early history. On the one hand, compaction decreases the porosity resulting in a reduction of the radius and on the other hand, the loss of porosity results in an increase of the thermal conductivity of the material and thus in a more efficient cooling. Porosity loss by hot pressing is the most efficient process of compaction in planetesimals and can be described by creep flow, which depends on temperature and stress. Hot pressing has been repeatedly modelled using a simplified approach, for which the porosity is gradually reduced in some fixed temperature interval between ≈650 K and 700 K. This approach neglects the dependence of compaction on stress and other factors such as matrix grain size and creep activation energy. In the present study, we compare this parametrised method with a self-consistent calculation of porosity loss via a creep related approach. Methods: We use our thermal evolution model from previous studies to model compaction of an initially porous body and consider four basic packings of spherical dust grains (simple cubic, orthorhombic, rhombohedral, and body-centred cubic). Depending on the grain packing, we calculate the effective stress and the associated porosity change via the thermally activated creep flow. For comparison, compaction is also modelled by simply reducing the initial porosity linearly to zero between 650 K and 700 K. As we are interested in thermal metamorphism and not melting, we only consider bodies that experience a maximum temperature below the solidus temperature of the metal phase. Results: For the creep related approach, the temperature interval in which compaction takes place depends strongly on the size of the planetesimal and is not fixed as assumed in the parametrised approach. Depending on the radius, the initial grain size, the

  4. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  5. Viral RNAs Are Unusually Compact

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ajaykumar; Egecioglu, Defne E.; Yoffe, Aron M.; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; Rao, Ayala L. N.; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.

    2014-01-01

    A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly. PMID:25188030

  6. Compaction Behavior of Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, Mark R.; Kenkre, V. M.; Glass, S. Jill; Hurd, Alan J.

    1996-03-01

    We report the results of our recent study of compaction of granular materials. A theoretical model is developed for the description of the compaction of granular materials exemplified by granulated ceramic powders. Its predictions are compared to observations of uniaxial compaction tests of ceramic granules of PMN-PT, spray dried alumina and rutile. The theoretical model employs a volume-based statistical mechanics treatment and an activation analogy. Results of a computer simulation of random packing of discs in two dimensions are also reported. The effect of type of particle size distribution and other parameters of that distribution on the calculated quantities are discussed. We examine the implications of the results of the simulation for the theoretical model.

  7. Compaction of ribosomal protein S6 by sucrose occurs only under native conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, LuYang; Ferreira, José A B; Costa, Sílvia M B; Cabrita, Gonçalo J M; Otzen, Daniel E; Melo, Eduardo Pinho

    2006-02-21

    The effect of osmolyte sucrose on the stability and compaction of the folded and unfolded states of ribosomal protein S6 from Thermus thermophilus was analyzed. Confirming previous results obtained with sodium sulfate and trehalose, refolding stopped-flow measurements of S6 show that sucrose favors the conversion of the unfolded state ensemble to a highly compact structure (75% as compact as the folded state). This conversion occurs when the unfolded state is suddenly placed under native conditions and the compact state accumulates in a transient off-folding pathway. This effect of sucrose on the compaction of the unfolded state ensemble is counteracted by guanidinium hydrochloride. The compact state does not accumulate at higher guanidinium concentrations and the unfolded state ensemble does not display increased compaction in the presence of 6 M guanidinium as evaluated by collisional quenching of tryptophan fluorescence. In contrast, accessibility of the tryptophan residue of folded S6 above 1 M sucrose concentration decreased as a result of an increased compaction of the folded state. Unfolding stopped-flow measurements of S6 reflect this increased compaction of the folded state, but the unfolding pathway is not affected by sucrose. Compaction of folded and unfolded S6 induced by sucrose occurs under native conditions indicating that decreased protein conformational entropy significantly contributes to the mechanism of protein stabilization by osmolytes. PMID:16475807

  8. VARIABLE MOMENTUM COMPACTION LATTICE STUDIES.

    SciTech Connect

    KRAMER,S.; MURPHY,J.B.

    1999-03-29

    The VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source was used to study the impact of changes in the momentum compaction factors over a large range from positive to negative values. Changes in bunch length and synchrotron tune were measured versus current and RF parameters for these different lattices. By controlling both the first and second-order momentum compaction factors, a lattice was developed in which a pair of alpha buckets was created within the energy aperture of the vacuum chamber and beam was stored simultaneously in both buckets.

  9. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  10. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Baity, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).

  11. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  12. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity, F. W.

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).

  13. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baity, F. W.

    1987-09-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas, the model treats sub-tuned RDL antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mock-ups of RDL antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).

  14. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, S.A.

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  15. Glycoprotein E of Varicella-Zoster Virus Enhances Cell-Cell Contact in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chengjun; Schneeberger, Eveline E.; Arvin, Ann M.

    2000-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection involves the cell-cell spread of virions, but how viral proteins interact with the host cell membranes that comprise intercellular junctions is not known. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were constructed to express the glycoproteins gE, gI, or gE/gI constitutively and were used to examine the effects of these VZV glycoproteins in polarized epithelial cells. At low cell density, VZV gE induced partial tight junction (TJ) formation under low-calcium conditions, whether expressed alone or with gI. Although most VZV gE was intracellular, gE was also shown to colocalize with the TJ protein ZO-1 with or without concomitant expression of gI. Freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed normal TJ strand morphology in gE-expressing MDCK cells. Functionally, the expression of gE was associated with a marked acceleration in the establishment of maximum transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in MDCK-gE cells; MDCK-gI and MDCK-gE/gI cells exhibited a similar pattern of early TER compared to MDCK cells, although peak resistances were lower than those of gE alone. VZV gE expression altered F-actin organization and lipid distribution, but coexpression of gI modulated these effects. Two regions of the gE ectodomain, amino acids (aa) 278 to 355 and aa 467 to 498, although lacking Ca2+ binding motifs, exhibit similarities with corresponding regions of the cell adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and desmocollin. These observations suggest that VZV gE and gE/gI may contribute to viral pathogenesis by facilitating epithelial cell-cell contacts. PMID:11070038

  16. Micropatterned cell-cell interactions enable functional encapsulation of primary hepatocytes in hydrogel microtissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheri Y; Stevens, Kelly R; Schwartz, Robert E; Alejandro, Brian S; Huang, Joanne H; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2014-08-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of drug development failures and postmarket withdrawals. In vitro models that incorporate primary hepatocytes have been shown to be more predictive than model systems which rely on liver microsomes or hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Methods to phenotypically stabilize primary hepatocytes ex vivo often rely on mimicry of hepatic microenvironmental cues such as cell-cell interactions and cell-matrix interactions. In this work, we sought to incorporate phenotypically stable hepatocytes into three-dimensional (3D) microtissues, which, in turn, could be deployed in drug-screening platforms such as multiwell plates and diverse organ-on-a-chip devices. We first utilize micropatterning on collagen I to specify cell-cell interactions in two-dimensions, followed by collagenase digestion to produce well-controlled aggregates for 3D encapsulation in polyethylene glycol (PEG) diacrylate. Using this approach, we examined the influence of homotypic hepatocyte interactions and composition of the encapsulating hydrogel, and achieved the maintenance of liver-specific function for over 50 days. Optimally preaggregated structures were subsequently encapsulated using a microfluidic droplet-generator to produce 3D microtissues. Interactions of engineered hepatic microtissues with drugs was characterized by flow cytometry, and yielded both induction of P450 enzymes in response to prototypic small molecules and drug-drug interactions that give rise to hepatotoxicity. Collectively, this study establishes a pipeline for the manufacturing of 3D hepatic microtissues that exhibit stabilized liver-specific functions and can be incorporated into a wide array of emerging drug development platforms. PMID:24498910

  17. Cell-Cell Communication in Yeast Using Auxin Biosynthesis and Auxin Responsive CRISPR Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Khakhar, Arjun; Bolten, Nicholas J; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Klavins, Eric

    2016-04-15

    An engineering framework for synthetic multicellular systems requires a programmable means of cell-cell communication. Such a communication system would enable complex behaviors, such as pattern formation, division of labor in synthetic microbial communities, and improved modularity in synthetic circuits. However, it remains challenging to build synthetic cellular communication systems in eukaryotes due to a lack of molecular modules that are orthogonal to the host machinery, easy to reconfigure, and scalable. Here, we present a novel cell-to-cell communication system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) based on CRISPR transcription factors and the plant hormone auxin that exhibits several of these features. Specifically, we engineered a sender strain of yeast that converts indole-3-acetamide (IAM) into auxin via the enzyme iaaH from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. To sense auxin and regulate transcription in a receiver strain, we engineered a reconfigurable library of auxin-degradable CRISPR transcription factors (ADCTFs). Auxin-induced degradation is achieved through fusion of an auxin-sensitive degron (from IAA corepressors) to the CRISPR TF and coexpression with an auxin F-box protein. Mirroring the tunability of auxin perception in plants, our family of ADCTFs exhibits a broad range of auxin sensitivities. We characterized the kinetics and steady-state behavior of the sender and receiver independently as well as in cocultures where both cell types were exposed to IAM. In the presence of IAM, auxin is produced by the sender cell and triggers deactivation of reporter expression in the receiver cell. The result is an orthogonal, rewireable, tunable, and, arguably, scalable cell-cell communication system for yeast and other eukaryotic cells. PMID:26102245

  18. Cell-Cell Interactions during pollen tube guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Daphne Preuss

    2009-03-31

    The long-term goal of this research is to identify the signaling molecules that mediate plant cell-cell interactions during pollination. The immediate goals of this project are to perform genetic and molecular analysis of pollen tube guidance. Specifically, we proposed to: 1. Characterize the pistil components that direct pollen tube navigation using the Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro pollen tube guidance system 2. Identify pistil signals that direct pollen tube guidance by a) using microarrays to profile gene expression in developing pistils, and b) employing proteomics and metabolomics to isolate pollen tube guidance signals. 3. Explore the genetic basis of natural variation in guidance signals, comparing the in vitro interactions between pollen and pistils from A. thaliana and its close relatives.

  19. Rapid Prototyping of Heterotypic Cell-Cell Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Carl; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in cellular behaviour between cultures of a single cell type and heterogeneous co-cultures require constructing spatially-defined arrays of multiple cell types. Such arrays are critical for investigating cellular properties as they exist in vivo. Current methods rely upon covalent surface modification or external physical micromanipulation to control cellular organization on a limited range of substrates. Here, we report a direct approach for creating co-cultures of different cell types by microcontact printing a photosensitive cell resist. The cell-resistant polymer converts to cell adhesive 0 with light exposure, thus the initial copolymer pattern dictates the position of both cell types. This strategy enables straightforward preparation of tailored heterotypic cell-cell contacts on materials ranging from polymers to metallic substrates. PMID:24466428

  20. A Continuum Approach to Modelling Cell-Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Nicola J.; Painter, Kevin J.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Cells adhere to each other through the binding of cell adhesion molecules at the cell surface. This process, known as cell-cell adhesion, is fundamental in many areas of biology, including early embryo development, tissue homeostasis and tumour growth. In this paper we develop a new continuous mathematical model of this phenomenon by considering the movement of cells in response to the adhesive forces generated through binding. We demonstrate that our model predicts the aggregation behaviour of a disassociated adhesive cell population. Further, when the model is extended to represent the interactions between multiple populations, we demonstrate that it is capable of replicating the different types of cell sorting behaviour observed experimentally. The resulting pattern formation is a direct consequence of the relative strengths of self-population and cross-population adhesive bonds in the model. While cell sorting behaviour has been captured previously with discrete approaches, it has not, until now, been observed with a fully continuous model. PMID:16860344

  1. Genetic basis of cell-cell fusion mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Pablo S.; Baylies, Mary K.; Fleissner, Andre; Helming, Laura; Inoue, Naokazu; Podbilewicz, Benjamin; Wang, Hongmei; Wong, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion in sexually reproducing organisms is a mechanism to merge gamete genomes, and in multicellular organisms, it is a strategy to sculpt organs such as muscles, bones, and placenta. Moreover, this mechanism has been implicated in pathological conditions such as infection and cancer. Study of genetic model organisms has uncovered a unifying principle: cell fusion is a genetically programmed process. This process can be divided in three stages: (i) competence: cell induction and differentiation, (ii) commitment: cell determination, migration and adhesion, and (iii) cell fusion: membrane merging and cytoplasmic mixing. Recent work has led to the discovery of fusogens, cell fusion proteins that are necessary and sufficient to fuse cell membranes. Two unrelated families of fusogens have been discovered, one in mouse placenta and one in Caenorhabditis elegans (Syncytins and F proteins, respectively). Current research aims to identify new fusogens and determine the mechanisms by which fusogens merge membranes. PMID:23453622

  2. Genetic basis of cell-cell fusion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Pablo S; Baylies, Mary K; Fleissner, Andre; Helming, Laura; Inoue, Naokazu; Podbilewicz, Benjamin; Wang, Hongmei; Wong, Melissa

    2013-07-01

    Cell-cell fusion in sexually reproducing organisms is a mechanism to merge gamete genomes and, in multicellular organisms, it is a strategy to sculpt organs, such as muscle, bone, and placenta. Moreover, this mechanism has been implicated in pathological conditions, such as infection and cancer. Studies of genetic model organisms have uncovered a unifying principle: cell fusion is a genetically programmed process. This process can be divided in three stages: competence (cell induction and differentiation); commitment (cell determination, migration, and adhesion); and cell fusion (membrane merging and cytoplasmic mixing). Recent work has led to the discovery of fusogens, which are cell fusion proteins that are necessary and sufficient to fuse cell membranes. Two unrelated families of fusogens have been discovered, one in mouse placenta and one in Caenorhabditis elegans (syncytins and F proteins, respectively). Current research aims to identify new fusogens and determine the mechanisms by which they merge membranes. PMID:23453622

  3. Hepatitis C virus cell-cell transmission and resistance to direct-acting antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Fofana, Isabel; Heydmann, Laura; Barth, Heidi; Soulier, Eric; Habersetzer, François; Doffoël, Michel; Bukh, Jens; Patel, Arvind H; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted between hepatocytes via classical cell entry but also uses direct cell-cell transfer to infect neighboring hepatocytes. Viral cell-cell transmission has been shown to play an important role in viral persistence allowing evasion from neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, the role of HCV cell-cell transmission for antiviral resistance is unknown. Aiming to address this question we investigated the phenotype of HCV strains exhibiting resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in state-of-the-art model systems for cell-cell transmission and spread. Using HCV genotype 2 as a model virus, we show that cell-cell transmission is the main route of viral spread of DAA-resistant HCV. Cell-cell transmission of DAA-resistant viruses results in viral persistence and thus hampers viral eradication. We also show that blocking cell-cell transmission using host-targeting entry inhibitors (HTEIs) was highly effective in inhibiting viral dissemination of resistant genotype 2 viruses. Combining HTEIs with DAAs prevented antiviral resistance and led to rapid elimination of the virus in cell culture model. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that cell-cell transmission plays an important role in dissemination and maintenance of resistant variants in cell culture models. Blocking virus cell-cell transmission prevents emergence of drug resistance in persistent viral infection including resistance to HCV DAAs. PMID:24830295

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Cell-Cell Transmission and Resistance to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Heydmann, Laura; Barth, Heidi; Soulier, Eric; Habersetzer, François; Doffoël, Michel; Bukh, Jens; Patel, Arvind H.; Zeisel, Mirjam B.; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted between hepatocytes via classical cell entry but also uses direct cell-cell transfer to infect neighboring hepatocytes. Viral cell-cell transmission has been shown to play an important role in viral persistence allowing evasion from neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, the role of HCV cell-cell transmission for antiviral resistance is unknown. Aiming to address this question we investigated the phenotype of HCV strains exhibiting resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in state-of-the-art model systems for cell-cell transmission and spread. Using HCV genotype 2 as a model virus, we show that cell-cell transmission is the main route of viral spread of DAA-resistant HCV. Cell-cell transmission of DAA-resistant viruses results in viral persistence and thus hampers viral eradication. We also show that blocking cell-cell transmission using host-targeting entry inhibitors (HTEIs) was highly effective in inhibiting viral dissemination of resistant genotype 2 viruses. Combining HTEIs with DAAs prevented antiviral resistance and led to rapid elimination of the virus in cell culture model. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that cell-cell transmission plays an important role in dissemination and maintenance of resistant variants in cell culture models. Blocking virus cell-cell transmission prevents emergence of drug resistance in persistent viral infection including resistance to HCV DAAs. PMID:24830295

  5. 75 FR 62568 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of the Council should notify the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Compact Officer, Mr. Gary S..., FBI Compact Officer, Compact Council Office, Module D3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Clarksburg,...

  6. A compact LIBS system for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Sterner, C.; Irebo, T.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Vainik, R.; Karlsson, H.; Illy, E.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been established as a promising analytical tool for online chemical analysis. The emitted light spectrum is analyzed for instantaneous determination of the elemental composition of the sample, enabling on-line classification of materials. Two major strengths of the technique are the possibilities to perform both fast and remote chemical analysis to determine the elemental composition of the samples under test. In order to reduce the size of LIBS systems, the use of a compact Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) in a LIBS system is evaluated for the industrial sorting of aluminium alloys. The DPSSL, which delivers 150μJ pulses of high beam quality at more than 7KHz repetition rate, provides irradiance on the target that is appropriate for LIBS measurements. The experimental results indicate that alloy classification and quantitative analysis are possible on scrap aluminium samples placed 50 cm apart from the focusing and collecting lenses, without sample preparation. Similar calibration curves and limits of detection are obtained for traditional high-energy low-frequency flashlamp-pumped and low-energy high-frequency diode-pumped lasers, showing the applicability of compact diode-pumped lasers for industrial LIBS applications.

  7. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  8. Generalized high order compact methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

  9. The Compact Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The National Alliance of Business (NAB) surveyed the 12 sites that participated in the Compact Project to develop and implement programs of business-education collaboration. NAB studied start-up activities, key players, conditions for collaboration, accomplishments, challenges, and future plans. Program outcomes indicated that building successful…

  10. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  11. Mesoscale simulations of powder compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, Ilya; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-06-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to experimental match compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show evidence of hard-to-explain reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line, which have also been observed in the experiments. We found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations, since 2D results tend to underpredict stress levels for high-porosity powders regardless of material properties. We developed a process to extract macroscale information for the simulation which can be directly used in calibration of continuum model for heterogeneous media.

  12. Compact color schlieren optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, Donald R.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1993-01-01

    A compact optical system for use with rainbow schlieren deflectometry is described. Both halves of the optical system consist of well-corrected telescopes whose refractive elements are all from manufacturer's stock catalogs, with the reflective primary being a spherical surface. As a result, the system is relatively easy to construct and meets the requirement of long focal length for quantitative rainbow schlieren measurements.

  13. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  14. NET23/STING promotes chromatin compaction from the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Malik, Poonam; Zuleger, Nikolaj; de las Heras, Jose I; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  15. Compact CFB: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, J.

    1996-12-31

    The next generation of compact circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is described in outline form. The following topics are discussed: compact CFB = pyroflow + compact separator; compact CFB; compact separator is a breakthrough design; advantages of CFB; new design with substantial development history; KUHMO: successful demo unit; KUHMO: good performance over load range with low emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; compact CFB installations; next generation CFB boiler; grid nozzle upgrades; cast segmented vortex finders; vortex finder installation; ceramic anchors; pre-cast vertical bullnose; refractory upgrades; and wet gunning.

  16. Compaction in the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, S.; Boudreau, A.

    2003-12-01

    Compaction in the mush zone of a crystallizing chamber is a model for fractionation, whereby evolved interstitial liquid expelled from the compacting crystal pile is returned to the magma chamber. If compaction was important during crystallization of the Lower and Critical Zones of the Bushveld Complex, certain textural features are expected; and, these features should correlate to position in the section, as well as to the number of mineral phases present. We report on a spectrum of textural data for 30 samples form the Lower and Critical Zones of the Bushveld Complex. Crystal Size Distributions (CSDs) are a semi-log plot of population density against crystal size, and provide information about magmatic processes such as crystal accumulation, removal and aging. Changes to the magmatic system are reflected in the shape of the CSD plot. CSDs of Bushveld rocks show a log-linear trend overturned at smaller grain sizes, a result consistent with both crystal aging, wherein larger grains grow at the expense of small ones in the crystallizing pile, and melt migration, where nucleation is suppressed by the loss of late melt fractions. CSD slope and intercept data vary with stratigraphy. Slopes in the Critical Zone are steeper, indicating less recrystallization and less of a compaction effect. In contrast, slopes in the Lower Zone are shallower, a result consistent with slower cooling and a greater compaction/recrystallization effect. Likewise, lower CSD intercepts are associated with the shallower slopes of the lower zone and vice versa. The extent of foliation is measured as alignment factor (AF), determined by orientation statistics of the major axes of the grains of interest. AF decreases with stratigraphic height and foliation is best developed in the nearly monomineralic harzburgite of the Lower Zone (AF avg=64). At the Lower Zone-Critical Zone transition, plagioclase content increases, decreasing bulk density and thus, the systems ability to accommodate compaction

  17. Novelties in physics of explosive welding and powder compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, I.; Campos, J.; Ribeiro, J.; Mendes, R.; Direito, J.; Braga, D.; Pruemmer, R.

    2003-09-01

    Widely known technologies of explosive (X) welding and explosive (X) powder compaction are based on applications of porous composite solid or liquid explosives. Recent results on dynamics of X-welding and X-powder compaction are presented and discussed in this paper in the conceptual context of an orderly oscillating detonation wave (DW), a synergetic phenomenon observed in detonation of all classes of composite energetic materials, that was discovered in LEDAP in last eight years. Regular instabilities that are induced by oscillating DW, are transmitted through the interface of the impacted materials, causing the local instability and fluctuations in both processes, formation of the interfacial waves (X-welding mechanism) and in an initial phase of powder compaction. Application of high resolution optical probes (spatial resolution 250 μm, temporal resolution 1 ns, 96 independent channels) allowed the simultaneous registration of the oscillating DW in the X-charge and transmission of oscillations, through the flyer plate, up to the welding zone. Similar measurements have been made in experiments with X-compaction of tungsten powder providing the continuos registration of shock wave velocity inside the compacted powder, its geometrical shape, their instabilities and irregularities.

  18. DNA Compaction by Yeast Mitochondrial Protein ABF2p

    SciTech Connect

    Friddle, R W; Klare, J E; Noy, A; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R; Baskin, R J; Martin, S S; Baldwin, E P

    2003-05-09

    We used high resolution Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image compaction of linear and circular DNA by the yeast mitochondrial protein ABF2p , which plays a major role in maintaining mitochondrial DNA. AFM images show that protein binding induces drastic bends in the DNA backbone for both linear and circular DNA. At high concentration of ABF2p DNA collapses into a tight globular structure. We quantified the compaction of linear DNA by measuring the end-to-end distance of the DNA molecule at increasing concentrations of ABF2p. We also derived a polymer statistical mechanics model that gives quantitative description of compaction observed in our experiments. This model shows that a number of sharp bends in the DNA backbone is often sufficient to cause DNA compaction. Comparison of our model with the experimental data showed excellent quantitative correlation and allowed us to determine binding characteristics for ABF2. Our studies indicate that ABF2 compacts DNA through a novel mechanism that involves bending of DNA backbone. We discuss the implications of such a mechanism for mitochondrial DNA maintenance.

  19. Protrusive Activity Guides Changes in Cell-Cell Tension during Epithelial Cell Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing how epithelial cells regulate cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions is essential to understand key events in morphogenesis as well as pathological events such as metastasis. During epithelial cell scattering, epithelial cell islands rupture their cell-cell contacts and migrate away as single cells on the extracellular matrix (ECM) within hours of growth factor stimulation, even as adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin are present at the cell-cell contact. How the stability of cell-cell contacts is modulated to effect such morphological transitions is still unclear. Here, we report that in the absence of ECM, E-cadherin adhesions continue to sustain substantial cell-generated forces upon hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation, consistent with undiminished adhesion strength. In the presence of focal adhesions, constraints that preclude the spreading and movement of cells at free island edges also prevent HGF-mediated contact rupture. To explore the role of cell motion and cell-cell contact rupture, we examine the biophysical changes that occur during the scattering of cell pairs. We show that the direction of cell movement with respect to the cell-cell contact is correlated with changes in the average intercellular force as well as the initial direction of cell-cell contact rupture. Our results suggest an important role for protrusive activity resulting in cell displacement and force redistribution in guiding cell-cell contact rupture during scattering. PMID:25099795

  20. Invariant distributions on compact homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatsevich, V V

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we study distributions on compact homogeneous spaces, including invariant distributions and also distributions admitting a sub-Riemannian structure. We first consider distributions of dimension 1 and 2 on compact homogeneous spaces. After this, we study the cases of compact homogeneous spaces of dimension 2, 3, and 4 in detail. Invariant distributions on simply connected compact homogeneous spaces are also treated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  1. Powder compaction in systems of bimodal distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The compaction of mixtures involving different particle sizes is discussed. The various stages of the compaction process include the rearrangement of particles, the filling of the interstices of the large particles by the smaller ones, and the change in particle size and shape upon further densification through the application of pressure. Experimental approaches and equipment used for compacting material are discussed together with the theoretical relations of the compacting process.

  2. Different activities of the reovirus FAST proteins and influenza hemagglutinin in cell-cell fusion assays and in response to membrane curvature agents

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Eileen K.; Barry, Chris; Ciechonska, Marta; Duncan, Roy

    2010-02-05

    The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins evolved to induce cell-cell, rather than virus-cell, membrane fusion. It is unclear whether the FAST protein fusion reaction proceeds in the same manner as the enveloped virus fusion proteins. We now show that fluorescence-based cell-cell and cell-RBC hemifusion assays are unsuited for detecting lipid mixing in the absence of content mixing during FAST protein-mediated membrane fusion. Furthermore, membrane curvature agents that inhibit hemifusion or promote pore formation mediated by influenza hemagglutinin had no effect on p14-induced cell-cell fusion, even under conditions of limiting p14 concentrations. Standard assays used to detect fusion intermediates induced by enveloped virus fusion proteins are therefore not applicable to the FAST proteins. These results suggest the possibility that the nature of the fusion intermediates or the mechanisms used to transit through the various stages of the fusion reaction may differ between these distinct classes of viral fusogens.

  3. Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell-cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongbao; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Yayi; Zhang, Huixian; Li, Baojun

    2013-06-01

    Studies reveal that there exists much interaction and communication between bacterial cells, with parts of these social behaviors depending on cell-cell contacts. The cell-cell contact has proved to be crucial for determining various biochemical processes. However, for cell culture with relatively low cell concentration, it is difficult to precisely control and retain the contact of a small group of cells. Particularly, the retaining of cell-cell contact is difficult when flows occur in the medium. Here, we report an optofluidic method for realization and retaining of Escherichia coli cell-cell contact in a microfluidic channel using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. The contact process is based on launching a 980-nm wavelength laser into the fibre, E. coli cells were trapped onto the fibre tip one after another, retaining cell-cell contact and forming a highly organized cell chain. The formed chains further show the ability as bio-optical waveguides.

  4. Rapid compaction during RNA folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Rick; Millett, Ian S.; Tate, Mark W.; Kwok, Lisa W.; Nakatani, Bradley; Gruner, Sol M.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Pande, Vijay; Doniach, Sebastian; Herschlag, Daniel; Pollack, Lois

    2002-04-01

    We have used small angle x-ray scattering and computer simulations with a coarse-grained model to provide a time-resolved picture of the global folding process of the Tetrahymena group I RNA over a time window of more than five orders of magnitude. A substantial phase of compaction is observed on the low millisecond timescale, and the overall compaction and global shape changes are largely complete within one second, earlier than any known tertiary contacts are formed. This finding indicates that the RNA forms a nonspecifically collapsed intermediate and then searches for its tertiary contacts within a highly restricted subset of conformational space. The collapsed intermediate early in folding of this RNA is grossly akin to molten globule intermediates in protein folding.

  5. Nuclear Physics for Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.

    2009-05-04

    A brief overview is given of the different lines of research developed under the INFN project 'Compact Stellar Objects and Dense Hadronic Matter' (acronym CT51). The emphasis of the project is on the structure of Neutron Stars (NS) and related objects. Starting from crust, the different Nuclear Physics problems are described which are encountered going inside a NS down to its inner core. The theoretical challenges and the observational inputs are discussed in some detail.

  6. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module.

  7. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  8. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1988-05-23

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observations means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns. 7 figs.

  9. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observation means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns.

  10. Compact magnetic energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-12-20

    A superconducting compact magnetic energy storage module in which a plurality of superconducting toroids, each having a toroidally wound superconducting winding inside a poloidally wound superconducting winding, are stacked so that the flow of electricity in each toroidally wound superconducting winding is in a direction opposite from the direction of electrical flow in other contiguous superconducting toroids. This allows for minimal magnetic pollution outside of the module. 4 figures.

  11. Compact color schlieren optical system.

    PubMed

    Buchele, D R; Griffin, D W

    1993-08-01

    A compact optical system for use with rainbow schlieren deflectometry is described. Both halves of the optical system consist of well-corrected telescopes whose refractive elements are all from manufacturer's stock catalogs, with the reflective primary being a spherical surface. As a result, the system is relatively easy to construct and meets the requirement of long focal length for quantitative rainbow schlieren measurements. PMID:20830072

  12. Compact Color Schlieren Optical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, Donald R.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1996-01-01

    Compact, rugged optical system developed for use in rainbow schlieren deflectometry. Features unobscured telescope with focal-length/aperture-width ratio of 30. Made of carefully selected but relatively inexpensive parts. All of lenses stock items. By-product of design is optical system with loose tolerances on interlens spacing. One of resulting advantages, insensitivity to errors in fabrication of optomechanical mounts. Another advantage is ability to compensate for some of unit-to-unit variations inherent in stock lenses.

  13. Robotic adherent cell injection for characterizing cell-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Fridman, Michael D; Leung, Clement; Lu, Zhe; Ru, Changhai; Xie, Shaorong; Luo, Jun; Hamilton, Robert M; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Compared to robotic injection of suspended cells (e.g., embryos and oocytes), fewer attempts were made to automate the injection of adherent cells (e.g., cancer cells and cardiomyocytes) due to their smaller size, highly irregular morphology, small thickness (a few micrometers thick), and large variations in thickness across cells. This paper presents a robotic system for automated microinjection of adherent cells. The system is embedded with several new capabilities: automatically locating micropipette tips; robustly detecting the contact of micropipette tip with cell culturing surface and directly with cell membrane; and precisely compensating for accumulative positioning errors. These new capabilities make it practical to perform adherent cell microinjection truly via computer mouse clicking in front of a computer monitor, on hundreds and thousands of cells per experiment (versus a few to tens of cells as state of the art). System operation speed, success rate, and cell viability rate were quantitatively evaluated based on robotic microinjection of over 4000 cells. This paper also reports the use of the new robotic system to perform cell-cell communication studies using large sample sizes. The gap junction function in a cardiac muscle cell line (HL-1 cells), for the first time, was quantified with the system. PMID:25073160

  14. Heterochrony as Diachronically Modified Cell-Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Heterochrony is an enabling concept in evolution theory that metaphorically captures the mechanism of biologic change due to mechanisms of growth and development. The spatio-temporal patterns of morphogenesis are determined by cell-to-cell signaling mediated by specific soluble growth factors and their cognate receptors on nearby cells of different germline origins. Subsequently, down-stream production of second messengers generates patterns of form and function. Environmental upheavals such as Romer’s hypothesized drying up of bodies of water globally caused the vertebrate water-land transition. That transition caused physiologic stress, modifying cell-cell signaling to generate terrestrial adaptations of the skeleton, lung, skin, kidney and brain. These tissue-specific remodeling events occurred as a result of the duplication of the Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Receptor (PTHrPR) gene, expressed in mesodermal fibroblasts in close proximity to ubiquitously expressed endodermal PTHrP, amplifying this signaling pathway. Examples of how and why PTHrPR amplification affected the ontogeny, phylogeny, physiology and pathophysiology of the lung are used to substantiate and further our understanding through insights to the heterochronic mechanisms of evolution, such as the fish swim bladder evolving into the vertebrate lung, interrelated by such functional homologies as surfactant and mechanotransduction. Instead of the conventional description of this phenomenon, lung evolution can now be understood as adaptive changes in the cellular-molecular signaling mechanisms underlying its ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26784244

  15. Heterochrony as Diachronically Modified Cell-Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Torday, John S

    2016-01-01

    Heterochrony is an enabling concept in evolution theory that metaphorically captures the mechanism of biologic change due to mechanisms of growth and development. The spatio-temporal patterns of morphogenesis are determined by cell-to-cell signaling mediated by specific soluble growth factors and their cognate receptors on nearby cells of different germline origins. Subsequently, down-stream production of second messengers generates patterns of form and function. Environmental upheavals such as Romer's hypothesized drying up of bodies of water globally caused the vertebrate water-land transition. That transition caused physiologic stress, modifying cell-cell signaling to generate terrestrial adaptations of the skeleton, lung, skin, kidney and brain. These tissue-specific remodeling events occurred as a result of the duplication of the Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Receptor (PTHrPR) gene, expressed in mesodermal fibroblasts in close proximity to ubiquitously expressed endodermal PTHrP, amplifying this signaling pathway. Examples of how and why PTHrPR amplification affected the ontogeny, phylogeny, physiology and pathophysiology of the lung are used to substantiate and further our understanding through insights to the heterochronic mechanisms of evolution, such as the fish swim bladder evolving into the vertebrate lung, interrelated by such functional homologies as surfactant and mechanotransduction. Instead of the conventional description of this phenomenon, lung evolution can now be understood as adaptive changes in the cellular-molecular signaling mechanisms underlying its ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26784244

  16. Precision of multicellular gradient sensing with cell-cell communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugler, Andrew; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya

    Gradient sensing underlies diverse biological processes. In principle, bigger ``detectors'' (cells or groups of cells) make better sensors, since then concentrations measured at the front and back of a detector are more different, and the gradient can be determined with higher precision. Indeed, experiments have shown that populations of cells detect gradients more precisely than single cells. However, this argument neglects the fact that information must be communicated between different parts of the detector, and the communication process introduces its own noise. Here we derive the fundamental limits to the precision of gradient sensing with cell-cell communication and temporal integration. We find that communication imposes its own sensory length scale, beyond which the precision cannot increase no matter how large the cell population grows. We also find that temporal integration couples the internal communication with the external signal diffusion, imposing an additional limit on the precision. We discuss how these limits can be improved by a strategy with two communicated molecular species, which we term ``regional excitation--global inhibition''. We compare our findings to experiments with communicating epithelial cells, and infer a sensor length scale of about 4 cells.

  17. The Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Cell-Cell Adhesion Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Phillip W.; Clarke, Donald N.; Weis, William I.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Nelson, W. James

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A simple epithelium forms a barrier between the outside and the inside of an organism, and is the first organized multicellular tissue found in evolution. We examine the relationship between the evolution of epithelia and specialized cell-cell adhesion proteins comprising the classical cadherin/β-catenin/α-catenin complex (CCC). A review of the divergent functional properties of the CCC in metazoans and non-metazoans, and an updated phylogenetic coverage of the CCC using recent genomic data reveal: 1) The core CCC likely originated before the last common ancestor of unikonts and their closest bikont sister taxa. 2) Formation of the CCC may have constrained sequence evolution of the classical cadherin cytoplasmic domain and β-catenin in metazoa. 3) The α-catenin binding domain in β-catenin appears to be the favored mutation site for disrupting β-catenin function in the CCC. 4) The ancestral function of the α/β-catenin heterodimer appears to be an actin-binding module. In some metazoan groups, more complex functions of α-catenin were gained by sequence divergence in the non-actin binding (N-, M-) domains. 5) Allosteric regulation of α-catenin, rather than loss of function mutations, may have evolved for more complex regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24210433

  18. Microvesicles as cell-cell messengers in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Xavier; Vion, Anne-Clémence; Tedgui, Alain; Boulanger, Chantal M

    2014-01-17

    Cell-cell communication has proven to be even more complex than previously thought since the discovery that extracellular vesicles serve as containers of biological information on various pathophysiological settings. Extracellular vesicles are classified into exosomes, microvesicles/microparticles, or apoptotic bodies, originating from different subcellular compartments. The cellular machinery controlling their formation and composition, as well as the mechanisms regulating their extracellular release, remain unfortunately much unknown. Extracellular vesicles have been found in plasma, urine, saliva, and inflammatory tissues. Their biomarker potential has raised significant interest in the cardiovascular field because the vesicle composition and microRNA content are specific signatures of cellular activation and injury. More than simply cell dust, extracellular vesicles are capable of transferring biological information to neighboring cells and play an active role in inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. The molecular interactions regulating these effects involve specific receptor activation, proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species, or delivery of genetic information to target cells. Unraveling their mechanisms of action will likely open new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24436430

  19. Compact Stellarator Path to DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, J. F.

    2007-11-01

    Issues for a DEMO reactor are sustaining an ignited/high-Q plasma in steady state, avoiding disruptions and large variations in power flux to the wall, adequate confinement of thermal plasma and alpha-particles, control of a burning plasma, particle and power handling, etc. Compact stellarators have key advantages -- steady-state high-plasma-density operation without external current drive or disruptions, stability without a close conducting wall or active feedback systems, and low recirculating power -- in addition to moderate plasma aspect ratio, good confinement, and high-beta potential. The ARIES-CS study established that compact stellarators can be competitive with tokamaks as reactors. Many of the issues for a compact stellarator DEMO can be answered using results from large tokamaks, ITER D-T experiments and fusion materials, technology and component development programs, in addition to stellarators in operation, under construction or in development. However, a large next-generation stellarator will be needed to address some physics issues: size scaling and confinement at higher parameters, burning plasma issues, and operation with a strongly radiative divertor. Technology issues include simpler coils, structure, and divertor fabrication, and better cost information.

  20. Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kober; R. Menikoff

    1999-01-01

    Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.

  1. Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

    2007-04-01

    Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340°C-1350°C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

  2. Label transfer by measuring compactness.

    PubMed

    Varga, Robert; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image annotation algorithm. First, we introduce a new similarity measure between images: compactness. This uses low level visual descriptors for determining the similarity between two images. Compactness shows how close test image features lie to training image feature cluster centers. The measure provides the core for a k-nearest neighbor type image annotation method. Afterward, a formalism for defining different transfer techniques is devised and several label transfer techniques are provided. The method as whole is evaluated on four image annotation benchmarks. The results on these sets validate the accuracy of the approach, which outperforms many state-of-the-art annotation methods. The method presented here requires a simple training process, efficiently combines different feature types and performs better than complex learning algorithms, even in this incipient form. The main contributions of this paper are the usage of compactness as a similarity measure that enables efficient low level feature comparison and an annotation algorithm based on label transfer. PMID:23955754

  3. Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

    2007-04-07

    Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340 deg. C-1350 deg. C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

  4. Modeling of reservoir compaction and surface subsidence at South Belridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, K.S.; Chan, C.K.; Prats, M.

    1995-08-01

    Finite-element models of depletion-induced reservoir compaction and surface subsidence have been calibrated with observed subsidence, locations of surface fissures, and regions of subsurface casing damage at South Belridge and used predictively for the evaluation of alternative reservoir-development plans. Pressure maintenance through diatomite waterflooding appears to be a beneficial means of minimizing additional subsidence and fissuring as well as reducing axial-compressive-type casing damage.

  5. Endothelial cell Ca2+ increases upon tumor cell contact and modulates cell-cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Pili, R; Corda, S; Passaniti, A; Ziegelstein, R C; Heldman, A W; Capogrossi, M C

    1993-01-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms involved in tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells are still largely undefined. The effect of metastatic murine melanoma cell and human prostate carcinoma cell contact on cytosolic [Ca2+] of bovine artery endothelial cells was examined in indo-1-loaded endothelial cell monolayers. A rapid increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] occurred on contact with tumor cells, but not on contact with 8-microns inert beads. A similar increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] was observed with human neutrophils or monocyte-like lymphoma cells, but not with endothelial cells, red blood cells, and melanoma cell-conditioned medium. The increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] was not inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ removal. In contrast, endothelial cell pretreatment with thapsigargin, which releases endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ into the cytosol and depletes this Ca2+ store site, abolished the cytosolic [Ca2+] rise upon melanoma cell contact. Endothelial cell pretreatment with the membrane-permeant form of the Ca2+ chelator bis-(O-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocked the increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Under static and dynamic flow conditions (0.46 dyn/cm2) bis-(O-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid pretreatment of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers inhibited melanoma cell adhesion to the endothelial cells. Thus, tumor cell contact with endothelial cells induces a rapid Ca2+ release from endothelial intracellular stores, which has a functional role in enhancing cell-cell adhesion. Images PMID:8254056

  6. Neutrophil AKT2 regulates heterotypic cell-cell interactions during vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Kim, Kyungho; Hahm, Eunsil; Molokie, Robert; Hay, Nissim; Gordeuk, Victor R; Du, Xiaoping; Cho, Jaehyung

    2014-04-01

    Interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and activated endothelial cells are important during microvascular occlusion; however, the regulatory mechanisms of these heterotypic cell-cell interactions remain unclear. Here, using intravital microscopy to evaluate mice lacking specific isoforms of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and bone marrow chimeras, we found that hematopoietic cell-associated AKT2 is important for neutrophil adhesion and crawling and neutrophil-platelet interactions on activated endothelial cells during TNF-α-induced venular inflammation. Studies with an AKT2-specific inhibitor and cells isolated from WT and Akt KO mice revealed that platelet- and neutrophil-associated AKT2 regulates heterotypic neutrophil-platelet aggregation under shear conditions. In particular, neutrophil AKT2 was critical for membrane translocation of αMβ2 integrin, β2-talin1 interaction, and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. We found that the basal phosphorylation levels of AKT isoforms were markedly increased in neutrophils and platelets isolated from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited hematological disorder associated with vascular inflammation and occlusion. AKT2 inhibition reduced heterotypic aggregation of neutrophils and platelets isolated from SCD patients and diminished neutrophil adhesion and neutrophil-platelet aggregation in SCD mice, thereby improving blood flow rates. Our results provide evidence that neutrophil AKT2 regulates αMβ2 integrin function and suggest that AKT2 is important for neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-platelet interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions such as SCD. PMID:24642468

  7. Compact fiber optic gyroscopes for platform stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, William C.; Yee, Ting K.; Coward, James F.; McClaren, Andrew; Pechner, David A.

    2013-09-01

    SA Photonics has developed a family of compact Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for platform stabilization applications. The use of short fiber coils enables the high update rates required for stabilization applications but presents challenges to maintain high performance. We are able to match the performance of much larger FOGs by utilizing several innovative technologies. These technologies include source noise reduction to minimize Angular Random Walk (ARW), advanced digital signal processing that minimizes bias drift at high update rates, and advanced passive thermal packaging that minimizes temperature induced bias drift while not significantly affecting size, weight, or power. In addition, SA Photonics has developed unique distributed FOG packaging technologies allowing the FOG electronics and photonics to be packaged remotely from the sensor head or independent axis heads to minimize size, weight, and power at the sensing location(s). The use of these technologies has resulted in high performance, including ARW less than 0.001 deg/rt-hr and bias drift less than 0.004 deg/hr at an update rate of 10 kHz, and total packaged volume less than 30 cu. in. for a 6 degree of freedom FOG-based IMU. Specific applications include optical beam stabilization for LIDAR and LADAR, beam stabilization for long-range free-space optical communication, Optical Inertial Reference Units for HEL stabilization, and Ka band antenna pedestal pointing and stabilization. The high performance of our FOGs also enables their use in traditional navigation and positioning applications. This paper will review the technologies enabling our high-performance compact FOGs, and will provide performance test results.

  8. Seeing and believing: recent advances in imaging cell-cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Alpha S.; Michael, Magdalene; Parton, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cell and developmental biology have often been closely linked to advances in our ability to visualize structure and function at many length and time scales. In this review, we discuss how new imaging technologies and new reagents have provided novel insights into the biology of cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. We focus on three developments: the application of super-resolution optical technologies to characterize the nanoscale organization of cadherins at cell-cell contacts, new approaches to interrogate the mechanical forces that act upon junctions, and advances in electron microscopy which have the potential to transform our understanding of cell-cell junctions. PMID:26543555

  9. Permeability of compacting porous lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, P. A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hess, K.-U.; Aulock, F. W.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Vasseur, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-03-01

    The highly transient nature of outgassing commonly observed at volcanoes is in part controlled by the permeability of lava domes and shallow conduits. Lava domes generally consist of a porous outer carapace surrounding a denser lava core with internal shear zones of variable porosity. Here we examine densification using uniaxial compression experiments on variably crystalline and porous rhyolitic dome lavas from the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Experiments were conducted at 900°C and an applied stress of 3 MPa to 60% strain, while monitoring acoustic emissions to track cracking. The evolution of the porous network was assessed via X-ray computed tomography, He-pycnometry, and relative gas permeability. High starting connected porosities led to low apparent viscosities and high strain rates, initially accompanied by abundant acoustic emissions. As compaction ensued, the lavas evolved; apparent viscosity increased and strain rate decreased due to strain hardening of the suspensions. Permeability fluctuations resulted from the interplay between viscous flow and brittle failure. Where phenocrysts were abundant, cracks had limited spatial extent, and pore closure decreased axial and radial permeability proportionally, maintaining the initial anisotropy. In crystal-poor lavas, axial cracks had a more profound effect, and permeability anisotropy switched to favor axial flow. Irrespective of porosity, both crystalline samples compacted to a threshold minimum porosity of 17-19%, whereas the crystal-poor sample did not achieve its compaction limit. This indicates that unconfined loading of porous dome lavas does not necessarily form an impermeable plug and may be hindered, in part by the presence of crystals.

  10. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.