Science.gov

Sample records for induces local inflammatory

  1. Local inflammatory reaction induced by Scolopendra viridicornis centipede venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Louise Faggionato; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Távora, Bianca de Carvalho Lins Fernandes; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Knysak, Irene; Gióia Guizze, Samuel Paulo; Santoro, Marcelo Larami; Barbaro, Katia Cristina

    2013-12-15

    Centipede envenomation is generally mild, and human victims usually manifest burning pain, erythema and edema. Despite the abundance and ubiquity of these animals, centipede venom has been poorly characterized in literature. For this reason, the aim of this work was to investigate local inflammatory features induced by Scolopendra viridicornis centipede envenomation in mice, evaluating edema formation, leukocyte infiltration, production of inflammatory mediators, and also performing histological analysis. The highest edematogenic activity induced by the venom, determined by plethysmometry, was noticed 0.5 h after injection in mice footpad. At 24 h, edema was still detected in animals that received 15 and 60 μg of venom, and at 48 h, only in animals injected with 60 μg of venom. In relation to leukocyte count, S. viridicornis venom induced cell recruitment, mainly neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, in all doses and time periods analyzed in comparison with PBS-injected mice. An increase in lymphocytes was detected especially between 1 and 24 h at 60 μg dose. Besides, eosinophil recruitment was observed mainly for 15 and 60 μg doses in early time periods. Edema formation and cell recruitment were also confirmed by histological analysis. Moreover, S. viridicornis venom stimulated the release of IL-6, MCP-1, KC, and IL-1β. Conversely, S. viridicornis venom did not induce the release of detectable levels of TNF-α. We demonstrated that the edematogenic activity induced by S. viridicornis venom was of rapid onset, and the venom stimulated secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators which contribute to the inflammatory reaction induced by S. viridicornis venom in an experimental model. PMID:24140924

  2. 5-HT induces temporomandibular joint nociception in rats through the local release of inflammatory mediators and activation of local β adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Torres-Chávez, Karla Elena; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2012-09-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is an important inflammatory mediator found in high levels in the synovial fluid of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of patients with inflammatory pain. In this study, we used the nociceptive behavior responses, measured as flinching the head and rubbing the orofacial region, as a nociceptive assay. We demonstrated that the local blockade of the 5-HT₃ receptor and β₁ or β₂-adrenoceptors, the depletion of norepinephrine in the sympathetic terminals and the local inhibition of cyclooxygenase significantly reduced 5-HT-induced TMJ nociception. These results demonstrated that 5-HT induces nociception in the TMJ region by the activation of β₁ and β₂ adrenoceptors located in the TMJ region and local release of sympathetic amines and prostaglandins. Therefore, the high levels of 5-HT in the synovial fluid of patients with TMJ inflammatory pain may contribute to TMJ pain by similar mechanisms. PMID:22683622

  3. Evaluation of the local inflammatory events induced by BpirMP, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops pirajai venom.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Mamede, Carla C N; Zoccal, Karina F; Cintra, Adélia C O; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Stanziola, Leonilda; de Oliveira, Fabio; Sampaio, Suely V

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the edema and hyperalgesic response induced by BpirMP, a P-I class metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom. The animals were injected with the metalloproteinase or sterile PBS (control group) and evaluated for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24h. The intraplantar injection of BpirMP (5-50μg/paw) induced a dose- and time-dependent response. BpirMP (50μg) induced paw edema in rats rapidly, with peak response two hours after injection of the toxin. Also, BpirMP injection caused a significant reduction in the nociceptive threshold of the animals tested, with peak response three hours after injection of the toxin. The inflammatory mediators involved in these responses were assayed by pretreatment of animals with synthesis inhibitors or receptor antagonists. Peak responses were significantly reduced by pretreatment of animals with pyrilamine, a histamine receptor antagonist, sodium cromoglycate, a mast cell degranulation inhibitor and valeryl salicylate and meloxicam, cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The analysis of the peritoneal cavity exudate revealed an acute inflammatory response with recruitment of leukocytes, increased levels of total proteins, nitric oxide and the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that BpirMP induces inflammation mediated by mast cell degranulation, histamine, prostaglandins and cytokine production. PMID:26468034

  4. Fat-water MRI is sensitive to local adipose tissue inflammatory changes in a diet-induced obesity mouse model at 15T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Henry H.; Webb, Corey D.; Gruen, Marnie L.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Gore, John C.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    In obesity, fat-water MRI (FWMRI) methods provide valuable information about adipose tissue (AT) distribution. AT is known to undergo complex metabolic and endocrine changes in association with chronic inflammation including iron overloading. Here, we investigate the potential for FWMRI parameters (fat signal fraction (FSF), local magnetic field offset, and T2*) to be sensitive to AT inflammatory changes in an established diet-induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on a low fat (LFD) or a high fat diet (HFD). 3D multi- gradient-echo MRI at 15.2T was performed at baseline, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after diet onset. A 3D fat-water separation algorithm and additional processing was used to generate FSF, local field offset, and T2* maps. We examined these parameters in perirenal AT ROIs from HFD and LFD mice. Results: The data suggest that FSF, local field offset, and T2* can differentiate time course behavior between inflamed and control AT (increasing FSF, decreasing local field offset, increasing followed by decreasing T2*). The biophysical mechanisms of these observed changes are not well understood and require further study. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first evidence that FWMRI can provide biomarkers sensitive to AT inflammation, and that FWMRI has the potential for longitudinal non-invasive assessment of AT inflammation in obesity.

  5. Neurotropin attenuates local inflammatory response and inhibits demyelination induced by chronic constriction injury of the mouse sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Okada, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Michio; Fujisawa, Hiroki; Okada, Tomoyuki; Naiki, Mitsuru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2016-07-01

    Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems is a refractory disorder and the management of such chronic pain has become a major issue. Neurotropin is a drug widely used in Japan and China to treat chronic pain. Although Neurotropin has been demonstrated to suppress chronic pain through the descending pain inhibitory system, the mechanism of analgesic action in the peripheral nervous system remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the local effects of Neurotropin on peripheral nerve damage in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Neurotropin reduced mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the sciatic nerve 1 day after the injury. Activation of Erk was also inhibited locally in the Neurotropin treatment group. Since Erk activation results in demyelination along with dedifferentiation of Schwann cells, we investigated the expression level of myelin basic protein. Five days after the injury, Neurotropin attenuated the downregulation of myelin basic protein in the sciatic nerve in the CCI model. Local effects of Neurotropin around the injury site may result in discovery of new treatments for not only neuropathic pain but also demyelinating diseases and peripheral nervous system injury. PMID:27233579

  6. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  7. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W; Stevens, Markus F; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  8. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  9. Inhibition of titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis after local administration of dopamine and suppression of osteoclastogenesis via D2-like receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Zhu, Mo; Gu, Ye; Zhang, Wen; Shao, Hongguo; Wang, Yijun; Ping, Zichuan; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Liangliang; Geng, Dechun

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation and extensive osteoclast formation play critical roles in wear-debris-induced peri-implant osteolysis. We investigated the potential impact of dopamine on titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups: sham control (PBS treatment), titanium (titanium/PBS treatment), low- (titanium/2 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine) and high-dopamine (titanium/10 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine). After 2 weeks, mouse calvariae were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometry analysis. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were isolated to assess osteoclast differentiation. Dopamine significantly reduced titanium-particle-induced osteolysis compared with the titanium group as confirmed by micro-CT and histomorphometric data. Osteoclast numbers were 34.9% and 59.7% (both p < 0.01) lower in the low- and high-dopamine-treatment groups, respectively, than in the titanium group. Additionally, low RANKL, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 immunochemistry staining were noted in dopamine-treatment groups. Dopamine markedly inhibited osteoclast formation, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BMMs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the resorption area was decreased with 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M dopamine to 40.0% and 14.5% (both p < 0.01), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of dopamine was reversed by the D2-like-receptor antagonist haloperidol but not by the D1-like-receptor antagonist SCH23390. These results suggest that dopamine therapy could be developed into an effective and safe method for osteolysis-related disease caused by chronic inflammation and excessive osteoclast formation. PMID:26695376

  10. Ac2-26 Mimetic Peptide of Annexin A1 Inhibits Local and Systemic Inflammatory Processes Induced by Bothrops moojeni Venom and the Lys-49 Phospholipase A2 in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Carla Patrícia; Ullah, Anwar; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy; Gil, Cristiane Damas; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is an endogenous glucocorticoid regulated protein that modulates anti-inflammatory process and its therapeutic potential has recently been recognized in a range of systemic inflammatory disorders. The effect of the N-terminal peptide Ac2-26 of AnxA1 on the toxic activities of Bothrops moojeni crude venom (CV) and its myotoxin II (MjTX-II) were evaluated using a peritonitis rat model. Peritonitis was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of either CV or MjTX-II, a Lys-49 phospholipase A2. Fifteen minutes after the injection, the rats were treated with either Ac2-26 or PBS. Four hours later, the CV and MjTX-II-induced peritonitis were characterized by neutrophilia (in the peritoneal exudate, blood and mesentery) and increased number of mesenteric degranulated mast cells and macrophages. At 24 hours post-injection, the local inflammatory response was attenuated in the CV-induced peritonitis while the MjTX-II group exhibited neutrophilia (peritoneal exudates and blood). Ac2-26 treatment prevented the influx of neutrophils in MjTX-II–induced peritonitis and diminished the proportion of mesenteric degranulated mast cells and macrophages in CV-induced peritonitis. Additionally, CV and MjTX-II promoted increased levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the peritoneal exudates which were significantly reduced after Ac2-26 treatment. At 4 and 24 hours, the endogenous expression of AnxA1 was upregulated in the mesenteric neutrophils (CV and MjTX-II groups) and mast cells (CV group). In the kidneys, CV and MjTX-II administrations were associated with an increased number of macrophages and morphological alterations in the juxtamedullary nephrons in proximal and distal tubules. Ac2-26 promoted significant recovery of the juxtamedullary structures, decreased the number of macrophages and diminished the AnxA1 in epithelial cells from distal tubules and renal capsules. Our results show that Ac2-26 treatment significantly attenuates local and systemic inflammatory

  11. DNA Vaccines: MHC II-Targeted Vaccine Protein Produced by Transfected Muscle Fibres Induces a Local Inflammatory Cell Infiltrate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Løvås, Tom-Ole; Gundersen, Kristian; Bogen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with naked DNA holds great promise but immunogenicity needs to be improved. DNA constructs encoding bivalent proteins that bind antigen-presenting cells (APC) for delivery of antigen have been shown to enhance T and B cell responses and protection in tumour challenge experiments. However, the mechanism for the increased potency remains to be determined. Here we have constructed DNA vaccines that express the fluorescent protein mCherry, a strategy which allowed tracking of vaccine proteins. Transfected muscle fibres in mice were visualized, and their relationship to infiltrating mononuclear cells could be determined. Interestingly, muscle fibers that produced MHC class II-specific dimeric vaccine proteins with mCherry were for weeks surrounded by a localized intense cellular infiltrate composed of CD45+, MHC class II+ and CD11b+ cells. Increasing numbers of eosinophils were observed among the infiltrating cells from day 7 after immunization. The local infiltrate surrounding mCherry+ muscle fibers was dependent on the MHC II-specificity of the vaccine proteins since the control, a non-targeted vaccine protein, failed to induce similar infiltrates. Chemokines measured on day 3 in immunized muscle indicate both a DNA effect and an electroporation effect. No influence of targeting was observed. These results contribute to our understanding for why targeted DNA vaccines have an improved immunogenicity. PMID:25299691

  12. Local inflammatory response in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Łaskowski, P; Klim, B; Ostrowski, K; Szkudlarek, M; Litwiejko-Pietryńczak, E; Kitlas, K; Nienartowicz, S; Dzięcioł, J

    2016-06-01

    Type and intensity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in close proximity to the primary tumor are prognostically significant in postoperative patients. High intensity of TILs is considered to be a prognostically beneficial factor. The research included 66 postoperative colorectal cancer patients. The control group comprised 20 colon segments. Monoclonal antibodies LCA, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD23 and CD138 were used to differentiate between T and B lymphocytes. Types of cells in the infiltrate were defined. We found greater numbers of T and B lymphocytes located in close proximity to the cancerous tissue when compared to the control group. T lymphocyte intensity in the inflammatory infiltrations was directly correlated with the size of resected tumors, presence of regional lymphatic node metastases and histological grade of malignancy. Lymphocytic infiltrations of greater intensity located in close proximity to the primary tumor were found in subjects with less advanced colorectal cancer. The research presented here proves direct dependence between the immune system and colorectal cancer. The presence of lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrations located in close proximity to the cancerous tissue has been proved to be prognostically beneficial. The obtained results support the application of immunotherapy in colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:27543872

  13. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Actions of Systemically or Locally Treated Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Inflammatory Model.

    PubMed

    Mert, Tufan; Kurt, Akif H; Arslan, Mahmut; Çelik, Ahmet; Tugtag, Berin; Akkurt, Aysenur

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells provide hopeful results. Therefore, in this present study, possible anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive actions of locally or systemically treated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) investigated in experimental inflammation model. ADMSCs were isolated from a male Wistar rat under anesthesia, and then they were cultured and expanded for transplantation in all the experimental animals. Effects of intraperitoneal or intraplantar ADMSC treatments on the hallmarks of the inflammatory nociception, such as hyperalgesia, allodynia, edema, and several biochemical parameters were investigated using a well-established carrageenan (CG)-induced hindpaw inflammation model in male rats. Both local and systemic ADMSC treatment increased the latencies, thresholds, and the development of edema in a time-dependent manner. In addition, administration of ADMSC suppressed the increased level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide (NO), but further enhanced that of IL-10. Locally treated ADMSC at inflammatory sites effectively suppressed the CG-induced inflammatory responses when compared to the intraperitoneal route of administration. Findings suggest that therapeutic potential of ADMSC can change depending on its route of administration. Local ADMSC treatments may suppress the development of inflammatory-nociception and edema by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO level and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine production at inflammatory sites. PMID:25563206

  14. Local anti-inflammatory activity and systemic side effects of NM-135, a new prodrug glucocorticoid, in an experimental inflammatory rat model.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T; Kibushi, N; Nakajima, T; Kakuta, T; Tanaka, N; Sato, C; Sugai, K; Kijima-Suda, I; Kai, H; Miyata, T

    1998-12-01

    The local anti-inflammatory activity and systemic side effects of NM-135 (6alpha,9-difluoro-11beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methyl-21[[2 ,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(4-methylbenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-pregna-1, 4-diene-3,20-dione) in croton oil-induced granuloma pouches and ear edema in rats were studied. The local anti-inflammatory activity of NM-135 was stronger than that of betamethasone 17-valerate (BV). As to systemic side effects, BV and diflucortolon valerate (DFV) caused thymolysis at the doses required for the anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, no clear systemic side effect was observed in rats administered NM-135 at the dose producing the anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that NM-135 is a drug exhibiting a high degree of dissociation between the local anti-inflammatory activity and systemic side effects. PMID:9920209

  15. Thiol redox barrier; local and systemic surveillance against stress and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Yodoi, Junji; Tian, Hai; Masutani, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    A 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-, human thioredoxin 1 (TRX) has demonstrated an excellent anti-inflammatory effect in various animal models. TRX is induced by various oxidative stress factors, including ultraviolet rays, radiation, oxidation, viral infections, ischemia reperfusion and anticancer agents, and are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases. We have demonstrated that systemic administration and transgenic overexpression of TRX is effective in a wide variety of in vivo inflammatory disease models, such as viral pneumonia, acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, indomethacin-induced gastric injury, and dermatitis. Our recent studies indicate that topically applied TRX prevents skin inflammation via the inhibition of local formation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These indicate that the activation of inflammasome in skin and mucosa may be regulated by TRX. These suggest that application of TRX may be useful for the treatment of various skin and mucosal inflammatory disorders. Based on these results, we are conducting clinical studies to develop human recombinant thioredoxin 1 (rhTRX) pharmaceuticals. We have also developed substances that increase the expression of TRX in the body (TRX-inducing substances) in vegetables and other plant ingredients, and we are also developing skin-care products and functional foods that take advantage of the anti-inflammation and anti-allergic action of TRX. PMID:27095222

  16. Comparative analysis of local effects caused by Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni snake venoms: enzymatic contributions and inflammatory modulations.

    PubMed

    Mamede, Carla Cristine Neves; de Sousa, Bruna Barbosa; Pereira, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha; Matias, Mariana Santos; de Queiroz, Mayara Ribeiro; de Morais, Nadia Cristina Gomes; Vieira, Sâmela Alves Pereira Batista; Stanziola, Leonilda; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2016-07-01

    Bothropic envenomation is characterised by severe local damage caused by the toxic action of venom components and aggravated by induced inflammation. In this comparative study, the local inflammatory effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni, two snakes of epidemiological importance in Brazil, were investigated. The toxic action of venom components induced by bothropic venom was also characterised. Herein, the oedema, hyperalgesia and myotoxicity induced by bothropic venom were monitored for various lengths of time after venom injection in experimental animals. The intensity of the local effects caused by B. moojeni venom is considerably more potent than B. alternatus venom. Our results also indicate that metalloproteases and phospholipases A2 have a central role in the local damage induced by bothropic venoms, but serine proteases also contribute to the effects of these venoms. Furthermore, we observed that specific anti-inflammatory drugs were able to considerably reduce the oedema, the pain and the muscle damage caused by both venoms. The inflammatory reaction induced by B. moojeni venom is mediated by eicosanoid action, histamine and nitric oxide, with significant participation of bradykinin on the hyperalgesic and myotoxic effects of this venom. These mediators also participate to inflammation caused by B. alternatus venom. However, the inefficient anti-inflammatory effects of some local modulation suggest that histamine, leukotrienes and nitric oxide have little role in the oedema or myotoxicity caused by B. alternatus venom. PMID:26975252

  17. Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under physiological conditions the gut-associated lymphoid tissues not only prevent the induction of a local inflammatory immune response, but also induce systemic tolerance to fed antigens. A notable exception is coeliac disease, where genetically susceptible individuals expressing human leukocyte...

  18. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  19. Design, synthesis, and local anti-inflammatory activity of 17β-carboxamide derivatives of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Dobričić, Vladimir; Marković, Bojan; Milenković, Nikola; Savić, Vladimir; Jaćević, Vesna; Rančić, Nemanja; Vladimirov, Sote; Cudina, Olivera

    2014-11-01

    Molecular docking studies were performed on 18 17β-carboxamide steroids in order to select compounds with potential local anti-inflammatory activity. These derivatives are amides of cortienic acids (obtained from hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and methylprednisolone) with methyl or ethyl esters of six amino acids. Interactions with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), binding energies and ligand efficiency values of these compounds were compared with dexamethasone and cortienic acid obtained from prednisolone (inactive metabolite). On the basis of molecular docking studies, seven compounds were selected and their binding affinities for the GR were predicted by use of the exponential model created in this study. Subsequently, selected compounds were synthesized in good yields by use of modified N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) coupling procedure. Finally, the local anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was examined by use of the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In vivo evaluation of systemic side effects as well as in silico prediction of metabolism were performed on the derivative with the best local anti-inflammatory activity. The combination of molecular docking studies and the exponential model for the GR binding affinity prediction could be used as an in silico tool for the rational design of novel 17β-carboxamide steroids with potentially better biological profile than dexamethasone. PMID:25159891

  20. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state. PMID:26172192

  1. Inflammatory mechanisms of pulmonary injury induced by mustards.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Vayas, Kinal N; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of humans and animals to vesicants, including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), causes severe and debilitating damage to the respiratory tract. Both acute and long term pathological consequences are observed in the lung following a single exposure to these vesicants. Evidence from our laboratories and others suggest that macrophages and the inflammatory mediators they release play an important role in mustard-induced lung injury. In this paper, the pathogenic effects of SM and NM on the lung are reviewed, along with the potential role of inflammatory macrophages and mediators they release in mustard-induced pulmonary toxicity. PMID:26478570

  2. Biomaterial-Mediated Modification of the Local Inflammatory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Shane; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in the rejection of biomaterial implants. In addition, despite playing an important role in the early stages of wound healing, dysregulated inflammation has a negative impact on the wound healing processes. Thus, strategies to modulate excessive inflammation are needed. Through the use of biomaterials to control the release of anti-inflammatory therapeutics, increased control over inflammation is possible in a range of pathological conditions. However, the choice of biomaterial (natural or synthetic), and the form it takes (solid, hydrogel, or micro/nanoparticle) is dependent on both the cause and tissue location of inflammation. These considerations also influence the nature of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic that is incorporated into the biomaterial to be delivered. In this report, the range of biomaterials and anti-inflammatory therapeutics that have been combined will be discussed, as well as the functional benefit observed. Furthermore, we point toward future strategies in the field that will bring more efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutics closer to realization. PMID:26029692

  3. Biomaterial-mediated modification of the local inflammatory environment.

    PubMed

    Browne, Shane; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in the rejection of biomaterial implants. In addition, despite playing an important role in the early stages of wound healing, dysregulated inflammation has a negative impact on the wound healing processes. Thus, strategies to modulate excessive inflammation are needed. Through the use of biomaterials to control the release of anti-inflammatory therapeutics, increased control over inflammation is possible in a range of pathological conditions. However, the choice of biomaterial (natural or synthetic), and the form it takes (solid, hydrogel, or micro/nanoparticle) is dependent on both the cause and tissue location of inflammation. These considerations also influence the nature of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic that is incorporated into the biomaterial to be delivered. In this report, the range of biomaterials and anti-inflammatory therapeutics that have been combined will be discussed, as well as the functional benefit observed. Furthermore, we point toward future strategies in the field that will bring more efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutics closer to realization. PMID:26029692

  4. Resolvin D1 and Resolvin D2 Govern Local Inflammatory Tone in Obese Fat1

    PubMed Central

    Clària, Joan; Dalli, Jesmond; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Gao, Fei; Serhan, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented rise in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related disorders is causally linked to a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Timely resolution of inflammation and return of this tissue to homeostasis are key to reducing obesity-induced metabolic dysfunctions. Here, with inflamed adipose, we investigated the biosynthesis, conversion and actions of Resolvin (Rv) D1 and RvD2, potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators (LM), and their ability to regulate monocyte interactions with adipocytes. LM-metabololipidomics identified RvD1 and RvD2 from endogenous sources in human and mouse adipose tissues. We also identified pro-resolving receptors (i.e. ALX/FPR2, ChemR23 and GPR32) in these tissues. Compared to lean tissue, obese adipose showed a deficit of these endogenous anti-inflammatory signals. With inflamed obese adipose tissue, RvD1 and RvD2 each rescued impaired expression and secretion of adiponectin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner while decreasing pro-inflammatory adipokine production including leptin, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β. RvD1 and RvD2 each reduced MCP-1 and leukotriene B4-stimulated monocyte adhesion to adipocytes and their transadipose migration. Adipose tissue rapidly converted both resolvins to novel oxo-resolvins. RvD2 was enzymatically converted to 7-oxo-RvD2 as its major metabolic route that retained adipose-directed RvD2 actions. These results indicate, in adipose, D-series resolvins (RvD1 and RvD2) are potent pro-resolving mediators that counteract both local adipokine production and monocyte accumulation in obesity-induced adipose inflammation. PMID:22844113

  5. BET Inhibition Attenuates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammatory Response by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Transcription and Enhancer Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjing; Wang, Zhen; Hu, Xiangming; Chen, Ruichuan; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2016-05-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. H. pylori-initiated chronic gastritis is characterized by enhanced expression of many NF-κB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. Brd4 has emerged as an important NF-κB regulator and regulates the expression of many NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. In this study, we demonstrated that Brd4 was not only actively involved in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene mRNA transcription but also H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene enhancer RNA (eRNA) synthesis. Suppression of H. pylori-induced eRNA synthesis impaired H. pylori-induced mRNA synthesis. Furthermore, H. pylori stimulated NF-κB-dependent recruitment of Brd4 to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes to facilitate the RNA polymerase II-mediated eRNA and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of Brd4 by JQ1 attenuated H. pylori-induced eRNA and mRNA synthesis for a subset of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. JQ1 also inhibited H. pylori-induced interaction between Brd4 and RelA and the recruitment of Brd4 and RNA polymerase II to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes. Finally, we demonstrated that JQ1 suppressed inflammatory gene expression, inflammation, and cell proliferation in H. pylori-infected mice. These studies highlight the importance of Brd4 in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene expression and suggest that Brd4 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of H. pylori-triggered inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:27084101

  6. The anti-inflammatory effects of methylsulfonylmethane on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lim, Hwan; Baek, Doo-Yeon; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-04-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), also known as dimethyl sulfone and methyl sulfone, is an organic sulfur-containing compound that occurs naturally in a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and animals, including humans. In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of MSM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages, RAW264.7 cells. MSM significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) by alleviating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased by MSM treatment in cell culture supernatants. Further study indicated that the translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB to the nucleus was inhibited by MSM treatment in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, in which it helped block degradation of inhibitor of NF-kappaB. In addition, in vivo studies demonstrated that topical administration of MSM at 500-1250 microg/ear resulted in similar inhibitory activities in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced mouse ear edema. Collectively, theses results indicate that MSM inhibits LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages through downregulation of NF-kappaB signaling. PMID:19336900

  7. Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

  8. OXYGEN MITIGATES THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN A MODEL OF HEMORRHAGE AND ZYMOSAN-INDUCED INFLAMMATION.

    PubMed

    Rahat, Michal A; Brod, Vera; Amit-Cohen, Bat-Chen; Henig, Oryan; Younis, Said; Bitterman, Haim

    2016-02-01

    Sequential insults (hits) may change the inflammatory reaction that develops in response to separate single hits (e.g., injury, infection); however, their effects on the long-term clinical outcome are still only partially elucidated. Double-hit models are typically severe and fatal. We characterized in C57BL/6 mice a moderate double-hit model of hemorrhage (35%-40% of total blood volume) and resuscitation, followed by peritoneal injection of zymosan A that induced local and systemic inflammation with 58% mortality. This model allowed exploration of the inflammatory response over time in the surviving mice. We show that after 2 days, mice subjected to the double-hit model had elevated proinflammatory systemic and local peritoneal cytokine response (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6) and moderately elevated anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, transforming growth factor-β), compared with the single-hit and sham mice. However, this dynamically changed, and by day 7, proinflammatory cytokines were reduced, and anti-inflammatory cytokines were markedly (P < 0.05) elevated in the double-hit group. Mice in the double-hit group that inhaled 100% oxygen intermittently for 6 h every day exhibited markedly reduced serum proinflammatory cytokines as early as day 2 (P < 0.05), inhibited macrophage infiltration into the peritoneum (by 13-fold; P < 0.05), and substantially increased survival rates of 85% (P = 0.00144). Oxygen mitigates the inflammatory response and exerts a beneficial effect on survival in a double-hit model of hemorrhage and zymosan-induced inflammation. PMID:26771936

  9. Fenofibrate-induced massive regression of mutiple inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma.

    PubMed

    Poupon, Raoul; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Arrivé, Lionel

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCA), which accounts for 40% to 50% of all hepatocellular adenomas are characterized by the activation of the IL6/JAK/STAT pathway. We herein report the case of a 52-year-old woman presenting with severe multiple typical IHCA that regressed dramatically on treatment with fenofibrate, a PPAR agonist known to prevent IL6-induced inflammation experimentally and in humans. Further similar observations are needed to ascertain the potential benefit of this therapeutic approach for large or unresectable IHCA. PMID:26572747

  10. The role of TLR2 in the acute inflammatory response induced by Bothrops atrox snake venom.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Teixeira, Catarina; Borges da Silva, Henrique; D'Império Lima, Maria Regina; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Envenomation by snakes of the species Bothrops atrox induces local and systemic effects. Local effects include drastic tissue damage and a marked inflammatory response as a result of the synthesis and release of a variety of protein and lipid mediators. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways can play an important role in this response, leading to synthesis of these inflammatory mediators. This study investigated the influence of TLR2 on the acute inflammatory response induced by Bothrops atrox venom. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT) and TLR2 gene knockout mice (TLR2(-/-)) were injected with Bothrops atrox venom (BaV), and the following responses to the venom were assessed in peritoneal exudate: leukocyte accumulation; release of mediators, including CCL-2, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6 and LTB4; protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2; and quantification of their products PGE2 and TXA2. After injection with BaV, the TLR2(-/-) mice (TLR2(-/-)BaV) had higher levels of IL-6 and CCL-2 than WT animals kept under the same conditions (WTBaV), together with an accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), inhibition of IL-1β and LTB4 and reduced mononuclear leukocyte influx. However, no significant differences in COX-2 protein expression or PGE2, TXA2 and IL-10 production between the TLR2(-/-)BaV and WTBav animals were observed. Together, these results indicate that the signaling pathway activated by TLR2 acts by modulating the induced inflammatory response to BaV through the direct action of venom-associated molecular patterns (VAMPs) or indirectly by forming damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and that this may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:27109323

  11. Thiopurine-induced pancreatitis in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Ledder, Oren; Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S

    2015-04-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gut and can present at any age with increased numbers of diagnoses seen in many countries in recent years. The thiopurine drugs, azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, are commonly used to maintain remission in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; however, the use of these drugs may be limited by the development of pancreatitis in some individuals. Recent data indicate a genetic risk factor and provides a potential immune-mediated mechanism for thiopurine-induced pancreatitis. Management of thiopurine-induced pancreatitis requires exclusion of the triggering drug, which leads to prompt resolution of symptoms. This thiopurine side-effect may limit therapeutic options for future management of patients. PMID:25494551

  12. Inflammatory microenvironment and human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mangino, Giorgio; Chiantore, Maria Vincenza; Iuliano, Marco; Fiorucci, Gianna; Romeo, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    More than 15% of the global cancer burden is attributable to infectious agents. Pathogens that cause persistent infections are strongly associated with cancer, inflammation being a major component of the chronic infections as revealed by basic, clinical and epidemiological studies. Persistent infection and viral oncoproteins induce specific cellular pathways modifications that promote tumorigenesis. Deregulated and continuous immune response leads to severe tissue and systemic damage, impaired tumor surveillance and consequent carcinogenesis promotion by selecting for metastatic and therapeutically resistant tumor phenotypes. In this review, the role of inflammatory microenvironment in the HPV-induced carcinogenesis is addressed, with a specific focus on the involvement of the immune molecules and microRNAs as well as their delivery through the microvesicle cargo. PMID:27021827

  13. Glucocorticoid-Induced Attenuation of the Inflammatory Response in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulou, Antonia; Heijmans, Jeroen P M; Burgerhout, Erik; Oskam, Nienke; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H; Schaaf, Marcel J M

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are secreted upon stress. Their effects are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, which acts as a transcription factor. Because the antiinflammatory activity of glucocorticoids has been well established, they are widely used clinically to treat many inflammatory and immune-related diseases. However, the exact specificity, mechanisms, and level of regulation of different inflammatory pathways have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a tail fin amputation assay was used in 3-day-old zebrafish larvae to study the immunomodulatory effects of the synthetic glucocorticoid beclomethasone. First, a transcriptome analysis was performed, which showed that upon amputation mainly immune-related genes are regulated. This regulation was inhibited by beclomethasone for 86% of regulated genes. For two immune-related genes, tlr4bb and alox5ap, the amputation-induced increase was not attenuated by beclomethasone. Alox5ap is involved in eicosanoid biosynthesis, but the increase in leukotriene B4 concentration upon amputation was abolished, and lipoxin A4 levels were unaffected by beclomethasone. Furthermore, we studied the migration of neutrophils and macrophages toward the wound site. Our results show that amputation induced migration of both types of leukocytes and that this migration was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Beclomethasone treatment attenuated the migratory behavior of neutrophils in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner but left the migration of macrophages unaffected. In conclusion, beclomethasone has a dramatic inhibitory effect on the amputation-induced proinflammatory gene regulation, and this is reflected in an inhibition of the neutrophil migration but not the migration of macrophages, which are likely to be involved in inflammation resolution. PMID:27219276

  14. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  16. Biopsy-induced inflammatory conditions improve endometrial receptivity: the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Gnainsky, Y; Granot, I; Aldo, P; Barash, A; Or, Y; Mor, G; Dekel, N

    2015-01-01

    A decade ago, we first reported that endometrial biopsy significantly improves the success of pregnancy in IVF patients with recurrent implantation failure, an observation that was later confirmed by others. Recently, we have demonstrated that this treatment elevated the levels of endometrial pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the abundance of macrophages (Mac) and dendritic cells (DCs). We therefore hypothesised that the biopsy-related successful pregnancy is secondary to an inflammatory response, and aimed at deciphering its mechanism of action. Supporting our hypothesis, we found that the pro-inflammatory TNFα stimulated primary endometrial stromal cells to express cytokines that attracted monocytes and induced their differentiation into DCs. These monocyte-derived DCs stimulated endometrial epithelial cells to express the adhesive molecule SPP1 (osteopontin (OPN)) and its receptors ITGB3 and CD44, whereas MUC16, which interferes with adhesion, was downregulated. Other implantation-associated genes, such as CHST2, CCL4 (MIP1B) and GROA, were upregulated by monocyte-derived Mac. These findings suggest that uterine receptivity is mediated by the expression of molecules associated with inflammation. Such an inflammatory milieu is not generated in some IVF patients with recurrent implantation failure in the absence of local injury provoked by the biopsy treatment. PMID:25349438

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamesch, K; Borkham-Kamphorst, E; Strnad, P; Weiskirchen, R

    2015-04-01

    The intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with other hepatotoxins is an experimental model for inducing systemic and hepatic inflammation in rodents applied worldwide. The endotoxin is recognized by the LPS-binding protein. This complex binds together with the lymphocyte antigen 96 (MD2) and the pattern-recognition receptor CD14 to members of the toll-like receptor family. The activated receptor complex in turn transduces signals to well characterized intracellular cascades that result in a multifaceted network of intracellular responses ending in inflammation. The most prominent among these is the activation of the NF-κB pathway and the production of a multitude of inflammatory cytokines. Although the application of LPS is in general easy to perform, unintended variations in preparation of the injection solution or in handling of the animals might affect the reproducibility or the outcome of a specific experiment. Here, we present a well-standardized protocol that allows for an induction of highly reproducible acute hepatic inflammation in mice. Furthermore, examples of appropriate readouts for the resulting inflammatory response are given. PMID:25835737

  18. Involvement of Inflammatory Cytokines in Antiarrhythmic Effects of Clofibrate in Ouabain-Induced Arrhythmia in Isolated Rat Atria

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Somayeh; Nikoui, Vahid; Imran Khan, Muhammad; Amiri, Shayan; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Considering the cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of clofibrate, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate the involvement of local and systemic inflammatory cytokines in possible antiarrhythmic effects of clofibrate in ouabain-induced arrhythmia in rats. Rats were orally treated with clofibrate (300 mg/kg), and ouabain (0.56 mg/kg) was administered to animals intraperitoneally. After induction of anesthesia, the atria were isolated and the onset of arrhythmia and asystole was recorded. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in atria were also measured. Clofibrate significantly postponed the onset of arrhythmia and asystole when compared to control group (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01, resp.). While ouabain significantly increased the atrial beating rate in control group (P ≤ 0.05), same treatment did not show similar effect in clofibrate-treated group (P > 0.05). Injection of ouabain significantly increased the atrial and systemic levels of all studied inflammatory cytokines (P ≤ 0.05). Pretreatment with clofibrate could attenuate the ouabain-induced elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α in atria (P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.05, resp.), as well as ouabain-induced increase in IL-6 in plasma (P ≤ 0.05). Based on our findings, clofibrate may possess antiarrhythmic properties through mitigating the local and systemic inflammatory factors including IL-6 and TNF-α. PMID:26977143

  19. Involvement of Inflammatory Cytokines in Antiarrhythmic Effects of Clofibrate in Ouabain-Induced Arrhythmia in Isolated Rat Atria.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Somayeh; Nikoui, Vahid; Imran Khan, Muhammad; Amiri, Shayan; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Considering the cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of clofibrate, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate the involvement of local and systemic inflammatory cytokines in possible antiarrhythmic effects of clofibrate in ouabain-induced arrhythmia in rats. Rats were orally treated with clofibrate (300 mg/kg), and ouabain (0.56 mg/kg) was administered to animals intraperitoneally. After induction of anesthesia, the atria were isolated and the onset of arrhythmia and asystole was recorded. The levels of inflammatory cytokines in atria were also measured. Clofibrate significantly postponed the onset of arrhythmia and asystole when compared to control group (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01, resp.). While ouabain significantly increased the atrial beating rate in control group (P ≤ 0.05), same treatment did not show similar effect in clofibrate-treated group (P > 0.05). Injection of ouabain significantly increased the atrial and systemic levels of all studied inflammatory cytokines (P ≤ 0.05). Pretreatment with clofibrate could attenuate the ouabain-induced elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α in atria (P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.05, resp.), as well as ouabain-induced increase in IL-6 in plasma (P ≤ 0.05). Based on our findings, clofibrate may possess antiarrhythmic properties through mitigating the local and systemic inflammatory factors including IL-6 and TNF-α. PMID:26977143

  20. Regulatory T Cell Numbers in Inflamed Skin Are Controlled by Local Inflammatory Cues That Upregulate CD25 and Facilitate Antigen-Driven Local Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Billroth-MacLurg, Alison C; Ford, Jill; Rosenberg, Alexander; Miller, Jim; Fowell, Deborah J

    2016-09-15

    CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key immune suppressors that regulate immunity in diverse tissues. The tissue and/or inflammatory signals that influence the magnitude of the Treg response remain unclear. To define signals that promote Treg accumulation, we developed a simple system of skin inflammation using defined Ags and adjuvants that induce distinct cytokine milieus: OVA protein in CFA, aluminum salts (Alum), and Schistosoma mansoni eggs (Sm Egg). Polyclonal and Ag-specific Treg accumulation in the skin differed significantly between adjuvants. CFA and Alum led to robust Treg accumulation, with >50% of all skin CD4(+) T cells being Foxp3(+) In contrast, Tregs accumulated poorly in the Sm Egg-inflamed skin. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of inflammation-specific changes to the Treg gene program between adjuvant-inflamed skin types, suggesting a lack of selective recruitment or adaptation to the inflammatory milieu. Instead, Treg accumulation patterns were linked to differences in CD80/CD86 expression by APC and the regulation of CD25 expression, specifically in the inflamed skin. Inflammatory cues alone, without cognate Ag, differentially supported CD25 upregulation (CFA and Alum > Sm Egg). Only in inflammatory milieus that upregulated CD25 did the provision of Ag enhance local Treg proliferation. Reduced IL-33 in the Sm Egg-inflamed environment was shown to contribute to the failure to upregulate CD25. Thus, the magnitude of the Treg response in inflamed tissues is controlled at two interdependent levels: inflammatory signals that support the upregulation of the important Treg survival factor CD25 and Ag signals that drive local expansion. PMID:27511734

  1. Localized pustulosis induced by betalactams.

    PubMed

    Novalbos, A; Bombín, C; Figueredo, E; Lluch, M; Sastre, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized forms of pustular drug eruptions related to antibiotics are uncommon and their mechanism is still unknown. We describe herein a patient who developed numerous pin-head pustules without erythema in the peribuccal area after ingestion of ceftibuten and amoxicillin. The relationship with these drugs was confirmed by single-blind oral challenges. The following tests were performed: prick and intradermal tests with benzylpenicilloyl polylysine, minor determinant mixture, benzylpenicillin and amoxicillin; patch tests were also carried out with benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, ceftibuten and cefaclor. All cutaneous tests were negative. Controlled single-blind challenge tests were performed with amoxicillin, cefadroxil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime, cefaclor, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. All betalactam antibiotics tested gave a positive reaction, with good tolerance of other antibiotics; this would appear to indicate a specific mechanism of hypersensitivity and not an unspecific reaction to wide spectrum antibiotics. PMID:10923595

  2. Sirt2 suppresses inflammatory responses in collagen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiangtao; Sun, Bing; Jiang, Chuanqiang; Hong, Huanyu; Zheng, Yanping

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression decreases in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). •Sirt2 knockout aggravates severity of arthritis in mice with CIA. •Sirt2 knockout increases levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the serum. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 and inhibits pro-inflammatory factors expression. •Sirt2 rescue abates severity of arthritis in mice with CIA. -- Abstract: Arthritis is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications and early death. However, the underling mechanisms of arthritis are still unclear. Sirtuins are a NAD{sup +}-dependent class III deacetylase family, and regulate cellular stress, inflammation, genomic stability, carcinogenesis, and energy metabolism. Among the sirtuin family members, Sirt1 and Sirt6 are critically involved in the development of arthritis. It remains unknown whether other sirtuin family members participate in arthritis. Here in this study, we demonstrate that Sirt2 inhibits collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) using in vivo and in vitro evidence. The protein and mRNA levels of Sirt2 significantly decreased in joint tissues of mice with CIA. When immunized with collagen, Sirt2-KO mice showed aggravated severity of arthritis based on clinical scores, hind paw thickness, and radiological and molecular findings. Mechanically, Sirt2 deacetylated p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) at lysine 310, resulting in reduced expression of NF-κB-dependent genes, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1), RANTES, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13. Importantly, our rescue experiment showed that Sirt2 re-expression abated the severity of arthritis in Sirt2-KO mice. Those findings strongly indicate Sirt2 as a considerably inhibitor of the development of arthritis.

  3. Inflammatory Response Influences Treatment of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Allin, N; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Velsko, I; Vovk, A; Hovemcamp, N; Harrison, P; Huang, H; Aukhil, I; Wallet, S M; Shaddox, L M

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported a systemic hyperinflammatory response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). Additionally, different levels of this response were observed within the LAP group. It is unknown whether this hyperinflammatory response influences the clinical response to periodontal treatment in these children. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of LPS responsiveness present prior to treatment on the clinical response to treatment within the LAP cohort. Prior to treatment, peripheral blood was collected from 60 African American participants aged 5 to 21 y, free of systemic diseases, and diagnosed with LAP. Blood was stimulated with ultrapure LPS from Escherichia coli, and Luminex assays were performed to quantify 14 cytokine/chemokine levels. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to find patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression among participants and subdivide them into clusters. Three distinct clusters emerged among LAP participants: a high responder group (high level of response for INFg, IL6, and IL12p40), a mixed responder group (low for some and high for other cytokines/chemokines), and a low responder group (low overall cytokine/chemokine response). Periodontal clinical parameters were compared among these groups prior to and 3, 6, and 12 mo following treatment with mechanical debridement and systemic antibiotics. High responders presented the lowest reductions in clinical parameters after treatment, whereas the low responders presented the highest reductions. In our LAP participants, distinct patterns of LPS response were significantly predictive of changes in clinical parameters after treatment. Future studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms predicting the heterogeneity of LAP activity, severity, and response to treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01330719). PMID:26917438

  4. Phosphorylation of TRPV1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 promotes TRPV1 surface localization, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Du, Junxie; Yang, Yanrui; Wang, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an important serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in many physiological processes. Recently, Cdk5 has been reported to phosphorylate TRPV1 at threonine 407 (Thr-407) in humans (Thr-406 in rats), which enhances the function of TRPV1 channel and promotes thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain rats. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates TRPV1 at Threonine 406 and promotes the surface localization of TRPV1, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. The mutation of Thr-406 of TRPV1 to alanine reduced the interaction of TRPV1 with the cytoskeletal elements and decreased the binding of TRPV1 with the motor protein KIF13B, which led to reduced surface distribution of TRPV1. Disrupting the phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 dramatically reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in HEK 293 cells after transient expression and the channel function in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Notably, intrathecal administration of the interfering peptide against the phosphorylation of Thr-406 alleviated heat hyperalgesia and reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in inflammatory pain rats. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 increases the surface level and the function of TRPV1, while the TAT-T406 peptide can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. Our studies provide a potential therapy for inflammatory pain. PMID:26376215

  5. Substance P ameliorates collagen II-induced arthritis in mice via suppression of the inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • SP can increase IL-10 levels and reduce TNF-α and IL-17 levels in RA. • SP causes the increase in T{sub reg}, M2 macrophage, and MSCs in RA. • SP-induced immune suppression leads to the blockade of RA progression. • SP can be used as the therapeutics for autoimmune-related inflammatory diseases. - Abstract: Current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapies such as biologics inhibiting pathogenic cytokines substantially delay RA progression. However, patient responses to these agents are not always complete and long lasting. This study explored whether substance P (SP), an 11 amino acids long endogenous neuropeptide with the novel ability to mobilize mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and modulate injury-mediated inflammation, can inhibit RA progression. SP efficacy was evaluated by paw swelling, clinical arthritis scoring, radiological analysis, histological analysis of cartilage destruction, and blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-17 in vivo. SP treatment significantly reduced local inflammatory signs, mean arthritis scores, degradation of joint cartilage, and invasion of inflammatory cells into the synovial tissues. Moreover, the SP treatment markedly reduced the size of spleens enlarged by excessive inflammation in CIA, increased IL-10 levels, and decreased TNF-α and IL-17 levels. Mobilization of stem cells and induction of T{sub reg} and M2 type macrophages in the circulation were also increased by the SP treatment. These effect of SP might be associated with the suppression of inflammatory responses in RA and, furthermore, blockade of RA progression. Our results propose SP as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune-related inflammatory diseases.

  6. Reduction of the systemic inflammatory induced by acute cerebral infarction through ultra-early thrombolytic therapy

    PubMed Central

    YE, LICHAO; CAI, RUOWEI; YANG, MEILI; QIAN, JIAQIANG; HONG, ZHILIN

    2015-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke induces systemic inflammation, exhibited as changes in body temperature, white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of intravenous thrombolytic therapy on inflammatory indices in order to investigate the hypothesis that post-stroke systemic inflammatory response occurs in response to the necrosis of brain tissues. In this study, 62 patients with acute cerebral infarction and indications for intravenous thrombolysis were divided into three groups on the basis of their treatment and response: Successful thrombolysis (n=36), failed thrombolysis (n=12) and control (n=14) groups. The body temperature, white blood cell counts and high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP levels were recorded pre-treatment and on post-stroke days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the pre-treatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score positively correlated with body temperature, white blood cell count and hs-CRP levels. On day 3 of effective intravenous thrombolysis, the body temperature and white blood cell were decreased and on days 3 and 5, the serum levels of hs-CRP were reduced compared with those in the failed thrombolysis and control groups. The results indicate that the systemic inflammatory response following acute cerebral infarction was mainly caused by ischemic injury of local brain tissue; the more serious the stroke, the stronger the inflammatory response. Ultra-early thrombolytic therapy may inhibit the necrosis of brain tissue and thereby reduce the inflammatory response. PMID:26622513

  7. Helicobacter hepaticus Induces an Inflammatory Response in Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kleine, Moritz; Worbs, Tim; Schrem, Harald; Vondran, Florian W. R.; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Förster, Reinhold; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bektas, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in PHH (p<0.05) resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05). IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05). An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05). In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytomety. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic effect of a

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Property of Plantago major Leaf Extract Reduces the Inflammatory Reaction in Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Hussan, Farida; Mansor, Adila Sofea; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma; Tengku Nor Effendy Kamaruddin, Tg Nurul Tasnim; Budin, Siti Balkis; Othman, Faizah

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic injury induces inflammatory process and cell necrosis. Plantago major is traditionally used for various diseases. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory property of P. major leaf extracts on inflammatory reaction following acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, namely, normal control (C), APAP, aqueous (APAP + AQ), methanol (APAP + MT), and ethanol (APAP + ET) extract treated groups. All APAP groups received oral APAP (2 g/kg) at day 0. Then, 1000 mg/kg dose of P. major extracts was given for six days. The levels of liver transaminases were measured at day 1 and day 7 after APAP induction. At day 7, the blood and liver tissue were collected to determine plasma cytokines and tissue 11β-HSD type 1 enzyme. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were 26.74 ± 1.6%, 21.69 ± 2.81%, and 12.23 ± 3.15%, respectively. The ALT and AST levels were significantly higher in the APAP groups at day 1 whereas the enzyme levels of all groups showed no significant difference at day 7. The extracts treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokine levels and significantly increased the 11β-HSD type 1 enzyme activity (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the P. major extracts attenuate the inflammatory reaction following APAP-induced liver injury. PMID:26300946

  9. The inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Yabuki-Kawase, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on acute inflammatory nociception. Acute inflammatory nociception was induced by an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the hindpaws of rats, and dexmedetomidine was also injected combined with carrageenan. The paw withdrawal threshold based on von Frey filament stimulation was measured until 12 h after injection. We compared the area under the time-curve (AUC) between carrageenan and carrageenan with dexmedetomidine. To clarify that the action of dexmedetomidine was via α2-adrenoceptors, we evaluated the effect of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of α2-adrenoceptors, on the anti-nociception of dexmedetomidine. As the results, the intraplantar injection of carrageenan with over 10 μM dexmedetomidine significantly increased AUC, compared to that with only carrageenan injection. This effect of dexmedetomidine was reversed by the addition of yohimbine to carrageenan and dexmedetomidine. These results demonstrated that the locally injected dexmedetomidine was effective against carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception via α2-adrenoceptors. The findings suggest that the local injection of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving local acute inflammatory nociception. PMID:26160316

  10. Locally administered T cells from mice immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) accelerate LPS-induced bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Yukio; Ukai, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Miho; Haro, Esperanza R Ayón; Yoshimoto, Mayumi; Kaneko, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Miho; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Shiraishi, Chiaki; Hara, Yoshitaka

    2009-06-01

    T cells play important roles in bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis and are found in chronic destructive bone lesions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of several pathological factors involved in inflammatory bone destruction. We previously described the importance of T cells in the inflammatory bone resorption that occurs after repeated LPS administration. However, whether local or systemic T cells are important for inflammatory bone resorption and whether immunization of host animals influences bone resorption remain unclear. The present study examines the effects of local extant T cells from LPS-immunized mice on LPS-induced bone resorption. T cells from LPS-immunized or non-immunized mice were injected together with LPS into the gingival tissues of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease that lack both T and B cells. We histomorphometrically evaluated bone resorption at sites of T cell injections and examined the influence of T cells from LPS-immunized mice on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We found that locally administered T cells from LPS-immunized but not non-immunized mice accelerated LPS-induced bone resorption in vivo. Moreover, T cells from LPS-immunized mice increased osteoclastogenesis in vitro induced by receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand and LPS and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibody inhibited this increase. These results demonstrated that local extant T cells accelerate inflammatory bone resorption. Furthermore, T cells from LPS-immunized mice appear to elevate LPS-induced bone resorption using TNF-alpha. PMID:19437611

  11. Possible Implication of Local Immune Response in Darier's Disease: An Immunohistochemical Characterization of Lesional Inflammatory Infiltrate

    PubMed Central

    Miracco, Clelia; Pietronudo, Francesco; Mourmouras, Vasileios; Pellegrino, Michele; Onorati, Monica; Mastrogiulio, Maria Grazia; Cantarini, Luca; Luzi, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is considered to be normal in Darier's Disease (DD), an inherited skin disorder complicated by skin infections. To date, there are no investigations on the local inflammatory infiltrate in DD skin lesions. In this immunohistochemical study we characterized and quantified it, making comparisons with two other inflammatory skin disorders, that is, pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and lichen ruber planus (LRP), and with the normal skin (NSk). We found a significant (P < .05) decrease of CD1a+ Langerhans cells (LCs) in DD, compared to PV, LRP, and NSk, and of CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), compared to PV and LRP. We hypothesize that the genetic damage of keratinocytes might result in a loss of some subsets of dendritic cells and, consequently, in an impaired local immune response, which might worsen the infections that inevitably occur in this disease. PMID:20671948

  12. Activation of Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory Mediator Cyclic AMP Attenuates Acute Pyelonephritis in Mice Induced by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25478807

  13. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cyclic AMP attenuates acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25478807

  14. Prokineticin 1 Induces Inflammatory Response in Human Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Gorowiec, Marta R.; Catalano, Rob D.; Norman, Jane E.; Denison, Fiona C.; Jabbour, Henry N.

    2011-01-01

    The infiltration of human myometrium and cervix with leukocytes and the formation of a pro-inflammatory environment within the uterus have been associated with the initiation of both term and preterm parturition. The mechanism regulating the onset of this pro-inflammatory cascade is not fully elucidated. We demonstrate that prokineticin 1 (PROK1) is up-regulated in human myometrium and placenta during labor. The expression of PROK1 receptor remains unchanged during labor and is abundantly expressed in the myometrium. Gene array analysis identified 65 genes up-regulated by PROK1 in human myometrium, mainly cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1β, chemokine C-C motif ligand 3, and colony-stimulating factor 3. In addition, we demonstrate that PROK1 increases the expression of chemokine C-C motif ligand 20, IL-6, IL-8, prostaglandin synthase 2, and prostaglandin E2 and F2α secretion. The treatment of myometrial explants with 100 ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide up-regulates the expression of PROK1, PROK1 receptor, and inflammatory mediators. The infection of myometrial explants with lentiviral microRNA targeting PROK1, preceding treatment with lipopolysaccharide, reduces the expression of inflammatory genes. We propose that PROK1 is a novel inflammatory mediator that can contribute to the onset of human parturition at term and partially mediate premature onset of inflammatory pathways during bacterial infection. PMID:21983634

  15. Senescence of human skeletal muscle impairs the local inflammatory cytokine response to acute eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Koichiro; Vannier, Edouard; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Witsell, Alice L; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2005-02-01

    The impact of aging on the cytokine response of human skeletal muscle to exercise-induced injury remains poorly understood. We enrolled physically active, young (23-35 years old, n=15) and old (66-78 years old, n=15) men to perform 45 min of downhill running (16% descent) at 75% VO2max. Biopsies of vastus lateralis were obtained 24 h before and 72 h after acute eccentric exercise. Transcripts for inflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TGF-beta1) were quantified by real-time PCR. Before exercise, cytokine transcripts did not differ with age. At old age, exercise induced a blunted accumulation of transcripts encoding the pan-leukocyte surface marker CD18 (young: 10.1-fold increase, P<0.005; old: 4.7-fold increase, P=0.02; young vs. old: P<0.05). In both age groups, CD18 transcript accumulation strongly correlated with TNF-alpha (young, r=0.87, P<0.001; old, r=0.72, P=0.002) and TGF-beta1 transcript accumulation (young, r=0.80, P<0.001; old, r=0.64, P=0.008). At old age, there was no correlation between IL-1beta and CD18 transcript accumulation. Furthermore, exercise induced IL-6 transcript accumulation in young (3.6-fold, P=0.057) but not in old men. Our results suggest that aging impairs the adaptive response of human skeletal muscle to eccentric exercise by differential modulation of a discrete set of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. PMID:15556970

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Fernando; Alves, Márcia K; Vieira, Sílvio M; Carvalho, Toni A; Leite, Carlos E; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Poloni, José A; Cunha, Fernando Q; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2008-04-01

    Inflammation is a pivotal component of a variety of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and tumour progression. Various naturally occurring phytochemicals exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against inflammation-related pathological processes. Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh (Solanaceae) is the most consumed species in Brazil, and its compounds, such as capsaicinoids, have been found to inhibit the inflammatory process. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of C. baccatum have not been characterized. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. baccatum juice in animal models of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and immune inflammation induced by methylated bovine serum albumin. Pretreatment (30 min) of rats with pepper juice (0.25-2.0 g kg(-1)) significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model. This juice also inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice. C. baccatum juice also reduced neutrophil recruitment and exudate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mouse inflammatory immune peritonitis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the main constituent of C. baccatum juice, as extracted with chloroform, is capsaicin. In agreement with this, capsaicin was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration towards the inflammatory focus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory effect of C. baccatum juice and our data suggest that this effect may be induced by capsaicin. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by red pepper may be by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the inflammatory site. PMID:18380920

  17. DECREASED HEART RATE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBAMATE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY SERUM PROTEINS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported that chlorpyrifos (CHP), an irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, induces hypertension in rats. Concomitant with hypertension, we found an increase in C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 , monocyte chemotactic protein-5 and interfer...

  18. The effect of local anesthetic on pro-inflammatory macrophage modulation by mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Andrea; Marrero-Berrios, Ileana; Weinberg, Jonathan; Manchikalapati, Devasena; SchianodiCola, Joseph; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Administering local anesthetics (LAs) peri- and post-operatively aims to prevent or mitigate pain in surgical procedures and after tissue injury in cases of osteoarthritis (OA) and other degenerative diseases. Innovative tissue protective and reparative therapeutic interventions such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are likely to be exposed to co-administered drugs such as LAs. Therefore, it is important to determine how this exposure affects the therapeutic functions of MSCs and other cells in their target microenvironment. In these studies, we measured the effect of LAs, lidocaine and bupivacaine, on macrophage viability and pro-inflammatory secretion. We also examined their effect on modulation of the macrophage pro-inflammatory phenotype in an in vitro co-culture system with MSCs, by quantifying macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion and MSC prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Our studies indicate that both LAs directly attenuated macrophage TNF-α secretion, without significantly affecting viability, in a concentration- and potency-dependent manner. LA-mediated attenuation of macrophage TNF-α was sustained in co-culture with MSCs, but MSCs did not further enhance this anti-inflammatory effect. Concentration- and potency-dependent reductions in macrophage TNF-α were concurrent with decreased PGE2 levels in the co-cultures further indicating MSC-independent macrophage attenuation. MSC functional recovery from LA exposure was assessed by pre-treating MSCs with LAs prior to co-culture with macrophages. Both MSC attenuation of TNF-α and PGE2 secretion were impaired by pre-exposure to the more potent bupivacaine and high dose of lidocaine in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, LAs can affect anti-inflammatory function by both directly attenuating macrophage inflammation and MSC secretion and possibly by altering the local microenvironment which can secondarily reduce MSC function. Furthermore, the LA effect on MSC function may persist

  19. Contribution of Lung Macrophages to the Inflammatory Responses Induced by Exposure to Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-01-01

    Large population cohort studies have indicated an association between exposure to particulate matter and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The inhalation of toxic environmental particles and gases impacts the innate and adaptive defense systems of the lung. Lung macrophages play a critically important role in the recognition and processing of any inhaled foreign material such as pathogens or particulate matter. Alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells are the predominant cells that process and remove inhaled particulate matter from the lung. Cooperatively, they produce proinflammatory mediators when exposed to atmospheric particles. These mediators produce integrated local (lung, controlled predominantly by epithelial cells) and systemic (bone marrow and vascular system, controlled predominantly by macrophages) inflammatory responses. The systemic response results in an increase in the release of leukocytes from the bone marrow and an increased production of acute phase proteins from the liver, with both factors impacting blood vessels and leading to destabilization of existing atherosclerotic plaques. This review focuses on lung macrophages and their role in orchestrating the inflammatory responses induced by exposure to air pollutants. PMID:24058272

  20. Stonefish antivenom neutralises the inflammatory and cardiovascular effects induced by scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena L; Menezes, Thiago N; Carnielli, Juliana B T; Andrich, Filipe; Evangelista, Karla S; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Vassallo, Dalton V; Figueiredo, Suely G

    2011-06-01

    Venomous fish are often involved in human accidents and symptoms of envenomation include local (intense pain and swelling) and systemic effects (cardiovascular and neurological disorders). However the only commercially available antivenom is against the Indo-Pacific stonefish Synanceja trachynisStonefish Antivenom (SFAV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of SFAV in neutralising the in vivo effects of some toxic activities of scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom (SpV), and the in vitro immuno cross-reactivity. The SpV (7.5-100 μg/animal) caused nociceptive and dose-dependent edematogenic responses in the mice footpad. In rats SpV (300 μg/kg, i.v.) produced immediate and transient increase in arterial blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. Prior incubation of SpV with SFAV (1 μg SpV/1 U SFAV) abolished the inflammatory response, and significantly attenuated the cardiovascular effects induced by SPV. Western blotting analysis on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of S plumieri venom proteins using SFAV proved that the epitopes recognized by SFAV are shared with the ∼98 kDa proteins. This is the first report of venom similarities between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic venomous fish, suggesting that the SpV compound responsible for inflammatory and cardiovascular effects possesses similar biochemical and antigenic properties to those found in stonefish venom. PMID:21510970

  1. Burn injury induces skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammatory host response, and oxidative stress in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nathalia Trasmonte; Quintana, Hananiah Tardivo; Bortolin, Jeferson André; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; de Oliveira, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Burn injuries (BIs) result in both local and systemic responses distant from the site of thermal injury, such as skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a result of inflammation and reactive oxygen species production, respectively. A total of 16 male rats were distributed into two groups: control (C) and submitted to BI. The medial part of gastrocnemius muscle formed the specimens, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were evaluated. COX-2 and 8-OHdG expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and cell profile area and density of muscle fibers (number of fibers per square millimeter) were evaluated by morphometric methods. The results revealed inflammatory infiltrate associated with COX-2 immunoexpression in BI-gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, a substantial decrease in the muscle cell profile area of BI group was noticed when compared with the control group, whereas the density of muscle fibers was higher in the BI group. 8-OHdG expression in numerous skeletal muscle nuclei was detected in the BI group. In conclusion, the BI group is able to induce skeletal muscle degeneration as a result of systemic host response closely related to reactive oxygen species production and inflammatory process. PMID:25933049

  2. Experimental Gingivitis Induces Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Young Healthy Individuals: A Single-Subject Interventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Background Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. Methods 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. Results The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001). This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038), IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002) and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124) in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050) at day 21 of gingivitis. Conclusions Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http

  3. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrian; Podlipnik, Sebastian; Burgos, Fernando; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Cogolludo, Eva; Gallego-Valdes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson's disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer's disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth. PMID:27073702

  4. Tormentic Acid Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Yumin; Zhao, Meng; Jia, Haobo; Li, Bing; Xing, Dan

    2016-06-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) plays critical roles in pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Tormentic acid (TA), a triterpene isolated from Rosa rugosa, has anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of TA on OA is still unclear. So, in the present study, we examined the effect of TA on IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in primary human OA chondrocytes. Our results demonstrated that TA significantly decreased the IL-1β-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13. It also inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as well as the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in human OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, TA greatly inhibited the IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of TA in human OA chondrocytes. TA significantly inhibits the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, TA may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:27102898

  5. β2-adrenergic agonists modulate TNF-α induced astrocytic inflammatory gene expression and brain inflammatory cell populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The NF-κB signaling pathway orchestrates many of the intricate aspects of neuroinflammation. Astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors have emerged as potential regulators in central nervous system inflammation and are potential targets for pharmacological modulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crosstalk between astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors and the TNF-α induced inflammatory gene program. Methods Proinflammatory conditions were generated by the administration of TNF-α. Genes that are susceptible to astrocytic crosstalk between β2-adrenergic receptors (stimulated by clenbuterol) and TNF-α were identified by qPCR-macroarray-based gene expression analysis in a human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cell line. Transcriptional patterns of the identified genes in vitro were validated by RT-PCR on the 1321 N1 cell line as well as on primary rat astrocytes. In vivo expression patterns were examined by intracerebroventricular administration of clenbuterol and/or TNF-α in rats. To examine the impact on the inflammatory cell content of the brain we performed extensive FACS analysis of rat brain immune cells after intracerebroventricular clenbuterol and/or TNF-α administration. Results Parallel transcriptional patterns in vivo and in vitro confirmed the relevance of astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors as modulators of brain inflammatory responses. Importantly, we observed pronounced effects of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and TNF-α on IL-6, CXCL2, CXCL3, VCAM1, and ICAM1 expression, suggesting a role in inflammatory brain cell homeostasis. Extensive FACS-analysis of inflammatory cell content in the brain demonstrated that clenbuterol/TNF-α co-administration skewed the T cell population towards a double negative phenotype and induced a shift in the myeloid brain cell population towards a neutrophilic predominance. Conclusions Our results show that astrocytic β2-adrenergic receptors are potent regulators of astrocytic TNF-α-activated genes in

  6. Staphylococcal LTA-Induced miR-143 Inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Skin.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhiheng; Liu, Kewei; Wu, Yelin; Jiang, Deming; Lai, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) plays a critical role in modulating cutaneous inflammatory responses in skin. Although S. epidermidis has been shown to co-colonize with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in acne lesions, it is unclear whether S. epidermidis is involved in the regulation of P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we demonstrated that S. epidermidis inhibited P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. P. acnes induced the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α via the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 in both keratinocytes and mouse ears. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid activated TLR2 to induce miR-143 in keratinocytes, and miR-143, in turn, directly targeted 3' UTR of TLR2 to decrease the stability of TLR2 mRNA and then decreased TLR2 protein, thus inhibiting P. acnes-induced proinflammatory cytokines. The inhibitory effect of miR-143 was further confirmed in vivo as the administration of miR-143 antagomir into mouse ears abrogated the inhibitory effect of lipoteichoic acid on P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits P. acnes-induced inflammation via the induction of miR-143, and suggest that local modulation of inflammatory responses by S. epidermidis at the site of acne vulgaris might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for management of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:26739093

  7. Methotrexate Locally Released from Poly(e-Caprolactone) Implants: Inhibition of the Inflammatory Angiogenesis Response in a Murine Sponge Model and the Absence of Systemic Toxicity.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Leandro Gonzaga; Figueiredo, Letîcia Aparecida; Fernandes-Cunha, Gabriella Maria; Marina Barcelos, De Miranda; Machado, Laser Antonio; Dasilva, Gisele Rodrigues; Sandra Aparecida Lima, De Moura

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the methotrexate (MTX) was incorporated into the poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) to design implants (MTX PCL implants) aiming the local treatment of inflammatory angiogenesis diseases without causing systemic side effects. Sponges were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of mice as a framework for fibrovascular tissue growth. After 4days, MTX PCL implants were also introduced, and anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and antifibrogenic activities of the MTX were determined. MTX reduced the vascularization (hemoglobin content), the neutrophil, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration (MPO and NAG activities, respectively), and the collagen deposition in sponges. MTX reduced tumor necrosis factor-a and IL-6 levels, demonstrating its local antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity, which could be induced by the drug, were evaluated. However, MTX did not promote toxicity to these organs, as the levels of AST and ALT (hepatic markers) and creatinine and urea (renal markers) were not increased, and the complete blood count was not decreased. In conclusion, MTX PCL implants demonstrated to be effective in regulating the components of the inflammatory angiogenesis locally established, and presented an acceptable safety profile. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3731-3742, 2015. PMID:27524686

  8. Recombinant thrombomodulin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by blocking the functions of CD14.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Wei-En; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Chang, Bi-Ying; Cheng, Sheng-En; Shih, Yun-Tai; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-02-15

    CD14, a multiligand pattern-recognition receptor, is involved in the activation of many TLRs. Thrombomodulin (TM), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, originally was identified as an anticoagulant factor that activates protein C. Previously, we showed that the recombinant TM lectin-like domain binds to LPS and inhibits LPS-induced inflammation, but the function of the recombinant epidermal growth factor-like domain plus serine/threonine-rich domain of TM (rTMD23) in LPS-induced inflammation remains unknown. In the current study, we found that rTMD23 markedly suppressed the activation of intracellular signaling pathways and the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. The anti-inflammatory activity of rTMD23 was independent of activated protein C. We also found that rTMD23 interacted with the soluble and membrane forms of CD14 and inhibited the CD14-mediated inflammatory response. Knockdown of CD14 in macrophages suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS, and rTMD23 inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 production in CD14-knockdown macrophages. rTMD23 suppressed the binding of LPS to macrophages by blocking the association between monocytic membrane-bound TM and CD14. The administration of rTMD23 in mice, both pretreatment and posttreatment, significantly increased the survival rate and reduced the inflammatory response to LPS. Notably, the serine/threonine-rich domain is essential for the anti-inflammatory activity of rTMD23. To summarize, we show that rTMD23 suppresses the LPS-induced inflammatory response in mice by targeting CD14 and that the serine/threonine-rich domain is crucial for the inhibitory effect of rTMD23 on LPS-induced inflammation. PMID:25609841

  9. Acute Endotoxin-Induced Thymic Atrophy Is Characterized By Intrathymic Inflammatory and Wound Healing Responses

    PubMed Central

    Billard, Matthew J.; Gruver, Amanda L.; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Productive thymopoiesis is essential for a robust and healthy immune system. Thymus unfortunately is acutely sensitive to stress resulting in involution and decreased T cell production. Thymic involution is a complication of many clinical settings, including infection, malnutrition, starvation, and irradiation or immunosuppressive therapies. Systemic rises in glucocorticoids and inflammatory cytokines are known to contribute to thymic atrophy. Little is known, however, about intrathymic mechanisms that may actively contribute to thymus atrophy or initiate thymic recovery following stress events. Methodology/Principal Findings Phenotypic, histologic and transcriptome/pathway analysis of murine thymic tissue during the early stages of endotoxemia-induced thymic involution was performed to identify putative mechanisms that drive thymic involution during stress. Thymus atrophy in this murine model was confirmed by down-regulation of genes involved in T cell development, cell activation, and cell cycle progression, correlating with observed phenotypic and histologic thymus involution. Significant gene changes support the hypothesis that multiple key intrathymic pathways are differentially activated during stress-induced thymic involution. These included direct activation of thymus tissue by LPS through TLR signaling, local expression of inflammatory cytokines, inhibition of T cell signaling, and induction of wound healing/tissue remodeling. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these observations demonstrated that in addition to the classic systemic response, a direct intrathymic response to endotoxin challenge concurrently contributes to thymic involution during endotoxemia. These findings are a substantial advancement over current understanding of thymus response to stress and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to ameliorate immune deficiency associated with stress events. PMID:21437240

  10. Colchicine Acutely Suppresses Local Cardiac Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients With an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Robertson, Stacy; Barraclough, Jennifer; Xia, Qiong; Mallat, Ziad; Bursill, Christina; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and downstream IL-6 are key inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Colchicine is believed to block the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic complex responsible for the production of IL-1β and IL-18. In vivo effects of colchicine on cardiac cytokine release have not been previously studied. This study aimed to (1) assess the local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), stable coronary artery disease and in controls; and (2) determine whether acute administration of colchicine inhibits their production. Methods and Results Forty ACS patients, 33 with stable coronary artery disease, and 10 controls, were included. ACS and stable coronary artery disease patients were randomized to oral colchicine treatment (1 mg followed by 0.5 mg 1 hour later) or no colchicine, 6 to 24 hours prior to cardiac catheterization. Blood samples from the coronary sinus, aortic root (arterial), and lower right atrium (venous) were collected and tested for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 using ELISA. In ACS patients, coronary sinus levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were significantly higher than arterial and venous levels (P=0.017, <0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Transcoronary (coronary sinus-arterial) gradients for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were highest in ACS patients and lowest in controls (P=0.077, 0.033, and 0.014, respectively). Colchicine administration significantly reduced transcoronary gradients of all 3 cytokines in ACS patients by 40% to 88% (P=0.028, 0.032, and 0.032, for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6, respectively). Conclusions ACS patients exhibit increased local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines. Short-term colchicine administration rapidly and significantly reduces levels of these cytokines. PMID:26304941

  11. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by inflexanin B in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Youn; Sul, Donggeun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Yoo, Ki-Yeol; Park, So-Young

    2013-02-01

    Microglia are a type of resident macrophage that functions as an inflammation modulator in the central nervous system. Over-activation of microglia by a range of stimuli disrupts the physiological homeostasis of the brain, and induces inflammatory response and degenerative processes, such as those implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of inflexanin B in murine microglial BV2 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated BV2 cells and induced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines (interleukins-1β and -6, and tumour necrosis factor α). The LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators was associated with the enhancement of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) including ERK1/2 and JNK. Conversely, pretreatment of cells with inflexanin B (10 and 20 μg/mL) significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. This was accompanied with the reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and reduced activation of MAPKs. These results suggest that inflexanin B attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory process by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. PMID:23458198

  12. JAK2/STAT3 pathway mediating inflammatory responses in heatstroke-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhen; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Shu-Cai; Lv, Wei; Hu, Huai-Qiang; Li, Chuan-Fen; Cao, Bing-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Heatstroke not only directly induces cell injury, but also causes large amounts of inflammatory mediators release and cells with extensive biological activities to induce a systemic inflammatory response and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to observe the effects of JAK2 inhibitor AG490 on the brain injury and inflammatory responses of rats with systemic heatstroke. Under the light microscope, the hippocampus tissues of rat with heatstroke were edema and apoptotic rate was increased. Up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also found after heatstroke in rats, which compared with that of the control group. Heatstroke induced inflammation factors secretions and up-regulated levels of matrix metallopeptidase 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP-9) and systemic inflammatory response molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-beta 1 (TNF-β1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 was significantly attenuated the brain injury and inflammatory responses induced by heatstroke in rats. The survival time of heatstroke rats showed that AG490 notably lived longer than heatstroke rats without AG490 treatment. These findings suggest that AG490 may prevent the occurrence of heatstroke via inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and the systemic inflammatory responses. PMID:26261556

  13. JAK2/STAT3 pathway mediating inflammatory responses in heatstroke-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhen; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Shu-Cai; Lv, Wei; Hu, Huai-Qiang; Li, Chuan-Fen; Cao, Bing-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Heatstroke not only directly induces cell injury, but also causes large amounts of inflammatory mediators release and cells with extensive biological activities to induce a systemic inflammatory response and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to observe the effects of JAK2 inhibitor AG490 on the brain injury and inflammatory responses of rats with systemic heatstroke. Under the light microscope, the hippocampus tissues of rat with heatstroke were edema and apoptotic rate was increased. Up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also found after heatstroke in rats, which compared with that of the control group. Heatstroke induced inflammation factors secretions and up-regulated levels of matrix metallopeptidase 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP-9) and systemic inflammatory response molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-beta 1 (TNF-β1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 was significantly attenuated the brain injury and inflammatory responses induced by heatstroke in rats. The survival time of heatstroke rats showed that AG490 notably lived longer than heatstroke rats without AG490 treatment. These findings suggest that AG490 may prevent the occurrence of heatstroke via inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and the systemic inflammatory responses. PMID:26261556

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Apigenin on LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and AP-1 Factors in Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Hegde, Shubha M; Nagesh, Rashmi; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2016-02-01

    Apigenin is one of the plant flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables, acting as an important nutraceutical component. It is recognized as a potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory molecule. In the present study, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and activator protein-1 (AP-1) factors in human lung A549 cells was investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin on LPS-induced inflammation was determined by analyzing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and different AP-1 factors. Apigenin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α), and AP-1 proteins (c-Jun, c-Fos, and JunB) including nitric oxide production. Study confirms the anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory mediators and AP-1 factors involved in the inflammation and its importance in the treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. PMID:26276128

  15. Role of virulence factors on host inflammatory response induced by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Villamil, Javier; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens are able to breach the intestinal barrier, and different bacterial species can display different abilities to colonize hosts and induce inflammation. Inflammatory response studies induced by enteropathogens as Escherichia coli are interesting since it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, leading to different E. coli pathotypes. Diarrheagenic E. coli secrete toxins, effectors and virulence factors that exploit the host cell functions to facilitate the bacterial colonization. Many bacterial proteins are delivered to the host cell for subverting the inflammatory response. Hereby, we have highlighted the specific processes used by E. coli pathotypes, by that subvert the inflammatory pathways. These mechanisms include an arrangement of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to favor the appropriate environmental niche for the bacterial survival and growth. PMID:26059623

  16. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Ming; Luan, Qing Xian

    2016-09-10

    Although periodontal diseases are initiated by bacteria that colonize the tooth surface and gingival sulcus, the host response is believed to play an essential role in the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been proposed to regulate the activation of the inflammatory response by the innate immune system. However, the role of mtROS in modulating the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to immune stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated HGFs to increase mtROS production, which could be inhibited by treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted exogenous antioxidant (mito-TEMPO) or transfection with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). A time-course study revealed that an increase in the concentration of mtROS preceded the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HGFs. Mito-TEMPO treatment or MnSOD transfection also significantly prevented the LPS-induced increase of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, suppressing LPS-induced mtROS generation inhibited the activation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase, as well as the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB. These results demonstrate that mtROS generation is a key signaling event in the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response of HGFs. PMID:27515000

  17. Local and systemic inflammatory and immunologic reactions to cyathostomin larvicidal therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Loynachan, A T; Jacobsen, S; Stewart, J C; Reinemeyer, C R; Horohov, D W

    2015-12-15

    Encysted cyathostomin larvae are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Arrested development occurs in this population and can lead to an accumulation of encysted larvae. Large numbers of tissue larvae place the horse at risk for developing larval cyathostominosis. This disease complex is caused by mass emergence of these larvae and is characterized by a generalized acute typhlocolitis and manifests itself as a profuse protein-losing watery diarrhea with a reported case-fatality rate of about 50%. Two anthelmintic formulations have a label claim for larvicidal therapy of these encysted stages; moxidectin and a five-day regimen of fenbendazole. There is limited knowledge about inflammatory and immunologic reactions to larvicidal therapy. This study was designed to evaluate blood acute phase reactants as well as gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, both locally in the large intestinal walls and systemically. Further, mucosal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically as well as analyzed for gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface proteins, and select transcription factors. Eighteen juvenile horses with naturally acquired cyathostomin infections were randomly assigned to three treatment groups; one group served as untreated controls (Group 1), one received a five-day regimen of fenbendazole (10mg/kg) (Group 2), and one group received moxidectin (0.4mg/kg) (Group 3). Horses were treated on day 0 and euthanatized on days 18-20. Serum and whole blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 18. All horses underwent necropsy with collection of tissue samples from the ventral colon and cecum. Acute phase reactants measured included serum amyloid A, iron and fibrinogen, and the cytokines evaluated included interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukins 1β, 4, 5, 6, and 10. Transcription factors evaluated were FoxP3, GATA3 and tBet, and CD markers included

  18. Functional Food Targeting the Regulation of Obesity-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Shizuka; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lin, Shan; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Kawada, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a low-grade systemic chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines. It has been found that immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production. Obesity-induced inflammation is considered a potential mechanism linking obesity to its related pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, and some immune disorders. Therefore, targeting obesity-related inflammatory components may be a useful strategy to prevent or ameliorate the development of such obesity-related diseases. It has been shown that several food components can modulate inflammatory responses in adipose tissue via various mechanisms, some of which are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), whereas others are independent on PPARγ, by attenuating signals of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and/or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK). In this review, we introduce the beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that can help prevent obesity-induced inflammatory responses and pathologies. PMID:20508825

  19. Anti-inflammatory and protective properties of daphnetin in endotoxin-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-wen; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Hang; Kang, Yan-hua; Mao, Yun; Wang, Huan-huan; Ge, Wei-hong; Shi, Li-yun

    2014-12-24

    Uncontrolled inflammatory responses cause tissue injury and severe immunopathology. Pharmacological interference of intracellular pro-inflammatory signaling may confer a therapeutic benefit under these conditions. Daphnetin, a natural coumarin derivative, has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including bronchitis. However, the protective effect of daphnetin in inflammatory airway disorders has yet to be determined, and the molecular basis for its anti-inflammatory properties is unknown. This paper shows that daphnetin treatment conferred substantial protection from endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI), in parallel with reductions in the production of inflammatory mediators, symptoms of airway response, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Further studies indicate that activation of macrophage and human alveolar epithelial cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was remarkably suppressed by daphnetin, which was related to the down-regulation of NF-κB-dependent signaling events. Importantly, this study demonstrates that TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), also known as A20, was significantly induced by daphnetin, which appeared to be largely responsible for the down-regulation of NF-κB activity through modulation of nondegradative TRAF6 ubiquitination. Accordingly, the deletion of TNFAIP3 in primary macrophages reversed daphnetin-elicited inhibition of immune response, and the beneficial effect of daphnetin in the pathogenesis of ALI was, partially at least, abrogated by TNFAIP3 knockdown. These findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and protective functions of daphnetin in endotoxin-induced lung inflammation and injury and also reveal the key mechanism underlying its action in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID:25419854

  20. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mili; Gardner, Carol R; Sun, Richard; Choi, Hyejeong; Lad, Sonali; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b(+) infiltrating Ly6G(+) granulocytic and Ly6G(-) monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G(+) cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G(-) cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80(+)) and immature (F4/80(-)) pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi) macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C(lo)) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3(+) macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. PMID:27163765

  1. A tetramethoxychalcone from Chloranthus henryi suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Si-Yu; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Qiu-Yan; Xu, Peng; Pan, Li-Long; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Neuroinflammation underlies the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. 2׳-hydroxy-4,3׳,4׳,6׳-tetramethoxychalcone (HTMC) is a known chalcone derivative isolated from Chloranthus henryi with anti-inflammatory activities in BV2 macrophages. However, its pharmacological effects on microglial cells have not been demonstrated. To this end, we examined the effects of HTMC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells. HTMC concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory enzymes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. In addition, HTMC inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by reducing NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2 and Nox4 expression. In addition, HTMC interfered LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK) phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. By inhibiting phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Jun, HTMC suppressed LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Taken together, our data indicate that HTMC suppresses inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by modulating JNK-AP-1 and NADPH oxidases-ROS pathways. HTMC represents a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative and related aging-associated diseases. PMID:26852953

  2. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy De; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A.; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation. PMID:25136627

  3. Ethyl pyruvate attenuates formalin-induced inflammatory nociception by inhibiting neuronal ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethyl pyruvate (EP) possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the potential anti-nociceptive value of EP for the treatment of the inflammatory nociception is largely unknown. We investigated whether EP could have any anti-nociceptive effect on inflammatory pain, after systemic administration of EP (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 hour before formalin (5%, 50 μl) injection into the plantar surface of the hind paws of rats. Results EP significantly decreased formalin-induced nociceptive behavior during phase II, the magnitude of paw edema, and the activation of c-Fos in L4-L5 spinal dorsal horn. EP also attenuated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the neurons of L4-L5 spinal dorsal horn after formalin injection. Interestingly, the i.t. administration of PD98059, an ERK upstream kinase (MEK) inhibitor, completely blocked the formalin-induced inflammatory nociceptive responses. Conclusions These results demonstrate that EP may effectively inhibit formalin-induced inflammatory nociception via the inhibition of neuronal ERK phosphorylation in the spinal dorsal horn, indicating its therapeutic potential in suppressing acute inflammatory pain. PMID:22640699

  4. Inflammatory Stress Sensitizes the Liver to Atorvastatin-Induced Injury in ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Li, Beibei; Moorhead, John F.; Varghese, Zac; Ruan, Xiong Z.; Chen, Yaxi

    2016-01-01

    Statins, which are revolutionized cholesterol-lowing agents, have been reported to have unfavorable effects on the liver. Inflammatory stress is a susceptibility factor for drug-induced liver injury. This study investigated whether inflammatory stress sensitized the liver to statin-induced toxicity in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. We used casein injection in ApoE-/- mice to induce inflammatory stress. Half of the mice were orally administered atorvastatin (10mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. The results showed that casein injection increased the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). Atorvastatin treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in casein injection mice. Moreover, atorvastatin treatment exacerbated hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as increased hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in casein injection mice. However, above changes were not observed in atorvastatin treated alone mice. The protein expression of liver nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 target genes were increased, together with the enhancement of activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase in atorvastatin treated alone mice, but these antioxidant responses were lost in mice treated with atorvastatin under inflammatory stress. This study demonstrates that atorvastatin exacerbates the liver injury under inflammatory stress, which may be associated with the loss of adaptive antioxidant response mediated by Nrf2. PMID:27428373

  5. Inflammatory Stress Sensitizes the Liver to Atorvastatin-Induced Injury in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Li, Beibei; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Ruan, Xiong Z; Chen, Yaxi

    2016-01-01

    Statins, which are revolutionized cholesterol-lowing agents, have been reported to have unfavorable effects on the liver. Inflammatory stress is a susceptibility factor for drug-induced liver injury. This study investigated whether inflammatory stress sensitized the liver to statin-induced toxicity in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. We used casein injection in ApoE-/- mice to induce inflammatory stress. Half of the mice were orally administered atorvastatin (10mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks. The results showed that casein injection increased the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). Atorvastatin treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in casein injection mice. Moreover, atorvastatin treatment exacerbated hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as increased hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in casein injection mice. However, above changes were not observed in atorvastatin treated alone mice. The protein expression of liver nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 target genes were increased, together with the enhancement of activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase in atorvastatin treated alone mice, but these antioxidant responses were lost in mice treated with atorvastatin under inflammatory stress. This study demonstrates that atorvastatin exacerbates the liver injury under inflammatory stress, which may be associated with the loss of adaptive antioxidant response mediated by Nrf2. PMID:27428373

  6. Silencing MR-1 attenuates inflammatory damage in mice heart induced by AngII

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Wenjian; Chen, Haiyang; Jiang, Jiandong; Kong, Weijia; Wang, Yiguang

    2010-01-15

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1(MR-1) can aggravate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin(Ang) II in mice through activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway, and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1(AP-1) regulate inflammatory and immune responses by increasing the expression of specific inflammatory genes in various tissues including heart. Whether inhibition of MR-1 expression will attenuate AngII-induced inflammatory injury in mice heart has not been explored. Herein, we monitored the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1, together with expression of pro-inflammatory of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-{alpha}, vascular-cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), and inflammatory cell infiltration in heart of mice which are induced firstly by AngII (PBS),then received MR-1-siRNA or control-siRNA injecting. We found that the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 was inhibited significantly, together with the decreased expression of IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, VCAM-1, and PECAM in AngII-induced mice myocardium in MR-1-siRNA injection groups compared with control-siRNA injecting groups. However, the expression level of MR-1 was not an apparent change in PBS-infused groups than in unoperation groups, and MR-1-siRNA do not affect the expression of MR-1 in PBS-infused mice. Our findings suggest that silencing MR-1 protected mice myocardium against inflammatory injury induced by AngII by suppression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 signaling pathway.

  7. Diosgenin inhibits IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leisheng; Ma, Tian; Zheng, Yanpin; Lv, Shiqiao; Li, Yu; Liu, Shaoxian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the inflammatory cytokines play important roles in osteoarthritis (OA). Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin found in several plants including Solanum and Dioscorea species and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. However, the role of diosgenin in inflammatory responses in OA chondrocytes is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of diosgenin in human OA chondrocytes. We found that diosgenin inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced by interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β). Diosgenin significantly inhibited the IL-1β-stimulated expression of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), MMP-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, diosgenin suppressed the degradation of IκB-α in IL-1β-induced human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, this study showed that diosgenin can effectively inhibit the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that diosgenin may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:26191174

  8. Diosgenin inhibits IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leisheng; Ma, Tian; Zheng, Yanpin; Lv, Shiqiao; Li, Yu; Liu, Shaoxian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the inflammatory cytokines play important roles in osteoarthritis (OA). Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin found in several plants including Solanum and Dioscorea species and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. However, the role of diosgenin in inflammatory responses in OA chondrocytes is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of diosgenin in human OA chondrocytes. We found that diosgenin inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced by interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β). Diosgenin significantly inhibited the IL-1β-stimulated expression of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), MMP-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, diosgenin suppressed the degradation of IκB-α in IL-1β-induced human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, this study showed that diosgenin can effectively inhibit the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that diosgenin may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:26191174

  9. Experimental pathology of local tissue damage induced by Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra; Chaves, Fernando; Díaz, Cecilia; Escalante, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Envenomations by Bothrops asper are often associated with complex and severe local pathological manifestations, including edema, blistering, dermonecrosis, myonecrosis and hemorrhage. The pathogenesis of these alterations has been investigated at the experimental level. These effects are mostly the consequence of the direct action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s). SVMPs induce hemorrhage, blistering, dermonecrosis and general extracellular matrix degradation, whereas PLA(2)s induce myonecrosis and also affect lymphatic vessels. In addition, the prominent vascular alterations leading to hemorrhage and edema may contribute to ischemia and further tissue necrosis. The mechanisms of action of SVMPs and PLA(2)s are discussed in detail in this review. Venom-induced tissue damage plays also a role in promoting bacterial infection. A prominent inflammatory reaction develops as a consequence of these local pathological alterations, with the synthesis and release of abundant mediators, resulting in edema and pain. However, whether inflammatory cells and mediators contribute to further tissue damage is not clear at present. Muscle tissue regeneration after venom-induced pathological effects is often impaired, thus resulting in permanent tissue loss and dysfunction. SVMP-induced microvessel damage is likely to be responsible of this poor regenerative outcome. Antivenoms are only partially effective in the neutralization of B. asper-induced local effects, and the search for novel toxin inhibitors represents a potential avenue for improving the treatment of this serious aspect of snakebite envenomation. PMID:19303033

  10. HSPA12B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Xuehan; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Surong; Tu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, He; Li, Rongrong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the HSP70 protein family. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12B on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanisms involved. A HUVECs inflammatory model was induced by LPS. Overexpression of HSPA12B in HUVECs was achieved by infection with recombinant adenoviruses encoding green fluorescence protein-HSPA12B. Knockdown of HSPA12B was achieved by siRNA technique. Twenty four hours after virus infection or siRNA transfection, HUVECs were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 4 hrs. Endothelial cell permeability ability was determined by transwell permeability assay. The binding rate of human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) with HUVECs was examined using myeloperoxidase assay. Cell migrating ability was determined by the wound-healing assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of interested genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The release of cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α was measured by ELISA. HSPA12B suppressed LPS-induced HUVEC permeability and reduced PMN adhesion to HUVECs. HSPA12B also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokine expression. By contrast, knockdown of HSPA12B enhanced LPS-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, HSPA12B activated PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by Wortmannin completely abrogated the protection of HSPA12B against inflammatory response in HUVECs. Our results suggest that HSPA12B attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in HUVECs via activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. PMID:25545050

  11. Angiotensin peptides attenuate platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yokoyama, Izumi; Ebina, Keiichi

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)--a peptide that is part of the renin-angiotensin system-induces vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure; Ang peptides, especially AngII, can also act as potent pro-inflammatory mediators. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang peptides (AngII, AngIII, and AngIV) on PAF-induced inflammatory activity. In experiments using a rat hind-paw oedema model, AngII markedly and dose-dependently attenuated the paw oedema induced by PAF. The inhibitory effects of AngIII and AngIV on PAF-induced paw oedema were lower than that of AngII. Two Ang receptors, the AT1 and AT2 receptors, did not affect the AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. Moreover, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence studies demonstrated that AngII, AngIII, and AngIV interact with PAF, and that their affinities were closely correlated with their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced rat paw oedema. Also, AngII interacted with metabolite/precursor of PAF (lyso-PAF), and an oxidized phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which bears a marked structural resemblance to PAF. Furthermore, POVPC dose-dependently inhibited AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. These results suggest that Ang peptides can attenuate PAF-induced inflammatory activity through binding to PAF and lyso-PAF in rats. Therefore, Ang peptides may be closely involved in the regulation of many inflammatory diseases caused by PAF. PMID:26348270

  12. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Role of ChemR23 Signaling in Pollutant-Induced Inflammatory Lung Responses.

    PubMed

    Provoost, Sharen; De Grove, Katrien C; Fraser, Graeme L; Lannoy, Vincent J; Tournoy, Kurt G; Brusselle, Guy G; Maes, Tania; Joos, Guy F

    2016-02-15

    Inhalation of traffic-related particulate matter (e.g., diesel exhaust particles [DEPs]) is associated with acute inflammatory responses in the lung, and it promotes the development and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. We previously demonstrated that exposure to DEP was associated with increased recruitment and maturation of monocytes and conventional dendritic cells (DCs), resulting in TH2 polarization. Monocytes and immature DCs express the G-protein coupled receptor chemR23, which binds the chemoattractant chemerin. Using chemR23 knockout (KO) and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice, we determined the role of chemR23 signaling in response to acute exposure to DEPs and in response to DEP-enhanced house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation. Exposure to DEP alone, as well as combined exposure to DEP plus HDM, elevated the levels of chemerin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice. In response to acute exposure to DEPs, monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs accumulated in the lungs of WT mice, but this response was significantly attenuated in chemR23 KO mice. Concomitant exposure to DEP plus HDM resulted in allergic airway inflammation with increased eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, and TH2 cytokine production in WT mice, which was further enhanced in chemR23 KO mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated an opposing role for chemR23 signaling depending on the context of DEP-induced inflammation. The chemR23 axis showed proinflammatory properties in a model of DEP-induced acute lung inflammation, in contrast to anti-inflammatory effects in a model of DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26773141

  13. Guggulsterone Attenuated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct-3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Goo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun-Bok; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Jeong, Jun-Hyeok; Kang, Dae-Gil; Lee, Ho-Sub; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2016-02-01

    Guggulsterone (GS) is a phytosterol that has been used to treat inflammatory diseases such as colitis, obesity, and thrombosis. Although many previous studies have examined activities of GS, the effect of GS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse inner medullary collecting duct-3 (mIMCD-3) cells have not been examined. Therefore, here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory action of GS on mIMCD-3 cells exposed to LPS. LPS treatment on mIMCD-3 cells produced pro-inflammatory molecules such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) significantly; however, GS treatment significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, GS inhibited the degradation of Iκ-Bα and translocation of NF-κB on mIMCD-3 cells. These results suggest that GS could inhibit inflammatory responses in collecting duct cells which could contribute to kidney injury during systemic infection. PMID:26260258

  14. Liver failure induces a systemic inflammatory response. Prevention by recombinant N-terminal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Boermeester, M. A.; Houdijk, A. P.; Meyer, S.; Cuesta, M. A.; Appelmelk, B. J.; Wesdorp, R. I.; Hack, C. E.; Van Leeuwen, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    The observed increased susceptibility of patients with fulminant hepatic failure for local and systemic infections has been hypothesized to be due to a failure for the hepatic clearance function and subsequent leaking of endogenous endotoxins into the systemic circulation. However, experimental evidence for such a systemic inflammation during liver failure due to endogenous endotoxemia is lacking. Therefore, we designed a study to clarify whether circulating endotoxins due to liver failure could lead to the development of systemic inflammations. In a rat model for liver failure induced by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, we evaluated the course of circulating tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, changes in blood chemistry and hemodynamics, and histopathological changes in the lungs. Partially hepatectomized animals, but not sham-operated animals, demonstrated cardiac failure, increased levels of creatinin and urea, metabolic acidosis, high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, and an influx of PMNs in the lungs-together indicating the development of a systemic inflammatory response. Continuous infusion of recombinant N-terminal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI23), a well described endotoxin-neutralizing protein, prevented these inflammatory reactions. Ex vivo experiments with rat plasma samples confirmed the presence of circulating endotoxins in partially hepatectomized rats as opposed to those treated with rBPI23. Thus, our results indicate that the early phase of liver failure induces a systemic inflammatory response triggered by circulating endotoxins, which can be prevented by perioperative infusion of rBPI23. Images Figure 2 PMID:7485405

  15. Calcitriol inhibits bleomycin-induced early pulmonary inflammatory response and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhu-Xia; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, Shen; Qin, Hou-Ying; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Early pulmonary inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play important roles during lung fibrosis. Increasing evidence demonstrates that calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3, has anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcitriol on bleomycin (BLM)-induced early pulmonary inflammation and subsequent EMT. Mice were intratracheally injected with BLM (3.0mg/kg). In three calcitriol+BLM groups, mice were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected with different doses of calcitriol (0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 μg/kg) daily, beginning at 48 h before BLM injection. Twenty-four hours, seven and fourteen days after BLM injection, pulmonary inflammation and EMT were evaluated. As expected, BLM-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs was attenuated by calcitriol. BLM-induced pulmonary inflammatory cytokines were repressed by calcitriol. Moreover, BLM-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was blocked by calcitriol. In addition, BLM-induced phosphorylation of pulmonary p38 MAPK and protein kinase B (Akt) was inhibited by calcitriol. Further analysis showed that BLM-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for EMT in the lungs, was significantly attenuated by calcitriol. BLM-induced transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) up-regulation and Smad phosphorylation were attenuated by calcitriol. In conclusion, calcitriol inhibits BLM-induced early pulmonary inflammation and subsequent EMT. PMID:26520185

  16. Pycnogenol attenuates the inflammatory and nitrosative stress on joint inflammation induced by urate crystals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Jen; Lee, Chian-Her; Wang, Chih-Chien; Salter, Donald M; Lee, Herng-Sheng

    2012-02-15

    Acute gouty arthritis results from monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in joint tissues. Deposited MSU crystals induce an acute inflammatory response which leads to damage of joint tissue. Pycnogenol (PYC), an extract from the bark of Pinus maritime, has documented antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate whether PYC had protective effects on MSU-induced inflammatory and nitrosative stress in joint tissues both in vitro and in vivo. MSU crystals upregulated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in human articular chondrocytes, but only COX-2 and IL-8 in synovial fibroblasts. PYC inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2, and IL-8 in both articular chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. PYC attenuated MSU crystal induced iNOS gene expression and NO production in chondrocytes. Activation of NF-κB and SAPK/JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases by MSU crystals in articular chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts in vitro was attenuated by treatment with PYC. The acute inflammatory cell infiltration and increased expression of COX-2 and iNOS in synovial tissue and articular cartilage following intra-articular injection of MSU crystals in a rat model was inhibited by coadministration of PYC. Collectively, this study demonstrates that PYC may be of value in treatment of MSU crystal-induced arthritis through its anti-inflammatory and anti-nitrosative activities. PMID:22198264

  17. Coptisine Prevented IL-β-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai; Hu, Li; Liao, Wenjun; Yin, Defeng; Rui, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of coptisine on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated chondrocytes have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coptisine on IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes. Our results showed that coptisine greatly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human OA chondrocytes induced by IL-1β. It also inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13 in IL-1β-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, coptisine significantly inhibited the IL-1β-induced NF-kB activation in human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that coptisine inhibits the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-kB signaling pathway. Thus, coptisine may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:27294276

  18. Regulation of Inflammatory Phenotype in Macrophages by a Diabetes-Induced Long Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Park, Jung Tak; Wang, Mei; Lanting, Linda; Zhang, Qiang; Bhatt, Kirti; Leung, Amy; Wu, Xiwei; Putta, Sumanth; Sætrom, Pål; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which macrophages mediate the enhanced inflammation associated with diabetes complications are not completely understood. We used RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of bone marrow macrophages isolated from diabetic db/db mice and identified 1,648 differentially expressed genes compared with control db/+ mice. Data analyses revealed that diabetes promoted a proinflammatory, profibrotic, and dysfunctional alternatively activated macrophage phenotype possibly via transcription factors involved in macrophage function. Notably, diabetes altered levels of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Because the role of lncRNAs in diabetes complications is unknown, we further characterized the function of lncRNA E330013P06, which was upregulated in macrophages from db/db and diet-induced insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice, but not from type 1 diabetic mice. It was also upregulated in monocytes from T2D patients. E330013P06 was also increased along with inflammatory genes in mouse macrophages treated with high glucose and palmitic acid. E330013P06 overexpression in macrophages induced inflammatory genes, enhanced responses to inflammatory signals, and increased foam cell formation. In contrast, small interfering RNA–mediated E330013P06 gene silencing inhibited inflammatory genes induced by the diabetic stimuli. These results define the diabetic macrophage transcriptome and novel functional roles for lncRNAs in macrophages that could lead to lncRNA-based therapies for inflammatory diabetes complications. PMID:25008173

  19. EGCG Attenuates Uric Acid-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses by Medicating the NOTCH Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hua; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zong, Min; Li, Shijie; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can prevent the UA-induced inflammatory effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the involved mechanisms in vitro. Methods. HUVEC were subjected to uric acid (UA) with or without EGCG treatment. RT-PCR and western blots were performed to determine the level of inflammation marker. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Functional studies of the role of Notch-1 in HUVEC lines were performed using RNA interference analyses. Results. UA significantly increased the expressions of IL-6, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 and the production of ROS in HUVEC. Meanwhile, the expression of Notch-1 and its downstream effects significantly increased. Using siRNA, inhibition of Notch-1 signaling significantly impeded the expressions of inflammatory cytokines under UA treatment. Interestingly, EGCG suppressed the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and the generation of ROS. Western blot analysis of Notch-1 showed that EGCG significantly decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines through Notch-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions. In summary, our findings indicated that Notch-1 plays an important role in the UA-induced inflammatory response, and the downregulation of Notch-1 by EGCG could be an effective approach to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress induced by UA. PMID:26539255

  20. Inflammatory mechanisms contribute to microembolism-induced anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Miller, Andrew H; Tansey, Malú G; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-04-15

    Poor vascular health, atherosclerosis, or cardiac procedures in the elderly result in clinically silent microvascular infarcts that increase susceptibility to larger ischemic episodes and can precipitate changes in mood and cognition. Although the mechanisms that underlie ischemia-induced behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated, chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis. Independent of brain injury, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines can lead to sickness behaviors and symptoms of depression. Furthermore, in the presence of brain injury, inflammatory activation may serve as the linchpin that precipitates dysregulation of biological systems leading to changes to behavior. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral inflammation caused by diffuse ischemia is necessary for the expression of post-injury anxiety- and depressive- like behavior. Using a microsphere embolism (ME) rodent model, we demonstrate prolonged elevations in expression of inflammatory genes in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury which are reflected in the contralateral hemisphere by two weeks following injury. Prophylactic administration of meloxicam, a preferential inhibitor of COX-2 activity, prevented both central inflammation and deficits in affective-like behaviors. Furthermore, meloxicam was more efficacious than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine in prevention of microembolism-induced changes in inflammation and behavior. These data demonstrate that inflammatory activation is necessary for microembolism-induced behavioral changes and suggest that anti-inflammatory treatments may be an effective therapeutic strategy in patients with risk factors for vascular depression or prior to invasive cardiac procedures. PMID:26826540

  1. Food-induced (allergic) arthritis. Inflammatory arthritis exacerbated by milk.

    PubMed

    Panush, R S; Stroud, R M; Webster, E M

    1986-02-01

    Suggestive, but largely unproven, observations have associated arthritis with environmental antigens, including foods. We studied a patient with inflammatory arthritis in a prospective, "blinded," controlled fashion to determine whether her symptoms were associated with food sensitivities. This 52-year-old white woman with 11 years of class I, stage I, active disease, had symptomatic exacerbations allegedly associated with meat, milk, and beans. We observed an increase in symptoms following an unblinded food challenge and then studied her in our clinical research unit. On her normal diet for 6 days, she averaged 30 minutes of morning stiffness, 9 tender joints, 3 swollen joints, 87% subjective assessment (100% = best possible), and 89% examiner assessment. While she was fasting (3 days) or taking Vivonex (2 days), we noted no morning stiffness, tender joint score of 1, swollen joint score of 0, and assessments of 100% (P less than 0.05 versus normal diet). She was then nourished with Vivonex for 33 days without difficulty and challenged in a blinded fashion at mealtimes with lyophilized foods placed into opaque capsules. Four milk challenges (equivalent to greater than or equal to 8 ounces per meal) produced up to 30 minutes of morning stiffness, 14 tender joints, 4 swollen joints, subjective assessment of 85%, and objective assessment of 80% (P less than 0.05 versus fasting-Vivonex), peaking 24-48 hours postchallenge. Placebo and other foods (lettuce and carrots) were without effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3513771

  2. Alterations in stress-associated behaviors and neurochemical markers in adult rats after neonatal short-lasting local inflammatory insult.

    PubMed

    Anseloni, V C Z; He, F; Novikova, S I; Turnbach Robbins, M; Lidow, I A; Ennis, M; Lidow, M S

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in long-term consequences of neonatal pain because modern neonatal intensive care units routinely employ procedures that cause considerable pain and may be followed by local inflammation and hyperalgesia lasting for several hours or even days. To address this question, we developed a rat model of short lasting (<2 days) early local inflammatory insult produced by a single injection of 0.25% carrageenan (CAR) into the plantar surface of a hindpaw. Previously, we demonstrated that rats receiving this treatment within the first week after birth grow into adults with a global reduction in responsiveness to acute pain. Here, we report that these animals also manifest a low anxiety trait associated with reduced emotional responsiveness to stress. This conclusion is based in the following observations: (a) rats in our model display reduced anxiety on an elevated plus-maze; (b) in the forced swim test, these rats exhibit behavioral characteristics associated with stronger ability for stress coping; and (c) these animals have reduced basal and stress-induced plasma levels of such stress-related neuroendocrine markers as corticotropin-releasing factor, vasopressin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone. In addition, we used DNA microarray and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to profile long-term changes in gene expression in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG; a region involved in both stress and pain modulation) in our animal model. Among the affected genes, serotonergic receptors were particularly well represented. Specifically, we detected increase in the expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT4 receptors. Several of these receptors are known to be involved in the anxiolytic and analgesic activity of the PAG. Finally, to determine whether neonatal inflammatory insult induces elevation in maternal care, which may play a role in generating long-term behavioral alterations seen in our model, we

  3. The Regulatory Role of Rolipram on Inflammatory Mediators and Cholinergic/Adrenergic Stimulation-Induced Signals in Isolated Primary Mouse Submandibular Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Un; Shin, Dong Min; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces inflammatory signals in salivary glands. We investigated the regulatory role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram on inflammatory mediators and cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation-induced intracellular Ca2+ signaling in salivary acinar and ductal cells. Submandibular gland (SMG) expressed PDE4A through 4D mRNA and PDE4 was localized in the luminal membrane of SMG. LPS induced Ca2+ signaling and ROS production in SMG. Treatment with rolipram blocked LPS-induced Ca2+ increase and ROS production. The application of histamine evoked Ca2+ signals and ROS production, which were attenuated by rolipram in SMG cells. Moreover, LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and cleaved caspase-1 were inhibited by rolipram. The inhibitory role of rolipram in ROS-induced Ca2+ signaling was mainly observed in acinar cells and not in ductal cells. Rolipram also protected SMG acinar but not ductal cells from LPS-induced cell membrane damage. In the case of cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation, carbachol/isoproterenol-induced Ca2+ signals were upregulated by the treatment of rolipram in SMG. In the case of cAMP-dependent ductal bicarbonate secretion by rolipram, no effect was observed on the modulation of ductal chloride/bicarbonate exchange activity. Rolipram could suppress the inflammatory signals and could be a potential therapeutic strategy against LPS-induced inflammation to protect the salivary gland cells. PMID:27143817

  4. Injecting engineered anti-inflammatory macrophages therapeutically induces white adipose tissue browning and improves diet-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    We recently exploited a transgenic approach to coerce macrophage anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in vivo by lowering Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140) level in macrophages (mφRIP140KD), which induced browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). In vitro, conditioned medium from cultured adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) of mφRIP140KD mice could trigger preadipocytes' differentiation into beige cells. Here we describe a cell therapy for treating high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR). Injecting M2 ATMs retrieved from the WAT of mφRIP140KD mice into HFD-fed obese adult wild-type mice effectively triggers their WAT browning, reduces their pro-inflammatory responses, and improves their insulin sensitivity. These data provide a proof-of-concept that delivering engineered anti-inflammatory macrophages can trigger white fat browning, stimulate whole-body thermogenesis, and reduce obesity-associated IR. PMID:26167415

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of tectroside on UVB-induced HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Joung, Dae-Ki; Mun, Su-Hyun; Seo, Yun-Soo; Cha, Mi-Ran; Ryu, Shi-Yong; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation causes skin damage and inflammation by inducing the secretion of various cytokines, which are immune regulators produced by cells. To prevent skin inflammation, keratinocytes that have been irreversibly damaged by UVB must be eliminated through apoptosis. Ixeris dentata (I. dentata) (family Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb indigenous to Korea. It is used in Korea, China and Japan to treat indigestion, pneumonia, diabetes, hepatitis, contusions and tumors. Guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from the whole extract of I. dentata. This led to the isolation of the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactone compound tectroside (TES), which was tested on a human keratinocyte cell line. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of TES, we examined its influence on UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by observing these cells in the presence or absence of TES. In the present study, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis to evaluate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). TES inhibited UVB-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TES inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPKs, suggesting that it inhibits the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 and COX-2 expression by blocking MAPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that TES can potentially protect against UVB-induced skin inflammation. PMID:23588209

  6. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  7. Vitamin D Treatment Modulates Organic Dust-Induced Cellular and Airway Inflammatory Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Gregory A.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Romberger, Debra J.; Reiff, Daniel; McCaskill, Michael; Bauer, Christopher; Gleason, Angela M.; Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to organic dusts elicits airway inflammatory diseases. Vitamin D recently has been associated with various airway inflammatory diseases, but its role in agricultural organic dust exposures is unknown. This study investigated whether vitamin D reduces organic dust-induced inflammatory outcomes in cell culture and animal models. Organic dust extracts obtained from swine confinement facilities induced neutrophil chemokine production (human IL-8, murine CXCL1/CXCL2). Neutrophil chemokine induction was reduced in human blood monocytes, human bronchial epithelial cells and murine lung slices pretreated with 1,25-(OH)2D3. Intranasal inhalation of organic dust extract induced neutrophil influx and CXCL1/CXCL2 release also was decreased in mice fed a relatively high vitamin D diet as compared to mice fed a low vitamin D diet. These findings were associated with reduced tracheal epithelial cell PKCα and PKCε activity and whole lung TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression. Collectively, vitamin D plays a role in modulating organic dust-induced airway inflammatory outcomes. PMID:23281135

  8. Phytoncide Extracted from Pinecone Decreases LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukyung; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Hai Chon; Petriello, Michael C; Kim, Bae Yong; Do, Jeong Tae; Lim, Dae-Seog; Lee, Hong Gu; Han, Sung Gu

    2016-03-28

    Mastitis is a prevalent inflammatory disease that remains one of the main causes of poor quality of milk. Phytoncides are naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compounds derived from plants and trees. To determine if treatment with phytoncide could decrease the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses, mammary alveolar epithelial cells (MAC-T) were pretreated with phytoncide (0.02% and 0.04% (v/v)) followed by LPS treatment (1 and 25 μg/ml). The results demonstrated that phytoncide downregulated LPSinduced pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Additionally, LPS-induced activation of ERK1/2, p38, and Akt was attenuated by phytoncide. Treatment of cells with known pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), and Akt (LY294002) confirmed the association of these signaling pathways with the observed alterations in COX-2 expression. Moreover, phytoncide attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation and superoxide production, and, finally, treatment with phytoncide increased Nrf2 activation. Results suggest that phytoncide can decrease LPS-induced inflammation in MAC-T cells. PMID:26608166

  9. Pneumococcal Hydrogen Peroxide–Induced Stress Signaling Regulates Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Loose, Maria; Hudel, Martina; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Garcia, Ernesto; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Lucas, Rudolf; Chakraborty, Trinad; Pillich, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections can induce aberrant responses in cellular stress pathways, leading to translational attenuation, metabolic restriction, and activation of oxidative stress, with detrimental effects on cell survival. Here we show that infection of human airway epithelial cells with Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress, activation of mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and regulation of their respective target genes. We identify pneumococcal H2O2 as the causative agent for these responses, as both catalase-treated and pyruvate oxidase-deficient bacteria lacked these activities. Pneumococcal H2O2 induced nuclear NF-κB translocation and transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of translational arrest and ER stress by salubrinal or of MAPK signaling pathways attenuate cytokine transcription. These results provide strong evidence for the notion that inhibition of translation is an important host pathway in monitoring harmful pathogen-associated activities, thereby enabling differentiation between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. PMID:25183769

  10. Severe inflammatory reaction induced by peritoneal trauma is the key driving mechanism of postoperative adhesion formation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors have been put forward as a driving mechanism of surgery-triggered adhesion formation (AF). In this study, we underline the key role of specific surgical trauma related with open surgery (OS) and laparoscopic (LS) conditions in postoperative AF and we aimed to study peritoneal tissue inflammatory reaction (TIR), remodelling specific complications of open surgery (OS) versus LS and subsequently evaluating AF induced by these conditions. Methods A prospective randomized study was done in 80 anaesthetised female Wistar rats divided equally into 2 groups. Specific traumatic OS conditions were induced by midline incision line (MIL) extension and tissue drying and specific LS conditions were remodelled by intraperitoneal CO2 insufflation at the 10 cm of water. TIR was evaluated at the 24th, 72nd, 120th and 168th hour by scoring scale. Statistical analysis was performed by the non-parametric t test and two-way ANOVA using Bonferroni post-tests. Results More pronounced residual TIR was registered after OS than after LS. There were no significant TIR interactions though highly significant differences were observed between the OS and LS groups (p < 0.0001) with regard to surgical and time factors. The TIR change differences between the OS and LS groups were pronounced with postoperative time p < 0.05 at the 24th and 72nd; p < 0.01 - 120th and p < 0.001 - 168th hrs. Adhesion free wounds were observed in 20.0 and 31.0% of cases after creation of OS and LS conditions respectively; with no significant differences between these values (p > 0.05). However larger adhesion size (41.67 ± 33.63) was observed after OS in comparison with LS (20.31 ± 16.38). The upper-lower 95% confidential limits ranged from 60.29 to 23.04 and from 29.04 to 11.59 respectively after OS and LS groups with significant differences (p = 0.03). Analogous changes were observed in adhesion severity values. Subsequently, severe TIR parameters were followed by larger sizes of severe

  11. Fasciola hepatica Kunitz Type Molecule Decreases Dendritic Cell Activation and Their Ability to Induce Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Falcón, Cristian R.; Masih, Diana; Gatti, Gerardo; Sanchez, María Cecilia; Motrán, Claudia C.; Cervi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The complete repertoire of proteins with immunomodulatory activity in Fasciola hepatica (Fh) has not yet been fully described. Here, we demonstrated that Fh total extract (TE) reduced LPS-induced DC maturation, and the DC ability to induce allogeneic responses. After TE fractionating, a fraction lower than 10 kDa (F<10 kDa) was able to maintain the TE properties to modulate the DC pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS. In addition, TE or F<10 kDa treatment decreased the ability of immature DC to stimulate the allogeneic responses and induced a novo allogeneic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. In contrast, treatment of DC with T/L or F<10 kDa plus LPS (F<10/L) induced a regulatory IL-27 dependent mechanism that diminished the proliferative and Th1 and Th17 allogeneic responses. Finally, we showed that a Kunitz type molecule (Fh-KTM), present in F<10 kDa, was responsible for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-activated DC, by printing tolerogenic features on DC that impaired their ability to induce inflammatory responses. These results suggest a modulatory role for this protein, which may be involved in the immune evasion mechanisms of the parasite. PMID:25486609

  12. Mycobacterium fortuitum induces A20 expression that impairs macrophage inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gippeum Joy; Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyung; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that has been regarded as an etiological agent of a variety of human infections. However, little is known about the host inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms by which MF-induced inflammation is regulated in macrophages. In this study, we report that MF infection leads to the induction of an anti-inflammatory molecule, A20 (also known as TNFAIP3), which is essential for the regulation of MF-induced inflammatory responses in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). MF triggered the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in BMDMs through signaling of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88. Additionally, MF rapidly induced the expression of A20, which inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB reporter gene activities in BMDMs. Notably, MF-induced activation of NF-κB signaling was required for A20 expression and proinflammatory responses in BMDMs. Furthermore, the rough morphotype of the MF clinical strain induced a higher level of proinflammatory signaling activation, but less A20 induction in BMDMs, compared to the smooth morphotype. Taken together, these results suggest that MF-induced activation of host proinflammatory responses is negatively regulated through TLR2-dependent A20 expression. PMID:26940588

  13. Digibind attenuates cytokine TNFα-induced endothelial inflammatory response: potential benefit role of Digibind in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Lewis, DF; Adair, CD; Gu, Y; Mason, L; Kipikasa, JH

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exaggerated inflammatory response occurs in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also associated with elevated endogenous digoxin-like factors (EDLFs). Clinical data suggest that Digibind (a polyclonal sheep digoxin binding Fab fragment) binds to EDLF and may have the potential to attenuate vasoconstriction and other clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. This study was undertaken to determine if Digibind could attenuate increased endothelial inflammatory response induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Study Design Confluent endothelial cells were treated with TNFα at different concentrations with or without Digibind in culture. Endothelial adhesion molecule ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin expressions were determined by an immunoassay directly detected on the endothelial surface. Effects of Digibind on TNFα-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Na+/K+-ATPase expressions were also examined. Result (1) TNFα induced dose-dependent increases in ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin expressions in endothelial cells; (2) Digibind could attenuate and reduce TNFα-induced upregulation of endothelial E-selectin, ICAM and VCAM expressions. The blocking effect was in a concentration dependent manner; (3) Digibind had no effects on TNFα-induced upregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, but could block TNFα-induced downregulation of Na+/K+-ATPase β1 expression. Conclusion Digibind may exert beneficial effects by preserving cell membrane Na+/K+-ATPase function and consequently to offset increased inflammatory response in endothelial cells. PMID:19148111

  14. Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Inflammatory Mediators and Heat Shock Proteins in Young Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Ewa; Zembroñ-Lacny, Agnieszka; Kasperska, Anna; Antosiewicz, Jȩdrzej; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Garsztka, Tomasz; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp) represent proteins’ groups, whose protective function, may be induced by heat, reactive oxygen species, cytokines etc. We evaluated blood levels of Hsp27 and Hsp70, and their relation to skeletal muscle damage and inflammation in young tennis players before and after the conditioning camp. Blood samples were collected directly after tournament season, 3-day rest and 14-day conditioning camp that followed. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) demonstrated the highest concentration directly after tournament season, which significantly decreased at camp’s end. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα decreased, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 increased after 3d rest and 14d camp. Hsp27 increased after 3d rest and remained so after 14d camp, while Hsp70 decreased from baseline to camp’s completion. Hsp27 and Hsp70 correlated significantly with H2O2, IL-1β and TNFα. Muscle damage, observed as creatine kinase (CK) activity changes, increased after 14d camp similarly to Hsp27 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10. Obtained data allows to conclude that decrease of Hsp27 and increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines could be a good indicator of overreaching. Reverse tendencies in these proteins may verify accuracy of conditioning camp. Finally, this training program caused an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines concentrations, improving individual status of recovery. Key Points The study demonstrating low grade inflammation-induced by the tournament season in young tennis player. Three days of active rest stimulated the anti-inflammatory response via rise of Hsp27 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Observed decrease of blood Hsp70 may support mental recovery. Thirteen-day appropriate training program led to maintaining an immunological response balance. PMID:24149807

  15. The Anti-inflammatory Effect of GV1001 Mediated by the Downregulation of ENO1-induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiyea; Kim, Hyemin; Kim, Yejin; Jang, Mirim; Jeon, Jane; Hwang, Young-il; Shon, Won Jun; Song, Yeong Wook; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-01-01

    GV1001 is a peptide derived from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) sequence that is reported to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Enolase1 (ENO1) is a glycolytic enzyme, and stimulation of this enzyme induces high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines from concanavalin A (Con A)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ENO1-expressing monocytes in healthy subjects, as well as from macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Therefore, this study investigated whether GV1001 downregulates ENO1-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines as an anti-inflammatory peptide. The results showed that GV1001 does not affect the expression of ENO1 in either Con A-activated PBMCs or RA PBMCs. However, ENO1 stimulation increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and these cytokines were downregulated by pretreatment with GV1001. Moreover, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were activated when ENO1, on the surface of Con A-activated PBMCs and RA PBMCs, was stimulated, and they were successfully suppressed by pre-treatment with GV1001. These results suggest that GV1001 may be an effective anti-inflammatory peptide that downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the suppression of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation following ENO1 stimulation. PMID:26770183

  16. The Anti-inflammatory Effect of GV1001 Mediated by the Downregulation of ENO1-induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiyea; Kim, Hyemin; Kim, Yejin; Jang, Mirim; Jeon, Jane; Hwang, Young-Il; Shon, Won Jun; Song, Yeong Wook; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-12-01

    GV1001 is a peptide derived from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) sequence that is reported to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Enolase1 (ENO1) is a glycolytic enzyme, and stimulation of this enzyme induces high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines from concanavalin A (Con A)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ENO1-expressing monocytes in healthy subjects, as well as from macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Therefore, this study investigated whether GV1001 downregulates ENO1-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines as an anti-inflammatory peptide. The results showed that GV1001 does not affect the expression of ENO1 in either Con A-activated PBMCs or RA PBMCs. However, ENO1 stimulation increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and these cytokines were downregulated by pretreatment with GV1001. Moreover, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were activated when ENO1, on the surface of Con A-activated PBMCs and RA PBMCs, was stimulated, and they were successfully suppressed by pre-treatment with GV1001. These results suggest that GV1001 may be an effective anti-inflammatory peptide that downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the suppression of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation following ENO1 stimulation. PMID:26770183

  17. Inflammation Mediated Metastasis: Immune Induced Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Evan N.; Gao, Hui; Anfossi, Simone; Mego, Michal; Reddy, Neelima G.; Debeb, Bisrat; Giordano, Antonio; Tin, Sanda; Wu, Qiong; Garza, Raul J.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Mani, Sendurai A.; Croix, Denise A.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Luthra, Raja; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Reuben, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-α production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction. PMID:26207636

  18. A Mouse Model for Pathogen-induced Chronic Inflammation at Local and Systemic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Connie S.; Weinberg, Ellen O.; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V.; Hamilton, James A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Potential of the New Ganghwaljetongyeum on Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wangin; Park, Sangbin; Kim, Youg Ran; Shin, Wook; Lee, Yumi; Choi, Donghee; Kim, Mirae; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Seonjong; Na, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    Ganghwaljetongyeum (GHJTY) has been used as a standard treatment for arthritis for approximately 15 years at the Korean Medicine Hospital of Dongshin University. GHJTY is composed of 18 medicinal herbs, of which five primary herbs were selected and named new Ganghwaljetongyeum (N-GHJTY). The purpose of the present study was to observe the effect of N-GHJTY on arthritis and to determine its mechanism of action. After confirming arthritis induction using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats, N-GHJTY (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg/day) was administered once a day for 10 days. In order to determine pathological changes, edema of the paws and weight were measured before and for 10 days after N-GHJTY administration. Cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) levels and histopathological lesions in the knee joint were also examined. Edema in the paw and knee joint of N-GHJTY-treated rats was significantly decreased at 6, 8, and 10 days after administration, compared to that in the CFA-control group, while weight consistently increased. Rats in N-GHJTY-treated groups also recovered from the CFA-induced pathological changes and showed a significant decline in cytokine levels. Taken together, our results showed that N-GHJTY administration was effective in inhibiting CFA-induced arthritis via anti-inflammatory effects while promoting cartilage recovery by controlling cytokine levels. PMID:27382402

  20. The clinically approved drugs dasatinib and bosutinib induce anti-inflammatory macrophages by inhibiting the salt-inducible kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ozanne, James; Prescott, Alan R.; Clark, Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages switch to an anti-inflammatory, ‘regulatory’-like phenotype characterized by the production of high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to promote the resolution of inflammation. A potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases would be to administer drugs that could induce the formation of ‘regulatory’-like macrophages at sites of inflammation. In the present study, we demonstrate that the clinically approved cancer drugs bosutinib and dasatinib induce several hallmark features of ‘regulatory’-like macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with bosutinib or dasatinib elevates the production of IL-10 while suppressing the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Moreover, macrophages treated with bosutinib or dasatinib express higher levels of markers of ‘regulatory’-like macrophages including LIGHT, SPHK1 and arginase 1. Bosutinib and dasatinib were originally developed as inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinases Bcr-Abl and Src but we show that, surprisingly, the effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on macrophage polarization are the result of the inhibition of the salt-inducible kinases. Consistent with the present finding, bosutinib and dasatinib induce the dephosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 3 (CRTC3) and its nuclear translocation where it induces a cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene transcription programme including that of IL-10. Importantly, these effects of bosutinib and dasatinib on IL-10 gene expression are lost in macrophages expressing a drug-resistant mutant of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2). In conclusion, our study identifies the salt-inducible kinases as major targets of bosutinib and dasatinib that mediate the effects of these drugs on the innate immune system and provides novel mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory

  1. Oleuropein suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cell and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Su-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-02-25

    Oleuropein is one of the primary phenolic compounds present in olive leaf. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein was investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 and a zebrafish model. The inhibitory effect of oleuropein on LPS-induced NO production in macrophages was supported by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, our enzyme immunoassay showed that oleuropein suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Oleuropein inhibited the translocation of p65 by suppressing phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B-α (IκB-α). Oleuropein also decreased activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, which are associated with LPS-induced inflammation, and its downstream gene of AP-1. Furthermore, oleuropein inhibited LPS-stimulated NO generation in a zebrafish model. Taken together, our results demonstrated that oleuropein could reduce inflammatory responses by inhibiting TLR and MAPK signaling, and may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25613688

  2. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Enhance Early Inflammatory Response in Sendai Virus-Induced Asthma Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Akk, Antonina; Springer, Luke E; Pham, Christine T N

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxoviral infection in childhood has been linked to a significant increased rate of asthma development. In mice, paramyxoviral infection with the mouse parainfluenza virus type I, Sendai virus (Sev), causes a limited bronchiolitis followed by persistent asthma traits. We have previously shown that the absence of cysteine protease dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) dampened the acute lung inflammatory response and the subsequent asthma phenotype induced by Sev. Adoptive transfer of wild-type neutrophils into DPPI-deficient mice restored leukocyte influx, the acute cytokine response, and the subsequent mucous cell metaplasia that accompanied Sev-induced asthma phenotype. However, the exact mechanism by which DPPI-sufficient neutrophils promote asthma development following Sev infection is still unknown. We hypothesize that neutrophils recruited to the alveolar space following Sev infection elaborate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that propagate the inflammatory cascade, culminating in the eventual asthma phenotype. Indeed, we found that Sev infection was associated with NET formation in the lung and release of cell-free DNA complexed to myeloperoxidase in the alveolar space and plasma that peaked on day 2 post infection. Absence of DPPI significantly attenuated Sev-induced NET formation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, concomitant administration of DNase 1, which dismantled NETs, or inhibition of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), an essential mediator of NET formation, suppressed the early inflammatory responses to Sev infection. Lastly, NETs primed bone marrow-derived cells to release cytokines that can amplify the inflammatory cascade. PMID:27617014

  3. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Enhance Early Inflammatory Response in Sendai Virus-Induced Asthma Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Antonina; Springer, Luke E.; Pham, Christine T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxoviral infection in childhood has been linked to a significant increased rate of asthma development. In mice, paramyxoviral infection with the mouse parainfluenza virus type I, Sendai virus (Sev), causes a limited bronchiolitis followed by persistent asthma traits. We have previously shown that the absence of cysteine protease dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) dampened the acute lung inflammatory response and the subsequent asthma phenotype induced by Sev. Adoptive transfer of wild-type neutrophils into DPPI-deficient mice restored leukocyte influx, the acute cytokine response, and the subsequent mucous cell metaplasia that accompanied Sev-induced asthma phenotype. However, the exact mechanism by which DPPI-sufficient neutrophils promote asthma development following Sev infection is still unknown. We hypothesize that neutrophils recruited to the alveolar space following Sev infection elaborate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that propagate the inflammatory cascade, culminating in the eventual asthma phenotype. Indeed, we found that Sev infection was associated with NET formation in the lung and release of cell-free DNA complexed to myeloperoxidase in the alveolar space and plasma that peaked on day 2 post infection. Absence of DPPI significantly attenuated Sev-induced NET formation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, concomitant administration of DNase 1, which dismantled NETs, or inhibition of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), an essential mediator of NET formation, suppressed the early inflammatory responses to Sev infection. Lastly, NETs primed bone marrow-derived cells to release cytokines that can amplify the inflammatory cascade.

  4. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  5. Apolipoprotein E knockout induced inflammatory responses related to microglia in neonatal mice brain via astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yimei; Xu, Xiaohua; Dou, Hongbo; Hua, Ying; Xu, Jinwen; Hui, Xu

    2015-01-01

    More and more evidences suggestted that ApoE plays an important role in modulating the systemic and central nervous inflammatory responses. However, there is a lack of exacted mechanism of ApoE. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether apolipoprotein E (ApoE) induced inflammatory responses and apoptosis in neonatal mice brain from ApoE deficient (ApoE-/-) and wildtype (WT). Compared to control group, the microglia cell from ApoE-/- mice showed more severe inflammation and cell death such as iNOS and IL-1β. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory such as TGF-β, IL-10 from microglia and astrocytes in ApoE-/- mice were decreased. On the other way, TGF-β from astrocytes can inhibit inflammation factors secretion from microglia. Our findings suggested that the anti- inflammation factor such as IL-10 mainly from microglia and TGF-β mainly from astrocyte is significant decreased after Loss of ApoE function in ApoE-/- mice which induced severe inflammation. Furthrtmore, anti- inflammation factor such as IL-10 and TGF-β Therefore, we conclude that apolipoprotein E knockout induced inflammatory responses related to microglia in neonatal mice brain via astrocytes. PMID:25785051

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Delays LPS-Induced Preterm Birth in Mice via Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Chen; You, Xingji; Olson, David M.; Chemtob, Sylvain; Gao, Lu; Ni, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of preterm labor in pregnant women is intra-amniotic infection, which is mediated by an inflammatory process. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter, has been implicated to be involved in inflammatory responses. We sought to investigate whether H2S affects infectious preterm birth using the mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced preterm birth. Administration of LPS at 0.4 mg/kg with two injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) on gestational day 14.5 induced preterm labor. LPS significantly increased leukocyte infiltration in uterus, stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CCL2 and CXCL15 in myometrium. Administration of NaHS (i.p.) delayed the onset of labor induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS prevented leukocyte infiltration into intrauterine tissues and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myometrium and decreased the levels of these cytokines in maternal circulation. H2S also decreased LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2/ nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways in myometrium. This study provides new in vivo evidence for the roles of H2S in attenuating inflammation, and a potential novel therapeutic strategy for infection-related preterm labor. PMID:27035826

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lactobacillus on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Amdekar, Sarika; Roy, Purabi; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2 × 107 CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at t = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at t = 24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at P < 0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway. PMID:22518342

  8. Sexually dimorphic myeloid inflammatory and metabolic responses to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C; Lanzetta, N; Eter, L; Singer, K

    2016-08-01

    It is well known in clinical and animal studies that women and men have different disease risk as well as different disease physiology. Women of reproductive age are protected from metabolic and cardiovascular disease compared with postmenopausal women and men. Most murine studies are skewed toward the use of male mice to study obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction because of similar protection in female mice. We have investigated dietary obesity in a mouse model and have directly compared inflammatory responses in males and females. In this review we will summarize what is known about sex differences in diet-induced inflammation and will summarize our data on this topic. It is clear that sex differences in high-fat diet-induced inflammatory activation are due to cell intrinsic differences in hematopoietic responses to obesogenic cues, but further research is needed to understand what leads to sexually dimorphic responses. PMID:27252473

  9. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gefei; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia; Dai, Jianping; Li, Kangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. PMID:27525278

  10. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. PMID:27525278

  11. Hypoxia Potentiates Palmitate-induced Pro-inflammatory Activation of Primary Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Ryan G; Boß, Marcel; Zezina, Ekaterina; Weigert, Andreas; Dehne, Nathalie; Fleming, Ingrid; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue hypoxia promotes an inflammatory phenotype in ATMs. However, our understanding of how hypoxia modulates the response of ATMs to free fatty acids within obese adipose tissue is limited. We examined the effects of hypoxia (1% O2) on the pro-inflammatory responses of human monocyte-derived macrophages to the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Compared with normoxia, hypoxia significantly increased palmitate-induced mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β. Although palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor κB pathway activation were not enhanced by hypoxia, hypoxia increased the activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in palmitate-treated cells. Inhibition of JNK blocked the hypoxic induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, whereas knockdown of hypoxia-induced transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α alone or in combination failed to reduce IL-6 and only modestly reduced IL-1β gene expression in palmitate-treated hypoxic macrophages. Enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and JNK activity under hypoxia were prevented by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, silencing of dual-specificity phosphatase 16 increased normoxic levels of IL-6 and IL-1β and reduced the hypoxic potentiation in palmitate-treated macrophages. The secretome of hypoxic palmitate-treated macrophages promoted IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 expression in primary human adipocytes, which was sensitive to macrophage JNK inhibition. Our results reveal that the coexistence of hypoxia along with free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation. PMID:26578520

  12. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  13. TSG attenuates LPC-induced endothelial cells inflammatory damage through notch signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Song, Fan; Xu, Shouzhu; Nian, Lun; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induces inflammation in endothelial cells (ECs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in chronic EC inflammation, but its functions in LPC-induced endothelial inflammatory damage and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside's (TSG) protective effect during LPC-induced inflammatory damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is largely unknown. We report that Notch signaling activation contributed to LPC-induced injury in HUVECs, and that TSG protected HUVECs from LPC-induced injury by antagonizing Notch signaling activation by LPC. γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, and Notch1 siRNA were used to inhibit Notch activity. HUVECs were exposed to LPC in the presence or absence of TSG, DAPT, and Notch1 siRNA. LPC treatment of HUVECs resulted in reduced cell viability, and Notch1 and Hes1 upregulation. Either silencing of Notch1 by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT prevented the loss of cell viability, and induction of apoptosis, and enhanced expression Notch1, Hes1 and MCP-1 by LPC in HUVECs. Similarly, TSG reduced LPC stimulation of Notch1, Hes1, and MCP-1 expression, prevented the release of IL-6 and CRP and rescued HUVECs from LPC-induced cell damage. Our data indicate that the Notch signaling pathway is a crucial mediator of endothelial inflammatory damage and that TSG protects against endothelial inflammatory damage by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting Notch signaling by natural products such as TSG is a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation associated diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):37-50, 2016. PMID:26662286

  14. Light-emitting diodes at 940nm attenuate colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice.

    PubMed

    Belém, Mônica O; de Andrade, Giovana M M; Carlos, Thalita M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Fattori, Victor; Toginho Filho, Dari O; Dias, Ivan F L; Verri, Waldiceu A; Araújo, Eduardo J A

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents intense inflammatory infiltrate, crypt abscesses, ulceration and even loss of function. Despite the clinical relevance of IBD, its current therapy remains poorly effective. Infrared wavelength phototherapy shows therapeutic potential on inflammation. Our goal was to evaluate whether light-emitting diodes (LED) at 940nm are capable of mitigating the colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice. Forty male Swiss mice were assigned into five groups: control; control treated with LED therapy; colitis without treatment; colitis treated with LED therapy; colitis treated with Prednisolone. Experimental colitis was induced by acetic acid 7.5% (pH2.5) rectal administration. LED therapy was performed with light characterized by wavelength of 940nm, 45nm bandwidth, intensity of 4.05J/cm(2), total power of 270mW and total dose of 64.8J for 4min in a single application. Colitis-induced intestinal transit delay was inhibited by LED therapy. Colitis caused an increase of colon dimensions (length, diameter, total area) and colon weight (edema), which were inhibited by LED therapy. LED therapy also decreased colitis-induced tissue gross lesion, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic tissue damage score and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in all intestinal layers. Furthermore, LED therapy inhibited colitis-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. We conclude LED therapy at 940nm inhibited experimental colitis-induced colon inflammation in mice, therefore, rendering it a promising therapeutic approach that deserves further investigation. PMID:27424097

  15. A Review on Chemical-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease Models in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Kavinder; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are a set of chronic, idiopathic, immunological and relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract referred to as inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD). Although the etiological factors involved in the perpetuation of IBD remain uncertain, development of various animal models provides new insights to unveil the onset and the progression of IBD. Various chemical-induced colitis models are widely used on laboratory scale. Furthermore, these models closely mimic morphological, histopathological and symptomatical features of human IBD. Among the chemical-induced colitis models, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, oxazolone induced-colitis and dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis models are most widely used. TNBS elicits Th-1 driven immune response, whereas oxazolone predominantly exhibits immune response of Th-2 phenotype. DSS-induced colitis model also induces changes in Th-1/Th-2 cytokine profile. The present review discusses the methodology and rationale of using various chemical-induced colitis models for evaluating the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:25177159

  16. Local therapies for inflammatory eye disease in translation: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite their side-effects and the advent of systemic immunosuppressives and biologics, the use of corticosteroids remains in the management of patients with uveitis, particularly when inflammation is associated with systemic disease or when bilateral ocular disease is present. The use of topical corticosteroids as local therapy for anterior uveitis is well-established, but periocular injections of corticosteroid can also be used to control mild or moderate intraocular inflammation. More recently, intraocular corticosteroids such as triamcinolone and steroid-loaded vitreal inserts and implants have been found to be effective, including in refractory cases. Additional benefits are noted when ocular inflammation is unilateral or asymmetric, when local therapy may preclude the need to increase the systemic medication. Implants in particular have gained prominence with evidence of efficacy including both dexamethasone and fluocinolone loaded devices. However, an appealing avenue of research lies in the development of non-corticosteroid drugs in order to avoid the side-effects that limit the appeal of injected corticosteroids. Several existing drugs are being assessed, including anti-VEGF compounds such as ranibizumab and bevacizumab, anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha antibodies such as infliximab, as well as older cytotoxic medications such as methotrexate and cyclosporine, with varying degrees of success. Intravitreal sirolimus is currently undergoing phase 3 trials in uveitis and other inflammatory pathways have also been proposed as suitable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the advent of biotechnology is seeing advances in generation of new therapeutic molecules such as high affinity binding peptides or modified high affinity or bivalent single chain Fab fragments, offering higher specificity and possibility of topical delivery. PMID:23914773

  17. Three diketopiperazines from marine-derived bacteria inhibit LPS-induced endothelial inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyejin; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Hyukjae; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-04-15

    Diketopiperazine is a natural products found from bacteria, fungi, marine sponges, gorgonian and red algae. They are cyclic dipeptides possessing relatively simple and rigid structures with chiral nature and various side chains. Endothelial dysfunction is a key pathological feature of many inflammatory diseases, including sepsis. In the present study, three (1-3) of diketopiperazines were isolated from two strains of marine-derived bacteria. The compounds were investigated for their effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endothelial inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. From 1μM, 1-3 inhibited LPS-induced hyperpermeability, adhesion, and migration of leukocytes across a human endothelial cell monolayer and in mice in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that 1-3 may serve as potential scaffolds for the development of therapeutic agents to treat vascular inflammatory disorders. PMID:26988307

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation in endotoxin-induced uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Toguri, J T; Lehmann, C; Laprairie, R B; Szczesniak, A M; Zhou, J; Denovan-Wright, E M; Kelly, M E M

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeCannabinoid CB2 receptors mediate immunomodulation. Here, we investigated the effects of CB2 receptor ligands on leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and inflammatory mediator release in experimental endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Experimental ApproachEIU was induced by intraocular injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 ng·μL−1). Effects of the CB2 receptor agonist, HU308 (1.5% topical), the CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630 (2.5 mg·kg−1 i.v.), or a combination of both compounds on leukocyte-endothelial interactions were measured hourly for 6 h in rat iridial vasculature using intravital microscopy. Anti-inflammatory actions of HU308 were compared with those of clinical treatments for uveitis - dexamethasone, prednisolone and nepafenac. Transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1) and inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules) were measured in iris and ciliary body tissue. Key ResultsLeukocyte-endothelium adherence was increased in iridial microvasculature between 4–6 h after LPS. HU308 reduced this effect after LPS injection and decreased pro-inflammatory mediators: TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL5 and CXCL2. AM630 blocked the actions of HU-308, and increased leukocyte-endothelium adhesion. HU-308 decreased levels of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, while AM630 increased levels of NF-κB. Topical treatments with dexamethasone, prednisolone or nepafenac, failed to alter leukocyte adhesion or mitigate LPS-induced increases in inflammatory mediators during the 6 h of EIU. Conclusion and ImplicationsActivation of CB2 receptors was anti-inflammatory in a model of acute EIU and involved a reduction in NF-κB, AP-1 and inflammatory mediators. CB2 receptors may be promising drug targets for the development of novel ocular anti-inflammatory agents. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014

  19. Effect of Mesenchymal Precursor Cells on the Systemic Inflammatory Response and Endothelial Dysfunction in an Ovine Model of Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Laura M.; Abdalmula, Anwar; Washington, Elizabeth A.; Kaufman, Claire; Tudor, Elizabeth M.; Ghosh, Peter; Itescu, Silviu; Kimpton, Wayne G.; Bailey, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) are reported to possess immunomodulatory properties that may prove beneficial in autoimmune and other inflammatory conditions. However, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. A collagen-induced arthritis model has been previously developed which demonstrates local joint inflammation and systemic inflammatory changes. These include not only increased levels of inflammatory markers, but also vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, characterised by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This study aimed to characterise the changes in systemic inflammatory markers and endothelial function following the intravenous administration of MPC, in the ovine model. Methods Arthritis was induced in sixteen adult sheep by administration of bovine type II collagen into the hock joint following initial sensitisation. After 24h, sheep were administered either 150 million allogeneic ovine MPCs intravenously, or saline only. Fibrinogen and serum amyloid-A were measured in plasma to assess systemic inflammation, along with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Animals were necropsied two weeks following arthritis induction. Coronary and digital arterial segments were mounted in a Mulvaney-Halpern wire myograph. The relaxant response to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilators was used to assess endothelial dysfunction. Results and Conclusion Arthritic sheep treated with MPC demonstrated a marked spike in plasma IL-10, 24h following MPC administration. They also showed significantly reduced plasma levels of the inflammatory markers, fibrinogen and serum amyloid A, and increased HDL. Coronary arteries from RA sheep treated with MPCs demonstrated a significantly greater maximal relaxation to bradykinin when compared to untreated RA sheep (253.6 ± 17.1% of pre-contracted tone vs. 182.3 ± 27.3% in controls), and digital arteries also demonstrated greater endothelium-dependent vasodilation

  20. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-κB was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-κB activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  1. Methanolic Extract of Asterina pectinifera inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Wol-Soon; Choi, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyoun Ji; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Lee, Gye An; Seo, Su Yeong; Lee, Sang Wha

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate anti-inflammatory activities from extracts of Asterina pectinifera on nitric oxide (NO) production, TNF-α and IL-6 release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated murine macrophage cell, RAW264.7. We prepared the methanolic extracts (60-MAP, 70-MAP, 80-MAP and 90-MAP) , aqueous extract (W-AP) and functional bioactive compound fraction (He-AP and EA-AP) from Asterina pectinifera according to extract method. The 60-MAP, 70-MAP, 80-MAP, 90-MAP and W-AP were significantly suppressed LPS-induced production NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05) . Especially, 80-MAP by extracted 80% methanol had the strongest activity in reduction of inflammatory mediators among these extracts. Indeed, to identify active fraction, which contained potential bioactive compounds, from 80-MAP of Asterina pectinifera, we tested anti-inflammatory activity of the He-AP or the EA-AP. The He-AP was next extracted from 80-MAP and the EA-AP were extracted from the other methanol layer except the He-AP. The EA-AP demonstrated a strong anti-inflammatory effect through its ability to reduce NO production and it also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α at low concentration. These results suggested that the methanolic extract from Asterina pectinifera had the potential inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators. PMID:24278504

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation. PMID:26362409

  3. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  4. Paeonol attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Han; Lin, An-Hsuan; Lee, Hung-Fu; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes persistent lung inflammation that is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive pathways. We have previously reported that cigarette smoke (CS) activates reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling leading to induction of lung inflammation. Paeonol, the main phenolic compound present in the Chinese herb Paeonia suffruticosa, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether paeonol has similar beneficial effects against CS-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. Using a murine model, we showed that chronic CS exposure for 4 weeks caused pulmonary inflammatory infiltration, increased lung vascular permeability, elevated lung levels of chemokines, cytokines, and 4-hydroxynonenal (an oxidative stress biomarker), and induced lung inflammation; all of these CS-induced events were suppressed by chronic treatment with paeonol. Using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), we demonstrated that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) sequentially increased extracellular and intracellular levels of ROS, activated the MAPKs/NF-κB signaling, and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8); all these CSE-induced events were inhibited by paeonol pretreatment. Our findings suggest a novel role for paeonol in alleviating the oxidative stress and lung inflammation induced by chronic CS exposure in vivo and in suppressing CSE-induced IL-8 in vitro via its antioxidant function and an inhibition of the MAPKs/NF-κB signaling. PMID:25165413

  5. Identification of Pharmacological Modulators of HMGB1-Induced Inflammatory Response by Cell-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gerö, Domokos; Szoleczky, Petra; Módis, Katalin; Pribis, John P.; Al-Abed, Yousef; Yang, Huan; Chevan, Sangeeta; Billiar, Timothy R.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein, is released into the circulation during sterile inflammation (e.g. arthritis, trauma) and circulatory shock. It participates in the pathogenesis of delayed inflammatory responses and organ dysfunction. While several molecules have been identified that modulate the release of HMGB1, less attention has been paid to identify pharmacological inhibitors of the downstream inflammatory processes elicited by HMGB1 (C23-C45 disulfide C106 thiol form). In the current study, a cell-based medium-throughput screening of a 5000+ compound focused library of clinical drugs and drug-like compounds was performed in murine RAW264.7 macrophages, in order to identify modulators of HMGB1-induced tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) production. Clinically used drugs that suppressed HMGB1-induced TNFα production included glucocorticoids, beta agonists, and the anti-HIV compound indinavir. A re-screen of the NIH clinical compound library identified beta-agonists and various intracellular cAMP enhancers as compounds that potentiate the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on HMGB1-induced TNFα production. The molecular pathways involved in this synergistic anti-inflammatory effect are related, at least in part, to inhibition of TNFα mRNA synthesis via a synergistic suppression of ERK/IκB activation. Inhibition of TNFα production by prednisolone+salbutamol pretreatment was also confirmed in vivo in mice subjected to HMGB1 injection; this effect was more pronounced than the effect of either of the agents administered separately. The current study unveils several drug-like modulators of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses and offers pharmacological directions for the therapeutic suppression of inflammatory responses in HMGB1-dependent diseases. PMID:23799067

  6. Micheliolide inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response and protects mice from LPS challenge

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiangyang; Jiang, Xinru; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Yuli; Miao, Zhulei; He, Weigang; Yang, Guizhen; Lv, Zhenhui; Yu, Yizhi; Zheng, Yuejuan

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the principal cause of fatality in the intensive care units worldwide. It involves uncontrolled inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ failure and even death. Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was reported to inhibit dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer and rheumatic arthritis. Nevertheless, the role of MCL in microbial infection and sepsis is unclear. We demonstrated that MCL decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria)-mediated production of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, etc) in Raw264.7 cells, primary macrophages, dendritic cells and human monocytes. MCL plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathways. It has negligible impact on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In the acute peritonitis mouse model, MCL reduced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IFN-β and IL-10 in sera, and ameliorated lung and liver damage. MCL down-regulated the high mortality rate caused by lethal LPS challenge. Collectively, our data illustrated that MCL enabled maintenance of immune equilibrium may represent a potentially new anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug candidate in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock. PMID:26984741

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of taurocholate on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; He, Jiao; Suo, Yuan; Lv, Le; Wang, Jingjing; Huo, Chuanchuan; Zheng, Zongwei; Wang, Ziye; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-07-01

    Taurocholate is a natural conjugated bile acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of taurocholate in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. The colitis were induced by rectal administration of TNBS. After 24h, the experimental animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SASP, 500mg/kg/day) and taurocholate (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The anti-inflammatory effects of taurocholate for colitis were assessed by body weight, colonic weight and length, macroscopic scores, and histopathological examinations. In addition, the colonic tissue levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were also determined to assess the effect of taurocholate. Compared with the model group, treatment with taurocholate (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) significantly inhibited the body weight loss, improved colonic weight and length, and decreased macroscopic and histopathological scores. Furthermore, the activity accumulation of MPO and the colonic tissue levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were also decreased by administration of taurocholate. All the findings of this study suggested that taurocholate has the anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis in mice and indicated it as a good candidate to treat inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27261622

  8. Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory responses to fipronil.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory responses are involved in mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanisms whereby inflammatory responses contribute to loss of dopaminergic neurons in fipronil (FPN)-treated rats. After stereotaxic injection of FPN in the substantia nigra (SN), the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and the levels of TH expression in the SN decreased at 7days, and a significant decrease was observed at 14days with a subsequent reduction in striatal TH expression. Decreases in dopamine (DA) levels, however, began at 3days post-injection, preceding the changes in TH expression. In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly increased at 3days and persisted for up to 14days post-lesion; these changes in GFAP expression appeared to be inversely correlated with TH expression. Furthermore, we found that FPN administration induced an inflammatory response characterized by increased levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which was mediated by activated microglia following infusion of FPN unilaterally into the SN. Intranigral injection of FPN underwent an inflammatory response with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, indicating that pesticides may have important implication for the study of PD. PMID:27313094

  9. Suppression of wear-particle-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages via NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Sato, Taishi; Keeney, Michael; Li, Chenguang; Pajarinen, Jukka; Yang, Fan; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-08-01

    Total joint replacement (TJR) is very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate, mainly because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to periprosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, owing to compensatory up-regulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. It is hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-κB could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, NF-κB activity in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, was suppressed via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-κB binding element. It was found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including TNF-α, MCP1, MIP1α and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-κB ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:24814879

  10. Induced Treg Cells Augment the Th17-Mediated Intestinal Inflammatory Response in a CTLA4-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kaminuma, Osamu; Kitamura, Noriko; Hiroi, Takachika

    2016-01-01

    Th17 cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are thought to promote and suppress inflammatory responses, respectively. However, whether they counteract each other or synergize in regulating immune reactions remains controversial. To determine their interactions, we describe the results of experiments employing mouse models of intestinal inflammation by transferring antigen-specific Th cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17) differentiated in vitro followed by the administration of the cognate antigen via enema. We show that cotransfer of induced Tregs (iTregs) suppressed Th1- and Th2-mediated colon inflammation. In contrast, colon inflammation induced by transfer of Th17 cells, was augmented by the cotransfer of iTregs. Furthermore, oral delivery of antigen potentiated Th17-mediated colon inflammation. Administration of a blocking antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) abrogated the effects of cotransfer of iTregs, while the injection of a soluble recombinant immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein, CTLA4-Ig substituted for the cotransfer of iTregs. These results suggest that antigen-specific activation of iTregs in a local environment stimulates the Th17-mediated inflammatory response in a CTLA4-dependent manner. PMID:26950218

  11. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-10-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat, and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, although other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative that we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol- and WS-12-induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively, with diminished side effects. PMID:23820004

  12. TRPM8 is the Principal Mediator of Menthol-induced Analgesia of Acute and Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, while other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol and WS-12 induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively with diminished side effects. PMID:23820004

  13. Dexmedetomidine Modulates Histamine-induced Ca2+ Signaling and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongki

    2015-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that exerts its effects by selectively agonizing α2 adrenoceptor. Histamine is a pathophysiological amine that activates G protein-coupled receptors, to induce Ca2+ release and subsequent mediate or progress inflammation. Dexmedetomidine has been reported to exert inhibitory effect on inflammation both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, it is unclear that dexmedetomidine modulates histamine-induced signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. This study was carried out to assess how dexmedetomidine modulates histamine-induced Ca2+ signaling and regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes encoding interleukin (IL)-6 and -8. To elucidate the regulatory role of dexmedetomidine on histamine signaling, HeLa cells and human salivary gland cells which are endogenously expressed histamine 1 receptor were used. Dexmedetomidine itself did not trigger Ca2+ peak or increase in the presence or absence of external Ca2+. When cells were stimulated with histamine after pretreatment with various concentrations of dexmedetomidine, we observed inhibited histamine-induced [Ca2+]i signal in both cell types. Histamine stimulated IL-6 mRNA expression not IL-8 mRNA within 2 hrs, however this effect was attenuated by dexmedetomidine. Collectively, these findings suggest that dexmedetomidine modulates histamine-induced Ca2+ signaling and IL-6 expression and will be useful for understanding the antagonistic properties of dexmedetomidine on histamine-induced signaling beyond its sedative effect. PMID:26330753

  14. HDAC9 regulates ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis by participating in inflammatory reactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Han, Xiang; Wang, Zheng; Shen, Junjun; Dong, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. The endothelial cell apoptosis elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), which contributes to endothelial damage and inflammation, is a particularly important event in the early stage of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism underlying ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis remains unclear. Here we found that HDAC9 expression was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels accompanied by dose-dependent ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Depletion of HDAC9 by its specific shRNA significantly antagonized ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis and suppressed the expression of ox-LDL-induced inflammatory factors, such as TNF-alpha and MCP1. These data suggest that HDAC9 is an important epigenetic factor regulating ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammatory factor expression. These results suggest that HDAC9 may participate in ox-LDL-induced endothelial damage and inflammation during atherosclerosis development. PMID:27100479

  15. Diet-induced obesity reprograms the inflammatory response of the murine lung to inhaled endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Zangar, Richard C.; Lee, K. Monica; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    The co-occurrence of environmental factors is common in complex human diseases and, as such, understanding the molecular responses involved is essential to determine risk and susceptibility to disease. We have investigated the key biological pathways that define susceptibility for pulmonary infection during obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) and regular weight (RW) C57BL/6 mice exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced a strong inflammatory response in all mice as indicated by elevated cell counts of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MDC, MIP-1γ, IL-12, RANTES) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Additionally, DIO mice exhibited 50% greater macrophage cell counts, but decreased levels of the cytokines, IL-6, TARC, TNF-α, and VEGF relative to RW mice. Microarray analysis of lung tissue showed over half of the LPS-induced expression in DIO mice consisted of genes unique for obese mice, suggesting that obesity reprograms how the lung responds to subsequent insult. In particular, we found that obese animals exposed to LPS have gene signatures showing increased inflammatory and oxidative stress response and decreased antioxidant capacity compared with RW. Because signaling pathways for these responses can be common to various sources of environmentally induced lung damage, we further identified biomarkers that are indicative of specific toxicant exposure by comparing gene signatures after LPS exposure to those from a parallel study with cigarette smoke. These data show obesity may increase sensitivity to further insult and that co-occurrence of environmental stressors result in complex biosignatures that are not predicted from analysis of individual exposures. - Highlights: ► Obesity modulates inflammatory markers in BAL fluid after LPS exposure. ► Obese animals have a unique transcriptional signature in lung after LPS exposure. ► Obesity elevates inflammatory stress and reduces antioxidant capacity in the lung

  16. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Klegeris, Andis; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  17. Strong correlation induced charge localization in antiferromagnets

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Qi, Yang; Tian, Chushun; Weng, Zheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The fate of a hole injected in an antiferromagnet is an outstanding issue of strongly correlated physics. It provides important insights into doped Mott insulators closely related to high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we report a systematic numerical study of t-J ladder systems based on the density matrix renormalization group. It reveals a surprising result for the single hole's motion in an otherwise well-understood undoped system. Specifically, we find that the common belief of quasiparticle picture is invalidated by the self-localization of the doped hole. In contrast to Anderson localization caused by disorders, the charge localization discovered here is an entirely new phenomenon purely of strong correlation origin. It results from destructive quantum interference of novel signs picked up by the hole, and since the same effect is of a generic feature of doped Mott physics, our findings unveil a new paradigm which may go beyond the single hole doped system. PMID:24002668

  18. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Reactions in Macrophages and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dequan; Wang, Cong; Chi, Chuang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Jing; Fang, Jun; Pan, Jingye

    2016-01-01

    Background. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) accompanied by trauma can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and even death. Early inhibition of the inflammation is necessary for damage control. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as a novel therapy modality, have been shown to reduce inflammatory responses in human and animal models. Methods. In this study, we used Western blot, quantitative PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the activity of BMSCs to suppress the inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) and alveolar macrophages. Results. Our results demonstrated that LPS caused an inflammatory response in alveolar macrophages and HUVECs, increased permeability of HUVEC, upregulated expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, phosphorylated p65, downregulated release of IL10, and promoted release of TNF-α in both cells. Coculture with BMSCs attenuated all of these activities induced by LPS in the two tested cell types. Conclusions. Together, our results demonstrate that BMSCs dosage dependently attenuates the inflammation damage of alveolar macrophages and HUVECs induced by LPS. PMID:27057093

  19. The role of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in silica-induced lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Barbarin, Virginie; Nihoul, Aurélie; Misson, Pierre; Arras, Mohammed; Delos, Monique; Leclercq, Isabelle; Lison, Dominique; Huaux, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been generally well accepted that chronic inflammation is a necessary component of lung fibrosis but this concept has recently been challenged. Methods Using biochemical, histological, immunohistochemistry, and cellular analyses, we compared the lung responses (inflammation and fibrosis) to fibrogenic silica particles (2.5 and 25 mg/g lung) in Sprague-Dawley rats and NMRI mice. Results Rats treated with silica particles developed chronic and progressive inflammation accompanied by an overproduction of TNF-α as well as an intense lung fibrosis. Dexamethasone or pioglitazone limited the amplitude of the lung fibrotic reaction to silica in rats, supporting the paradigm that inflammation drives lung fibrosis. In striking contrast, in mice, silica induced only a limited and transient inflammation without TNF-α overproduction. However, mice developed lung fibrosis of a similar intensity than rats. The fibrotic response in mice was accompanied by a high expression of the anti-inflammatory and fibrotic cytokine IL-10 by silica-activated lung macrophages. In mice, IL-10 was induced only by fibrotic particles and significantly expressed in the lung of silica-sensitive but not silica-resistant strains of mice. Anti-inflammatory treatments did not control lung fibrosis in mice. Conclusion These results indicate that, beside chronic lung inflammation, a pronounced anti-inflammatory reaction may also contribute to the extension of silica-induced lung fibrosis and represents an alternative pathway leading to lung fibrosis. PMID:16212659

  20. Myrrh attenuates oxidative and inflammatory processes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Amal Jamil; Alrojayee, Fatima Salih; Parmar, Mihir Yogeshkumar; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Ahmed, Mohammed Mahboobuddin; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been associated with a weakened antioxidant capacity and increased inflammatory processes. Myrrh is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of myrrh on an experimental rat model of UC. UC was induced in rats using acetic acid (AA) after pre-treatment with myrrh (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) or mesalazine (MES; 300 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. The levels of various inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rat colon tissues were assessed. In addition, the colonic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were estimated. Furthermore, total protein (TP) contents and the levels of DNA and RNA were measured, and histopathological changes in colonic tissues were analyzed. The results indicated that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE2, NO and TBARS were markedly increased. By contrast, the levels of interleukin-10, NP-SH, TP and nucleic acids, and the enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased in the AA model group. In addition, pretreatment with myrrh and MES was able to attenuate the impaired oxidative stress response and upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers. Furthermore, the enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were near to normal in the myrrh and MES pretreated groups. The ability of myrrh to protect against UC was further confirmed by histopathological analysis, and the high dose of myrrh exerted an effect comparable to MES. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that myrrh has potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and improving endogenous antioxidative activities. PMID

  1. Muramyl dipeptide enhances thermal injury-induced inflammatory cytokine production and organ function injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Song, Xue-Min; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Li, Jian-Guo; Han, Yi; Wang, Yan-Lin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zong-Ze; Le, Lin-Li; Xu, Yang

    2014-08-01

    The bacterial infection following thermal injury is a very important factor of excessive inflammatory response and multiple organ damage. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is the key structure of gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria triggering the innate immune system. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of MDP on thermal injury-induced inflammatory responses, organ function injury, and mortality in rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawlay rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group, scald group, and MDP group. Scald group only suffered 20% total body surface area third-degree thermal injury. Muramyl dipeptide 5 mg·kg was administered through the femoral vein at 24 h after thermal injury in the MDP group. Plasma inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An additional 90 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups to observe the survival rate in 72 h. Plasma levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and high-mobility group box 1; the white blood cell counts; the serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine; and the activity of lung tissue myeloperoxidase significantly increased after thermal injury alone. Compared with the scald group, MDP led to more serious inflammatory responses and organ function damage and higher mortality (P < 0.05, respectively). These data indicate that MDP exacerbates thermal injury-induced inflammatory cytokine production, accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and high mortality in rats. PMID:24667616

  2. microRNA-155 Regulates Alpha-Synuclein-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Models of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Thome, Aaron D; Harms, Ashley S; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A; Standaert, David G

    2016-02-24

    Increasing evidence points to inflammation as a chief mediator of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and widespread aggregates of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn). Recently, microRNAs, small, noncoding RNAs involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, have been recognized as important regulators of the inflammatory environment. Using an array approach, we found significant upregulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in an in vivo model of PD produced by adeno-associated-virus-mediated expression of α-syn. Using a mouse with a complete deletion of miR-155, we found that loss of miR-155 reduced proinflammatory responses to α-syn and blocked α-syn-induced neurodegeneration. In primary microglia from miR-155(-/-) mice, we observed a markedly reduced inflammatory response to α-syn fibrils, with attenuation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and proinflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Treatment of these microglia with a synthetic mimic of miR-155 restored the inflammatory response to α-syn fibrils. Our results suggest that miR-155 has a central role in the inflammatory response to α-syn in the brain and in α-syn-related neurodegeneration. These effects are at least in part due to a direct role of miR-155 on the microglial response to α-syn. These data implicate miR-155 as a potential therapeutic target for regulating the inflammatory response in PD. PMID:26911687

  3. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury. PMID:26691774

  4. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury. PMID:26691774

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury by suppressing COX-2 and NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yu-Tao; Xiao, Lu; Zhu, Lingpeng; Wang, Qiujuan; Yan, Tianhua

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated. Pretreatment with apigenin prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS significantly induced a decrease in lung wet weight/dry weight ratio in total leukocyte number and neutrophil percent in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in IL-6 and IL-1β, the tumor neurosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the BALF. These results showed that anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin against the LPS-induced ALI may be due to its ability of primary inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) gene expression of lung. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of apigenin may be attributed partly to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines through the inhibition of COX-2 and NF-kB activation. The results support that use of apigenin is beneficial in the treatment of ALI. PMID:24958013

  6. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Eupafolin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chaun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Shu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Eupafolin is a flavone isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini (family Asteraceae). The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eupafolin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced mouse skin and lung inflammation models and to identify the mechanism underlying these effects. Eupafolin decreased the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2 and NO) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Eupafolin inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT and p65 and the nuclear translocation of p65 and c-fos. These effects were mainly mediated by the inhibition of JNK. In the mouse paw and lung models, eupafolin effectively suppressed the LPS-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression. These results demonstrated that eupafolin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and suggested that eupafolin can be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:27414646

  7. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Eupafolin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Chaun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Shu-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Eupafolin is a flavone isolated from Artemisia princeps Pampanini (family Asteraceae). The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of eupafolin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced mouse skin and lung inflammation models and to identify the mechanism underlying these effects. Eupafolin decreased the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2 and NO) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Eupafolin inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT and p65 and the nuclear translocation of p65 and c-fos. These effects were mainly mediated by the inhibition of JNK. In the mouse paw and lung models, eupafolin effectively suppressed the LPS-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression. These results demonstrated that eupafolin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and suggested that eupafolin can be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:27414646

  8. Substance P ameliorates collagen II-induced arthritis in mice via suppression of the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2014-10-10

    Current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapies such as biologics inhibiting pathogenic cytokines substantially delay RA progression. However, patient responses to these agents are not always complete and long lasting. This study explored whether substance P (SP), an 11 amino acids long endogenous neuropeptide with the novel ability to mobilize mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and modulate injury-mediated inflammation, can inhibit RA progression. SP efficacy was evaluated by paw swelling, clinical arthritis scoring, radiological analysis, histological analysis of cartilage destruction, and blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-17 in vivo. SP treatment significantly reduced local inflammatory signs, mean arthritis scores, degradation of joint cartilage, and invasion of inflammatory cells into the synovial tissues. Moreover, the SP treatment markedly reduced the size of spleens enlarged by excessive inflammation in CIA, increased IL-10 levels, and decreased TNF-α and IL-17 levels. Mobilization of stem cells and induction of T(reg) and M2 type macrophages in the circulation were also increased by the SP treatment. These effect of SP might be associated with the suppression of inflammatory responses in RA and, furthermore, blockade of RA progression. Our results propose SP as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:25264193

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Novel Fused-Cyclopentenone Phosphonate and Its Potential in the Local Treatment of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Helena; Harel, Efrat; Nadler-Milbauer, Mirela; Weinstock, Marta; Srebnik, Morris

    2015-01-01

    A novel fused-cyclopentenone phosphonate compound, namely, diethyl 3-nonyl-5-oxo-3,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[c]furan-4-ylphosphonate (P-5), was prepared and tested in vitro (LPS-activated macrophages) for its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity and in vivo (DNBS induced rat model) for its potential to ameliorate induced colitis. Specifically, the competence of P-5 to reduce TNFα, IL-6, INFγ, MCP-1, IL-1α, MIP-1α, and RANTES in LPS-activated macrophages was measured. Experimental colitis was quantified in the rat model, macroscopically and by measuring the activity of tissue MPO and iNOS and levels of TNFα and IL-1β. It was found that P-5 decreased the levels of TNFα and the tested proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in LPS-activated macrophages. In the colitis-induced rat model, P-5 was effective locally in reducing mucosal inflammation. This activity was equal to the activity of local treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid. It is speculated that P-5 may be used for the local treatment of IBD (e.g., with the aid of colon-specific drug platforms). Its mode of action involves inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPK ERK but not of p38 and had no effect on IκBα. PMID:25949237

  10. Inflammatory cytokine-mediated evasion of virus-induced tumors from NK cell control

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Polic, Bojan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Infections with DNA tumor viruses, including members of the polyomavirus family, often result in tumor formation in immune-deficient hosts. The complex control involved in antiviral and antitumor immune responses during these infections can be studied in murine polyomavirus (PyV)-infected mice as a model. We found that NK cells efficiently kill cells derived from PyV-induced salivary gland tumors in vitro in an NKG2D (effector cell) -RAE-1 (target cell) - dependent manner, but in T cell-deficient mice NK cells only delay but do not prevent the development of PyV-induced tumors. Here we show that the PyV-induced tumors have infiltrating functional NK cells. The freshly removed tumors, however, lack surface RAE-1 expression, and the tumor tissues produce soluble factors that down-regulate RAE-1. These factors include the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, and TNF. Each of these cytokines down-regulate RAE-1 expression and susceptibility to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages infiltrating the PyV-induced tumors produce high amounts of IL-1β and TNF. Thus, our data suggest a new mechanism whereby inflammatory cytokines generated in the tumor environment lead to evasion of NK cell-mediated control of virus-induced tumors. PMID:23772039

  11. Entanglement magnification induced by local manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Raffaele

    2007-10-15

    We study the entanglement capability of the evolution of a pair of qubits subject to unitary dynamics, when the dynamical parameters are fixed, that is they cannot be modified during the time evolution via external control. Unlike the fast local control regime, we find that local and nonlocal contributions to the dynamics are strictly interconnected, and both relevant in determining the entangling capability of the channel. It turns out that it is possible to strongly increase this quantity by suitably initializing the characteristic energies of the two parties; a significative magnification is obtained when these energies are equal. Analytical results are obtained for a subclass of dynamics, and numerical results are presented for more general cases.

  12. Preventive Effects of Multi-Lamellar Emulsion on Low Potency Topical Steroid Induced Local Adverse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sul, Geun Dong; Park, Hyun Jung; Bae, Jong Hwan; Hong, Keum Duck; Park, Byeong Deog; Chun, Jaesun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Lee, Seung Hun; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2013-01-01

    Background Topical steroid treatment induces diverse local Wand systemic adverse effects. Several approaches have been tried to reduce the steroid-induced adverse effects. Simultaneous application of physiological lipid mixture is also suggested. Objective Novel vehicles for topical glucocorticoids formulation were evaluated for the efficacy of reducing side-effects and the drug delivery properties of desonide, a low potency topical steroid. Methods Transcutaneous permeation and skin residual amount of desonide were measured using Franz diffusion cells. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using murine model. Results Topical steroids formulation containing desonide, in either cream or lotion form, were prepared using multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE), and conventional desonide formulations were employed for comparison. MLE formulations did not affect the anti-inflammatory activity of the desonide in phobol ester-induced skin inflammation model, compared with conventional formulations. While the penetrated amounts of desonide were similar for all the tested formulations at 24 hours after application, the increased lag time was observed for the MLE formulations. Interestingly, residual amount of desonide in epidermis was significantly higher in lotion type MLE formulation. Steroid-induced adverse effects, including permeability barrier function impairment, were partially prevented by MLE formulation. Conclusion Topical desonide formulation using MLE as a vehicle showed a better drug delivery with increased epidermal retention. MLE also partially prevented the steroid-induced side effects, such as skin barrier impairment. PMID:23467730

  13. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on carrageenan induced paw edema in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Muthukumar, S P; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory ability of novel indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii MCC 2775 in a carrageenan induced acute inflammatory paw edema model. Probiotic cultures were administered to male Wistar rats via oral route. Carrageenan at a concentration of 1% was injected into hind paw of rats 30min after oral gavage on the 8th day of treatment regimen. Paw thickness (mm), stair climbing activity and motility score were the parameters used to score the inflammatory response. L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 showed significant reduction in paw thickness (P<0.05) showing percentage inhibition of 15.67%, 14.72% and 14.84%, respectively, 24h after carrageenan induction. Probiotic treatment also markedly alleviated the stair climbing and motility score. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed reduction in cellular infiltration of probiotic and drug treatment groups. Adhesion to resected rat intestinal tissue also showed significant adherence capability (>40%) of the probiotic cultures used. Therefore, L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 may be used as potent anti-inflammatory agents with probiotic health benefits. PMID:26314910

  14. Interactions between Nitric Oxide and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling Pathways in Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Induction and activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) and excessive production of NO are common features of almost all diseases associated with infection and acute or chronic inflammation, although the contribution of NO to the pathophysiology of these diseases is highly multifactorial and often still a matter of controversy. Because of its direct impact on tissue oxygenation and cellular oxygen (O2) consumption and redistribution, the ability of NO to regulate various aspects of hypoxia-induced signaling has received widespread attention. Conditions of tissue hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) have been implicated in hypoxia or in cancer biology, but are also being increasingly recognized as important features of acute and chronic inflammation. Thus, the activation of HIF transcription factors has been increasingly implicated in inflammatory diseases, and recent studies have indicated its critical importance in regulating phagocyte function, inflammatory mediator production, and regulation of epithelial integrity and repair processes. Finally, HIF also appears to contribute to important features of tissue fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, processes that are associated with tissue remodeling in various non-malignant chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we briefly summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to the general mechanisms involved in HIF regulation and the impact of NO on HIF activation. Secondly, we will summarize the major recent findings demonstrating a role for HIF signaling in infection, inflammation, and tissue repair and remodeling, and will address the involvement of NO. The growing interest in hypoxia-induced signaling and its relation with NO biology is expected to lead to further insights into the complex roles of NO in acute or chronic inflammatory diseases and may point to the importance of HIF signaling as key feature of NO-mediated events during these disorders. PMID

  15. Boswellia serrata extract attenuates inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sadiq; Umar, Khalid; Sarwar, Abu Hasnath Md Golam; Khan, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Sayeed; Katiyar, Chandra Kant; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Khan, Haider A

    2014-05-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of joints. Current treatment modalities for RA either produce symptomatic relief (NSAIDs) or modify the disease process (DMARDs). Though effective, their use is also limited by their side effects. As a result, the interest in alternative, well tolerated anti-inflammatory remedies has re-emerged. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiarthritic activity of Boswellia serrata gum resin extract (BSE) in collagen induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by collagen induced arthritis (CIA) method. BSE was administered at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 days. The effects of treatment in the rats were assessed by biochemical (articular elastase, MPO, LPO, GSH, catalase, SOD and NO), inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ and PGE2), and histological studies in joints. BSE was effective in bringing significant changes on all the parameters (articular elastase, MPO, LPO, GSH, catalase, SOD and NO) studied. Oral administration of BSE resulted in significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and PGE2), and increased level of IL-10. The protective effects of BSE against RA were also evident from the decrease in arthritis scoring and bone histology. The abilities to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines and modulation of antioxidant status suggest that the protective effect of Boswellia serrata extract on arthritis in rats might be mediated via the modulation of immune system. PMID:24667331

  16. Localized heat induced urticaria: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Darling, Matthew; Lambiase, Matthew C; Hodson, Darryl S

    2004-01-01

    Localized heat induced urticaria is a rare clinical entity. Other physical urticarial subtypes include cholinergic, solar, cold, aquagenic, vibratory, and dermatographic. It is characterized by a well-demarcated urticarial lesion provoked by heat in direct contact with the skin. We describe a case of localized heat-induced urticaria in a 49-year-old woman after a heat-challenge test to her forearm. PMID:14964751

  17. Fluoxetine inhibits inflammatory response and bone loss in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Branco-de-Almeida, Luciana S.; Franco, Gilson C. N.; Castro, Myrella L.; dos Santos, Juliana G.; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Cortelli, Sheila C.; Kajiya, Mikihito; Kawai, Toshihisa; Rosalen, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been found to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of fluoxetine on inflammatory tissue destruction in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis (PD). Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (n=10 animals/group): 1) Control rats (without ligature); 2) rats with ligature + placebo (saline; oral gavage); 3) rats with ligature + fluoxetine (20 mg/kg/day in saline; oral gavage). Histological analyses were performed on the furcation region and mesial of mandibular first molars of rats sacrificed at 15 days after ligature-induced PD. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography were performed to analyze the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the MMP-9 activity, respectively, in gingival tissues samples. Results Compared to the ligature + placebo group, alveolar bone loss was reduced in the fluoxetine group (P < 0.05), and the integrity of collagen fibers in the gingival tissue was maintained. Moreover, in gingival tissue sampled 3 days after ligature attachment, fluoxetine administration reduced IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expression. Fluoxetine down-regulated MMP-9 activity, without affecting MMP-9 mRNA expression induced by ligature, compared to the ligature + placebo group (P < 0.05). These data suggested that fluoxetine suppressed proinflammatory responses, as well as proteolytic enzyme activity, induced by ligature. Conclusions In the present study, fluoxetine suppressed the inflammatory response and protected against periodontal bone resorption and destruction of collagen fibers, suggesting that fluoxetine can constitute a promising therapeutic approach for periodontal diseases. PMID:21966942

  18. Inflammatory Diseases of the Lung Induced by Conventional Cigarette Smoke: A Review.

    PubMed

    Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Shin, Stephanie; Hwang, John H

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-induced lung diseases were extremely rare prior to the 20th century. With commercialization and introduction of machine-made cigarettes, worldwide use skyrocketed and several new pulmonary diseases have been recognized. The majority of pulmonary diseases caused by cigarette smoke (CS) are inflammatory in origin. Airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages have altered inflammatory signaling in response to CS, which leads to recruitment of lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells to the lungs-depending on the signaling pathway (nuclear factor-κB, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activated. Multiple proteins are upregulated and secreted in response to CS exposure, and many of these have immunomodulatory activities that contribute to disease pathogenesis. In particular, metalloproteases 9 and 12, surfactant protein D, antimicrobial peptides (LL-37 and human β defensin 2), and IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 have been found in higher quantities in the lungs of smokers with ongoing inflammation. However, many underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced inflammatory diseases are not yet known. We review here the known cellular and molecular mechanisms of CS-induced diseases, including COPD, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic rhinosinusitis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and chronic bacterial infections. We also discuss inflammation induced by secondhand and thirdhand smoke exposure and the pulmonary diseases that result. New targeted antiinflammatory therapeutic options are currently under investigation and hopefully will yield promising results for the treatment of these highly prevalent smoking-induced diseases. PMID:26135024

  19. Analysis of the inflammatory reaction induced by the catfish (Cathorops spixii) venoms.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marcos Emerson Pinheiro; Grund, Lidiane Zito; Orii, Noêmia M; Saraiva, Tânia Cristina; de Magalhães Lopes, Carlos Alberto; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2007-06-01

    Cathorops spixii is one of the most abundant venomous fish of the southeastern coast of the State of São Paulo, and consequently causes a great part of the accidents seen there. The accidents affect mainly fishermen, swimmers and tourists and are characterized by punctiform or wide wounds, erythema, edema, pain, sudoresis, indisposition, fever, nausea, vomiting and secondary infection. The objective of this work was to characterize the inflammatory response induced in mice by both venoms (mucus and sting) of the catfish C. spixii. Our results demonstrated that both venoms induced a great number of rolling and adherent leukocytes in the post-capillary venules of cremaster muscle of mice, and an increase in the vascular permeability in peritoneal cavity. Mucus induced the recruitment of neutrophils immediately after injection followed later by macrophage infiltration. In contrast, the cellular infiltration elicited by sting venom was rapidly resolved. The peritonitis reaction provoked by venoms was characterized by cytokine (IL-6), chemokines (MCP-1 and KC) or lipid mediator (LTB4) production in the peritoneal cavity. The macrophages from 7-day mucus venom-induced exudates upon in vitro mucus venom stimulation, expressed CD11c x MHC class II and release bioactive IL-12p70. On the other hand, sting venom-elicited peritoneal macrophages lost the ability to differentiate into dendritic cells, following re-stimulation in vitro with sting venom, they do not express CD11c, nor do they exhibit sufficient levels of MHC class II. In conclusion, both types of venoms (mucus or sting) promote inflammatory reaction with different profiles, and the inflammatory reaction induced by the first was characterized by antigen persistence in peritoneal cavity that allowed the activation of phagocytic cells with capacity of antigenic presentation. PMID:17321559

  20. Inhibition of RPE cell sterile inflammatory responses and endotoxin-induced uveitis by a cell-impermeable HSP90 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Qin, Suofu; Ni, Ming; Wang, Xiuyun; Maurier-Mahé, Florence; Shurland, Dixie-Lee; Rodrigues, Gerard A

    2011-12-01

    Dying cells release pro-inflammatory molecules, functioning as cytokines to trigger cell/tissue inflammation that is relevant to disease pathology. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is believed to act as a danger signal for tissue damage once released extracellularly. Potential roles of HSP90 were explored in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) inflammatory responses to necrosis. Cellular extracts can trigger ARPE-19 cell inflammatory responses, producing cytokines that lead to an increase in ARPE-19 cell monolayer permeability. Addition of recombinant HSP90β mimics the induction of chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 in cultured RPE cells, suggesting that released HSP90 can incite RPE cell sterile inflammatory responses. Consistent with this, classical HSP90 inhibitors were shown to substantially reduce necrosis-induced cytokine production and permeability increases in ARPE-19 cells. Moreover, a cell-impermeable inhibitor, 17-N,N-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin-N-oxide, also efficiently inhibited necrosis-induced cytokine production and TNF-α/IL-1β-induced increase in ARPE-19 cell permeability in vitro and endotoxin-induced development of uveitis in vivo, suggesting that HSP90 can contribute to necrosis-induced RPE inflammatory responses. Collectively, our data identify HSP90 as a pro-inflammatory molecule in RPE cell sterile inflammatory responses. PMID:22019372

  1. Gelam Honey Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Inflammatory Pathways in Pancreatic Hamster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qvist, Rajes; Mohd Yusof, Kamaruddin; Ismail, Ikram Shah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Type 2 diabetes consists of progressive hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which could result from glucose toxicity, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. In the present study we investigated the effect of Gelam honey and quercetin on the oxidative stress-induced inflammatory pathways and the proinflammatory cytokines. Methods. HIT-T15 cells were cultured and preincubated with the extract of Gelam honey (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL), as well as quercetin (20, 40, 60, and 80 μM), prior to stimulation by 20 and 50 mM glucose. Results. HIT-T15 cells cultured under hyperglycemic condition showed a significant increase in the inflammatory pathways by phosphorylating JNK, IKK-β, and IRS-1 at Ser307 (p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with Gelam honey and quercetin reduced the expression of phosphorylated JNK, IKK-β, and IRS-1, thereby significantly reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β (p < 0.05). At the same time there was a significant increase in the phosphorylated Akt showing the protective effects against inflammation and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest the potential use of the extract from Gelam honey and quercetin in modulating the inflammation induced insulin signaling pathways. PMID:27034691

  2. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation. PMID:26617279

  3. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Alloferon on Ovalbumin-induced Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jane; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyemin; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a well-known inflammatory lung disease; however, the specific underlying mechanism is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that alloferon effectively downregulates pulmonary inflammation. In this study, we examined whether alloferon has a therapeutic effect on asthma. Alloferon remarkably decreased the number of eosinophils, macrophages, and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma mice. It was synergistically decreased with 2.5 mg/kg prednisolone (PDA). Inflammatory cell infiltration around the bronchioles and in the alveolus of OVA-induced asthma mice was effectively prevented by alloferon alone and combined treatment with alloferon and PDS. The production of IL-5 and IL-17 was decreased by alloferon alone and combined treatment with alloferon and PDS. There was no change the level of total immunoglobulin (Ig) following alloferon administration; however, total Ig was decreased by PDS. IgG2a levels were not changed by either alloferon alone or alloferon in combination with PDS. However, the levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE were decreased by alloferon and PDS. In conclusion, our results suggest that a combination of alloferon and prednisolone is effective for the treatment of asthma, as it prevents inflammatory cell infiltration via the downregulation of IL-5 and IL-17 production and decreases IgG1 and IgE production via the suppression of T helper type 2 immune response. PMID:26770184

  4. Inflammatory Cytokines and Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: Review and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Müller, Daniel J; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic medications (APs), particularly second-generation APs, are associated with significant weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) via AP-mediated alterations of cytokine levels. Antipsychotics with a high propensity for weight gain, such as clozapine and olanzapine, influence the expression of immune genes, and induce changes in serum cytokine levels to ultimately down-regulate neuroinflammation. Since inflammatory cytokines are normally involved in anorexigenic responses, reduced inflammation has been independently shown to mediate changes in feeding behaviours and other metabolic parameters, resulting in obesity. Genetic variation in pro-inflammatory cytokines is also associated with both general obesity and weight change during AP treatment, and thus, may be implicated in the pharmacogenetics of AIWG. At this time, preliminary data support a cytokine-mediated model of AIWG which may have clinical utility in developing more effective metabolic monitoring guidelines and prevention measures. However, further research is still needed to clearly elucidate the validity of this immune model. This article reviews the evidence implicating inflammatory cytokines in AIWG and its potential clinical relevance. PMID:27606316

  5. Cantharidin-induced inflammation in mouse ear model for translational research of novel anti-inflammatories.

    PubMed

    Ivetic Tkalcevic, Vanesa; Hrvacic, Boska; Bosnar, Martina; Cuzic, Snjezana; Bosnjak, Berislav; Erakovic Haber, Vesna; Glojnaric, Ines

    2012-08-01

    The murine model of cantharidin-induced ear inflammation was profiled in detail for its alignment with the human model and to explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of the macrolide antibiotics, clarithromycin and azithromycin. Ear swelling in CD1 mice persisted for 7 days, with peak intensity at 16 h after inflammation induction. As in humans, cantharidin (12.5 μg/ear) generated macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) production, as well as neutrophil accumulation in mouse ear tissue. The tested macrolides, clarithromycin and azithromycin, administered orally (2 × 150 mg/kg) 0.5 h before and 5 h after cantharidin challenge, reduced MIP-2, MCP-1, KC, and MPO concentrations and thereby decreased ear swelling. Our results suggest that cantharidin-induced acute inflammation represents an excellent model for translational research of novel anti-inflammatories. PMID:22677362

  6. Corosolic acid suppresses the expression of inflammatory marker genes in CCL4-induced-hepatotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Aristatile; Al-Assaf, Abdullah Hassan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to asses the anti-inflammatory effects of corosolic acid on the carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by administered CCL4 (single dose (1:1 in liquid paraffin) orally at 1.25 ml/kg. Rats were pretreated with CRA for 7 days before made CCL(4) toxicity at 20 mg/kg BW. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and NF-kB were assayed by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. The mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and the inflammatory markers such as iNOS, COX-2 and NF-kB were significantly up regulated in CCl(4) induced rats and treatment with corosolic acid significantly reduced the expression of the above indicators. Our results suggest that the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB by corosolic acid, a potential candidate could possess anti-inflammatory activity besides its hepatoprotective effect in CCl4 liver toxicity in rats. PMID:27393448

  7. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Alloferon on Ovalbumin-induced Asthma.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jane; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyemin; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a well-known inflammatory lung disease; however, the specific underlying mechanism is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that alloferon effectively downregulates pulmonary inflammation. In this study, we examined whether alloferon has a therapeutic effect on asthma. Alloferon remarkably decreased the number of eosinophils, macrophages, and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma mice. It was synergistically decreased with 2.5 mg/kg prednisolone (PDA). Inflammatory cell infiltration around the bronchioles and in the alveolus of OVA-induced asthma mice was effectively prevented by alloferon alone and combined treatment with alloferon and PDS. The production of IL-5 and IL-17 was decreased by alloferon alone and combined treatment with alloferon and PDS. There was no change the level of total immunoglobulin (Ig) following alloferon administration; however, total Ig was decreased by PDS. IgG2a levels were not changed by either alloferon alone or alloferon in combination with PDS. However, the levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE were decreased by alloferon and PDS. In conclusion, our results suggest that a combination of alloferon and prednisolone is effective for the treatment of asthma, as it prevents inflammatory cell infiltration via the downregulation of IL-5 and IL-17 production and decreases IgG1 and IgE production via the suppression of T helper type 2 immune response. PMID:26770184

  8. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  9. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  10. Modulation of Inflammatory Response in a Cirrhotic Rat Model with Induced Bacterial Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elisabet; Francés, Rubén; Soriano, Germán; Mirelis, Beatriz; Sancho, Francesc J.; González-Navajas, José Manuel; Muñoz, Carlos; Song, Xiao-yu

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial peritonitis is a severe complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites and despite antibiotic treatment, the inflammatory response to infection may induce renal dysfunction leading to death. This investigation evaluated the effect of TNF-α blockade on the inflammatory response and mortality in cirrhotic rats with induced bacterial peritonitis treated or not with antibiotics. Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon-tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 109 CFU of Escherichia coli diluted in 20 mL of sterile water to induce bacterial peritonitis and randomized to receive subcutaneously-administered placebo, ceftriaxone, anti-TNF-α mAb and ceftriaxone, or anti-TNF-α mAb alone. No differences were observed between groups at baseline in respect to renal function, liver hepatic tests, serum levels of nitrite/nitrate and TNF-α. Treatment with ceftriaxone reduced mortality (73.3%) but differences did not reach statistical significance as compared to placebo. Mortality in rats treated with ceftriaxone and anti-TNF-α mAb was significantly lower than in animals receiving placebo (53% vs. 100%, p<0.01). Serum TNF-α decreased significantly in surviving rats treated with ceftriaxone plus anti-TNF-α mAb but not in treated with antibiotics alone. Additional studies including more animals are required to assess if the association of antibiotic therapy and TNF-α blockade might be a possible approach to reduce mortality in cirrhotic patients with bacterial peritonitis. PMID:23527251

  11. IκBζ Regulates Human Monocyte Pro-Inflammatory Responses Induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Kruthika; Rahman, Mohd Akhlakur; Mitra, Srabani; Knoell, Daren L; Woodiga, Shireen A; King, Samantha J; Wewers, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal lung infections represent a major cause of death worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NFKBIZ gene, encoding the transcription factor IκBζ, are associated with increased susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease. We hence analyzed how IκBζ might regulate inflammatory responses to pneumococcal infection. We first demonstrate that IκBζ is expressed in human blood monocytes but not in bronchial epithelial cells, in response to wild type pneumococcal strain D39. D39 transiently induced IκBζ in a dose dependent manner, with subsequent induction of downstream molecules involved in host defense. Of these molecules, IκBζ knockdown reduced the expression of IL-6 and GMCSF. Furthermore, IκBζ overexpression increased the activity of IL-6 and GMCSF promoters, supporting the knockdown findings. Pneumococci lacking either pneumolysin or capsule still induced IκBζ. While inhibition of TLR1/TLR2 blocked D39 induced IκBζ expression, TLR4 inhibition did not. Blockade of p38 MAP kinase and NFκB suppressed D39 induced IκBζ. Overall, our data demonstrates that IκBζ regulates monocyte inflammatory responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae by promoting the production of IL-6 and GMCSF. PMID:27597997

  12. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Ting-Yi; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae) is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)), the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:26901193

  13. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ting-Yi; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-01-01

    The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae) is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)), the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:26901193

  14. Effects of resveratrol on the treatment of inflammatory response induced by severe burn.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ke; Bai, Xiaozhi; Jia, Wenbin; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Xiongxiang; Han, Juntao; Dong, Maolong; Li, Jun; Chen, Dongdong; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to preliminarily investigate the effects of resveratrol on the treatment of systemic inflammatory response induced by severe burn wounding. Through the simulation experiment in vivo on burned mice and simulative experiment in vitro on mice macrophage respectively, differences of the related pro-inflammatory cytokines and SIRT1 expression levels between the resveratrol-treated group and the untreated control group were detected and analyzed. The results of the simulation experiment in vivo on burned mice manifested that the survival rate of the mice in the resveratrol-treated group was markedly higher than that of controls (p<0.05). Resveratrol could significantly reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum (p<0.01) and greatly elevate the expression level of SIRT1 (p<0.01). The results of the simulative experiment in vitro on mice macrophage showed no significant difference in TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 contents among three groups (C, mice macrophage control group; R, resveratrol-treated macrophage group; I, SIRT1-inhibitor-treated macrophage group). Whereas, after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation (L group), macrophage TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in L group, dramatically higher than those in L+R group (LPS and resveratrol treatment group) (p<0.01). After adding SITR1 inhibitor, three pro-inflammatory cytokines in L+R+I group all showed significant increases compared with those in L+R group (p<0.01). LPS activated macrophages were able to promote the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. By upregulating the expression levels of SIRT1, resveratrol could effectively inhibit the inflammation cascade reaction and increase the survival rate of severe burn with bacterial infections in a large extent. PMID:25586484

  15. Benzanthrone induced immunotoxicity via oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Prachi; Roy, Ruchi; Mishra, Sakshi; Mandal, Payal; Yadav, Ashish; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2015-03-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) is an important dye intermediate which is used in the manufacturing of several polycyclic vat and disperse dyes in textile industries. Several studies have indicated that the general population is also exposed to BA owing to its release from furnace effluents and automobile exhausts in the environment. In several clinical studies, it has been shown that workers exposed to BA developed itching, burning sensation, erythema and hyperpigmentation of the skin, which could be an outcome of the dysregulated immune response. In this study, we have used female Balb/c mice as a model to study the immuno-inflammatory changes after systemic administration of BA (7.5mg/kgb.w. and 15mg/kgb.w.) for one week. BA exposed animals exhibited the signs of intense systemic inflammation as evident by enhanced DTH response, MPO activity, hyperplastic and dysplastic histopathological organization of spleen and lung tissue. Splenic evaluation revealed enhanced oxidative stress, upregulation of prominent inflammatory markers like iNOS and COX-2 and DNA damage. In coherence with the observed immuno-inflammatory alterations, the levels of several inflammatory and regulatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-10, IL-4) were significantly enhanced in serum as well as the spleen. In addition, BA administration significantly induced the activation of ERK1/2, p38, JNK MAPKs and their downstream transcription factors AP-1 (c-fos, c-jun), NF-κB and Nrf2 which comprise important mechanistic pathways involved in inflammatory manifestations. These results suggest the immunotoxic nature of the BA and have implications for the risk assessment and management of occupational workers, and even common masses considering its presence as an environmental contaminant. PMID:25454808

  16. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans. PMID:25153777

  17. Lithothamnion muelleri Treatment Ameliorates Inflammatory and Hypernociceptive Responses in Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vivian V.; Amaral, Flavio A.; Coelho, Fernanda M.; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M.; Malagoli, Bruna G.; Gomes, Jose Hugo S.; Lopes, Fernando; Silveira, Kátia D.; Sachs, Daniela; Fagundes, Caio T.; Tavares, Lívia D.; Pinho, Vanessa; Silva, Tarcilia A.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Braga, Fernão C.; Souza, Danielle G.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterized by persistent inflammation and pain. Alternative therapies to reduce these symptoms are needed. Marine algae are valuable sources of diverse bioactive compounds. Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae) is a marine algae with anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. muelleri in a murine model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. Our results demonstrate that treatment with L. muelleri prevented inflammation and hypernociception in arthritic mice. Mechanistically, the crude extract and the polysaccharide-rich fractions of L. muelleri may act impairing the production of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, and consequently inhibit neutrophil influx to the knee joint by dampening the adhesion step of leukocyte recruitment in the knee microvessels. Altogether our results suggest that treatment with L.muelleri has a potential therapeutic application in arthritis treatment. PMID:25793994

  18. Prolonged sleep restriction induces changes in pathways involved in cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Vilma; Ollila, Hanna M.; Kronholm, Erkki; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Hilvo, Mika; Seppälä, Ilkka; Kettunen, Johannes; Oikonen, Mervi; Raitoharju, Emma; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Alenius, Harri; Jauhiainen, Matti; Paunio, Tiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Orešič, Matej; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Sleep loss and insufficient sleep are risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, but data on how insufficient sleep contributes to these diseases are scarce. These questions were addressed using two approaches: an experimental, partial sleep restriction study (14 cases and 7 control subjects) with objective verification of sleep amount, and two independent epidemiological cohorts (altogether 2739 individuals) with questions of sleep insufficiency. In both approaches, blood transcriptome and serum metabolome were analysed. Sleep loss decreased the expression of genes encoding cholesterol transporters and increased expression in pathways involved in inflammatory responses in both paradigms. Metabolomic analyses revealed lower circulating large HDL in the population cohorts among subjects reporting insufficient sleep, while circulating LDL decreased in the experimental sleep restriction study. These findings suggest that prolonged sleep deprivation modifies inflammatory and cholesterol pathways at the level of gene expression and serum lipoproteins, inducing changes toward potentially higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:27102866

  19. Prolonged sleep restriction induces changes in pathways involved in cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Aho, Vilma; Ollila, Hanna M; Kronholm, Erkki; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J; Hilvo, Mika; Seppälä, Ilkka; Kettunen, Johannes; Oikonen, Mervi; Raitoharju, Emma; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S A; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Alenius, Harri; Jauhiainen, Matti; Paunio, Tiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Salomaa, Veikko; Orešič, Matej; Raitakari, Olli T; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Sleep loss and insufficient sleep are risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, but data on how insufficient sleep contributes to these diseases are scarce. These questions were addressed using two approaches: an experimental, partial sleep restriction study (14 cases and 7 control subjects) with objective verification of sleep amount, and two independent epidemiological cohorts (altogether 2739 individuals) with questions of sleep insufficiency. In both approaches, blood transcriptome and serum metabolome were analysed. Sleep loss decreased the expression of genes encoding cholesterol transporters and increased expression in pathways involved in inflammatory responses in both paradigms. Metabolomic analyses revealed lower circulating large HDL in the population cohorts among subjects reporting insufficient sleep, while circulating LDL decreased in the experimental sleep restriction study. These findings suggest that prolonged sleep deprivation modifies inflammatory and cholesterol pathways at the level of gene expression and serum lipoproteins, inducing changes toward potentially higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:27102866

  20. Withaferin A inhibits inflammatory responses induced by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Noh, Eui-Jeong; Kang, Ming-Jung; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Muk; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Kim, Dong-Jae; Shin, Ji-Ae; Cho, Sung-Dae; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Periodontitis is a progressive chronic inflammatory disease and a major cause of tooth loss in humans. As a withanolides, withaferin A (WA) is known to exhibit strong anti‑inflammatory activity. The present study examined whether WA inhibited inflammatory responses in macrophages in response to two representative periodontal pathogens, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Murine bone marrow‑derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used in this study and cytokine production in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the activation of nuclear factor‑κB and mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), toll‑like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the Griess reaction. WA treatment was shown to decrease interleukin (IL)‑6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α production in BMDMs in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans in a dose‑dependent manner. The phosphorylation of IκB‑α and MAPKs (p38, extracellular signal‑regulated kinases and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases) induced by F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans was also inhibited by WA. F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced iNOS expression and NO production in BMDMs, which was inhibited by WA in a dose‑dependent manner. WA also reduced endogenous and induced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in these cells. These results suggest that WA may be a potential therapeutic agent or preventive additive for periodontitis control. PMID:27220676

  1. Xylitol Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Induced by Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Su-Ji; Jeong, So-Yeon; Nam, Yun-Ju; Yang, Kyu-Ho; Lim, Hoi-Soon; Chung, Jin

    2005-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the suspected periodontopathic bacteria. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. gingivalis is a key factor in the development of periodontitis. Inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the gingival tissue destruction that is a characteristic of periodontitis. Macrophages are prominent at chronic inflammatory sites and are considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Xylitol stands out and is widely believed to possess anticaries properties. However, to date, little is known about the effect of xylitol on periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression when RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS (hereafter, LPS refers to P. gingivalis LPS unless stated otherwise) and the effect of xylitol on the LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β expression. The kinetics of TNF-α and IL-1β levels in culture supernatant after LPS treatment showed peak values at 1 h (TNF-α) and 2 to 4 h (IL-1β), respectively. NF-κB, a transcription factor, was also activated by LPS treatment. These cytokine expressions and NF-κB activation were suppressed by pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an inhibitor of NF-κB). Pretreatment with xylitol inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and protein synthesis. LPS-induced mobilization of NF-κB was also inhibited by pretreatment with xylitol in a dose-dependent manner. Xylitol also showed inhibitory effect on the growth of P. gingivalis. Taken together, these findings suggest that xylitol may have good clinical effect not only for caries but also for periodontitis by its inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine expression. PMID:16275942

  2. Insulin Suppresses Endotoxin-Induced Oxidative, Nitrosative, and Inflammatory Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dandona, Paresh; Ghanim, Husam; Bandyopadhyay, Arindam; Korzeniewski, Kelly; Ling Sia, Chang; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Chaudhuri, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether insulin reduces the magnitude of oxidative, nitrosative, and inflammatory stress and tissue damage responses induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nine normal subjects were injected intravenously with 2 ng/kg LPS prepared from Escherichia coli. Ten others were infused with insulin (2 units/h) for 6 h in addition to the LPS injection along with 100 ml/h of 5% dextrose to maintain normoglycemia. RESULTS LPS injection induced a rapid increase in plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrite and nitrate (NOM), and thiobarbituric acid–reacting substances (TBARS), an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), and marked increases in plasma free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF), C-reactive protein, resistin, visfatin, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), high mobility group-B1 (HMG-B1), and myoglobin concentrations. The coinfusion of insulin led to a total elimination of the increase in NOM, free fatty acids, and TBARS and a significant reduction in ROS generation by PMNLs and plasma MIF, visfatin, and myoglobin concentrations. Insulin did not affect TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, LBP, resistin, and HMG-B1 increases induced by the LPS. CONCLUSIONS Insulin reduces significantly several key mediators of oxidative, nitrosative, and inflammatory stress and tissue damage induced by LPS. These effects of insulin require further investigation for its potential use as anti-inflammatory therapy for endotoxemia. PMID:20699433

  3. Prevention of trauma-induced cochlear fibrosis using intracochlear application of anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs.

    PubMed

    Jia, H; François, F; Bourien, J; Eybalin, M; Lloyd, R V; Van De Water, T R; Puel, J-L; Venail, F

    2016-03-01

    Cochlear fibrosis is a common finding following cochlear implantation. Evidence suggests that cochlear fibrosis could be triggered by inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT). In this study, we investigate the mechanisms of cochlear fibrosis and the risk/benefit ratio of local administration of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DEX) and antimitotic drug aracytine (Ara-C). Cochlear fibrosis was evaluated in cochlear fibrosis models of rat cochlear slices in vitro and in KLH-induced immune labyrinthitis and platinum wire cochlear implantation-induced fibrosis in vivo. Cochleae were invaded with tissue containing fibroblastic cells expressing α-SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin), which along with collagen I, fibronectin, and laminin in the extracellular matrix, suggests the involvement of a fibrotic process triggered by EMT in vitro and in vivo. After perilymphatic injection of an adenoviral vector expressing GFP in vivo, we demonstrated that the fibroblastic cells derived from the mesothelial cells of the scalae tympani and vestibuli. Activation of inflammatory and EMT pathways was further assessed by ELISA analysis of the expression of IL-1β and TGF-β1. Both markers were elevated in vitro and in vivo, and DEX and Ara-C were able to reduce IL-1β and TGF-β1 production. After 5days of culture in vitro, quantification of calcein-positive cells revealed that Ara-C was 30-fold more efficient in preventing fibrosis, and provoked less sensory hair cell loss, than DEX. In KLH-induced immune labyrinthitis and platinum wire-implanted models, Ara-C was more efficient in preventing proliferation of fibrosis with less side effects on hair cells and neurons than DEX. In conclusion, DEX and Ara-C both prevent fibrosis in the cochlea. Analysis of the risk/benefit ratio favors the use of Ara-C for preventing cochlear fibrosis. PMID:26718602

  4. Inducible Expression of Inflammatory Chemokines in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Mice: Role of MIP-1α in Lung Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Haeberle, Helene A.; Kuziel, William A.; Dieterich, Hans-Juergen; Casola, Antonella; Gatalica, Zoran; Garofalo, Roberto P.

    2001-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is characterized by profound airway mucosa inflammation, both in infants with naturally acquired infection and in experimentally inoculated animal models. Chemokines are central regulatory molecules in inflammatory, immune, and infectious processes of the lung. In this study, we demonstrate that intranasal infection of BALB/c mice with RSV A results in inducible expression of lung chemokines belonging to the CXC (MIP-2 and IP-10), CC (RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, TCA-3) and C (lymphotactin) families. Chemokine mRNA expression occurred as early as 24 h following inoculation and persisted for at least 5 days in mice inoculated with the highest dose of virus (107 PFU). In general, levels of chemokine mRNA and protein were dependent on the dose of RSV inoculum and paralleled the intensity of lung cellular inflammation. Immunohisthochemical studies indicated that RSV-induced expression of MIP-1α, one of the most abundantly expressed chemokines, was primarily localized in epithelial cells of the alveoli and bronchioles, as well as in adjoining capillary endothelium. Genetically altered mice with a selective deletion of the MIP-1α gene (−/− mice) demonstrated a significant reduction in lung inflammation following RSV infection, compared to control littermates (+/+ mice). Despite the paucity of infiltrating cells, the peak RSV titer in the lung of −/− mice was not significantly different from that observed in +/+ mice. These results provide the first direct evidence that RSV infection may induce lung inflammation via the early production of inflammatory chemokines. PMID:11134301

  5. Egocentric and Allocentric Localization During Induced Motion

    PubMed Central

    Post, Robert B.; Welch, Robert B.; Whitney, David

    2009-01-01

    This research examined motor measures of the apparent egocentric location and perceptual measures of the apparent allocentric location of a target that was being seen to undergo induced motion (IM). In Experiments 1 and 3, subjects fixated a stationary dot (IM target) while a rectangular surround stimulus (inducing stimulus) oscillated horizontally. The inducing stimulus motion caused the IM target to appear to move in the opposite direction. In Experiment 1, two dots (flashed targets) were flashed above and below the IM target when the surround had reached its leftmost or rightmost displacement from the subject’s midline. Subjects pointed open loop at either the apparent egocentric location of the IM target or at the bottom of the two flashed targets. On separate trials, subjects made judgments of the Vernier alignment of the IM target with the flashed targets at the endpoints of the surround’s oscillation. The pointing responses were displaced in the direction of the previously seen IM for the IM target and to a lesser degree for the bottom flashed target. However, the allocentric Vernier judgments demonstrated no perceptual displacement of the IM target relative to the flashed targets. Thus, IM results in a dissociation of egocentric location measures from allocentric location measures. In Experiment 2, pointing and Vernier measures were obtained with stationary horizontally displaced surrounds and there was no dissociation of egocentric location measures from allocentric location measures. These results indicate that the Roelofs effect did not produce the pattern of results in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, pointing and Vernier measures were obtained when the surround was at the midpoint of an oscillation. In this case, egocentric pointing responses were displaced in the direction of surround motion (opposite IM) for the IM target and to a greater degree for the bottom flashed target. However, there was no apparent displacement of the IM target relative to

  6. Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate aerosol particles induce pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Lee, Kyuhong; Park, Chang We; Song, Jeong Ah; Shin, Da Young; Park, Yong Joo; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2016-03-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) phosphate was used as a disinfectant for the prevention of microorganism growth in humidifiers, without recognizing that a change of exposure route might cause significant health effects. Epidemiological studies reported that the use of humidifier disinfectant containing PHMG-phosphate can provoke pulmonary fibrosis. However, the pulmonary toxicity of PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles is unknown yet. This study aimed to elucidate the toxicological relationship between PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles and pulmonary fibrosis. An in vivo nose-only exposure system and an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) co-culture model were applied to confirm whether PHMG-phosphate induces inflammatory and fibrotic responses in the respiratory tract. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles for 3 weeks and recovered for 3 weeks in a nose-only exposure chamber. In addition, three human lung cells (Calu-3, differentiated THP-1 and HMC-1 cells) were cultured at ALI condition for 12 days and were treated with PHMG-phosphate at set concentrations and times. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, airway barrier injuries and inflammatory and fibrotic responses were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The rats exposed to PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles in nanometer size showed pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis including inflammatory cytokines and fibronectin mRNA increase, as well as histopathological changes. In addition, PHMG-phosphate triggered the ROS generation, airway barrier injuries and inflammatory responses in a bronchial ALI co-culture model. Those results demonstrated that PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles cause pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic responses. All features of fibrogenesis by PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles closely resembled the pathology of fibrosis that was reported in epidemiological studies. Finally, we expected that PHMG-phosphate infiltrated into the lungs in the form

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Saha, Siddhartha S; Ghosh, Mahua

    2012-09-28

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of α-eleostearic acid and punicic acid, two isomers of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) present in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and snake gourd oil (Trichosanthes anguina), respectively, against oxidative stress, inflammatory challenge and aberration in erythrocyte morphology due to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Male albino rats were divided into four groups consisting of eight animals in each group. The first group served as control and diabetes was induced in rats in groups 2-4 by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Moreover, rats in groups 3 and 4 were treated with 0·5 % of α-eleostearic acid and 0·5 % of punicic acid of the total lipid given, respectively, by oral administration once per d. After administration, CLnA isomers had significantly reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and restored antioxidant and pro-inflammatory enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, NO synthase level in pancreas, blood and erythrocyte lysate. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay of plasma showed that CLnA treatment caused improvement in the FRAP value which was altered after STZ treatment due to an increased level of free radicals. Expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in blood and expression of hepatic NF-κB (p65) increased significantly after STZ treatment due to increased inflammation which was restored with the administration of CLnA isomers. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that α-eleostearic acid and punicic acid showed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity with varying effectivity. PMID:22182422

  8. Basic Research on Virus-Induced Asthma Exacerbation: Inhibition of Inflammatory Chemokine Expression by Fluticasone Propionate

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Masatsugu; Homma, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Shin; Suzuki, Shintaro; Ieki, Koushi; Takeuchi, Hiroko; Notomi, Kyoko; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kawaguchi, Mio; Kokubu, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral infection can exacerbate asthma by inducing the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway. We have previously reported that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a viral product and ligand of the Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), activates the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-3 and upregulates the expression of inflammatory chemokines in airway epithelial cells. Here, we examined the effects of the glucocorticoid fluticasone propionate (FP) on the expression of the inflammatory chemokines CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10. Methods The airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was used for this study. Expression of CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was quantified by real-time PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. To examine the association of FP with the physiology of chemokine production, we included several methods. Nuclear translocation of transcription factors was determined by performing Western blot analysis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in nuclear extracts was measured using a colorimetric assay. Stability of the chemokine mRNAs was examined in cells incubated with actinomycin D. The activities of the CCL5 promoter and the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-3 were assessed using luciferase reporter assays. Results Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with FP significantly and dose-dependently (10−9 to 10−6 M) inhibited dsRNA-induced expression of CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 protein and mRNA, but did not affect mRNA stability. FP also significantly inhibited dsRNA-stimulated CCL5 promoter activity. However, FP had no effect on the activity of HDAC or the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and IRF-3. Conclusions FP inhibits the dsRNA-stimulated expression of inflammatory chemokines in airway epithelial cells. FP may act by inhibiting chemokine transcription through an as yet Unidentified mechanism. PMID:23711858

  9. Piperine inhibits IL-β induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocyte.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Chen, Xiaowei; Cheng, Shaowen; Shen, Yue; Peng, Lei; Xu, Hua Zi

    2013-10-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. The present study aimed to assess the effects of piperine, the active phenolic component in black pepper extract, on human OA chondrocytes. In this study, human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with piperine at 10, 50 or 100μg/ml and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β (5ng/ml) for 24h. Production of PGE2 and NO was evaluated by the Griess reaction and an ELISA. Gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 was measured by real-time PCR. MMP-3 and MMP-13 proteins in culture medium were determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the iNOS and COX-2 protein production in the culture medium. The regulation of NF-kB activity and the degradation of IkB were explored using luciferase and Western immunoblotting, respectively. We found that piperine inhibited the production of PGE2 and NO induced by IL-1β. Piperine significantly decreased the IL-1β-stimulated gene expression and production of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine inhibited the IL-1β-mediated activation of NF-κB by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein IκBα in the cytoplasm. The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine can effectively abrogate the IL-1β-induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators; suggesting that piperine may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:23838114

  10. Environmental Particulate Matter Induces Murine Intestinal Inflammatory Responses and Alters the Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Lisa; Hotte, Naomi; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Vincent, Renaud; Tso, Robert; Gänzle, Michael; Rioux, Kevin P.; Thiesen, Aducio; Barkema, Herman W.; Wine, Eytan; Madsen, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. Methods Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93) for 7–14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days) on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10−/−) mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum. Results Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10−/− mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10−/− mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage. Conclusions Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine. PMID:23638009

  11. Etanercept administration prevents the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the murine air pouch model.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Rodrigo Antônio; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that affect approximately 1% of world's population. The development of TNF inhibitors in the last decade represents a great advance in the treatment of mild and severe forms of RA. Etanercept is one of these drugs that is useful for RA treatment, but the mechanism of inhibition of the signaling pathway of inflammation was not completely elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of etanercept in comparison to reference drugs (dexamethasone and indomethacin). Inflammation was induced by subcutaneal administration of carrageenan in the Swiss albino mice using the murine air pouch model. Exudation; leukocytes; myeloperoxidase (MPO); adenosine deaminase (ADA); nitric oxide metabolites (NOx); tumor necrosis factor (TNF); interferon gamma (IFN-γ); interleukins (IL) IL-6, IL-17, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-2; nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and apoptosis were evaluated 24 h after the induction of inflammation. Treatment with etanercept significantly inhibited exudate concentrations; leukocyte count; MPO and ADA activities; NOx, TNF, IFN-γ, and IL-17 levels; and NF-kappa B activation (p < 0.05). Etanercept induced apoptosis, reducing the number of viable neutrophils without increasing necrosis (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of etanercept may be via decrease of NF-κB activation. This effect promoted the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NOx and the induction of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect of etanercept upon neutrophils apoptosis may indicate the use of this drug therapy in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis disease. PMID:26255064

  12. Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. M1 and M2 macrophages constitute subpopulations displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that smoking cessation affects macrophage heterogeneity in the lung of patients with COPD. Our aim was to study macrophage heterogeneity using the M2-marker CD163 and selected pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and induced sputum from current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods 114 COPD patients (72 current smokers; 42 ex-smokers, median smoking cessation 3.5 years) were studied cross-sectionally and underwent sputum induction (M/F 99/15, age 62 ± 8 [mean ± SD] years, 42 (31-55) [median (range)] packyears, post-bronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted, no steroids past 6 months). BAL was collected from 71 patients. CD163+ macrophages were quantified in BAL and sputum cytospins. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in BAL and sputum supernatants. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had a higher percentage, but lower number of CD163+ macrophages in BAL than current smokers (83.5% and 68.0%, p = 0.04; 5.6 and 20.1 ×104/ml, p = 0.001 respectively). The percentage CD163+ M2 macrophages was higher in BAL compared to sputum (74.0% and 30.3%, p < 0.001). BAL M-CSF levels were higher in smokers than ex-smokers (571 pg/ml and 150 pg/ml, p = 0.001) and correlated with the number of CD163+ BAL macrophages (Rs = 0.38, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found between smokers and ex-smokers in the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8), and anti-inflammatory (elafin, and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor [SLPI]) mediators in BAL and sputum. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking cessation partially changes the macrophage polarization in vivo in the periphery of the lung towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, which is not accompanied by a decrease in inflammatory parameters. PMID:21426578

  13. NEFAs activate the oxidative stress-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway to induce inflammatory response in calf hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Li, Dangdang; Deng, Qinghua; Li, Yu; Sun, Guoquan; Yuan, Xue; Song, Yuxiang; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2015-01-01

    Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are important induction factors of inflammatory responses in some metabolic diseases. High plasma levels of NEFAs and oxidative stress exist in the dairy cows with ketosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high levels of NEFAs can induce inflammatory response and the specific molecular mechanism in the hepatocytes of dairy cow. In vitro, primary cultured bovine hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of NEFAs, PDTC (an NF-κB inhibitor) and NAC (an antioxidant). NEFAs significantly activated NF-κB pathway. Activated NF-κB upregulated the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing inflammatory response in bovine hepatocytes. When PDTC was added, activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response induced by NEFAs was inhibited. NEFAs treatment results in the overproduction of the markers of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which were ameliorated by NAC treatment. These increased ROS and MDA were caused by decreasing activity of antioxidant system, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, in bovine hepatocytes treated with NEFAs. NAC also ameliorated NEFAs-mediated NF-κB activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that high concentrations of NEFAs can induce cattle hepatocytes inflammatory response through activating the oxidative stress-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25465477

  14. An in vitro alveolar macrophage assay for the assessment of inflammatory cytokine expression induced by atmospheric particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Sijan, Zana; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Heo, Jongbae; Kado, Norman Y; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos; Shafer, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    Exposures to air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM) can result in excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the respiratory system, potentially causing both localized cellular injury and triggering a systemic inflammatory response. PM-induced inflammation in the lung is modulated in large part by alveolar macrophages and their biochemical signaling, including production of inflammatory cytokines, the primary mechanism via which inflammation is initiated and sustained. We developed a robust, relevant, and flexible method employing a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) which can be applied to routine samples of PM from air quality monitoring sites to gain insight into the drivers of PM toxicity that lead to oxidative stress and inflammation. Method performance was characterized using extracts of ambient and vehicular engine exhaust PM samples. Our results indicate that the reproducibility and the sensitivity of the method are satisfactory and comparisons between PM samples can be made with good precision. The average relative percent difference for all genes detected during 10 different exposures was 17.1%. Our analysis demonstrated that 71% of genes had an average signal to noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 3. Our time course study suggests that 4 h may be an optimal in vitro exposure time for observing short-term effects of PM and capturing the initial steps of inflammatory signaling. The 4 h exposure resulted in the detection of 57 genes (out of 84 total), of which 86% had altered expression. Similarities and conserved gene signaling regulation among the PM samples were demonstrated through hierarchical clustering and other analyses. Overlying the core congruent patterns were differentially regulated genes that resulted in distinct sample-specific gene expression "fingerprints." Consistent upregulation of Il1f5 and downregulation of Ccr7 was observed across all samples, while TNFα was upregulated in half of the samples and downregulated in

  15. Crucial role of Toll-like receptors in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Chao, How-Ran

    2013-12-15

    Our previous studies indicated that zinc induced inflammatory response in both vascular endothelial cells and promonocytes. Here, we asked if other metals could cause the similar effect on vascular endothelial cells and tried to determine its underlying mechanism. Following screening of fifteen metals, zinc and nickel were identified with a marked proinflammatory effect, as determined by ICAM-1 and IL-8 induction, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Inhibiting protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor acting as a TLR-signaling transducer, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, suggesting the critical roles of TLRs in the inflammatory response. Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NFκB activation. The same CLI-095 treatment significantly blocked the zinc-induced IL-8 expression, however with no significant effect on the ICAM-1 expression and a minor inhibitory effect on the NFκB activation. The finding demonstrated the differential role of TLR-4 in regulation of the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, where TLR-4 played a dominant role in NFκB activation by nickel, but not by zinc. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB by adenovirus-mediated IκBα expression and Bay 11-7025, an inhibitor of cytokine-induced IκB-α phosphorylation, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory responses, indicating the critical of NFκB in the process. The study demonstrates the crucial role of TLRs in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells and herein deciphers a potential important difference in NFκB activation via TLRs. The study provides a molecular basis for linkage between zinc/nickel exposure and pathogenesis of the metal-related inflammatory vascular disease. - Highlights: • Both zinc and nickel cause

  16. Interleukin-17 mediated inflammatory responses are required for ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K; Yusuf, Nabiha; Elmets, Craig A; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces immunosuppression and is a major factor for development of skin cancer. Numerous efforts have been made to determine mechanisms for UVR-induced immunosuppression and to develop strategies for prevention and treatment of UVR-induced cancers. In the current study, we use IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) deficient mice to examine whether IL-17 mediated responses have a role in UVB (290-320)-induced immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. Results demonstrate that IL-17 mediated responses are required for UVB-induced immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. The systemic immune suppression and development of regulatory T cells are inhibited in UVB-treated IL-17R deficient mice compared to wild-type animals. The deficiency in IL-17R inhibits the infiltration and development of a tolerogenic myeloid cell population in UVB-treated skin, which expresses CD11b and Gr-1 and produces reactive oxygen species. We speculate that the development of the tolerogenic myeloid cells is dependent on IL-17-induced chemokines and inflammatory mediators in UVB-treated skin. The inhibition of the tolerogenic myeloid cells may be attributed to the suppression of regulatory T cells in UVR-treated IL-17R(-/-) mice. The findings may be exploited to new strategies for prevention and treatment of UVR-induced skin diseases and cancers. PMID:25250896

  17. Progranulin suppresses titanium particle induced inflammatory osteolysis by targeting TNFα signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-peng; Wei, Jian-lu; Tian, Qing-yun; Liu, Alexander Tianxing; Yi, Young-su; Einhorn, Thomas A; Liu, Chuan-ju

    2016-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery, characterized by chronic inflammation, pain, and osteolysis surrounding the bone-implant interface. Progranulin (PGRN) is known to have anti-inflammatory action by binding to Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptors and antagonizing TNFα. Here we report that titanium particles significantly induced PGRN expression in RAW264.7 cells and also in a mouse air-pouch model of inflammation. PGRN-deficiency enhanced, whereas administration of recombinant PGRN effectively inhibited, titanium particle-induced inflammation in an air pouch model. In addition, PGRN also significantly inhibited titanium particle-induced osteoclastogenesis and calvarial osteolysis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the inhibition of PGRN on titanium particle induced-inflammation is primarily via neutralizing the titanium particle-activated TNFα/NF-κB signaling pathway and this is evidenced by the suppression of particle-induced IκB phosphorylation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, and activity of the NF-κB-specific reporter gene. Collectively, these findings not only demonstrate that PGRN plays an important role in inhibiting titanium particle-induced inflammation, but also provide a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of wear debris-induced inflammation and osteolysis. PMID:26864916

  18. Progranulin suppresses titanium particle induced inflammatory osteolysis by targeting TNFα signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-peng; Wei, Jian-lu; Tian, Qing-yun; Liu, Alexander Tianxing; Yi, Young-Su; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Liu, Chuan-ju

    2016-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery, characterized by chronic inflammation, pain, and osteolysis surrounding the bone-implant interface. Progranulin (PGRN) is known to have anti-inflammatory action by binding to Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptors and antagonizing TNFα. Here we report that titanium particles significantly induced PGRN expression in RAW264.7 cells and also in a mouse air-pouch model of inflammation. PGRN-deficiency enhanced, whereas administration of recombinant PGRN effectively inhibited, titanium particle-induced inflammation in an air pouch model. In addition, PGRN also significantly inhibited titanium particle-induced osteoclastogenesis and calvarial osteolysis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the inhibition of PGRN on titanium particle induced-inflammation is primarily via neutralizing the titanium particle-activated TNFα/NF-κB signaling pathway and this is evidenced by the suppression of particle-induced IκB phosphorylation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, and activity of the NF-κB-specific reporter gene. Collectively, these findings not only demonstrate that PGRN plays an important role in inhibiting titanium particle-induced inflammation, but also provide a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of wear debris-induced inflammation and osteolysis. PMID:26864916

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting ROS-sensitive inflammatory signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Han; Lin, An-Hsuan; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Peng, Ruo-Yun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes chronic lung inflammation that is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive pathways. Our previous studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) activates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling resulting in induction of lung inflammation. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a major type of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is present in significant amounts in marine-based fish and fish oil. EPA has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. However, whether EPA has similar beneficial effects against CS-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. Using a murine model, we show that subchronic CS exposure for 4 weeks caused pulmonary inflammatory infiltration (total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), 11.0-fold increase), increased lung vascular permeability (protein level in BALF, 3.1-fold increase), elevated levels of chemokines (11.4–38.2-fold increase) and malondialdehyde (an oxidative stress biomarker; 2.0-fold increase) in the lungs, as well as lung inflammation; all of these CS-induced events were suppressed by daily supplementation with EPA. Using human bronchial epithelial cells, we further show that CS extract (CSE) sequentially activated NADPH oxidase (NADPH oxidase activity, 1.9-fold increase), increased intracellular levels of ROS (3.0-fold increase), activated both MAPKs and NF-κB, and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8; 8.2-fold increase); all these CSE-induced events were inhibited by pretreatment with EPA. Our findings suggest a novel role for EPA in alleviating the oxidative stress and lung inflammation induced by subchronic CS exposure in vivo and in suppressing the CSE-induced IL-8 in vitro via its antioxidant function and by inhibiting MAPKs/NF-κB signaling. PMID:25452730

  20. BIM-EL localization: The key to understanding anoikis resistance in inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Cassandra L; Schafer, Zachary T

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic and rare type of breast cancer, accounting for 2-6% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases each year. The highly metastatic nature of IBC cells remains poorly understood. Here we describe our recent data regarding the ability of IBC cells to overcome anoikis. PMID:27308529

  1. BIM-EL localization: The key to understanding anoikis resistance in inflammatory breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Cassandra L; Schafer, Zachary T

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic and rare type of breast cancer, accounting for 2–6% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases each year. The highly metastatic nature of IBC cells remains poorly understood. Here we describe our recent data regarding the ability of IBC cells to overcome anoikis.

  2. Acanthoic acid inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating LXRα in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Yu, Jin-Long

    2016-03-01

    Acanthoic acid, a pimaradiene diterpene isolated from Acanthopanax koreanum, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of acanthoic acid on vascular inflammation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of acanthoic acid on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The production of cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 was detected by ELISA. The expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, NF-κB and LXRα were detected by Western blotting. Adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs was detected by monocytic cell adhesion assay. The results showed that acanthoic acid dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-8 production. Acanthoic acid also inhibited TNF-α-induced IL-8 and IL-6 production. LPS-induced endothelial cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were also inhibited by acanthoic acid. Acanthoic acid inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Furthermore, acanthoic acid dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of LXRα. In addition, our results showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of acanthoic acid was attenuated by transfection with LXRα siRNA. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of acanthoic acid is due to its ability to activate LXRα. Acanthoic acid may be a therapeutic agent for inflammatory cardiovascular disease. PMID:26803523

  3. Eriodictyol, a plant flavonoid, attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, GUANG-FA; GUO, HONG-JUAN; HUANG, YAN; WU, CHUN-TING; ZHANG, XIANG-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive inflammatory responses and oxidative injury in the lung tissue. It has been suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidative agents could have therapeutic effects in ALI, and eriodictyol has been reported to exhibit antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eriodictyol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in a mouse model. The mice were divided into four groups: Phosphate-buffered saline-treated healthy control, LPS-induced ALI, vehicle-treated ALI (LPS + vehicle) and eriodictyol-treated ALI (LPS + eriodictyol). Eriodictyol (30 mg/kg) was administered orally once, 2 days before the induction of ALI. The data showed that eriodictyol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the eriodictyol pretreatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in the ALI mouse model, which attenuated the oxidative injury and inhibited the inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. In combination, the results of the present study demonstrated that eriodictyol could alleviate the LPS-induced lung injury in mice by regulating the Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting that eriodictyol could be used as a potential drug for the treatment of LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:26668626

  4. Chronic fluoride exposure-induced testicular toxicity is associated with inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruifen; Luo, Guangying; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fluoride (F) can affect testicular toxicity in humans and rodents. However, the mechanism underlying F-induced testicular toxicity is not well understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the sperm quality, testicular histomorphology and inflammatory response in mice followed F exposure. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L in the drinking water for 180 days. At the end of the exposure, significantly increased percentage of spermatozoa abnormality was found in mice exposed to 50 and 100 mg/L NaF. Disorganized spermatogenic cells, vacuoles in seminiferous tubules and loss and shedding of sperm cells were also observed in the NaF treated group. In addition, chronic F exposure increased testicular interleukin-17(IL-17), interleukin-17 receptor C (IL-17RC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transcriptional levels, as well as IL-17 and TNF-α levels in translational levels. Interestingly, we observed that F treated group elevated testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA level and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Taken together, these results indicated that testicular inflammatory response could contribute to chronic F exposure induced testicular toxicity in mice. PMID:27031805

  5. Cordycepin inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory and matrix degradation in the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Kang; Mao, Lu; Han, Xiuguo; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Changqing; Zhao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin is a component of the extract obtained from Cordyceps militaris and has many biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease that is closely related to the inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. The effect of cordycepin on NP cells in relation to inflammation and degeneration has not yet been studied. In our study, we used a rat NP cell culture and an intervertebral disc (IVD) organ culture model to examine the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression and the production of matrix degradation enzymes (MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5) and oxidative stress-associated factors (nitric oxide and PGE2). We found a protective effect of cordycepin on NP cells and IVDs against LPS-induced matrix degradation and macrophage infiltration. In addition, western blot and luciferase assay results demonstrated that pretreatment with cordycepin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, the results of our research suggest that cordycepin could exert anti-inflammatory and anti-degenerative effects on NP cells and IVDs by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Therefore, cordycepin may be a potential treatment for IDD in the future. PMID:27190710

  6. Cordycepin inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory and matrix degradation in the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lu; Han, Xiuguo; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin is a component of the extract obtained from Cordyceps militaris and has many biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease that is closely related to the inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. The effect of cordycepin on NP cells in relation to inflammation and degeneration has not yet been studied. In our study, we used a rat NP cell culture and an intervertebral disc (IVD) organ culture model to examine the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression and the production of matrix degradation enzymes (MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5) and oxidative stress-associated factors (nitric oxide and PGE2). We found a protective effect of cordycepin on NP cells and IVDs against LPS-induced matrix degradation and macrophage infiltration. In addition, western blot and luciferase assay results demonstrated that pretreatment with cordycepin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, the results of our research suggest that cordycepin could exert anti-inflammatory and anti-degenerative effects on NP cells and IVDs by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Therefore, cordycepin may be a potential treatment for IDD in the future. PMID:27190710

  7. Pneumonia-induced sepsis in mice: temporal study of inflammatory and cardiovascular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sordi, Regina; Menezes-de-Lima, Octávio; Della-Justina, Ana M; Rezende, Edir; Assreuy, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide a better comprehension of the pneumonia-induced sepsis model through temporal evaluation of several parameters, and thus identify the main factors that determine mortality in this model. Klebsiella pneumoniae was inoculated intratracheally in anesthetized Swiss male mice. Inflammatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated 6, 24 and 48 h after the insult. The results show that severity of infection and the mortality correlated with the amount of bacteria. Six, 24 and 48 h after inoculation, animals presented pathological changes in lungs, increase in cell number in the bronchoalveolar lavage, leukopenia, increase in TNF-α and IL-1β levels, hypotension and hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors, the two latter characteristics of severe sepsis and septic shock. Significant numbers of bacteria in spleen and heart homogenates indicated infection spreading. Interestingly, NOS-2 expression appeared late after bacteria inoculation, whereas levels of NOS-1 and NOS-3 were unchanged. The high NOS-2 expression coincided with an exacerbated NO production in the infection focus and in plasma, as judging by nitrate + nitrite levels. This study shows that K. pneumoniae inoculation induces a systemic inflammatory response and cardiovascular alterations, which endures at least until 48 h. K. pneumoniae-induced lung infection is a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis and a better understanding of this model may help to increase the knowledge about sepsis pathophysiology. PMID:23441627

  8. ZnO nanoparticles induced inflammatory response and genotoxicity in human blood cells: A mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Violet Aileen; Kumar, Ashutosh; Gupta, Govind Sharan; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-11-01

    The wide application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in cosmetics, paints, biosensors, drug delivery, food packaging and as anticancerous agents has increased the risk of human exposure to these NPs. Earlier in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated a cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of ZnO NPs. However, there is paucity of data regarding their immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunotoxic potential of ZnO NPs using human monocytic cell line (THP-1) as model to understand the underlying molecular mechanism. A significant (p < 0.01) increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed with a concomitant concentration dependent (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μg/mL) decrease in the glutathione (GSH) levels as compared to control. The expression levels of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade proteins such as p-ERK1/2, p-p38 and p-JNK were also significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) induced. Also, at the concentration tested, NPs induced DNA damage as assessed by the Comet and micronucleus assays. Our data demonstrated that ZnO NPs induce oxidative and nitrosative stress in human monocytes, leading to increased inflammatory response via activation of redox sensitive NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways. PMID:26146191

  9. MicroRNA-155 is induced during the macrophage inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ryan M; Taganov, Konstantin D; Boldin, Mark P; Cheng, Genhong; Baltimore, David

    2007-01-30

    The mammalian inflammatory response to infection involves the induction of several hundred genes, a process that must be carefully regulated to achieve pathogen clearance and prevent the consequences of unregulated expression, such as cancer. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of gene expression regulators that has also been linked to cancer. However, the relationship between inflammation, innate immunity, and miRNA expression is just beginning to be explored. In the present study, we use microarray technology to identify miRNAs induced in primary murine macrophages after exposure to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid or the cytokine IFN-beta. miR-155 was the only miRNA of those tested that was substantially up-regulated by both stimuli. It also was induced by several Toll-like receptor ligands through myeloid differentiation factor 88- or TRIF-dependent pathways, whereas up-regulation by IFNs was shown to involve TNF-alpha autocrine signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of the kinase JNK blocked induction of miR-155 in response to either polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid or TNF-alpha, suggesting that miR-155-inducing signals use the JNK pathway. Together, these findings characterize miR-155 as a common target of a broad range of inflammatory mediators. Importantly, because miR-155 is known to function as an oncogene, these observations identify a potential link between inflammation and cancer. PMID:17242365

  10. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Colafrancesco, Serena; Mazor, Roei D; Soriano, Alessandra; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-12-01

    In 2011 a new syndrome termed 'ASIA Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants' was defined pointing to summarize for the first time the spectrum of immune-mediated diseases triggered by an adjuvant stimulus such as chronic exposure to silicone, tetramethylpentadecane, pristane, aluminum and other adjuvants, as well as infectious components, that also may have an adjuvant effect. All these environmental factors have been found to induce autoimmunity by themselves both in animal models and in humans: for instance, silicone was associated with siliconosis, aluminum hydroxide with post-vaccination phenomena and macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in the onset of adjuvant-induced autoimmunity; a genetic favorable background plays a key role in the appearance on such vaccine-related diseases and also justifies the rarity of these phenomena. This paper will focus on protean facets which are part of ASIA, focusing on the roles and mechanisms of action of different adjuvants which lead to the autoimmune/inflammatory response. The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. PMID:24238833

  11. Halofuginone reduces the inflammatory responses of DSS-induced colitis through metabolic reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Mu, Huai-Xue; Zhao, Ling; Du, Jun; Yang, Depo; Wang, Dongmei; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Lin, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-21

    Hypoxia and inflammation have been identified as the hallmarks of colitis, intertwined with metabolism. Here, we report that halofuginone (HF), an antiparasitic drug, attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, as represented by attenuating the disease activity index, inhibiting colonic shortening, ameliorating colonic lesions and histological signs of damage, reducing colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon tissue. Intriguingly, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) and tumor necrosis factor alpha were also suppressed by HF treatment in colon tissues, exhibiting a tissue-specific effect. To further reveal the metabolic signatures upon HF treatment, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis of the small molecular metabolites in liver, spleen and colon tissues was performed. As a result, we found that HF treatment counteracted the levels of acylcarnitines, including palmitoyl-l-carnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, vaccenylcarnitine, and myristoylcarnitine, in colon tissues with DSS induction, but no significant change in the levels of acylcarnitines was observed in liver or spleen tissues. The metabolic signatures may indicate that incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the colon could be restored upon HF treatment as the tissue-specific metabolic characterization. Taken together, our findings uncovered that the HF potentiated anti-inflammatory effect in DSS-induced colitis in mice and its underlying mechanisms could be associated with the inhibition of HIF-1α and reduced levels of acylcarnitines, suggesting that both the inhibition of HIF-1α and the counteraction of incomplete FAO might be useful in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27197570

  12. The Role of PPARγ in Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-qing; Chen, Cheng; Cai, Wei; Zeng, Yue-lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Advances made in the past ten years highlight the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ) has protective properties in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to define the roles of PPARγ in AGEs-induced inflammatory response in human chondrocytes. Methods Primary human chondrocytes were stimulated with AGEs in the presence or absence of neutralizing antibody against RAGE (anti-RAGE), MAPK specific inhibitors and PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. The expression of IL-1, MMP-13, TNF-α, PPARγ, nuclear NF-κB p65 and cytosol IκBα was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR. Results AGEs could enhance the expression of IL-1, TNF-α, and MMP-13, but the level of PPARγ was decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by anti-RAGE, SB203580 (P38 MAPK specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a selective inhibitor of JNK). PPARγ agonist pioglitazone could inhibit the effects of AGEs-induced inflammatory response and PPARγ down-regulation. In human chondrocytes, AGEs could induce cytosol IκBα degradation and increase the level of nuclear NF-κB p65, which was inhibited by PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. Conclusions In primary human chondrocytes, AGEs could down-regulate PPARγ expression and increase the inflammatory mediators, which could be reversed by PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. Activation of RAGE by AGEs triggers a cascade of downstream signaling, including MAPK JNK/ p38, PPARγ and NF-κB. Taken together, PPARγ could be a potential target for pharmacologic intervention in the treatment of OA. PMID:26024533

  13. Psychotropic drugs attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia by altering hypothalamic levels of inflammatory mediators in rats.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Ahmad; Sharon-Granit, Yael; Azab, Abed N

    2016-07-28

    Recent evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of mental disorders and that psychotropic drugs exert various effects on brain inflammation. The administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) to mammals is associated with robust production of inflammatory mediators and pathological changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of four different psychotropic drugs on LPS-induced hypothermia and production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and phosphorylated-p65 (P-p65) levels in hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. Rats were treated once daily with lithium (100mg/kg), carbamazepine (40mg/kg), haloperidol (2mg/kg), imipramine (20mg/kg) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) for 29 days. On day 29, rats were injected with LPS (1mg/kg) or saline. At 1.5h post LPS injection body temperature was measured, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected and their hypothalami were excised, homogenized and centrifuged. PGE2, TNF-α and nuclear P-p65 levels were determined by specific ELISA kits. We found that lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine significantly attenuated LPS-induced hypothermia, resembling the effect of classic anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine differently but significantly affected the levels of PGE2, TNF-α and P-p65 in plasma and hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. The results suggest that psychotropic drugs attenuate LPS-induced hypothermia by reducing hypothalamic production of inflammatory constituents, particularly PGE2. The effects of psychotropic drugs on brain inflammation may contribute to their therapeutic mechanism but also to their toxicological profile. PMID:27181513

  14. Controlled Cortical Impact and Craniotomy Induce Strikingly Similar Profiles of Inflammatory Gene Expression, but with Distinct Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lagraoui, Mouna; Latoche, Joseph R.; Cartwright, Natalia G.; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Schaefer, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    An immediate consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the induction of an inflammatory response. Mounting data suggest that inflammation is a major contributor to TBI-induced brain damage. However, much remains unknown regarding the induction and regulation of the inflammatory response to TBI. In this study we compared the TBI-induced inflammatory response to severe parenchymal injury (controlled cortical impact) vs. mild brain injury (craniotomy) over a 21-day period. Our data show that both severe and mild brain injury induce a qualitatively similar inflammatory response, involving highly overlapping sets of effector molecules. However, kinetic analysis revealed that the inflammatory response to mild brain injury is of much shorter duration than the response to severe TBI. Specifically, the inflammatory response to severe brain injury persists for at least 21 days, whereas the response to mild brain injury returns to near baseline values within 10 days post-injury. Our data therefore imply that the development of accurate diagnostic tests of TBI severity that are based on imaging or biomarker analysis of the inflammatory response may require repeated measures over at least a 10-day period, post-injury. PMID:23118733

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease: A descriptive study of 716 local Chilean patients

    PubMed Central

    Simian, Daniela; Fluxá, Daniela; Flores, Lilian; Lubascher, Jaime; Ibáñez, Patricio; Figueroa, Carolina; Kronberg, Udo; Acuña, Raúl; Moreno, Mauricio; Quera, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To demographically and clinically characterize inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from the local registry and update data previously published by our group. METHODS: A descriptive study of a cohort based on a registry of patients aged 15 years or older who were diagnosed with IBD and attended the IBD program at Clínica Las Condes in Santiago, Chile. The registry was created in April 2012 and includes patients registered up to October 2015. The information was anonymously downloaded in a monthly report, and the information on patients with more than one visit was updated. The registry includes demographic, clinical and disease characteristics, including the Montreal Classification, medical treatment, surgeries and hospitalizations for crisis. Data regarding infection with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) were incorporated in the registry in 2014. Data for patients who received consultations as second opinions and continued treatment at this institution were also analyzed. RESULTS: The study included 716 patients with IBD: 508 patients (71%) were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC), 196 patients (27%) were diagnosed with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 12 patients (2%) were diagnosed with unclassifiable IBD. The UC/CD ratio was 2.6/1. The median age was 36 years (range 16-88), and 58% of the patients were female, with a median age at diagnosis of 29 years (range 5-76). In the past 15 years, a sustained increase in the number of patients diagnosed with IBD was observed, where 87% of the patients were diagnosed between the years 2001 and 2015. In the cohort examined in the present study, extensive colitis (50%) and colonic involvement (44%) predominated in the patients with UC and CD, respectively. In CD patients, non-stricturing/non-penetrating behavior was more frequent (80%), and perianal disease was observed in 28% of the patients. There were significant differences in treatment between UC and CD, with a higher use of corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive

  16. CETP Lowers TLR4 Expression Which Attenuates the Inflammatory Response Induced by LPS and Polymicrobial Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Castoldi, Angela; Amano, Mariane Tami; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Quintao, Eder Carlos Rocha; Cazita, Patrícia Miralda

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection eliciting high mortality rate which is a serious health problem. Despite numerous studies seeking for therapeutic alternatives, the mechanisms involved in this disease remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the influence of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), a glycoprotein that promotes the transfer of lipids between lipoproteins, on the inflammatory response in mice. Human CETP transgenic mice were compared to control mice (wild type, WT) after polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), aiming at investigating their survival rate and inflammatory profiles. Macrophages from the peritoneal cavity were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of recombinant CETP for phenotypic and functional studies. In comparison to WT mice, CETP mice showed higher survival rate, lower IL-6 plasma concentration, and decreased liver toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) protein. Moreover, macrophages from WT mice to which recombinant human CETP was added decreased LPS uptake, TLR4 expression, NF-κB activation and IL-6 secretion. This raises the possibility for new therapeutic tools in sepsis while suggesting that lowering CETP by pharmacological inhibitors should be inconvenient in the context of sepsis and infectious diseases. PMID:27293313

  17. Expression of inflammatory mediators in the otitis media induced by Helicobacter pylori antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Okano, M; Fukushima, K; Nomiya, S; Kataoka, Y; Nomiya, R; Akagi, H; Nishizaki, K

    2008-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that is recognized as one of the key factors in gastric diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have shown relationships between H. pylori and extra-digestive diseases, and the presence of H. pylori in the middle ear and upper respiratory tract has been reported. However, the role of H. pylori in middle ear disease remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that H. pylori whole-cell protein directly induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in middle ear epithelium in mice, and severe proliferation of inflammatory cells was observed in middle ear cavity inoculated with H. pylori whole-cell protein. In addition, trans-tympanic injection of macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulated expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in the middle ear. These findings indicate that H. pylori infection causes immunological inflammation in middle ear epithelium, and H. pylori may play a significant role in otitis media. PMID:18727622

  18. Tetrandrine suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators in PMA plus A23187-induced HMC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; An, Hyeon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Su-Hyun; Seo, Yun-Soo; Joung, Dae-Ki; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2014-05-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the root of Stephania tetrandra, is known to possess antitumor activity in various malignant neoplasms. However, the precise mechanism of TET-mediated immune modulation remains to be clarified. One of the possible mechanisms for its protective properties is by downregulation of the inflammatory responses. In the present study, the human mast cell line (HMC-1) was used to investigate this effect. TET significantly inhibited the induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Moreover, TET attenuated expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In activated HMC-1 cells, the phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK1/2), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, was decreased by treatment of the cells with TET. TET inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, IκB degradation and phosphorylation. Furthermore, TET suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and COX-2 through suppression of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, IκBα degradation and phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation. These results indicated that TET exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells. PMID:24589569

  19. miR-709 modulates LPS-induced inflammatory response through targeting GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Hu; Chen, Luxi; Chen, Yaosheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Mo, Delin

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs which modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by either translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs play important roles in both innate and adaptive immune response, including TLR-triggered immune response. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-709 was up-regulated in primary macrophage and RAW264.7 cells during the stimulation of LPS. Overexpression of miR-709 in RAW264.7 cells led to reduced production and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β) during activation by LPS, whereas knockdown of miR-709 had completely opposite effects. We used bioinformatics and experimental techniques to demonstrate that GSK-3β is a direct target of miR-709. miR-709 mimics decreased GSK-3β protein but not mRNA level. We also found that miR-709 regulated the LPS-induced inflammatory response by targeting GSK-3β and elevating β-catenin. In conclusion, our data revealed a novel role for miR-709 in regulation of inflammatory response by targeting GSK-3β. PMID:27232654

  20. Protective effect of diallyl trisulfide against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yongchun; Wang, Kaiming; Liu, Guangpu; Yang, Min; Zhao, Zhongxi; Li, Shanzhong; Cai, Jianhua; Cao, Jimin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) against naphthalene-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage in the livers and lungs of mice. Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels showed significant hepatic damage after the challenge with 100 mg/kg naphthalene. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) increased significantly, accompanying a decrease in the hepatic activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels after the naphthalene damage. In addition, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) increased significantly in the groups damaged with naphthalene. The main parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the lungs, including the NO, MPO, and GSH contents, were determined, and the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the lung and liver tissues were also observed. In the DATS-treated groups, all of the oxidative and inflammatory damage in the serum, liver, and lung tissues were significantly prevented. PMID:26813860

  1. Rapamycin protects neurons from brain contusion-induced inflammatory reaction via modulation of microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QI; XIE, DUJIANG; PAN, SHIYONG; XU, WEIJUN

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory reaction is important in secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rapamycin has been demonstrated as a neuroprotective agent in a mouse model of TBI, however, there is a lack of data regarding the effects of rapamycin on the inflammatory reaction following TBI. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the effects of treatment with rapamycin on inflammatory reactions and examine the possible involvement of microglial activation following TBI. Male imprinting control region mice were randomly divided into four groups: Sham group (n=23), TBI group (n=23), TBI + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group (n=31) and TBI + rapamycin group (n=31). Rapamycin was dissolved in DMSO (50 mg/ml) and injected 30 min after TBI (2 mg/Kg; intraperitoneally). A weight-drop model of TBI was induced, and the brain tissues were harvested 24 h after TBI. The findings indicated that the administration of rapamycin following TBI was associated with decreased levels of activated microglia and neuron degeneration at the peri-injury site, reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased neurobehavioral function, possibly mediated by inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. The results of the present study offer novel insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of rapamycin, possibly involving the modulation of microglial activation. PMID:26458361

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate TNBS-induced colitis by modulating inflammatory and autoimmune responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Yan, Li; Wang, Chang-Zheng; Wang, Wei-Hua; Shi, Hui; Su, Bin-Bin; Zeng, Qing-Huan; Du, Hai-Tao; Wan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we transplanted MSCs into an experimental model of IBD. METHODS: A rectal enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered to female BALB/c mice. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were derived from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and were transplanted intravenously into the experimental animals after disease onset. Clinical activity scores and histological changes were evaluated. GFP and Sex determining region Y gene (SRY) expression were used for cell tracking. Ki67 positive cells and Lgr5-expressing cells were determined to measure proliferative activity. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of different inflammatory mediators in the colon and serum. The inflammatory cytokines included tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-17, IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β). Master regulators of Th1 cells (T-box expressed in T cells, T-bet), Th17 cells (retinoid related orphan receptor gamma(t), RORγt), Th2 cells (GATA family of transcription factors 3, GATA3) and regulatory T cells (forkhead box P3, Foxp3) were also determined. RESULTS: Systemic infusion of GFP-BMSCs ameliorated the clinical and histopathologic severity of colitis, including body weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation, and increased survival (P < 0.05). The cell tracking study showed that MSCs homed to the injured colon. MSCs promoted proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and differentiation of intestinal stem cells (P < 0.01). This therapeutic effect was mainly mediated by down-regulation of both Th1-Th17-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, T-bet; IL-6, IL-17, RORγt), and by up-regulation of Th2 activities (IL-4, IL-10, GATA-3) (P < 0.05). MSCs also induced activated CD4+CD25+Foxp3

  3. Melatonin Attenuates Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Local Inflammation in Rat Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Tipoe, George Lim; Fung, Man Lung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) induces lipid peroxidation and leads to cardiovascular dysfunction, in which impaired activities of the adrenal medulla are involved. This may be caused by CIH-induced injury in the adrenal medulla, for which the mechanism is currently undefined. We tested the hypothesis that melatonin ameliorates the CIH-induced lipid peroxidation, local inflammation and cellular injury in rat adrenal medulla. Adult Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to air (normoxic control) or hypoxia mimicking a severe recurrent sleep apnoeic condition for 14 days. The injection of melatonin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was given before the daily hypoxic treatment. We found that levels of malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were significantly increased in the vehicle-treated hypoxic group, when compared with the normoxic control or hypoxic group treated with melatonin. Also, the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and SOD-2) were significantly lowered in the hypoxic group treated with vehicle but not in the melatonin group. In addition, the level of macrophage infiltration and the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6) and mediators (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) were elevated in the vehicle-treated hypoxic group, but were significantly ameliorated by the melatonin treatment. Moreover, the amount of apoptotic cells in the hypoxic groups was significantly less in the melatonin-treated group. In conclusion, CIH-induced lipid peroxidation causes local inflammation and cellular injury in the adrenal medulla. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin are indicative of a protective agent against adrenal damage in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:25314303

  4. β-Cryptoxanthin Alleviates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kobori, Masuko; Ni, Yinhua; Takahashi, Yumiko; Watanabe, Natsumi; Sugiura, Minoru; Ogawa, Kazunori; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutritional epidemiological surveys showed that serum β-cryptoxanthin inversely associates with the risks for insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. Consumption of β-cryptoxanthin possibly prevents nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is suggested to be caused by insulin resistance and oxidative stress from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. To evaluate the effect of β-cryptoxanthin on diet-induced NASH, we fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (CL diet) with or without 0.003% β-cryptoxanthin to C56BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. After feeding, β-cryptoxanthin attenuated fat accumulation, increases in Kupffer and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH in the mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that although β-cryptoxanthin histochemically reduced steatosis, it was more effective in inhibiting inflammatory gene expression change in NASH. β-Cryptoxanthin reduced the alteration of expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammatory responses, infiltration and activation of macrophages and other leukocytes, quantity of T cells, and free radical scavenging. However, it showed little effect on the expression of genes related to cholesterol and other lipid metabolism. The expression of markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, T helper cells, and cytotoxic T cells was significantly induced in NASH and reduced by β-cryptoxanthin. β-Cryptoxanthin suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible and/or TNFα-inducible genes in NASH. Increased levels of the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were reduced by β-cryptoxanthin in NASH. Thus, β-cryptoxanthin suppresses inflammation and the resulting fibrosis probably by primarily suppressing the increase and activation of macrophages and other immune cells. Reducing oxidative stress is likely to be a major mechanism of inflammation and injury suppression in the livers of mice with NASH. PMID:24858832

  5. Gestational diabetes induces chronic hypoxia stress and excessive inflammatory response in murine placenta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic impairments in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) induce an abnormal environment in peripheral blood and cause vascular structure alterations which affect the placental development and function. A GDM model was developed using C57BL/6J female mice fed with high fat food (HF) (40% energy from fat) and a control group with control food (CF) (14% energy from fat) for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 18.5 to evaluate the fetal and placental development. HF-fed dams exhibited significant increase in the maternal weight gain and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), impaired insulin secretion of glucose stimulus and glucose clearance of insulin stimulus before pregnancy; in addition, they also had the increase in the fetal and placental weight. HF-fed dams at GD 18.5 showed the high level of circulating maternal inflammation factors and were associated with increased oxidative stress and hypoxia in the labyrinth, abnormal vascular development with a high level of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and VEGF-A expression, but without a parallel increase in CD31 level; were induced an exaggerated inflammatory response in placental vascular endothelial cell. Our findings show that GDM induces more maternal weight gain and fetus weight, with abnormal maternal circulating metabolic and inflammation factors, and forms a placental hypoxia environment and impacts the placental vascular development. Our findings indicate that gestational diabetes induce excessive chronic hypoxia stress and inflammatory response in placentas which may contribute mechanisms to the high risks of perinatal complications of obesity and GDM mothers. PMID:23573311

  6. Noncanonical WNT-5B signaling induces inflammatory responses in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Eline M; Menzen, Mark H; Spanjer, Anita I R; Middag, Laurens D C; Brandsma, Corry-Anke A; Gosens, Reinoud

    2016-06-01

    COPD is a progressive chronic lung disease characterized by pulmonary inflammation. Several recent studies indicate aberrant expression of WNT ligands and Frizzled receptors in the disease. For example, WNT-5A/B ligand expression was recently found to be increased in lung fibroblasts of COPD patients. However, possible effects of WNT-5A and WNT-5B on inflammation have not been investigated yet. In this study, we assessed the regulation of inflammatory cytokine release in response to WNT-5A/B signaling in human lung fibroblasts. Primary human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), and primary lung fibroblasts from COPD patients and non-COPD controls were treated with recombinant WNT-5A or WNT-5B to assess IL-6 and CXCL8 cytokine secretion and gene expression levels. Following WNT-5B, and to a lesser extent WNT-5A stimulation, fibroblasts showed increased IL-6 and CXCL8 cytokine secretion and mRNA expression. WNT-5B-mediated IL-6 and CXCL8 release was higher in fibroblasts from COPD patients than in non-COPD controls. In MRC-5 fibroblasts, WNT-5B-induced CXCL8 release was mediated primarily via the Frizzled-2 receptor and TAK1 signaling, whereas canonical β-catenin signaling was not involved. In further support of noncanonical signaling, we showed activation of JNK, p38, and p65 NF-κB by WNT-5B. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK and p38 prevented WNT-5B-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 secretion, whereas IKK inhibition prevented CXCL8 secretion only, indicating distinct pathways for WNT-5B-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 release. WNT-5B induces IL-6 and CXCL8 secretion in pulmonary fibroblasts. In summary, WNT-5B mediates this via Frizzled-2 and TAK1. As WNT-5 signaling is increased in COPD, this WNT-5-induced inflammatory response could represent a therapeutic target. PMID:27036869

  7. ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED HEPATIC NEUTROPHIL ACCUMULATION AND INFLAMMATORY LIVER INJURY IN CD18-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is currently the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the US and many European countries. Although intracellular signaling mechanisms are critical for hepatocellular injury, a contribution of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, has been suggested. However, conflicting results were obtained when using immunological intervention strategies. Aims The role of neutrophils was investigated using a CD18-deficient mouse model. Results Treatment of C57Bl/6 wild type mice with 300 mg/kg APAP resulted in severe liver cell necrosis at 12 and 24 h. This injury was accompanied by formation of cytokines and chemokines and accumulation of neutrophils in the liver. However, there was no difference in the inflammatory response or liver injury in CD18-deficient mice compared to wild type animals. In contrast to treatment with endotoxin, no upregulation of CD11b or priming for reactive oxygen was observed on neutrophils isolated from the peripheral blood or the liver after APAP administration. Furthermore, animals treated with endotoxin 3 h after APAP experienced an exaggerated inflammatory response as indicated by substantially higher cytokine and chemokine formation and twice the number of neutrophils in the liver. However, liver injury in the two-hit model was the same as with APAP alone. Conclusions Our data do not support the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to APAP hepatotoxicity or that a neutrophil-mediated injury phase could be provoked by a second, pro-inflammatory hit. Thus, APAP-induced liver injury in mice is dominated by intracellular mechanisms of cell death rather than by neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:20500806

  8. Unilateral renal ischaemia in rats induces a rapid secretion of inflammatory markers to renal lymph and increased capillary permeability.

    PubMed

    Bivol, Liliana Monica; Iversen, Bjarne Magnus; Hultström, Michael; Wallace, Paal William; Reed, Rolf Kåre; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2016-03-15

    A better understanding of the inflammatory process associated with renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury may be clinically important. In this study we examined the role of the kidney in production of inflammatory mediators by analysing renal lymph after 30 min unilateral occlusion of renal artery followed by 120 min reperfusion, as well as the effect of IR on size selectivity for proteins in both glomerular and peritubular capillaries. All measured mediators increased dramatically in renal hilar lymph, plasma and renal cortical tissue samples and returned to control levels after 120 min reperfusion. The responses were differentiated; interleukin-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and leptin were markedly increased in plasma before reperfusion, reflecting an extrarenal response possibly induced by afferent renal nerve activity from the ischaemic kidney. Tumour necrosis factor-α was the only mediator showing elevated lymph-to-plasma ratio following 30 min reperfusion, indicating that most cytokines were released directly into the bloodstream. The IR-induced rise in cytokine levels was paralleled by a significant increase in high molecular weight plasma proteins in both lymph and urine. The latter was shown as a 14- to 166-fold increase in glomerular sieving coefficient of plasma proteins assessed by a novel proteomic approach, and indicated a temporarily reduced size selectivity of both glomerular and peritubular capillaries. Collectively, our data suggest that cytokines from the ischaemic kidney explain most of the rise in plasma concentration, and that the locally produced substances enter the systemic circulation through transport directly to plasma and not via the interstitium to lymph. PMID:26584508

  9. The Avian Head Induces Cues for Sound Localization in Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans A.; Vanderelst, Dieter; Bartenstein, Sophia; Firzlaff, Uwe; Luksch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Accurate sound source localization in three-dimensional space is essential for an animal’s orientation and survival. While the horizontal position can be determined by interaural time and intensity differences, localization in elevation was thought to require external structures that modify sound before it reaches the tympanum. Here we show that in birds even without external structures like pinnae or feather ruffs, the simple shape of their head induces sound modifications that depend on the elevation of the source. Based on a model of localization errors, we show that these cues are sufficient to locate sounds in the vertical plane. These results suggest that the head of all birds induces acoustic cues for sound localization in the vertical plane, even in the absence of external ears. PMID:25390036

  10. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, M; Woodward, E M; Bojesen, A M; Petersen, M R; Squires, E L; Lehn-Jensen, H; Troedsson, M H T

    2012-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy (glucocorticoids (GC) and mycobacterium cell wall extract (MCWE)) on the endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in susceptible mares with induced infectious endometritis. Endometrial gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra), acute phase protein (APP) serum amyloid A (SAA) and clinical parameters were evaluated. Five mares were classified as susceptible to persistent endometritis based on their endometrial histopathology and ability to clear an induced uterine inflammation. To investigate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy, the mares were inoculated with 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in three consecutive estrus cycles in a modified cross-over study design. Thus, each mare served as its own control and the treatment type was performed in randomized order. The effect of treatment with MCWE (1.5 mg Settle IV), dexamethasone (0.1 mg per kg IV) or no treatment was investigated. All mares were free from uterine inflammation before each E. coli inoculation. Endometrial biopsies were recovered 3, 24 and 72 h post inoculation. Relative gene-expression analyses were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by administration of GC. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and SAA was significantly lower in the GC treated group late in the study period (72 h) compared to "no treatment" and MCWE treatment. Increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed 3 and 24 h after E. coli infusion and GC treatment. A significant decrease of SAA expression was observed after MCWE treatment compared to "no treatment". MCWE and GC treatment had a significant effect on the clearance of uterine pathogens and number of

  11. Immune/Inflammatory Response and Hypocontractility of Rabbit Colonic Smooth Muscle After TNBS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonggang; Li, Fang; Wang, Hong; Yin, Chaoran; Huang, JieAn; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The contractility of colonic smooth muscle is dysregulated due to immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammation in vitro induces up-regulation of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) expression in colonic smooth muscle cells. Aims To characterize the immune/inflammatory responses and RGS4 expression pattern in colonic smooth muscle after induction of colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in rabbits by intrarectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Innate/adaptive immune response RT-qPCR array was performed using colonic circular muscle strips. At 1–9 weeks after colonic intramuscular microinjection of lentivirus, the distal and proximal colons were collected, and muscle strips and dispersed muscle cells were prepared from circular muscle layer. Expression levels of RGS4 and NFκB signaling components were determined by Western blot analysis. The biological consequences of RGS4 knockdown were assessed by measurement of muscle contraction and phospholipase C (PLC)-β activity in response to acetylcholine (ACh). Results Contraction in response to ACh was significantly inhibited in the inflamed colonic circular smooth muscle cells. RGS4, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, CCL3, CD1D, and ITGB2 were significantly up-regulated, while IL-18, CXCR4, CD86, and C3 were significantly down-regulated in the inflamed muscle strips. RGS4 protein expression in the inflamed smooth muscles was dramatically increased. RGS4 stable knockdown in vivo augmented ACh-stimulated PLC-β activity and contraction in colonic smooth muscle cells. Conclusion Inflamed smooth muscle exhibits up-regulation of IL-1-related signaling components, Th1 cytokines and RGS4, and inhibition of contraction. Stable knockdown of endogenous RGS4 in colonic smooth muscle increases PLC-β activity and contractile responses. PMID:26879904

  12. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23990384

  13. Endogenous ghrelin attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy via a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuanjie; Tokudome, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Otani, Kentaro; Nishimura, Hirohito; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Otsu, Kinya; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy, which is commonly caused by hypertension, is a major risk factor for heart failure and sudden death. Endogenous ghrelin has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on cardiac dysfunction and postinfarction remodeling via modulation of the autonomic nervous system. However, ghrelin's ability to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and its potential mechanism of action are unknown. In this study, cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction in ghrelin knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. After 12 weeks, the ghrelin knockout mice showed significantly increased cardiac hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice, as evidenced by their significantly greater heart weight/tibial length ratios (9.2±1.9 versus 7.9±0.8 mg/mm), left ventricular anterior wall thickness (1.3±0.2 versus 1.0±0.2 mm), and posterior wall thickness (1.1±0.3 versus 0.9±0.1 mm). Furthermore, compared with wild-type mice, ghrelin knockout mice showed suppression of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, as indicated by reduced parasympathetic nerve activity and higher plasma interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 levels. The administration of either nicotine or ghrelin activated the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in ghrelin knockout mice. In conclusion, our results show that endogenous ghrelin plays a crucial role in the progression of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy via a mechanism that involves the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:25870195

  14. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-01

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD. PMID:17173870

  15. Sleep Loss as a Factor to Induce Cellular and Molecular Inflammatory Variations

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Castillo-García, Stephanie Ariadne; Hernández, María Eugenia; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Gómez-González, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis). Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013) on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss. PMID:24367384

  16. Taraxasterol inhibits IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Taikui; Ma, Zhiqiang; Li, Xin; Liu, Jianyu

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic degenerative joint disease, is a leading cause of disability among elderly patients. Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effect of taraxasterol on OA remains unclear. In order to provide a scientific basis for the applicability of taraxasterol in OA, the anti-inflammatory effects of taraxasterol on IL-1β-stimulated osteoarthritic chondrocytes were investigated. Chondrocytes were pretreated with taraxasterol 1h before IL-1β treatment. The productions of MMP-1, MMP3, MMP13, PGE2 and NO were measured by ELISA and Griess reaction. The expression of COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB was detected by western blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that taraxasterol dose-dependently suppressed MMP-1, MMP3, MMP13, PGE2 and NO production induced by IL-1β. The expression of COX-2 and iNOS was also inhibited by taraxasterol. Western blot analysis showed that taraxasterol suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, we found that taraxasterol protected human chondrocytes by inhibiting MMPs, NO and PGE2 production. Taraxasterol may be a useful agent for prevention and treatment of OA. PMID:25797286

  17. Suppression of KSHV-induced angiopoietin-2 inhibits angiogenesis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolan; Sha, Jingfeng; Xiang, Shao; Qin, Sanhai; Conrad, Patricia; Ghosh, Santosh K; Weinberg, Aaron; Ye, Fengchun

    2016-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly angiogenic and inflammatory neoplasia. The angiogenic and inflammatory cytokine angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is strongly expressed in KS due to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. In the present study, we determined how Ang-2 contributes to development of KS by using telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (TIVE) as a model, which become malignantly transformed and express increased levels of Ang-2 following KSHV infection. Ang-2 released from TIVE-KSHV cells induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie-2 receptor from both human and mouse endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis in nude mice. Functional inhibition or expressional "knock-down" of Ang-2 in these cells blocks angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth. Ang-2 suppression also reduces the numbers of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in tumors. In transwell-based cell migration assays, Ang-2 indeed enhances migration of human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These results underscore a pivotal role of KSHV-induced Ang-2 in KS tumor development by promoting both angiogenesis and inflammation. Our data also suggest that selective drug targeting of Ang-2 may be used for treatment of KS. PMID:27294705

  18. Protective effect of taraxasterol against LPS-induced endotoxic shock by modulating inflammatory responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Xiong, Huanzhang; Li, Hongyu; Cheng, Yao

    2014-02-01

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene, was isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Taraxacum officinale. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of taraxasterol on murine model of endotoxic shock and the mechanism of its action. Mice were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg of taraxasterol prior to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Survival of mice was monitored twice a day for 7 days. To further understand the mechanism, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and mediator nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) as well as histology of lungs were examined. The results showed that taraxasterol significantly improved mouse survival and attenuated tissue injury of the lungs in LPS-induced endotoxemic mice. Further studies revealed that taraxasterol significantly reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE₂ levels in sera from mice with endotoxic shock. These results indicate that taraxasterol has a protective effect on murine endotoxic shock induced by LPS through modulating inflammatory cytokine and mediator secretion. This finding might provide a new strategy for the treatment of endotoxic shock and associated inflammation. PMID:24286370

  19. Effect of the PA-MSHA vaccine on septic serum-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhong, De-Wu; Miao, Xiong-Ying; Yao, Hong-Liang

    2013-04-01

    Sepsis is defined as a complex clinical syndrome caused by a serious infection followed by an amplified and deregulated inflammatory response. The complex syndrome is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, despite substantial clinical advances. A vaccine derived from the outer membrane proteins of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-MSHA) has been demonstrated to exhibit immune modulatory properties. In the present study, the effect of the PA-MSHA vaccine on the inflammatory response induced by serum from septic patients in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined. It was observed that PA-MSHA pretreatment inhibits the production of septic serum-induced tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, PA-MSHA treatment increases interleukin-10 levels and promotes the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. Thus, the results of the current study provide mechanistic insight relevant to the potential application of PA-MSHA in the treatment of sepsis. PMID:23440442

  20. Radiation promotes colorectal cancer initiation and progression by inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Bozeman, R G; Kaisani, A; Kim, W; Zhang, L; Richardson, J A; Wright, W E; Shay, J W

    2016-06-30

    Proton radiotherapy is becoming more common as protons induce more precise DNA damage at the tumor site with reduced side effects to adjacent normal tissues. However, the long-term biological effects of proton irradiation in cancer initiation compared with conventional photon irradiation are poorly characterized. In this study, using a human familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome susceptible mouse model, we show that whole-body irradiation with protons are more effective in inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses (SIRs), which are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression. After proton irradiation, a subset of SIR genes (Troy, Sox17, Opg, Faim2, Lpo, Tlr2 and Ptges) and a gene known to be involved in invasiveness (Plat), along with the senescence-associated gene (P19Arf), are markedly increased. Following these changes, loss of Casein kinase Iα and induction of chronic DNA damage and TP53 mutations are increased compared with X-ray irradiation. Proton irradiation also increases the number of colonic polyps, carcinomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA), reduces proton irradiation-associated SIR and tumorigenesis. Thus exposure to proton irradiation elicits significant changes in colorectal cancer initiation and progression that can be mitigated using CDDO-EA. PMID:26477319

  1. Astaxanthin Inhibits Expression of Retinal Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Mediators in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Po-Ting; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated whether orally administered astaxanthin (AST) protects against oxidative damage in the ocular tissues of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods and Results Fifty 6-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive an injection of STZ to induce diabetes (n = 40) or to remain uninduced (n = 10). The diabetic rats were randomly selected into four groups and they were separately administered normal saline, 0.6 mg/kg AST, 3 mg/kg AST, or 0.5 mg/kg lutein daily for eight weeks. Retinal functions of each group were evaluated by electroretinography. The expression of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in the ocular tissues was then assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, ELISA, RT-PCR, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Retinal functions were preserved by AST and lutein in different levels. Ocular tissues from AST- and lutein-treated rats had significantly reduced levels of oxidative stress mediators (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, nitrotyrosine, and acrolein) and inflammatory mediators (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fractalkine), increased levels of antioxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin), and reduced activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Conclusion The xanthophyll carotenoids AST and lutein have neuroprotective effects and reduce ocular oxidative stress, and inflammation in the STZ diabetic rat model, which may be mediated by downregulation of NF-κB activity. PMID:26765843

  2. Radiation Promotes Colorectal Cancer Initiation and Progression by Inducing Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Bozeman, Ronald; Kaisani, Aadil; Kim, Wanil; Zhang, Lu; Richardson, James A.; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy is becoming more common since protons induce more precise DNA damage at the tumor site with reduced side effects to adjacent normal tissues. However, the long-term biological effects of proton irradiation in cancer initiation compared to conventional photon irradiation are poorly characterized. In this study, using a human familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome susceptible mouse model, we show that whole body irradiation with protons are more effective in inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses (SIR) which are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression. After proton irradiation, a subset of SIR genes (Troy, Sox17, Opg, Faim2, Lpo, Tlr2 and Ptges) and a gene known to be involved in invasiveness (Plat), along with the senescence associated gene (P19Arf) are markedly increased. Following these changes loss of Casein kinase Iα (CKIα) and induction of chronic DNA damage and TP53 mutations are increased compared to x-ray irradiation. Proton irradiation also increases the number of colonic polyps, carcinomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CDDO-EA, reduces proton irradiation associated SIR and tumorigenesis. Thus, exposure to proton irradiation elicits significant changes in colorectal cancer initiation and progression that can be mitigated using CDDO-EA. PMID:26477319

  3. Low-level laser therapy attenuates the acute inflammatory response induced by muscle traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Glaser, Viviane; Remor, Aline Pertile; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino; Aguiar Junior, Aderbal Silva; Latini, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of early and long-term low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers after acute-traumatic muscle injury in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into the following four groups: control group (CG), muscle injury group (IG), CG + LLLT, and IG + LLLT: laser treatment with doses of 3 and 5 J/cm(2). Muscle traumatic injury was induced by a single-impact blunt trauma in the rat gastrocnemius. Irradiation for 3 or 5 J/cm(2) was initiated 2, 12, and 24 h after muscle trauma induction, and the treatment was continued for five consecutive days. All the oxidant markers investigated. namely thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, carbonyl, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were increased as soon as 2 h after muscle injury and remained increased up to 24 h. These alterations were prevented by LLLT at a 3 J/cm(2) dose given 2 h after the trauma. Similarly, LLLT prevented the trauma-induced proinflammatory state characterized by IL-6 and IL-10. In parallel, trauma-induced reduction in BDNF and VEGF, vascular remodeling and fiber-proliferating markers, was prevented by laser irradiation. In order to test whether the preventive effect of LLLT was also reflected in muscle functionality, we tested the locomotor activity, by measuring distance traveled and the number of rearings in the open field test. LLLT was effective in recovering the normal locomotion, indicating that the irradiation induced biostimulatory effects that accelerated or resolved the acute inflammatory response as well as the oxidant state elicited by the muscle trauma. PMID:26983894

  4. Diet-Induced Obesity Reprograms the Inflammatory Response of the Murine Lung to Inhaled Endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Zangar, Richard C.; Lee, Monika K.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    The co-occurrence of environmental factors is common in complex human diseases and, as such, understanding the molecular responses involved is essential to determine risk and susceptibility to disease. We have investigated the key biological pathways that define susceptibility for pulmonary infection during obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) and regular weight (RW) C57BL/6 mice exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced a strong inflammatory response in all mice as indicated by elevated cell counts of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MDC, MIP-1γ, IL-12, RANTES) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Additionally, DIO mice exhibited 50% greater macrophage cell counts, but decreased levels of the cytokines, IL-6, TARC, TNF-α, and VEGF relative to RW mice. Microarray analysis of lung tissue showed over half of the LPS-induced expression in DIO mice consisted of genes unique for obese mice, suggesting that obesity reprograms how the lung responds to subsequent insult. In particular, we found that obese animals exposed to LPS have gene signatures showing increased inflammatory and oxidative stress response and decreased antioxidant capacity compared with RW. Because signaling pathways for these responses can be common to various sources of environmentally induced lung damage, we further identified biomarkers that are indicative of specific toxicant exposure by comparing gene signatures after LPS exposure to those from a parallel study with cigarette smoke. These data show obesity may increase sensitivity to further insult and that co-occurrence of environmental stressors result in complex biosignatures that are not predicted from analysis of individual exposures.

  5. JAK-STAT signaling mediates gangliosides-induced inflammatory responses in brain microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ohn Soon; Park, Eun Jung; Joe, Eun-hye; Jou, Ilo

    2002-10-25

    Neuronal cell membranes are particularly rich in gangliosides, which play important roles in brain physiology and pathology. Previously, we reported that gangliosides could act as microglial activators and are thus likely to participate in many neuronal diseases. In the present study we provide evidence that JAK-STAT inflammatory signaling mediates gangliosides-stimulated microglial activation. Both in rat primary microglia and murine BV2 microglial cells, gangliosides stimulated nuclear factor binding to GAS/ISRE elements, which are known to be STAT-binding sites. Consistent with this, gangliosides rapidly activated JAK1 and JAK2 and induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. In addition, gangliosides increased transcription of the inflammation-associated genes inducible nitric-oxide synthase, ICAM-1, and MCP-1, which are reported to contain STAT-binding elements in their promoter regions. AG490, a JAK inhibitor, reduced induction of these genes, nuclear factor binding activity, and activation of STAT1 and -3 in gangliosides-treated microglia. AG490 also inhibited gangliosides-induced release of nitric oxide, an inflammation hallmark. Furthermore, AG490 markedly reduced activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, indicating that ERKs act downstream of JAK-STAT signaling during microglial activation. However, AG490 did not affect activation of p38 MAPK. We also report that the sialic acid residues present on gangliosides may be one of the essential components in activation of JAK-STAT signaling. The present study indicates that JAK-STAT signaling is an early event in gangliosides-induced brain inflammatory responses. PMID:12191995

  6. Lycopene protects against acute zearalenone-induced oxidative, endocrine, inflammatory and reproductive damages in male mice.

    PubMed

    Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Borges Filho, Carlos; Del'Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Donato, Franciele; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2015-03-25

    Male mice received lycopene for 10 days before a single oral administration of zearalenone (ZEA). After 48 h testes and blood were collected. Mice treated with lycopene/ZEA exhibited amelioration of the hematological changes. Lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and testosterone levels, indicating a protective effect in the testicular damage induced by ZEA. Lycopene was also effective in protecting against the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities caused by ZEA in the testes. Exposure of animals to ZEA induced modification of antioxidant and inflammatory status with increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase of the oxidized glutathione, interleukins 1β, 2, 6, 10, tumor necrosis factor-α and bilirubin levels. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in GSH levels and inhibited the processes of inflammation, reducing the damage induced by ZEA. Altogether, our results indicate that lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced damage in the mice. PMID:25682699

  7. Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) induces differential leukocyte accumulation in mice genetically selected for acute inflammatory reaction: the role of host genetic background on expression of adhesion molecules and release of endogenous mediators.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Adriana S; Ribeiro, Orlando G; Cabrera, Wafa H K; Vorraro, Francisca; De Franco, Marcelo; Ibañez, Olga M; Starobinas, Nancy

    2008-10-01

    The dynamics of the local inflammatory events induced by Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) inoculation in footpad of mice genetically selected for maximal (AIRmax) and minimal (AIRmin) acute inflammatory reactivity (AIR) was investigated. The BjV injection induced a marked inflammatory cell infiltrate with predominance of neutrophils, with increased blood cell numbers before its accumulation, suggesting a stimulatory action of BjV on mechanisms of cell mobilization from bone marrow. The process of cell migration is regulated by different cell-adhesion molecules (CAM). Our results showed that neutrophil cells from both lines had the same pattern of response concerning CAMs expression, presenting the involvement of l-selectin, Mac-1 and PECAM-1 adhesion molecules in BjV-induced neutrophil accumulation. The effect of BjV on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines related with cellular migration was also studied and IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-2 levels could be detected after venom injection. The AIRmax mice were shown to be more responsive than AIRmin with respect to leukocyte influx, expression of MIP-2 and release of IL-1beta and IL-6. These results demonstrate the importance of host genetic background in the local response and the involvement of alleles accumulated in AIRmax mice in the inflammatory events induced by BjV. PMID:18723041

  8. Progranulin protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury by downregulating renal cell death and inflammatory responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoying; Gou, Linfeng; Zhou, Meng; Yang, Fusheng; Zhao, Yihan; Feng, Tingting; Shi, Peikun; Ghavamian, Armin; Zhao, Weiming; Yu, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Yi, Fan; Liu, Guangyi; Tang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN), a pluripotent secreted growth factor, is involved in various physiologic and disease processes. However, the role of PGRN in endotoxin-induced septic acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effects of PGRN on an endotoxin-induced AKI mouse model by using PGRN-deficient mice and recombinant PGRN (rPGRN) pretreatment. PGRN levels were increased in kidneys of wild-type (WT) mice at 6 and 24h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Renal function detection, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, ELISA and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling were used to reveal tissue injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, production of inflammatory mediators and cell death in mouse kidneys after LPS injection. PGRN deficiency resulted in severe kidney injury and increased apoptotic death, inflammatory cell infiltration, production of pro-inflammatory mediators and the expression and nucleus-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 in the kidney. In addition, rPGRN administration before LPS treatment ameliorated the endotoxin-induced AKI in WT mice. PGRN may be a novel biologic agent with therapeutic potential for endotoxin-induced septic AKI possibly by inhibiting LPS-induced renal cell death and inflammatory responses in mice. PMID:27367257

  9. Convective Flow Induced by Localized Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An axisymmetric traveling magnetic field induces a meridional base flow in a cylindrical zone of an electrically conducting liquid. This remotely induced flow can be conveniently controlled, in magnitude and direction, and can have benefits for crystal growth applications. In particular, it can be used to offset natural convection. For long vertical cylinders, non-uniform and localized in the propagating direction, magnetic fields are required for this purpose. Here we investigate a particular form of this field, namely that induced by a set of a few electric current coils. An order of magnitude reduction of buoyancy convection is theoretically demonstrated for a vertical Bridgman crystal growth configuration.

  10. Aquaporin 4 knockdown exacerbates streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy through aggravating inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bei; Sun, Jin-Hua; Xiang, Fen-Fen; Liu, Lin; Li, Wen-Jie

    2012-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Diabetes is known to alter the amount of retinal expression of the water-selective channels aquaporin 4 (AQP4). However, the function and impact of AQP4 in diabetic retinopathy is not well understood. In the present work, diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats. Two weeks later, AQP4 shRNA (r) lentiviral particles or negative lentiviral particles were delivered by intravitreal injection to the eyes. Gene delivery was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis. Eight weeks later, BRB breakdown was measured using Evans blue dye. Images of retinal sections were obtained and the thicknesses of the retinas were determined. Retinal leukostasis measurement was performed using acridine orange leukocyte fluorography. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined using qRT-PCR method. AQP4 shRNA (r) lentiviral particles or negative lentiviral particles were transfected into rMC-1 cells to investigate its effect on inflammation induced by high glucose. Incubation with IL-1β or IL-6 was performed to test their effect on AQP4 expression in rMC-1 cells. In the current work, it was found that AQP4 expression was enhanced in the retina of diabetic rats. AQP4 knockdown led to exacerbation of retinopathy including enhancing retinal vascular permeability, retinal thickness, pro-inflammatory factors expression, and VEGF and GFAP expression in retinas of diabetic rats. AQP4 knockdown enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by high glucose in rMC-1 cells. In addition, AQP4 knockdown enhanced the release of IL-6 and VEGF from rMC-1 cells into the medium. Moreover, it was found that incubation with IL-1β or IL-6 suppressed AQP4

  11. Co-stimulation-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 by allergen-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Piattoni, S; Bistoni, O; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1996-07-01

    Chemokines, which include interleukin (IL)-8, are a family of pro-inflammatory molecules with potent chemoattractant activity on neutrophils, as well as other cell types. IL-8 can be recovered from many inflammatory sites. To test the hypothesis that Th2-type allergen-specific T cells, known to be the main cell type governing the allergic inflammation, are a source of IL-8 and to investigate whether IL-8 release is influenced by the nature of the in vitro mitogenic or co-mitogenic stimulation, cypress-specific T-cell clones (TCC) were generated from five allergic subjects during in vitro seasonal exposure to the allergen. Purified cypress extract was produced directly from freshly collected pollen and used for in vitro stimulation of PBMC bulk cultures. After 5 days priming and a further 7 day period of IL-2-driven cell expansion, monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD2 and CD28 were adopted for in vitro restimulation of allergen-specific cell lines or, subsequently, secondary established TCC. The induction of apoptosis was detected by propidium iodide (PI) cytofluorimetric assay. Basal and co-stimulation-induced IL-8 production was measured by an ELISA method. Both cypress-specific T-cell lines and TCC secreted appreciable amounts of IL-8. By cross-linking T-cell lines or Th2 CD4+ TCC with CD3, CD2 or CD28 MoAbs, the authors observed a great stimulation-induced IL-8 secretion, preferentially after CD2 or combined CD2/CD28 stimulation. In addition, CD4+ clones released large amounts of IL-8 into culture supernatants after CD2 stimulation while undergoing programmed cell death (30-40% hypodiploid DNA profile of PI-stained cells). In contrast, CD3 crosslinking was unable to determine the release of IL-8 or the induction of apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that incomplete TcR engagement by allergen may lead to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines with a contemporary induction of apoptosis in a significant number of target cells. This phenomenon may

  12. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yine; Zhang, Qiuyang; Ma, Siqi; Liu, Sen; Chen, Zhiquan; Mo, Zhongfu; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice) or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice) for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. PMID:27070576

  13. Interleukin-17A Differentially Induces Inflammatory and Metabolic Gene Expression in the Adipose Tissues of Lean and Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yine; Zhang, Qiuyang; Ma, Siqi; Liu, Sen; Chen, Zhiquan; Mo, Zhongfu; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    The functions of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in adipose tissues and adipocytes have not been well understood. In the present study, male mice were fed with a regular diet (n = 6, lean mice) or a high-fat diet (n = 6, obese mice) for 30 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were analyzed for IL-17A levels. SAT and VAT were treated with IL-17A and analyzed for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, followed with IL-17A treatment and analysis for inflammatory and metabolic gene expression. We found that IL-17A levels were higher in obese SAT than lean SAT; the basal expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes was different between SAT and VAT and between lean and obese adipose tissues. IL-17A differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes, such as tumor necrosis factor α, Il-6, Il-1β, leptin, and glucose transporter 4, in adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. IL-17A also differentially induced expression of inflammatory and metabolic genes in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, and IL-17A selectively activated signaling pathways in adipose tissues and adipocytes. These findings suggest that IL-17A differentially induces inflammatory and metabolic gene expression in the adipose tissues of lean and obese mice. PMID:27070576

  14. Doxorubicin Induces Inflammatory Modulation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Diabetic Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Supriya, Rashmi; Tam, Bjorn T.; Pei, Xiao M.; Lai, Christopher W.; Chan, Lawrence W.; Yung, Benjamin Y.; Siu, Parco M.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-cancer agent doxorubicin (DOX) has been demonstrated to worsen insulin signaling, engender muscle atrophy, trigger pro-inflammation, and induce a shift to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism in skeletal muscle. The myotoxicity of DOX in diabetic skeletal muscle remains largely unclear. This study examined the effects of DOX on insulin signaling, muscle atrophy, pro-/anti-inflammatory microenvironment, and glycolysis metabolic regulation in skeletal muscle of db/db diabetic and db/+ non-diabetic mice. Non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: db/+CON, db/+DOX, db/dbCON, and db/dbDOX. Mice in db/+DOX and db/dbDOX groups were intraperitoneally injected with DOX at a dose of 15 mg per kg body weight whereas mice in db/+CON and db/dbCON groups were injected with the same volume of saline instead of DOX. Gastrocnemius was immediately harvested, weighed, washed with cold phosphate buffered saline, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80°C for later analysis. The effects of DOX on diabetic muscle were neither seen in insulin signaling markers (Glut4, pIRS1Ser636∕639, and pAktSer473) nor muscle atrophy markers (muscle mass, MuRF1 and MAFbx). However, DOX exposure resulted in enhancement of pro-inflammatory favoring microenvironment (as indicated by TNF-α, HIFα and pNFκBp65) accompanied by diminution of anti-inflammatory favoring microenvironment (as indicated by IL15, PGC1α and pAMPKβ1Ser108). Metabolism of diabetic muscle was shifted to anaerobic glycolysis after DOX exposure as demonstrated by our analyses of PDK4, LDH and pACCSer79. Our results demonstrated that there might be a link between inflammatory modulation and the dysregulation of aerobic glycolytic metabolism in DOX-injured diabetic skeletal muscle. These findings help to understand the pathogenesis of DOX-induced myotoxicity in diabetic muscle. PMID:27512375

  15. Doxorubicin Induces Inflammatory Modulation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Diabetic Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Rashmi; Tam, Bjorn T; Pei, Xiao M; Lai, Christopher W; Chan, Lawrence W; Yung, Benjamin Y; Siu, Parco M

    2016-01-01

    Anti-cancer agent doxorubicin (DOX) has been demonstrated to worsen insulin signaling, engender muscle atrophy, trigger pro-inflammation, and induce a shift to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism in skeletal muscle. The myotoxicity of DOX in diabetic skeletal muscle remains largely unclear. This study examined the effects of DOX on insulin signaling, muscle atrophy, pro-/anti-inflammatory microenvironment, and glycolysis metabolic regulation in skeletal muscle of db/db diabetic and db/+ non-diabetic mice. Non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: db/+CON, db/+DOX, db/dbCON, and db/dbDOX. Mice in db/+DOX and db/dbDOX groups were intraperitoneally injected with DOX at a dose of 15 mg per kg body weight whereas mice in db/+CON and db/dbCON groups were injected with the same volume of saline instead of DOX. Gastrocnemius was immediately harvested, weighed, washed with cold phosphate buffered saline, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80°C for later analysis. The effects of DOX on diabetic muscle were neither seen in insulin signaling markers (Glut4, pIRS1Ser(636∕639), and pAktSer(473)) nor muscle atrophy markers (muscle mass, MuRF1 and MAFbx). However, DOX exposure resulted in enhancement of pro-inflammatory favoring microenvironment (as indicated by TNF-α, HIFα and pNFκBp65) accompanied by diminution of anti-inflammatory favoring microenvironment (as indicated by IL15, PGC1α and pAMPKβ1Ser108). Metabolism of diabetic muscle was shifted to anaerobic glycolysis after DOX exposure as demonstrated by our analyses of PDK4, LDH and pACCSer(79). Our results demonstrated that there might be a link between inflammatory modulation and the dysregulation of aerobic glycolytic metabolism in DOX-injured diabetic skeletal muscle. These findings help to understand the pathogenesis of DOX-induced myotoxicity in diabetic muscle. PMID:27512375

  16. Calcitriol inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhu-Xia; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, Shen; Qin, Hou-Ying; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang; Zhao, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Acute lung injury is a common complication of sepsis in intensive care unit patients with an extremely high mortality. The present study investigated the effects of calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1.0mg/kg) to establish the animal model of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Some mice were i.p. injected with calcitriol (1.0μg/kg) before LPS injection. An obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs was observed beginning at 1h after LPS injection. Correspondingly, TNF-α and MIP-2 in sera and lung homogenates were markedly elevated in LPS-treated mice. Interestingly, calcitriol obviously alleviated LPS-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs. Moreover, calcitriol markedly attenuated LPS-induced elevation of TNF-α and MIP-2 in sera and lung homogenates. Further analysis showed that calcitriol repressed LPS-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. In addition, calcitriol blocked LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p50 subunit in the lungs. Taken together, these results suggest that calcitriol inhibits inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-induced acute lung injury. PMID:27216047

  17. HMGB1 induces an inflammatory response in endothelial cells via the RAGE-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Ying; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Jian; Qiu, Yuan-Zhen; Chen, Fang-Ping

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Mechanisms of inflammatory response induced by HMGB1 are incompletely understood. •We found that endoplasmic reticulum stress mediate the inflammatory response induced by HMGB1. •RAGE-mediated ERS pathways are involved in those processes. •We reported a new mechanism for HMGB1 induced inflammatory response. -- Abstract: The high mobility group 1B protein (HMGB1) mediates chronic inflammatory responses in endothelial cells, which play a critical role in atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The goal of our study was to identify the effects of HMGB1 on the RAGE-induced inflammatory response in endothelial cells and test the possible involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Our results showed that incubation of endothelial cells with HMGB1 (0.01–1 μg/ml) for 24 h induced a dose-dependent activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducers, as assessed by PERK and IRE1 protein expression. Moreover, HMGB1 also promoted nuclear translocation of ATF6. HMGB1-mediated ICAM-1 and P-selectin production was dramatically suppressed by PERK siRNA or IRE1 siRNA. However, non-targeting siRNA had no such effects. HMGB1-induced increases in ICAM-1 and P-selectin expression were also inhibited by a specific eIF2α inhibitor (salubrinal) and a specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Importantly, a blocking antibody specifically targeted against RAGE (anti-RAGE antibody) decreased ICAM-1, P-selectin and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecule (PERK, eIF2α, IRE1 and JNK) protein expression levels. Collectively, these novel findings suggest that HMGB1 promotes an inflammatory response by inducing the expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin via RAGE-mediated stimulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

  18. Basal and inducible anti-inflammatory epoxygenase activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Ara A.; Thomson, Scott; Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • We examined epoxygenase product formation and regulation in endothelial cells. • The epoxygenase CYP2J2 is an LPS (TLR-4) inducible enzyme in endothelial cells. • The endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 synthesises epoxygenase products. • Inhibition of endothelial epoxygenases increases TNFα secretion. • Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors reduce inflammation-induced TNFα and NFκB. - Abstract: The roles of CYP lipid-metabolizing pathways in endothelial cells are poorly understood. Human endothelial cells expressed CYP2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) mRNA and protein. The TLR-4 agonist LPS (1 μg/ml; 24 h) induced CYP2J2 but not sEH mRNA and protein. LC–MS/MS analysis of the stable commonly used human endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 showed active epoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase activity: with arachidonic acid (stable epoxide products 5,6-DHET, and 14,15-DHET), linoleic acid (9,10-EPOME and 12,13-EPOME and their stable epoxide hydrolase products 9,10-DHOME and 12,13-DHOME), docosahexaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 19,20-DiHDPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 17,18-DHET) being formed. Inhibition of epoxygenases using either SKF525A or MS-PPOH induced TNFα release, but did not affect LPS, IL-1β, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNFα release. In contrast, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by AUDA or TPPU inhibited basal, LPS, IL-1β and PMA induced TNFα release, and LPS-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells contain a TLR-4 regulated epoxygenase CYP2J2 and metabolize linoleic acid > eicosapentaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > docosahexaenoic acid to products with anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. An inflammation-targeting hydrogel for local drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sufeng; Ermann, Joerg; Succi, Marc D.; Zhou, Allen; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Cao, Bonnie; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Vemula, Praveen K.; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Traverso, Giovanni; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Targeting drugs selectively to the inflamed intestine may improve therapeutic outcomes and minimize systemic toxicity. We report the development of an inflammation-targeting hydrogel (IT-hydrogel) that acts as a drug delivery system to the inflamed colon. Hydrogel microfibers were generated from ascorbyl palmitate, an amphiphile that is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. IT-hydrogel microfibers loaded with the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) were stable, released drug only upon enzymatic digestion, and demonstrated preferential adhesion to inflamed epithelial surfaces in vitro and in two mouse colitis models in vivo. Dex-loaded IT-hydrogel enemas, but not free Dex enemas, administered every other day to mice with colitis resulted in a significant reduction in inflammation and were associated with lower Dex peak serum concentrations and, thus, less systemic drug exposure. Ex vivo analysis of colon tissue samples from patients with ulcerative colitis demonstrated that IT-hydrogel microfibers adhered preferentially to mucosa from inflamed lesions compared with histologically normal sites. The IT-hydrogel drug delivery platform represents a promising approach for targeted enema-based therapies in patients with colonic IBD. PMID:26268315

  20. An inflammation-targeting hydrogel for local drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sufeng; Ermann, Joerg; Succi, Marc D; Zhou, Allen; Hamilton, Matthew J; Cao, Bonnie; Korzenik, Joshua R; Glickman, Jonathan N; Vemula, Praveen K; Glimcher, Laurie H; Traverso, Giovanni; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2015-08-12

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Targeting drugs selectively to the inflamed intestine may improve therapeutic outcomes and minimize systemic toxicity. We report the development of an inflammation-targeting hydrogel (IT-hydrogel) that acts as a drug delivery system to the inflamed colon. Hydrogel microfibers were generated from ascorbyl palmitate, an amphiphile that is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. IT-hydrogel microfibers loaded with the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) were stable, released drug only upon enzymatic digestion, and demonstrated preferential adhesion to inflamed epithelial surfaces in vitro and in two mouse colitis models in vivo. Dex-loaded IT-hydrogel enemas, but not free Dex enemas, administered every other day to mice with colitis resulted in a significant reduction in inflammation and were associated with lower Dex peak serum concentrations and, thus, less systemic drug exposure. Ex vivo analysis of colon tissue samples from patients with ulcerative colitis demonstrated that IT-hydrogel microfibers adhered preferentially to mucosa from inflamed lesions compared with histologically normal sites. The IT-hydrogel drug delivery platform represents a promising approach for targeted enema-based therapies in patients with colonic IBD. PMID:26268315

  1. Inflammatory changes after extradural anaesthesia may affect the spread of local anaesthetic within the extradural space.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Shimizu, R; Mitsuhata, H; Saitoh, K; Fukuda, H; Konishi, A; Asahara, H

    1996-09-01

    We have assessed cephalad spread of analgesia in 491 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia at the L2-3 or L3-4 interspace. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on the number of previous lumbar extradural anaesthesia procedures: none (group I, n = 339), one (group II, n = 82), and two or more (group III, n = 70). Cephalad spread of analgesia was greater in group I than in groups II and III, regardless of the puncture site. In addition, we examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 32 patients who were excluded from the analysis of spread. Extraduroscopy showed the extradural space to be patent in patients with no history of prior lumbar extradural anesthesia, but it was not clearly identified in patients who had received extradural anaesthesia one or more times because of aseptic inflammatory changes, including proliferation of connective tissue, adhesions between the dura mater and the ligamentum flavum, granulation and changes in the ligamentum flavum. Extradural anaesthesia may cause aseptic inflammatory changes in the extradural space which may reduce the spread of analgesia. PMID:8949808

  2. Anti-inflammatory drug incorporation into polymeric nano-hybrids for local controlled release.

    PubMed

    Sammartino, G; Marenzi, G; Tammaro, L; Bolognese, A; Calignano, A; Costantino, U; Califano, L; Mastrangelo, F; Tetè, S; Vittoria, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the formulation, preparation and characterization of new polymeric composite materials containing a nano-hybrid to be used for the controlled molecular delivery of an anti-inflammatory molecule, Diclofenac. The nano-hybrid consists of a layer of double hydroxide of an Mg-Al hydrotalcite type, in which we replaced the chloride anions present in the host galleries with Diclofenac anions by a simple ion-exchange reaction. Different amounts of the hybrid material were incorporated in polycaprolactone and processed as films of 0.15 mm thickness. The composite materials were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and for their mechanical properties, and showed properties even better than those for the pristine polymer. The release process of the anti-inflammatory molecules was very interesting and promising for tuneable drug delivery. It consists of two stages: a first stage, very rapid as a burst in which a small fraction of the drug is released, and of a second stage that is much slower, extending for longer and longer periods. The parameters influencing the drug release were individuated and discussed. PMID:16848988

  3. The anti-inflammatory compound curcumin inhibits Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced NF-kappaB signaling, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and attenuates adhesion in late infection.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Silja; Muenzner, Petra; Meyer, Thomas F; Naumann, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of diseases ranging from urethritis to disseminated gonococcal infections. Early events in the establishment of infection involve interactions between Ngo and the mucosal epithelium, which induce a local inflammatory response. Here we analyzed the molecular mechanism involved in the Ngo-induced induction of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8. We identified the immediate early response transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) as a key molecule for the induction of cytokine release. Ngo-induced activation of direct upstream signaling molecules was demonstrated for IkappaB kinase alpha and beta (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) by phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha as a substrate and IKK autophosphorylation. Using dominant negative cDNAs encoding kinase-dead IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), Ngo-induced NF-kappaB activity was significantly inhibited. Curcumin, the yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa, inhibited IKKalpha, IKKbeta and NIK, indicating its strong potential to block NF-kappaB-mediated cytokine release and the innate immune response. In addition to the inhibition of Ngo-induced signaling, curcumin treatment of cells completely abolished the adherence of bacteria to cells in late infection, underlining the high potential of curcumin as an anti-microbial compound without cytotoxic side effects. PMID:15927892

  4. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease via the pregnane X receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianxie; Wang, Yuguang; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Tang, Xianglin; Hu, Donghua; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) (C19H18O3) is one of the major active lipophilic components in a conventional Chinese medicine called danshen, and it has long been used in the People’s Republic of China and other neighboring countries to treat patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous experiments by many teams determined which mechanism of Tan IIA is relevant to the treatment of IBD associated with inflammation and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The current study demonstrated that Tan IIA is an efficacious PXR agonist and its ability to induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein expression was mediated by the transactivation of PXR, a known target of abrogating inflammation in IBD. Clinical symptoms in mice and histological assessment data suggested that administration of Tan IIA in mice demonstrated significant protection and showed that in DSS-induced IBD it acts in a concentration-dependent manner. PXR-silenced mice treated with Tan IIA demonstrated low protection against DSS-induced mouse IBD and exacerbated the severity of IBD compared with wild-type mice; PXR-silenced mice demonstrated the necessity for PXR in Tan IIA-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes. The IBD treatment effects of Tan IIA are partially due to PXR-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory mediators. The novel findings reported here may contribute to the effective utilization of Tan IIA and its derivatives as a PXR ligand in the treatment of human IBD. This suggests that Tan IIA may have considerable clinical utility. PMID:26674743

  5. Anti-inflammatory drug (BW755C) inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, L.M.; Aizawa, H.; O'Byrne, P.M.; Bethel, R.A.; Walters, E.H.; Holtzman, M.J.; Nadel, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    To follow up a previous observation that airway hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone is linked to airway inflammation, the authors investigated the effect of BW755C, an anti-inflammatory drug, on ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness in dogs. Airway responsiveness was assessed with dose-response curves of acetylcholine aerosol versus pulmonary resistance in two sets of experiments. In one set (placebo treatment), five dogs were given only saline solution treatment and were studied before treatment or ozone exposure and then after treatment both before and after ozone (3.0 ppm, 2 hours); in another set (BW755C treatment), the same dogs were studied before BW755C treatment or ozone and then after treatment (10 mg/kg intravenously) both before and after ozone. When the dogs were given no BW755C treatment, ozone induced a marked increase in airway responsiveness to acetylcholine. When the dogs were given BW755C, responsiveness was no different during treatment than before treatment but, more importantly, responsiveness did not increase significantly after ozone. The authors conclude that BW755C markedly inhibits ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in dogs, probably by inhibiting the formation of oxygenation products of arachidonic acid.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Jeong, Yun Hee; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Jeong-Ho; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. PMID:25569097

  7. MK615 attenuates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release via MAPK inactivation in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yoko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Takashi; Tokuda, Masayuki; Matsuyama, Takashi; Noma, Satoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Torii, Mitsuo; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kawahara, Ko-Ichi

    2009-11-01

    The Japanese apricot, known as Ume in Japanese, has been a traditional Japanese medicine for centuries, and is a familiar and commonly consumed food. The health benefits of Ume are now being widely recognized and have been strengthened by recent studies showing that MK615, an extract of compounds from Ume, has strong anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential role of MK615 in the periodontal field remains unknown. Here, we found that MK615 significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major etiological agent in localized chronic periodontitis, in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. MK615 markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is associated with pro-inflammatory mediator release pathways. Moreover, MK615 completely blocked LPS-triggered NF-kappaB activation. The present results suggest that MK615 has potential as a therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. PMID:19706286

  8. Viscum album Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect by Selectively Inhibiting Cytokine-Induced Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Pushpa; Maddur, Mohan S.; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srini V.

    2011-01-01

    Viscum album (VA) preparations are extensively used as complementary therapy in cancer and are shown to exert anti-tumor activities which involve the cytotoxic properties, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis and several other immunomodulatory mechanisms. In addition to their application in cancer therapy, VA preparations have also been successfully utilized in the treatment of several inflammatory pathologies. Owing to the intricate association of inflammation and cancer and in view of the fact that several anti-tumor phytotherapeutics also exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect, we hypothesized that VA exerts an anti-inflammatory effect that is responsible for its therapeutic benefit. Since, inflammatory cytokine-induced cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of VA on regulation of cyclo-oxygenase expression and PGE2 biosynthesis by using human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) as a model. A549 cells were stimulated with IL-1β and treated with VA preparation (VA Qu Spez) for 18 hours. PGE2 was analysed in the culture supernatants by enzyme immunoassay. Expression of COX-2 and COX-1 proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting and the expression of COX-2 mRNA was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We found that VA Qu Spez inhibit the secretion of IL-1β-induced PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. Further, we also show that this inhibitory action was associated with a reduced expression of COX-2 without modulating the COX-1 expression. Together these results demonstrate a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of VA preparations wherein VA exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting cytokine-induced PGE2 via selective inhibition of COX-2. PMID:22028854

  9. P2X7 Receptor Modulates Inflammatory and Functional Pulmonary Changes Induced by Silica

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Patrícia T.; Vieira, Flávia S.; da Graça, Carolyne Lalucha A. L.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Machado, Mariana N.; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Zin, Walter A.; Borojevic, Radovan; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, characterized by irreversible and progressive fibrosis. Silica exposure leads to intense lung inflammation, reactive oxygen production, and extracellular ATP (eATP) release by macrophages. The P2X7 purinergic receptor is thought to be an important immunomodulator that responds to eATP in sites of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study investigates the role of P2X7 receptor in a murine model of silicosis. To that end wild-type (C57BL/6) and P2X7 receptor knockout mice received intratracheal injection of saline or silica particles. After 14 days, changes in lung mechanics were determined by the end-inflation occlusion method. Bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry analyzes were performed. Lungs were harvested for histological and immunochemistry analysis of fibers content, inflammatory infiltration, apoptosis, as well as cytokine and oxidative stress expression. Silica particle effects on lung alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts were also evaluated in cell line cultures. Phagocytosis assay was performed in peritoneal macrophages. Silica exposure increased lung mechanical parameters in wild-type but not in P2X7 knockout mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in lung parenchyma, apoptosis, TGF-β and NF-κB activation, as well as nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1β secretion were higher in wild-type than knockout silica-exposed mice. In vitro studies suggested that P2X7 receptor participates in silica particle phagocytosis, IL-1β secretion, as well as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production. In conclusion, our data showed a significant role for P2X7 receptor in silica-induced lung changes, modulating lung inflammatory, fibrotic, and functional changes. PMID:25310682

  10. Letrozole vs estradiol valerate induced PCOS in rats: glycemic, oxidative and inflammatory status assessment.

    PubMed

    Dăneasă, Alexandra; Cucolaş, Cristina; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Olteanu, Diana; Orăsan, Remus; Filip, Gabriela A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate glycemic, oxidative/antioxidative and inflammatory status in letrozole and estradiol valerate induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) models. Sixty adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: L (0.2 mg letrozole/0.5 ml carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), daily for 30 days), the control group CL, EV (one i.m. injection of 5 mg EV/0.5 ml sesame oil) and its corresponding control group CEV. After 30 days, ovarian morphology was assessed through ultrasound, serum free testosterone was determined, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood, muscle, liver and periovarian adipose tissue (POAT) were collected for oxidative/antioxidative and inflammatory status evaluation. Free testosterone was increased only in the L group, while fasting glycemia was higher in the EV group. Both L and EV led to a significantly decreased level of muscle malondialehyde (MDA) and liver glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while in POAT, MDA level diminished and GPx activity increased. The only difference between the two protocols was in muscle, where after L administration, GPx activity was significantly lower. Implementation of both protocols resulted in an increased expression of pNFKB in muscle, liver and POAT. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) increased in liver and POAT after L administration, while in the EV group, MCP1 and STAT3 decreased in POAT. Our study shows that both protocols are characterized by an inflammatory environment in the usually insulin resistant tissues of human PCOS, without generating oxidative stress. In addition, EV has mild metabolic effects and unexpected interference with MCP1 expression in POAT, which require further investigation. PMID:26792865

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of poly(I:C) induced inflammatory response in an airway epithelial model

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Amanda R; Park, Hyoungshin; Mulhern, Thomas J; Jackson, George R; Comolli, James C; Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Hayden, Patrick J; Prantil-Baun, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory viruses invade the upper airway of the lung, triggering a potent immune response that often exacerbates preexisting conditions such as asthma and COPD. Poly(I:C) is a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA that induces the characteristic inflammatory response associated with viral infection, such as loss of epithelial integrity, and increased production of mucus and inflammatory cytokines. Here, we explore the mechanistic responses to poly(I:C) in a well-defined primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) model that recapitulates in vivo functions and responses. We developed functional and quantifiable methods to evaluate the physiology of our model in both healthy and inflamed states. Through gene and protein expression, we validated the differentiation state and population of essential cell subtypes (i.e., ciliated, goblet, club, and basal cells) as compared to the human lung. Assays for total mucus production, cytokine secretion, and barrier function were used to evaluate in vitro physiology and response to viral insult. Cells were treated apically with poly(I:C) and evaluated 48 h after induction. Results revealed a dose-dependent increase in goblet cell differentiation, as well as, an increase in mucus production relative to controls. There was also a dose-dependent increase in secretion of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and RANTES. Epithelial barrier function, as measured by TEER, was maintained at 1501 ± 355 Ω*cm² postdifferentiation, but dropped significantly when challenged with poly(I:C). This study provides first steps toward a well-characterized model with defined functional methods for understanding dsRNA stimulated inflammatory responses in a physiologically relevant manner. PMID:25847914

  12. MiR-146a negatively regulates TLR2-induced inflammatory responses in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Meisgen, Florian; Xu Landén, Ning; Wang, Aoxue; Réthi, Bence; Bouez, Charbel; Zuccolo, Michela; Gueniche, Audrey; Ståhle, Mona; Sonkoly, Enikö; Breton, Lionel; Pivarcsi, Andor

    2014-07-01

    Keratinocytes represent the first line of defense against pathogens in the skin and have important roles in initiating and regulating inflammation during infection and autoimmunity. Here we investigated the role of miR-146a in the regulation of the innate immune response of keratinocytes. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation of primary human keratinocytes resulted in an NF-κB- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent upregulation of miR-146a expression, which was surprisingly long lasting, contrasting with the rapid and transient induction of inflammatory mediators. Overexpression of miR-146a significantly suppressed the production of IL-8, CCL20, and tumor necrosis factor-α, which functionally suppressed the chemotactic attraction of neutrophils by keratinocytes. Inhibition of endogenous miR-146a induced the production of inflammatory mediators even in nonstimulated keratinocytes, and potentiated the effect of TLR2 stimulation. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that miR-146a suppresses the expression of a large number of immune-related genes in keratinocytes. MiR-146a downregulated interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and TNF receptor-associated factor 6, two key adapter molecules downstream of TLR signaling, and suppressed NF-κB promoter-binding activity as shown by promoter luciferase experiments. Together, these data identify miR-146a as a regulatory element in keratinocyte innate immunity, which prevents the production of inflammatory mediators under homeostatic conditions and serves as a potent negative feedback regulator after TLR2 stimulation. PMID:24670381

  13. Sodium channel γENaC mediates IL-17 synergized high salt induced inflammatory stress in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amara, Suneetha; Ivy, Michael T; Myles, Elbert L; Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup

    2016-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is known to play a critical role in the development of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that high salt in the tissue microenvironment induces chronic inflammatory milieu. In this report, using three breast cancer-related cell lines, we determined the molecular basis of the potential synergistic inflammatory effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) with interleukin-17 (IL-17). Combined treatment of high NaCl (0.15M) with sub-effective IL-17 (0.1nM) induced enhanced growth in breast cancer cells along with activation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen (RNS/ROS) species known to promote cancer. Similar effect was not observed with equi-molar mannitol. This enhanced of ROS/RNS activity correlates with upregulation of γENaC an inflammatory sodium channel. The similar culture conditions have also induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNFα etc. Taken together, these data suggest that high NaCl in the cellular microenvironment induces a γENaC mediated chronic inflammatory response with a potential pro-carcinogenic effect. PMID:26723502

  14. Neuroprotection of Ischemic Preconditioning is Mediated by Anti-inflammatory, Not Pro-inflammatory, Cytokines in the Gerbil Hippocampus Induced by a Subsequent Lethal Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kang, Il Jun; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, In Hye

    2015-09-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induced by sublethal transient cerebral ischemia could reduce neuronal damage/death following a subsequent lethal transient cerebral ischemia. We, in this study, compared expressions of interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-4 and IL-13 as anti-inflammatory cytokines in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region between animals with lethal ischemia and ones with IPC followed by lethal ischemia. In the animals with lethal ischemia, pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region were dead at 5 days post-ischemia; however, IPC protected the CA1 pyramidal neurons from lethal ischemic injury. Expressions of all cytokines were significantly decreased in the SP after lethal ischemia and hardly detected in the SP at 5 days post-ischemia because the CA1 pyramidal neurons were dead. IPC increased expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region following no lethal ischemia (sham-operation), and the increased expressions of IL-4 and IL-13 by IPC were continuously maintained is the SP of the CA1 region after lethal ischemia. However, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2 and TNF-α) in the SP of the CA1 region were similar those in the sham-operated animals with IPC, and the IL-4 and IL-13 expressions in the SP were maintained after lethal ischemia. In conclusion, this study shows that anti-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased and longer maintained by IPC and this might be closely associated with neuroprotection after lethal transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26290267

  15. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future. PMID:26928472

  16. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future. PMID:26928472

  17. Development and characterization of local anti-inflammatory implantation for the controlled release of the hexane extract of the flower-heads of Euryops pectinatus L. (Cass.).

    PubMed

    Nesseem, D I; Michel, C G

    2011-04-01

    A hexane extract of the flower-heads of Euryops pectinatus L. (Cass.) was formulated into local anti-inflammatory implantation patches with controlled release. Cross-linked sodium hyaluronate patches (F1-F3) and chitosan patches (F4-F6) were prepared by a casting/solvent evaporation technique. Morphological and mechanical characterizations including the components ratio, surfactant and the loaded amount of the hexane extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b.wt.) were investigated. Release studies were performed during 24 h using a diffusion cell. Films with optimum in vitro release rate have been investigated for testing the anti-inflammatory activity and the sustaining effect of the formulations. The sustained anti-inflammatory effect of the hexane extract of E. pectinatus flower-heads from the selected films was studied by inducing paw edema in rats with 1% (w/v) carrageenan solution. The results indicated the compatibility of hexane extract with both sodium hyaluronate and chitosan patches forming yellowish transparent films. Based on variations in drug release profiles throughout the 24-h among the formulations (F1-F6) studies, F3 and F6 were selected for further investigation. When the films were applied 1 h before the subplantar injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of male Albino rats, formulation (F3) provided its maximum inhibition of paw edema in rats (91.3%) 4 h after edema induction whereas, formulation (F6) showed less inhibition after 4 h (70.6%). The previous two formulations (F3 and F6) produced potent results (95.3 and 89.5%, respectively) after 24 h when compared with a local market preparation containing 25% β-sitosterol used as positive control. Histophathological investigation was conducted for 1, 4, and 12 weeks to study the tissue response for the two formulations (F3 and F6) at the implantation site. Chemical investigation of the hexane extract was achieved for both unsaponifiable matter (USM) and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using gas

  18. Infliximab-induced skin manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Eligius Hellström, Alec; Färkkilä, Martti; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2016-05-01

    Objective The use of infliximab in rheumatoid and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been associated with a variety of adverse skin reactions, including paradoxical psoriatic lesions. The prevalence and possible predictors for these lesions were under observation in our cross-sectional prospective study. Material and methods Nurses screened the skin of 118 adult patients with IBD during infliximab infusions between 4 September 2013 and 30 September 2014 based on the structured questionnaire. Data on skin manifestations, concomitant medications, extraintestinal manifestations and inflammatory markers were collected for analysis. Results Non-infectious skin manifestations were observed in 27 (22.9%) patients during the study period, of which eight (29.6%) were new-onset, eight (29.6%) were exacerbations of existing lesions and 11 (40.7%) were baseline lesions that did not worsen during the study. Scaling eczema was the most commonly described skin manifestation (n = 8; 29.6%), followed by exacerbated atopic eczema (n = 5; 18.5%) and plausible infliximab-induced psoriasiform lesions (n = 5; 18.5%). The strongest associating factor for skin manifestations was Crohn's disease, in nearly 80% of afflicted patients. Conclusions Anti-TNF-α therapy is frequently associated with newly onset skin reactions, most commonly in patients with Crohn's disease. Non-infectious skin manifestations can be treated topically and do not require cessation of anti-TNF-α therapy. PMID:26728295

  19. Apoptosis and non-inflammatory phagocytosis can be induced by mitochondrial damage without caspases.

    PubMed

    van Delft, M F; Smith, D P; Lahoud, M H; Huang, D C S; Adams, J M

    2010-05-01

    A central issue regarding vertebrate apoptosis is whether caspase activity is essential, particularly for its crucial biological outcome: non-inflammatory clearance of the dying cell. Caspase-9 is required for the proteolytic cascade unleashed by the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family. However, despite the severely blunted apoptosis in cells from Casp9(-/-) mice, some organs with copious apoptosis, such as the thymus, appear unaffected. To address this paradox, we investigated how caspase-9 loss affects apoptosis and clearance of mouse fibroblasts and thymocytes. Although Casp9(-/-) cells were initially refractory to apoptotic insults, they eventually succumbed to slower caspase-independent cell death. Furthermore, in gamma-irradiated mice, the dying Casp9(-/-) thymocytes were efficiently cleared, without apparent inflammation. Notably, MOMP proceeded normally, and the impaired mitochondrial function, revealed by diminished mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), committed cells to die, as judged by loss of clonogenicity. Upon the eventual full collapse of DeltaPsi(m), presumably reflecting failure of respiration, intact dying Casp9(-/-) cells unexpectedly exposed the prototypic 'eat-me' signal phosphatidylserine, which allowed their recognition and engulfment by phagocytes without overt inflammation. Hence, caspase-9-induced proteolysis accelerates apoptosis, but impaired mitochondrial integrity apparently triggers a default caspase-independent program of cell death and non-inflammatory clearance. Thus, caspases appear dispensable for some essential biological functions of apoptosis. PMID:19911005

  20. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Saulo J F; Sousa, Fernanda I A B; Pereira, Domingos M S; Ferro, Thiago A F; Pereira, Ione C P; Silva, Bruna L R; Pinheiro, Aruanã J M C R; Mouchrek, Adriana Q S; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Costa, Soraia K P; Nascimento, José L M; Grisotto, Marcos A G; da Costa, Robson; Fernandes, Elizabeth S

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1 h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5 min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26922677

  1. Apoptosis and non-inflammatory phagocytosis can be induced by mitochondrial damage without caspases

    PubMed Central

    van Delft, Mark F.; Smith, Darrin P.; Lahoud, Mireille H.; Huang, David C.S.; Adams, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    A central issue regarding vertebrate apoptosis is whether caspase activity is essential, particularly for its crucial biological outcome, non-inflammatory clearance of the dying cell. Caspase-9 is required for the proteolytic cascade unleashed by the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family. However, despite the severely blunted apoptosis in cells from Casp9−/− mice, some organs with copious apoptosis, such as the thymus, appear unaffected. To address this paradox, we investigated how caspase-9 loss affects apoptosis and clearance of mouse fibroblasts and thymocytes. Although Casp9−/− cells were initially refractory to apoptotic insults, they eventually succumbed to slower caspase-independent cell death. Furthermore, in γ-irradiated mice, the dying Casp9−/− thymocytes were efficiently cleared, without apparent inflammation. Notably, MOMP proceeded normally, and the impaired mitochondrial function, revealed by diminished mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), committed cells to die, as judged by loss of clonogenicity. Upon the eventual full collapse of Δψm, presumably reflecting failure of respiration, intact dying Casp9−/− cells unexpectedly exposed the prototypic “eat-me” signal phosphatidylserine, which allowed their recognition and engulfment by phagocytes without overt inflammation. Hence, caspase-9-induced proteolysis accelerates apoptosis, but impaired mitochondrial integrity apparently triggers a default caspase-independent program of cell death and non-inflammatory clearance. Thus, caspases appear dispensable for some essential biological functions of apoptosis. PMID:19911005

  2. Tumors induce a subset of inflammatory monocytes with immunosuppressive activity on CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Gallina, Giovanna; Dolcetti, Luigi; Serafini, Paolo; Santo, Carmela De; Marigo, Ilaria; Colombo, Mario P.; Basso, Giuseppe; Brombacher, Frank; Borrello, Ivan; Zanovello, Paola; Bicciato, Silvio; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    Active suppression of tumor-specific T lymphocytes can limit the efficacy of immune surveillance and immunotherapy. While tumor-recruited CD11b+ myeloid cells are known mediators of tumor-associated immune dysfunction, the true nature of these suppressive cells and the fine biochemical pathways governing their immunosuppressive activity remain elusive. Here we describe a population of circulating CD11b+IL-4 receptor α+ (CD11b+IL-4Rα+), inflammatory-type monocytes that is elicited by growing tumors and activated by IFN-γ released from T lymphocytes. CD11b+IL-4Rα+ cells produced IL-13 and IFN-γ and integrated the downstream signals of these cytokines to trigger the molecular pathways suppressing antigen-activated CD8+ T lymphocytes. Analogous immunosuppressive circuits were active in CD11b+ cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These suppressor cells challenge the current idea that tumor-conditioned immunosuppressive monocytes/macrophages are alternatively activated. Moreover, our data show how the inflammatory response elicited by tumors had detrimental effects on the adaptive immune system and suggest novel approaches for the treatment of tumor-induced immune dysfunctions. PMID:17016559

  3. [Neriproct: its anti-inflammatory effect on an experimentally induced hemorrhoid model in the rat].

    PubMed

    Nishiki, K; Kudoh, D; Nishinaga, K; Iwai, K; Nakagawa, H

    1988-10-01

    Several glucocorticoids as a cream formulation were applied to the recto-anus of the croton-oil-induced hemorrhoid rat. Among the steroids tested, i.e. diflucortolone valerate (DFV), prednisolone (PS), hydrocortisone caproate (HC), and hydrocortisone (H), DFV was found to suppress inflammation most effectively. The effect of DFV was not affected by combination with lidocaine. In this model, the analgesic effect of lidocaine was apparently prolonged by an increase of the threshold for pain by the anti-inflammatory effect of DFV. This additive effect is regarded as a merit of the combination in Neriproct. Therapeutic effects of Neriproct and several anti-hemorrhoid drugs were also examined by using a hemorrhoid model with abrasive irritation compared to those obtained by the croton-oil model. In both models, efficacy of Neriproct was superior to that of the other drugs such as Scheriproct, Proctosedyl, Posterisan forte, Borraginol N, Posterisan and Borraza G. Microscopic observation showed that destruction of the mucus epithelium, necrosis of the mucus layer, infiltration of inflammatory cells and vasodilatation in the croton-oil model were also suppressed markedly by Neriproct application. No difference was observed in the efficacy between the cream and suppository formulation of Neriproct. Suppression of wound healing was found with a dosage of DFV lower than those of PS, HC and H. However, the efficacy ratio of the wound-healing suppression and anti-inflammation of DFV was the largest among the steroids tested. PMID:3243509

  4. Treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnason, I; Hopkinson, N; Zanelli, G; Prouse, P; Smethurst, P; Gumpel, J M; Levi, A J

    1990-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced small intestinal inflammation may have an adverse effect on the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We therefore assessed small intestinal and joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis before and after three to nine months' treatment with sulphasalazine (n = 40) and other second line drugs (n = 20), while keeping the dosage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug at the same level. Sulphasalazine significantly decreased the mean (SD) faecal excretion of 111indium labelled leucocytes from 2.39 (2.22)% to 1.33 (1.13)% (normal less than 1%, p less than 0.01) and improved the joint inflammation as assessed by a variety of parameters. There was no significant correlation between the effects of sulphasalazine treatment on the intestine and the joints. Treatment with other second line drugs had no significant effect on the faecal excretion of 111indium (1.58 (1.04)% and 1.86 (1.51)%, respectively) but improved joint inflammation significantly. The lack of correlation between the intestinal and joint inflammation and their response to treatment suggests that the two are not causally related. PMID:1973396

  5. Local quantification of numerically-induced mixing and dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, Knut; Mohammadi-Aragh, Mahdi; Gräwe, Ulf; Burchard, Hans

    2016-04-01

    The discretisation of the advection terms in transport equations introduces truncation errors in numerical models. These errors are usually associated with spurious diffusion, i.e. numerically-induced mixing of the advected quantities or dissipation of kinetic energy associated with the advection of momentum. Especially the numerically-induced diapycnal mixing part is very problematic for realistic model simulations. Since any diapycnal mixing of temperature and salinity increases the reference potential energy (RPE), numerically-induced mixing is often quantified in terms of RPE. However, this global bulk measure does not provide any information about the local amount of numerically-induced mixing of a single advected quantity. In this talk we will present a recently developed analysis method that quantifies the numerically-induced mixing of a single advected quantity locally (Klingbeil et al., 2014***). The method is based on the local tracer variance decay in terms of variance fluxes associated with the corresponding advective tracer fluxes. Because of its physically sound definition, this analysis method provides a reliable diagnostic tool, e.g., to assess the performance of advection schemes and to identify hotspots of numerically-induced mixing. At these identified positions the model could be adapted in terms of resolution or the applied numerical schemes. In this context we will demonstrate how numerically-induced mixing of temperature and salinity can be substantially reduced by vertical meshes adapting towards stratification. *** Klingbeil, K., M. Mohammadi-Aragh, U. Gräwe, H. Burchard (2014) . Quantification of spurious dissipation and mixing -- Discrete Variance Decay in a Finite-Volume framework. Ocean Modelling. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.06.001.

  6. Resveratrol Interferes with IL1-β-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Paracrine Interaction between Primary Chondrocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Limagne, Emeric; Lançon, Allan; Delmas, Dominique; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Latruffe, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    State of the art. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic articular disease characterized by cartilage degradation and osteophyte formation. OA physiopathology is multifactorial and involves mechanical and hereditary factors. So far, there is neither preventive medicine to delay cartilage breakdown nor curative treatment. Objectives. To investigate pro-inflammatory paracrine interactions between human primary chondrocytes and macrophages following interleukin-1-β (IL-1β) treatment; to evaluate the molecular mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of resveratrol. Results. The activation of NF-κB in chondrocytes by IL-1β induced IL-6 secretion. The latter will then activate STAT3 protein in macrophages. Moreover, STAT3 was able to positively regulate IL-6 secretion, as confirmed by the doubling level of IL-6 in the coculture compared to macrophage monoculture. These experiments confirm the usefulness of the coculture model in the inflammatory arthritis-linked process as a closer biological situation to the synovial joint than separated chondrocytes and macrophages. Il also demonstrated the presence of an inflammatory amplification loop induced by IL-1β. Resveratrol showed a strong inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory marker secretion. The decrease of IL-6 secretion is dependent on the NFκB inhibition in the chondrocytes. Such reduction of the IL-6 level can limit STAT3 activation in the macrophages, leading to the interruption of the inflammatory amplification loop. Conclusion. These results increase our understanding of the anti-inflammatory actions of resveratrol and open new potential approaches to prevent and treat osteoarthritis. PMID:27187448

  7. Lipid isolated from a Leishmania donovani strain reduces Escherichia coli induced sepsis in mice through inhibition of inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Pal, Prajnamoy; Jha, Tarun; Das Saha, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is the reflection of systemic immune response that manifests in the sequential inflammatory process in presence of infection. This may occur as a result of gram-negative bacterial sepsis including Escherichia coli infection that gives rise to excessive production of inflammatory mediators and causes severe tissue injuries. We have reported earlier that the lipid of attenuated Leishmania donovani suppresses the inflammatory responses in arthritis patients. Using heat killed E. coli stimulated macrophages, we have now investigated the effect of leishmanial total lipid (LTL) isolated from Leishmania donovani (MHO/IN/1978/UR6) for amelioration of the inflammatory mediators and transcriptional factor with suppression of TLR4-CD14 expression. To evaluate the in vivo effect, E. coli induced murine sepsis model was used focusing on the changes in different parameter(s) of lung injury caused by sepsis, namely, edema, vascular permeability, and pathophysiology, and the status of different cytokine-chemokine(s) and adhesion molecule(s). Due to the effect of LTL, E. coli induced inflammatory cytokine-chemokine(s) levels were significantly reduced in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid simultaneously. LTL also improved the lung injury and suppressed the cell adhesion molecules in lung tissue. These findings indicate that LTL may prove to be a potential anti-inflammatory agent and provide protection against gram-negative bacterial sepsis with pulmonary impairment. PMID:25120287

  8. Resveratrol Interferes with IL1-β-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Paracrine Interaction between Primary Chondrocytes and Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Limagne, Emeric; Lançon, Allan; Delmas, Dominique; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Latruffe, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    State of the art. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic articular disease characterized by cartilage degradation and osteophyte formation. OA physiopathology is multifactorial and involves mechanical and hereditary factors. So far, there is neither preventive medicine to delay cartilage breakdown nor curative treatment. Objectives. To investigate pro-inflammatory paracrine interactions between human primary chondrocytes and macrophages following interleukin-1-β (IL-1β) treatment; to evaluate the molecular mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of resveratrol. Results. The activation of NF-κB in chondrocytes by IL-1β induced IL-6 secretion. The latter will then activate STAT3 protein in macrophages. Moreover, STAT3 was able to positively regulate IL-6 secretion, as confirmed by the doubling level of IL-6 in the coculture compared to macrophage monoculture. These experiments confirm the usefulness of the coculture model in the inflammatory arthritis-linked process as a closer biological situation to the synovial joint than separated chondrocytes and macrophages. Il also demonstrated the presence of an inflammatory amplification loop induced by IL-1β. Resveratrol showed a strong inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory marker secretion. The decrease of IL-6 secretion is dependent on the NFκB inhibition in the chondrocytes. Such reduction of the IL-6 level can limit STAT3 activation in the macrophages, leading to the interruption of the inflammatory amplification loop. Conclusion. These results increase our understanding of the anti-inflammatory actions of resveratrol and open new potential approaches to prevent and treat osteoarthritis. PMID:27187448

  9. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy Is Associated with a Complex Inflammatory Response in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Daniel N; Gonzales, Mary D; Craig, Teresa; Dubick, Michael A; Cap, Andrew P; Schwacha, Martin G

    2015-08-01

    Severe trauma can lead to a coagulopathy in patients, which is associated with increased mortality. We developed a rat polytrauma model that demonstrates a similar progression of coagulopathy. Because coagulation is influenced by changes in inflammation, and this interrelationship is poorly understood, we have studied the progression of inflammation, and its correlation with coagulation, in this rat model of severe polytrauma. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. Polytrauma was induced by damaging 10 cm of small intestines, right and medial liver lobes, right leg skeletal muscle, femur fracture, and hemorrhaging 40% of blood volume. No resuscitation was given. Polytrauma and hemorrhage resulted in a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes and an increase in monocytes and granulocytes. There was an increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor α (40×), interleukin (IL)-6 (20×), IL-1β (16×), IL-17 (15×), interferon γ (10×), IL-1α (8×) and IL-12p70 (5×); anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 (100×), IL-13 (16×), and IL-4 (5×); chemokines: growth-regulated protein/keratinocyte chemoattractant (30×), macrophage inflammatory protein 3α (10×), regulated and normal T-cell expressed and secreted (3×); and growth factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (5×), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (6×), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (3×), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (2×), and IL-5 (3×). There was a strong and significant correlation between prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and fibrin monomer concentration, and many cytokines. Polytrauma with hemorrhage is associated with a coagulopathy and a complex inflammatory response consisting of a concurrent rise in both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The rise in plasma concentrations of chemokines and growth factors likely contribute to the mobilization of monocytes and granulocytes

  10. Human oral isolate Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 induces a pro-inflammatory response in germ-free rat colons

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel C.; Ulluwishewa, Dulantha; Young, Wayne; Ryan, Leigh J.; Henderson, Gemma; Meijerink, Marjolein; Maier, Eva; Wells, Jerry M.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are thought to be beneficial for human health, with lactobacilli-associated infections being confined to immune-compromised individuals. However, Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 negatively affects barrier integrity in vitro so we hypothesized that it caused a pro-inflammatory response in the host. We compared germ-free rats inoculated with AGR1487 to those inoculated with another L. fermentum strain, AGR1485, which does not affect in vitro barrier integrity. We showed that rats inoculated with AGR1487 had more inflammatory cells in their colon, higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and increased colonic gene expression of pro-inflammatory pathways. In addition, our in vitro studies showed that AGR1487 had a greater capacity to activate TLR signaling and induce pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. This study indicates the potential of strains of the same species to differentially elicit inflammatory responses in the host and highlights the importance of strain characterization in probiotic approaches to treat inflammatory disorders. PMID:26843130

  11. High Concentrate Diet Induced Mucosal Injuries by Enhancing Epithelial Apoptosis and Inflammatory Response in the Hindgut of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shiyu; Duanmu, Yongqian; Dong, Haibo; Ni, Yingdong; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiangzhen; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more “leaky” for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks. Experimental Design Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC) for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts. Results Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01), and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05). Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05), and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05), and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07) in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon. Conclusions Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries

  12. Local delivery of mutant CCL2 protein-reduced orthopaedic implant wear particle-induced osteolysis and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyi; Sato, Taishi; Yao, Zhenyu; Keeney, Michael; Pajarinen, Jukka; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Loi, Florence; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Total joint replacement (TJR) has been widely used as a standard treatment for late-stage arthritis. One challenge for long-term efficacy of TJR is the generation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles from the implant surface that activates an inflammatory cascade which may lead to bone loss, prosthetic loosening and eventual failure of the procedure. Here, we investigate the efficacy of local administration of mutant CCL2 proteins, such as 7ND, on reducing wear particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis in vivo using a mouse calvarial model. Mice were treated with local injection of 7ND or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) every other day for up to 14 days. Wear particle-induced osteolysis and the effects of 7ND treatment were evaluated using micro-CT, histology, and immunofluorescence staining. Compared with the PBS control, 7ND treatment significantly decreased wear particle-induced osteolysis, which led to a higher bone volume fraction and bone mineral density. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed 7ND treatment decreased the number of recruited inflammatory cells and osteoclasts. Together, our results support the feasibility of local delivery of 7ND for mitigating wear particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis, which may offer a promising strategy for extending the life time of TJRs. PMID:26174978

  13. Transcriptional expression of inflammatory mediators in various somatosensory relay centers in the brain of rat models of peripheral mononeuropathy and local inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chamaa, Farah; Chebaro, Maya; Safieh-Garabedian, Bared; Saadeh, Ryan; Jabbur, Suhayl J; Saadé, Nayef E

    2016-08-15

    Contradictory results have been reported regarding the role of inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system in mediating neuropathic pain and inflammatory hyperalgesia following peripheral nerve injury or localized inflammation. The present study aims to correlate between the mRNA expression and protein secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and nerve growth factor (NGF), in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, brainstem and thalamus, and pain-related behavior in animal models of peripheral mononeuropathy and localized inflammation. Different groups of rats (n=8, each) were subjected to either lesion of the nerves of their hindpaws to induce mononeuropathy or intraplantar injection of endotoxin (ET) and were sacrificed at various time intervals. TNF-α, IL-1β and NGF mRNA expression and protein levels in the various centers involved in processing nociceptive information were determined, by RT-PCR and ELISA. Control groups were either subjected to sham surgery or to saline injection. Mononeuropathy and ET injection produced significant and sustained increases in the mRNA expression and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and NGF in the ipsilateral and contralateral DRGs, spinal cord, and brainstem. No significant and consistent changes in the mRNA expression of cytokines were noticed in the thalamus, while a downregulation of the NGF-mRNA level was observed. The temporal and spatial patterns of the observed changes in mRNA expression of cytokines and NGF are not closely in phase with the observed allodynia and hyperalgesia in the different models, suggesting that the role of these mediators may not be reduced exclusively to the production and maintenance of pain. PMID:27397080

  14. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  15. Inhibition of Zymosan-Induced Inflammatory Factors Expression by ATRA Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Wensong; Gao, Xunyi; Zhang, Hongguang; Kong, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (ATRA-NLCs) on the zymosan-induced expression of the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ and the matrix metalloproteinases/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (MMPs/TIMPs) and TLR2 in rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RCFs). Methods. ATRA-NLCs were prepared by emulsification. RCFs were isolated and harvested after four to seven passages in monolayer culture. Cytokine release (IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ) induced by zymosan was analyzed by cytokine release assay, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis detection. MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and TLR2 expression were analyzed by immunoblotting. Results. ATRA-NLCs were resistant to light and physically stable, and the average size of the ATRA-NLCs was 200 nm. ATRA-NLCs increased the zymosan-induced release of IL-4 and IL-10 and decreased the release of IFN-γ by RCFs. ATRA-NLCs decreased the levels of TLR2 and MMPs/TIMPs above. Conclusions. ATRA may be a potent anti-inflammatory agent for the therapy of fungal keratitis (FK). PMID:27340562

  16. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory activities by Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Chae, In-Gyeong; Im, Hyo-Gwon; Yang, Seun-Ah; More, Kunal; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Jinho

    2013-01-15

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation. PMID:23122161

  17. Inflammatory mediators in a short-time mouse model of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Michela; Del Pizzo, Mariagiovanna; Marzocco, Stefania; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Ciccarelli, Michele; Iaccarino, Guido; Pinto, Aldo; Popolo, Ada

    2016-02-15

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is commonly used to treat a wide range of malignant tumors, but its clinical use is limited by acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. The precise mechanism underlying DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity is still not completely elucidated, but cardiac inflammation seems to be involved. Effects of DOXO on proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrosis have been proven only when a functional impairment has already occurred, so this study aimed to investigate the acute effect of DOXO administration in mouse heart. The results of our study demonstrated alterations in cardiac function parameters assessed by ultrasound within 24h after a single injection of DOXO, with a cumulative effect along the increase of the dose and the number of DOXO administrations. At the same time, DOXO causes a significant production of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α and IL-6) with a concomitant reduction of IL-10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in heart tissue and increased levels of serum nitrite in DOXO-treated mice were detected. Notably, DOXO administration significantly increased nitrotyrosine expression in mouse heart. Our data support the hypothesis that these early events, could be responsible for the later onset of more severe deleterious remodeling leading to DOXO induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:26780402

  18. Bortezomib-induced pro-inflammatory macrophages as a potential factor limiting anti-tumour efficacy.

    PubMed

    Beyar-Katz, Ofrat; Magidey, Ksenia; Ben-Tsedek, Neta; Alishekevitz, Dror; Timaner, Michael; Miller, Valeria; Lindzen, Moshit; Yarden, Yosef; Avivi, Irit; Shaked, Yuval

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a chronic progressive malignancy of plasma cells. Although treatment with the novel proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, significantly improves patient survival, some patients fail to respond due to the development of de novo resistance. We have previously shown that cytotoxic drugs can induce pro-tumorigenic host-mediated effects which contribute to tumour re-growth and metastasis, and thus limit anti-tumour efficacy. However, such effects and their impact on tumour cell aggressiveness have not been investigated using cytostatic agents such as bortezomib. Here we show that plasma from bortezomib-treated mice significantly increases migration, viability and proliferation of MM cells in vitro, compared to plasma from vehicle treated mice. In vivo, bortezomib induces the mobilization of pro-angiogenic bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice treated with bortezomib and subsequently were used as recipients for an injection of MM cells succumb to MM earlier than mice treated with the vehicle. We show that bortezomib promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages which account for MM cell aggressiveness, an effect which is partially mediated by interleukin-16. Accordingly, co-inoculation of MM cells with pro-inflammatory macrophages from bortezomib-treated mice accelerates MM disease progression. Taken together, our results suggest that, in addition to the known effective anti-tumour activity of bortezomib, host-driven pro-tumorigenic effects generated in response to treatment can promote MM aggressiveness, and thus may contribute to the overall limited efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037906

  19. Dietary zinc deficiency fuels esophageal cancer development by inducing a distinct inflammatory signature

    PubMed Central

    Taccioli, C; Chen, H; Jiang, Y; Liu, XP; Huang, K; Smalley, KJ; Farber, JL; Croce, CM; Fong, LY

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The causes of inflammation in ESCC, however, are undefined. Dietary zinc-deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of ESCC. We have previously shown that short-term ZD (6 weeks) in rats induces overexpression of the proinflammatory mediators S100a8 and S100a9 in the esophageal mucosa with accompanying esophageal epithelial hyperplasia. Here we report that prolonged ZD (21 weeks) in rats amplified this inflammation that when combined with non-carcinogenic low doses of the environmental carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) elicited a 66.7% (16/24) incidence of ESCC. With zinc-sufficiency NMBA produced no cancers (0/21) (P<0.001). At tumor endpoint, the neoplastic ZD esophagus as compared with zinc-sufficient esophagus had an inflammatory gene signature with upregulation of numerous cancer-related inflammation genes (CXC and CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines, and Cox-2) in addition to S100a8 and S100a9. This signature was already activated in the earlier dysplastic stage. Additionally, time-course bioinformatics analysis of expression profiles at tumor endpoint and prior to NMBA exposure revealed that this sustained inflammation was due to ZD rather than carcinogen exposure. Importantly, zinc replenishment reversed this inflammatory signature at both the dysplastic and neoplastic stages of ESCC development, and prevented cancer formation. Thus, the molecular definition of ZD-induced inflammation as a critical factor in ESCC development has important clinical implications with regard to development and prevention of this deadly disease. PMID:22179833

  20. AUTOTAXIN DOWNREGULATES LPS – INDUCED MICROGLIA ACTIVATION AND PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Awada, Rana; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien; Grès, Sandra; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Parimisetty, Avinash; Orihuela, Ruben; Harry, G. Jean; d’Hellencourt, Christian Lefebvre

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is essential in defense against infection or injury. It is tightly regulated, as over-response can be detrimental, especially in immune-privileged organs such as the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia constitutes the major source of inflammatory factors, but are also involved in the regulation of the inflammation and in the reparation. Autotaxin (ATX), a phospholipase D, converts lysophosphatidylcholine into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and is upregulated in several CNS injuries. LPA, a pleiotropic immunomodulatory factor, can induce multiple cellular processes including morphological changes, proliferation, death and survival. We investigated ATX effects on microglia inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mimicking gram-negative infection. Murine BV-2 microglia and stable transfected, overexpressing ATX-BV-2 (A+) microglia were treated with LPS. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 mRNA and proteins levels were examined by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Secreted LPA was quantified by a radioenzymatic assay and microglial activation markers (CD11b, CD14, B7.1 and B7.2) were determined by flow cytometry. ATX expression and LPA production were significantly enhanced in LPS treated BV-2 cells. LPS induction of mRNA and protein level for TNFα and IL-6 were inhibited in A+ cells, while IL-10 was increased. CD11b, CD14, and B7.1 and B7.2 expressions were reduced in A+ cells. Our results strongly suggest deactivation of microglia and an IL-10 inhibitory of ATX with LPS induced microglia activation. PMID:25053164

  1. Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) injury induces chronic facial pain and susceptibility to anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D N; Kniffin, T C; Zhang, L P; Danaher, R J; Miller, C S; Bocanegra, J L; Carlson, C R; Westlund, K N

    2015-06-01

    Our laboratory previously developed a novel neuropathic and inflammatory facial pain model for mice referred to as the Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) model. Rather than inducing whole nerve ischemia and neuronal loss, this injury induces only slight peripheral nerve demyelination triggering long-term mechanical allodynia and cold hypersensitivity on the ipsilateral whisker pad. The aim of the present study is to further characterize the phenotype of the TIC injury model using specific behavioral assays (i.e. light-dark box, open field exploratory activity, and elevated plus maze) to explore pain- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with this model. Our findings determined that the TIC injury produces hypersensitivity 100% of the time after surgery that persists at least 21 weeks post injury (until the animals are euthanized). Three receptive field sensitivity pattern variations in mice with TIC injury are specified. Animals with TIC injury begin displaying anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box preference and open field exploratory tests at week eight post injury as compared to sham and naïve animals. Panic anxiety-like behavior was shown in the elevated plus maze in mice with TIC injury if the test was preceded with acoustic startle. Thus, in addition to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, the present study identified significant anxiety-like behaviors in mice with TIC injury resembling the clinical symptomatology and psychosocial impairments of patients with chronic facial pain. Overall, the TIC injury model's chronicity, reproducibility, and reliability in producing pain- and anxiety-like behaviors demonstrate its usefulness as a chronic neuropathic facial pain model. PMID:25818051

  2. Human mast cell chymase induces the accumulation of neutrophils, eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaoheng; Walls, Andrew F

    1998-01-01

    The roles of chymase in acute allergic responses are not clear, despite the relative abundance of this serine proteinase in the secretory granules of human mast cells. We have isolated chymase to high purity from human skin tissue by heparin-agarose affinity chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration procedures, and have investigated the ability of human mast cell chymase to stimulate cell accumulation following injection into laboratory animals.Injection of chymase provoked marked neutrophilia and eosinophilia in the skin of Dunkin Hartley guinea-pigs. Compared with saline injected control animals, there were some 60 fold more neutrophils and 12 fold more eosinophils present at the injection site.Following injection of chymase into the peritoneum of BALB/c mice, there were up to 700 fold more neutrophils, 21 fold more eosinophils, 19 fold more lymphocytes and 7 fold more macrophages recovered than from saline injected controls at 16 h. Doses of chymase as low as 5 ng (1.7×10−13 mole) stimulated an inflammatory infiltrate, and significant neutrophilia was elicited within 3 h.The chymase induced cell accumulation in both the guinea-pig and mouse models was dependent on an intact catalytic site, being reduced by co-injection of proteinase inhibitors or heat inactivation of the enzyme.Co-injection of histamine or heparin significantly reduced the chymase induced neutrophil accumulation, whereas neither histamine nor heparin by themselves had any effect on the accumulation of nucleated cells. No synergistic or antagonist interactions between chymase and tryptase were observed when these two major mast cell proteinases were co-injected into the mouse peritoneum.Our findings suggest that chymase may provide an potent stimulus for inflammatory cell recruitment following mast cell activation. PMID:9884078

  3. Carbon fullerenes (C60s) can induce inflammatory responses in the lung of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hero; Kim, Younghun; Yi, Jongheop; Choi, Kyunghee; Park, Kwangsik

    2010-04-15

    Fullerenes (C60s) occur in the environment due to natural and anthropogenic sources such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and the combustion of carbon-based materials. Recently, production and application of engineered C60s have also rapidly increased in diverse industrial fields and biomedicine due to C60' unique physico-chemical properties, so toxicity assessment on environmental and human health is being evaluated as a valuable work. However, data related to the toxicity of C60s have not been abundant up to now. In this study, we studied the immunotoxic mechanism and change of gene expression caused by the instillation of C60s. As a result, C60s induced an increase in sub G1 and G1 arrest in BAL cells, an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, and an increase of Th1 cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-r in BAL fluid. In addition, IgE reached the maximum at 1 day after treatment in both BAL fluid and the blood, and decreased in a time-dependent manner. Gene expression of the MHC class II (H2-Eb1) molecule was stronger than that of the MHC class I (H2-T23), and an increase in T cell distribution was also observed during the experiment period. Furthermore, cell infiltration and expression of tissue damage related genes in lung tissue were constantly observed during the experiment period. Based on this, C60s may induce inflammatory responses in the lung of mice.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous methotrexate associated with lipid nanoemulsions on antigen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Suzana B V; Tavares, Elaine R; Guido, Maria Carolina; Bonfá, Eloisa; Maranhão, Raul C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that intravenous use of methotrexate associated with lipid nanoemulsions can achieve superior anti-inflammatory effects in the joints of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis compared with commercial methotrexate. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in New Zealand rabbits sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin and subsequently intra-articularly injected with the antigen. A nanoemulsion of methotrexate labeled with 3H-cholesteryl ether (4 mg/kg methotrexate) was then intravenously injected into four rabbits to determine the plasma decaying curves and the biodistribution of the methotrexate nanoemulsion by radioactive counting. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of the methotrexate nanoemulsion were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Twenty-four hours after arthritis induction, the animals were allocated into three groups, with intravenous injection with saline solution (n=9), methotrexate nanoemulsion (0.5 µmol/kg methotrexate, n=7), or commercial methotrexate (0.5 µmol/kg, n=4). The rabbits were sacrificed 24 h afterward. Synovial fluid was then collected for protein leakage and cell content analyses and synovial membranes were collected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The methotrexate nanoemulsion was taken up mainly by the liver and the uptake by arthritic joints was two-fold greater than that by control joints. The methotrexate nanoemulsion treatment reduced leukocyte influx into the synovial fluid by nearly 65%; in particular, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells were reduced by 47 and 72%, respectively. In contrast, cell influx was unaffected following treatment with commercial methotrexate. Protein leakage into the arthritic knees of the rabbits was also more limited following methotrexate nanoemulsion treatment than following commercial methotrexate treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intravenous methotrexate nanoemulsion showed anti-inflammatory effects on the synovia of arthritic joints that were

  5. Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) Injury Induces Chronic Facial Pain and Susceptibility to Anxiety-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Danielle N.; Kniffin, Tracey C.; Zhang, Liping; Danaher, Robert J.; Miller, Craig S.; Bocanegra, Jose L.; Carlson, Charles R.; Westlund, Karin N.

    2015-01-01

    Our laboratory previously developed a novel neuropathic and inflammatory facial pain model for mice referred to as the Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC) model. Rather than inducing whole nerve ischemia and neuronal loss, this injury induces only slight peripheral nerve demyelination triggering long-term mechanical allodynia and cold hypersensitivity on the ipsilateral whisker pad. The aim of the present study is to further characterize the phenotype of the TIC injury model using specific behavioral assays (i.e. light-dark box, open field exploratory activity, and elevated plus maze) to explore pain- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with this model. Our findings determined that the TIC injury produces hypersensitivity 100% of the time after surgery that persists at least 21 weeks post injury (until the animals are euthanized). Three receptive field sensitivity pattern variations in mice with TIC injury are specified. Animals with TIC injury begin displaying anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box preference and open field exploratory tests at week 8 post injury as compared to sham and naïve animals. Panic anxiety-like behavior was shown in the elevated plus maze in mice with TIC injury if the test was preceded with acoustic startle. Thus, in addition to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, the present study identified significant anxiety-like behaviors in mice with TIC injury which resembling the clinical symptomatology and psychosocial impairments of patients with chronic facial pain. Overall, the TIC injury model’s chronicity, reproducibility, and reliability in producing pain- and anxiety-like behaviors demonstrate its usefulness as a chronic neuropathic facial pain model. PMID:25818051

  6. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles do not modulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Salik; Al-Nsour, Faris; Rice, Annette B; Marshburn, Jamie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Zink, Jeffery I; Yingling, Brenda; Walker, Nigel J; Garantziotis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have potential therapeutic applications and are widely used for industrial purposes. However, the effects of these nanoparticles on primary human cells are largely unknown. The ability of nanoparticles to exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory disorders is not well documented for engineered nanoparticles, and is certainly lacking for CeO2 nanoparticles. We investigated the inflammation-modulating effects of CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations in human peripheral blood monocytes. Methods CD14+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood samples of human volunteers. Cells were exposed to either 0.5 or 1 μg/mL of CeO2 nanoparticles over a period of 24 or 48 hours with or without lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/mL) prestimulation. Modulation of the inflammatory response was studied by measuring secreted tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, macrophage chemotactic protein-1, interferon-gamma, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Results CeO2 nanoparticle suspensions were thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering analysis (194 nm hydrodynamic diameter), zeta potential analysis (−14 mV), and transmission electron microscopy (irregular-shaped particles). Transmission electron microscopy of CD14+ cells exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles revealed that these nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by monocytes and were found either in vesicles or free in the cytoplasm. However, no significant differences in secreted cytokine profiles were observed between CeO2 nanoparticle-treated cells and control cells at noncytotoxic doses. No significant effects of CeO2 nanoparticle exposure subsequent to lipopolysaccharide priming was observed on cytokine secretion. Moreover, no significant difference in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production was observed after exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles followed by lipopolysaccharide exposure. Conclusion CeO2 nanoparticles at noncytotoxic concentrations neither

  7. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40–54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate. PMID:26958053

  8. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.

  9. Dequalinium blocks macrophage-induced metastasis following local radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Rachman-Tzemah, Chen; Alishekevitz, Dror; Kotsofruk, Ruslana; Miller, Valeria; Nevelsky, Alexander; Daniel, Shahar; Raviv, Ziv; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Shaked, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    A major therapeutic obstacle in clinical oncology is intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy, leading to subsequent relapse. We have previously shown that systemic administration of different cytotoxic drugs can induce a host response that contributes to tumor angiogenesis, regrowth and metastasis. Here we characterize the host response to a single dose of local radiation, and its contribution to tumor progression and metastasis. We show that plasma from locally irradiated mice increases the migratory and invasive properties of colon carcinoma cells. Furthermore, locally irradiated mice intravenously injected with CT26 colon carcinoma cells succumb to pulmonary metastasis earlier than their respective controls. Consequently, orthotopically implanted SW480 human colon carcinoma cells in mice that underwent radiation, exhibited increased metastasis to the lungs and liver compared to their control tumors. The irradiated tumors exhibited an increase in the colonization of macrophages compared to their respective controls; and macrophage depletion in irradiated tumor-bearing mice reduces the number of metastatic lesions. Finally, the anti-tumor agent, dequalinium-14, in addition to its anti-tumor effect, reduces macrophage motility, inhibits macrophage infiltration of irradiated tumors and reduces the extent of metastasis in locally irradiated mice. Overall, this study demonstrates the adverse effects of local radiation on the host that result in macrophage-induced metastasis. PMID:26348470

  10. Influence of thyroid states on the local effects induced by Bothrops envenoming.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Raquel Moreira; Caldas, Adriele Souza; Rodriguez, Tania Tavares; Casais-e-Silva, Luciana Lyra

    2015-08-01

    Bothrops leucurus venom causes significant local effects, such as necrosis, pain, hemorrhage and edema. These effects are important because of their high frequency and severity. The treatment of these local effects is not simple because of their quick triggering and a variety of components that induce these effects. Myonecrosis, dermonecrosis and edema are primarily caused by the action of hemorrhagins and myotoxins. A number of investigators have demonstrated the influence of thyroid hormones on inflammatory processes, particularly on wound healing. We investigated the edematogenic, hemorrhagic and necrotic activity of the B. leucurus venom in the hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and euthyroid of rats. The CK (creatine kinase) plasma level decreased in the animals in a hypothyroid state. The hypothyroid condition also significantly reduced the hemorrhagic and dermonecrotic area compared to the euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism states. It also mitigated the rat paw edema compared to that found in the euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals. The hyperthyroid animals showed no significant differences in the three treatments compared to the euthyroid animals. Our results suggest that the triggering of local effects induced by envenomation by B. leucurus is attenuated in hypothyroid animals, possibly by the effect of hypothyroidism on the immune system and blood flow. PMID:26003795

  11. Basal and inducible anti-inflammatory epoxygenase activity in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Ara A.; Thomson, Scott; Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2014-01-01

    The roles of CYP lipid-metabolizing pathways in endothelial cells are poorly understood. Human endothelial cells expressed CYP2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) mRNA and protein. The TLR-4 agonist LPS (1 μg/ml; 24 h) induced CYP2J2 but not sEH mRNA and protein. LC–MS/MS analysis of the stable commonly used human endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 showed active epoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase activity: with arachidonic acid (stable epoxide products 5,6-DHET, and 14,15-DHET), linoleic acid (9,10-EPOME and 12,13-EPOME and their stable epoxide hydrolase products 9,10-DHOME and 12,13-DHOME), docosahexaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 19,20-DiHDPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 17,18-DHET) being formed. Inhibition of epoxygenases using either SKF525A or MS-PPOH induced TNFα release, but did not affect LPS, IL-1β, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNFα release. In contrast, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by AUDA or TPPU inhibited basal, LPS, IL-1β and PMA induced TNFα release, and LPS-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells contain a TLR-4 regulated epoxygenase CYP2J2 and metabolize linoleic acid > eicosapentaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > docosahexaenoic acid to products with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24631907

  12. Apoptotic and inflammatory effects induced by different particles in human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Li, Zhuowei; Harder, Shirley D; Soukup, Joleen M

    2004-12-15

    Pollutant particles induce apoptosis and inflammation, but the relationship between these two biological processes is not entirely clear. In this study, we compared the proapoptotic and proinflammatory effects of four particles: residual oil fly ash (ROFA), St. Louis particles SRM 1648 (SL), Chapel Hill PM10 (CHP), and Mount St. Helens dust (MSH). Human alveolar macrophages (AM) were incubated with these particles at 100 microg/ml. Cell death was assessed by annexin V (AV) expression, histone release, nuclear morphology, caspase 3-like activity and release of caspase 1 for apoptosis, and propidium iodide (PI) for necrosis, and inflammation was measured by interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6. We found that particle effects on these cell death measurements varied, and ROFA affected most (four out of five) endpoints, including nuclear morphological changes. CHP and SL also caused necrosis. For cytokine release, the potency was CHP > SL > ROFA > MSH. The proapoptotic and proinflammatory effects induced by the whole particles were unaltered after the particles were washed with water. The water-soluble fraction was relatively inactive, as were individual soluble metals (V, Ni, Fe). ROFA-induced nuclear fragmentation was associated with upregulation and mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a caspase-independent chromatin condensation factor, and upregulation of DNase II, a lysosomal acid endonuclease. These results indicate that the potential for particles to induce apoptosis does not correlate with their proinflammatory properties, although active components for both processes reside in the water-insoluble core. Both apoptosis and inflammatory endpoints should be included when the toxicity of different pollutant particles is assessed. PMID:15764474

  13. Ferulic acid enhances the vasorelaxant effect of epigallocatechin gallate in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Suyama, Aki; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation by combination treatment with Trp-His and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in intact rat aorta. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this vasorelaxant synergy could be recapitulated in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory rat aorta, and to determine the extent of its modulation by anti-inflammatory phenolic acids. Synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation in rat aorta by Trp-His and EGCg was significantly attenuated in the presence of TNF-α, an effect that was reversed by the addition of ferulic acid (FA, 250 μM). Moreover, FA markedly enhanced EGCg-induced vasorelaxation, but not Trp-His-induced vasorelaxation, in TNF-α-treated aorta. Structure-activity analysis showed that the unsaturated 2-propenoic moiety and the methoxy group of FA were important for the enhancement of vasorelaxation by EGCg. The stimulation of EGCg-induced vasorelaxation by FA was antagonized by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, while FA enhanced vasorelaxant properties of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activator acetylcholine in TNF-α-treated inflammatory aorta. Moreover, the EGCg-stimulated NO production was also enhanced by FA in TNF-α-treated aorta. These data indicate that stimulation of NO production by FA enhances the vasorelaxant properties of EGCg in TNF-α-induced inflammatory aorta. PMID:24794014

  14. Perilla frutescens extract ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Urushima, Hayato; Nishimura, Junichi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects have been reported in Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PE), which is a plant of the genus belonging to the Lamiaceae family. We examined the effect of PE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Preliminarily, PE was safely administered for 7 wk without any adverse effects. In the preventive protocol, mice were fed 1.5% DSS solution dissolved in distilled water (control group) or 0.54% PE solution (PE group) ad libitum for 7 days. In the therapeutic protocol, distilled water or 0.54% PE solution was given for 10 days just after administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. PE intake significantly improved body weight loss. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-10 were significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. In the therapeutic protocol, mice in the PE group showed significantly higher body weight and lower histological colitis scores compared with mice in the control group on day 15. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TGF-β was significantly higher in the PE group than in the control group. In distal colon mRNA expression, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly downregulated. In vitro analyses of biologically active ingredients, such as luteolin, apigenin, and rosmarinic acid, in PE were performed. Luteolin suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A. Apigenin also suppressed secretion of IL-17A and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Rosmarinic acid increased the regulatory T cell population. We conclude that PE might be useful in treatment and prevention of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:25359539

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg), prednisolone (30 mg/kg), or normal saline (10 mL/kg). The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. RESULTS The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001) both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits) and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001). Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:27162723

  16. Potential role of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 as a STAT1 coactivator in endotoxin-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Sook; Kim, Byung-Hak; Jung, Joo Eun; Lee, Chang Seok; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Jung Weon; Lee, Kun Ho; You, Ho Jin; Chung, Myung-Hee; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) is the major DNA repair enzyme that plays a key role in excision of oxidative damaged DNA bases such as 8-oxoguainine (8-oxoG). Recent studies suggest another function of OGG1, namely that it may be involved in the endotoxin- or oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the role of OGG1 in the inflammatory response. OGG1 expression is increased in the organs of endotoxin-induced or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-immunized mice and immune cells, resulting in induction of the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional levels. Biochemical studies showed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) plays a key role in endotoxin-induced OGG1 expression and inflammatory response. STAT1 regulates the transcriptional activity of OGG1 through recruiting and binding to the gamma-interferon activation site (GAS) motif of the OGG1 promoter region, and chromatin remodeling by acetylation and dimethylation of lysine-14 and -4 residues of histone H3. In addition, OGG1 acts as a STAT1 coactivator and has transcriptional activity in the presence of endotoxin. The data presented here identifies a novel mechanism, and may provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of endotoxin-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26496208

  17. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Mesdaghinia, Azam; Abed, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg) and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat) injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP), an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation. PMID:26351555

  18. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; Wu, Xinyi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  19. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  20. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K.; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  1. High glucose induces inflammatory cytokine through protein kinase C-induced toll-like receptor 2 pathway in gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wei, Cong-Cong; Shang, Ting-Ting; Lian, Qi; Wu, Chen-Xuan; Deng, Jia-Yin

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose increased NF-{kappa}B p65 nuclear activity, IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC-{alpha}/{delta}-TLR2 pathway is involved in periodontal inflammation under high glucose. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune response and inflammation, especially in periodontitis. Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can induce inflammation in diabetes complications. However, the activity of TLRs in periodontitis complicated with hyperglycemia is still unclear. In the present study, high glucose (25 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Also, high glucose increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 nuclear activity, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-l{beta} (IL-1{beta}) levels. Protein kinase C (PKC)-{alpha} and {delta} knockdown with siRNA significantly decreased TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 expression (p < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-{beta} had no effect on TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 under high glucose (p < 0.05). Additional studies revealed that TLR2 knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta} secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-{alpha} and PKC-{delta} in human gingival fibroblasts.

  2. Lentiviral Small Hairpin RNA Knockdown of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1γ Ameliorates Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Po-Chuan; Lu, Chia-Sing; Shiau, Ai-Li; Lee, Che-Hsin; Jou, I-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). CD4+ T cells were activated during the onset of OA and induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1γ expression and subsequent osteoclast formation. We evaluated the effects of local knockdown of MIP-1γ in a mouse OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection. The mouse macrophage cell lines and osteoclast-like cells generated from immature hematopoietic monocyte/macrophage progenitors of murine bone marrow were cocultured with either receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) or CD4+ T cells. The levels of MIP-1γ and RANKL in cells and mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K staining. OA was induced in one hind-leg knee joint of B6 mice. Lentiviral vector encoding MIP-1γ small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and control vector were individually injected intra-articularly into the knee joints, which were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The expression of MIP-1γ and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and osteoclastogenesis in tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. CD4+ T cells were involved in OA by inducing MIP-1γ expression in osteoclast progenitors and the subsequent osteoclast formation. Neutralizing MIP-1γ with a specific antibody abolishes RANKL-stimulated and CD4+ T-cell-stimulated osteoclast formation. MIP-1γ levels were significantly higher in synovium and the chondro-osseous junction of joints 90 days postsurgery. The number of infiltrated CD4+ T cells and macrophages and IL-1β expression were reduced in the synovial tissues of mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA. Histopathological examinations revealed that mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA had less severe OA than control mice had, as well as decreased osteoclast formation and MMP-13 expression. Locally inhibiting MIP-1

  3. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-01

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-κB expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24738849

  4. Effect of treatment of palatal inflammatory papillary hyperplasia with local and systemic antifungal agents accompanied by renewal of complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Oikarinen, K S

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of local and systemic antifungal treatment, accompanied by renewal of complete dentures, on palatal inflammatory papillary hyperplasia (PIPH). The treatment groups consisted of 26 subjects treated with a local antifungal agent (miconazole, 2% gel) for 4 weeks and 13 subjects treated with a systemic antifungal agent (fluconazole, 50 mg) for 2 weeks (test groups). Ten subjects fitted with new complete dentures served as a control group. Variables examined before antifungal and prosthetic treatment included estimation of the size and color of the affected palatal area, measurements of the lengths of the papillae, and salivary variables. Six months after the completion of prosthetic treatment healing was determined as disappearance or marked reduction of the redness of the PIPH. Healing was more often observed in test groups (64%) than in the control group (20%) (p = 0.012). Fifty-eight per cent of the subjects treated with a local (miconazole, 2%) and 77% of those treated with a systemic (fluconazole, 50 mg) antifungal agent were healed. Even though papillary hyperplastic tissue did not disappear, the treatment of PIPH with an antifungal agent without surgery before renewal of dentures might be an alternative treatment in mild cases. PMID:8739138

  5. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocbach, Anette Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-10-15

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent.

  6. Systemic toxicity in mice induced by localized porphyrin photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, A; Gomer, C J

    1990-02-01

    An unexpected high level of acute lethality has been documented following Photofrin II-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatments which were localized to the hind leg of normal and tumor-bearing mice. Doses of PDT which induced lethality (10 mg/kg Photofrin II, 200-500 J/cm2) were in the range of doses required to obtain murine tumor cures. The percentage of lethality was proportional to the total light dose but was inversely proportional to the dose rate of delivered light. Comparable levels of acute toxicity were observed in four pigmented mouse strains (C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, DBA/1, and DBA/2) and in two albino mouse strains (BALB/c and Swiss Webster). Decreased sensitivity to PDT-induced lethality was observed in two pigmented mouse strains (B10D2/OSN and B10D2/NSN). The administration of warfarin, aspirin, indomethacin, or antihistamine had significant protective effects in terms of decreasing PDT-induced lethality. However, injection of cobra venom factor (to deplete C3 and C5 of the complement system) did not alter the lethality mediated by PDT. Histological profiles obtained 24 h following PDT demonstrated vascular congestion in the liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. Significant decreases in removable blood volume, core temperature, and spleen weight were also observed within 24 h of localized PDT treatment. These results indicate that PDT-induced lethality is consistent with a traumatic shock syndrome and suggest that endogenous vasoactive mediators of shock such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and histamine are associated with the lethality induced by localized PDT in mice. PMID:2137023

  7. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating dairy cows on free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and indicators of inflammation were determined. Four mid lactation dairy cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows and used in a repeated switchover design. During each period, SARA was induced in 2 animals for 5 subsequent days by replacing 25% of their total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with a concentrate made of 50% wheat and 50% barley. The other 2 cows acted as controls and were fed a total mixed ration diet in which 44% of dry matter was concentrate. On average, inducing SARA did not affect milk composition, increased the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 from 187 to 309 min/d, and increased free ruminal LPS concentration from 24,547 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 128,825 EU/mL. Averaged across treatments, milk fat yield and milk protein yield were 0.66 and 1.00 kg/d, respectively. Rumen pH and milk fat data suggest that control cows also experienced ruminal acidosis, albeit a milder form of this disease than SARA cows. Serum LPS concentration in both control and SARA cows was less than the detection limit of <0.01 EU/mL for the assay. Induction of SARA elevated serum amyloid A concentration from 286.8 to 498.8 mug/mL, but did not affect other markers of inflammation including haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum copper, or white blood cells. These results suggest that grain-induced SARA in mid lactation dairy cows increases the lysis of gram-negative bacteria and activates an inflammatory response. PMID:17235162

  8. Pathologic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by glucotoxic insults inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces an inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Zatterale, Federica; Fiory, Francesca; Nigro, Cecilia; Raciti, Gregory A; Miele, Claudia; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco; Di Jeso, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is critical in obesity. By controlling new adipocyte recruitment, adipogenesis contrasts adipocyte hypertrophy and its adverse consequences, such as insulin resistance. Contrasting data are present in literature on the effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) on adipocyte differentiation, being reported to be either necessary or inhibitory. In this study, we sought to clarify the effect of ER stress and UPR on adipocyte differentiation. We have used two different cell lines, the widely used pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and a murine multipotent mesenchymal cell line, W20-17 cells. A strong ER stress activator, thapsigargin, and a pathologically relevant inducer of ER stress, glucosamine (GlcN), induced ER stress and UPR above those occurring in the absence of perturbation and inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Very low concentrations of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA, a chemical chaperone) inhibited only the overactivation of ER stress and UPR elicited by GlcN, leaving unaltered the part physiologically activated during differentiation, and reversed the inhibitory effect of GlcN on differentiation. In addition, GlcN stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release and PBA prevented these effects. An inhibitor of NF-kB also reversed the effects of GlcN on cytokine release. These results indicate that while ER stress and UPR activation is "physiologically" activated during adipocyte differentiation, the "pathologic" part of ER stress activation, secondary to a glucotoxic insult, inhibits differentiation. In addition, such a metabolic insult, causes a shift of the preadipocyte/adipocyte population towards a proinflammatory phenotype. PMID:26940722

  9. uPA Attenuated LPS-induced Inflammatory Osteoclastogenesis through the Plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yosuke; Ishisaki, Akira; Kawashita, Eri; Kuretake, Hiromi; Ikeda, Kanako; Matsuo, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis-caused bone destruction, results from an increase of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) induced by inflammation. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated that the effect of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a potent stimulator of bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We found that the uPA deficiency promoted inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and bone loss induced by LPS. We also showed that LPS induced the expression of uPA, and the uPA treatment attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 mouse monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Additionally, we showed that the uPA-attenuated inflammatory osteoclastgenesis is associated with the activation of plasmin/protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 axis by uPA. Moreover, we examined the mechanism underlying the effect of uPA on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis, and found that uPA/plasmin/PAR-1 activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway through Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) activation, and attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis by inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that uPA attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis through the plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK axis. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach to bone loss caused by inflammatory diseases. PMID:26722218

  10. Modulation of Th1 cytokines and inflammatory mediators by Euphorbia hirta in animal model of adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fayaz Ahmad, Sheikh; Sultan, Phalisteen; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Khan, Tajdar Husain; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2013-10-01

    Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) (E. hirta) is a tree locally used as a traditional medicine in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases such as hypertension, respiratory ailments, tumors, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-arthritic activity of fresh leaves of E. hirta ethanol extract that was found to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines of adjuvant arthritis in rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in rats (Wistar) by the subplantar injection of 0.05 ml freshly prepared suspension (5.0 mg/ml) of steam killed Mycobacterium tuberculli in liquid paraffin. Animals were treated with graded doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of E. hirta ethanol extract, p.o. E. hirta significantly inhibited the swelling of the adjuvant-induced arthritis. Moreover, E. hirta at higher dose (200 mg/kg) showed 40.54 ± 1.09 % of CD3+, 15.1 ± 0.76 % of CD4+, 12.2 ± 1.18 % of CD8+ T cell receptor and 17.6 ± 1.11 % gated of CD19+ B cell receptor revealing a down regulation of adjuvant-induced arthritis as compared to the corresponding valves of the arthritic control rats. According to the results shown in Tables 1, 2, the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ were increased in splenocytes of arthritic rats and this increased level was reduced by E. hirta. Also, E. hirta significantly down regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that E. hirta exhibits an improvement in adjuvant-induced arthritis through down regulation of activated macrophages and T lymphocytes functions. Such unique effects of E. hirta shown on adjuvant arthritis rat model may be advantageous to the long-term treatment of clinical rheumatoid arthritis. Table 1 Effect of E. hirta and prednisolone (Pred) on LPS-induced IL-1β and TNF-α productions from splenocytes in Mycobacterium tuberculli-induced inflammatory arthritic rats Treatment

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by altering adipose tissue glycolytic and inflammatory function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In this study, we dissected mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-lipogenic actions of EPA, using histology/ immunohistochemistry, transcriptomi...

  12. C/EBPβ regulates multiple IL-1β-induced human astrocyte inflammatory genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)β regulates gene expression in multiple organ systems and cell types, including astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory stimuli, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and lipopolysaccharide induce astrocyte C/EBPβ expression. C/EBPβ is detectable in brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) patients, yet little is known about how C/EBPβ contributes to astrocyte gene regulation during neuroinflammation. Methods The expression of 92 human inflammation genes was compared between IL-1β-treated primary human astrocytes and astrocytes transfected with C/EBPβ-specific small interfering (si)RNA prior to IL-1β treatment for 12 h. Transcripts altered by > two-fold compared to control were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls post-test for multiple comparisons. Expression of two genes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and bradykinin receptor B2 (BDKRB2) was further confirmed in additional human astrocyte donors. Astrocytes were treated with mitogen-activated protein kinase-selective inhibitors, then with IL-1β for 12 or 24 h followed by COX-2 and BDKRB2, expression analyses. Results IL-1β altered expression of 29 of 92 human inflammation genes by at least two-fold in primary human astrocytes in 12 h. C/EBPβ knockdown affected expression of 17 out of 29 IL-1β-regulated genes by > 25%. Two genes relevant to neuroinflammation, COX-2 and BDKRB2, were robustly decreased and increased, respectively, in response to C/EBPβ knockdown, and expression was confirmed in two additional donors. COX-2 and BDKRB2 mRNA remained altered in siRNA-transfected astrocytes at 12, 24 or 72 h. Inhibiting p38 kinase (p38K) activation blocked IL-1β-induced astrocyte COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, but not IL-1β-induced astrocyte BDKRB2 expression. Inhibiting extracellular

  13. Sonic hedgehog-responsive lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 modulate Dectin-1-induced inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Karnam, Anupama; Holla, Sahana; Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy

    2015-12-01

    Immune responses during fungal infections are predominately mediated by 5/15-lipoxygenases (LO)- or cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-catalysed bioactive eicosanoid metabolites like leukotrienes, lipoxins and prostaglandins. Although few host mediators of fungi-triggered eicosanoid production have been established, the molecular mechanism of expression and regulation of 5-LO, 15-LO and COX-2 are not well-defined. Here, we demonstrate that, macrophages infected with representative fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus fumigatus or those treated with Curdlan, a selective agonist of pattern recognition receptor for fungi Dectin-1, displays increased expression of 5-LO, 15-LO and COX-2. Interestingly, Dectin-1-responsive Syk pathway activates mTOR-sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling cascade to stimulate the expression of these lipid metabolizing enzymes. Loss-of-function analysis of the identified intermediaries indicates that while Syk-mTOR-SHH pathway-induced 5-LO and 15-LO suppressed the Dectin-1-responsive pro-inflammatory signature cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-12, Syk-mTOR-SHH-induced COX-2 positively regulated these cytokines. Dectin-1-stimulated IL-6, however, is dependent on 5-LO, 15-LO and COX-2 activity. Together, the current study establishes Dectin-1-arbitrated host mediators that direct the differential regulation of immune responses during fungal infections and thus are potential candidates of therapeutic intervention. PMID:26432261

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of diosmectite in hapten-induced colitis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Sánchez de Medina, Fermin; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Nieto, Ana; Gálvez, Julio; Risco, Severiano; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Diosmectite is a natural silicate effectively used in the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. Its antidiarrhoeal properties involve adsorption of toxins and bacteria and modifications of the rheological characteristics of gastrointestinal mucus. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of diosmectite. Diosmectite (500 mg kg−1 day−1, p.o.) was administered as a post-treatment to rats with chronic trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis. Colonic status was checked 1 and 2 weeks after colitis induction by macroscopic, histological and biochemical examination. Diosmectite post-treatment resulted in amelioration of the morphological signs (intestinal weight, macroscopic damage, necrosed area, histology) and biochemical markers (myeloperoxidase activity, glutathione levels, MUC2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukotriene B4 synthesis), as well as in the reduction of the severity of diarrhoea. The effect of the clay was comparable to that of sulphasalazine (50 mg kg−1 day−1). Diosmectite exhibited a dose-dependent capacity to adsorb proteins in vitro as well as a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the basolateral secretion of IL-8 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT29 cells. Diosmectite had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β production by LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. The effect of diosmectite on MUC2 was post-transcriptional, since mRNA levels were unaffected. However, diosmectite is able to upregulate MUC2 mRNA levels in HT29-MTX cells. Diosmectite has anti-inflammatory activity administered as a post-treatment. Possible mechanisms include adsorption of luminal antigens, increase of colonic mucin levels and possibly a direct modulatory action of cytokine production by mucosal cells. PMID:14993105

  15. Fluoride-Induced Neuron Apoptosis and Expressions of Inflammatory Factors by Activating Microglia in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Nan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Shengnan; Cao, Siqi; Wang, Fei; Wang, Zhengdong; Xi, Shuhua

    2016-09-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride results in structural and functional damages to the central nervous system (CNS), and neurotoxicity of fluoride may be associated with neurodegenerative changes. Chronic microglial activation appears to cause neuronal damage through producing proinflammatory cytokines and is involved in many neurodegenerative disorders. It is not known about effects on microglia of fluoride. In the present study, healthy adult Wistar rats were exposed to 60 and 120 ppm fluoride in drinking water for 10 weeks, and control rats received deionized water. After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia then apoptosis in neuron and inflammatory factors secreted by microglia were determined. We found that apoptosis of neurons in fluoride-treated rat brain increased and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive immunofluorescence increased with increasing fluoride concentrations. Bax protein expression increased and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in fluoride-treated rat brain compared with that of the control rat brain. The microglia in the hippocampus and cortex of fluoride-treated rats were activated by immunostaining with OX-42, a marker of activated microglia, and OX-42-positive microglia cells were more abundant in the hippocampus than in the cortex. The levels of IL-1β and IL-6 protein expression in OX-42-labeled microglial cells were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to fluoride, and TNF-α immunoreactivity in microglial cells of the hippocampus was significantly higher in the 120 ppm fluoride-treated group than that in the control group. Our results indicate that fluoride induced neuron apoptosis and expressions of inflammatory factors by activating microglia in rat brain. PMID:26253724

  16. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Unique Inflammatory Footprints in the Lung: Important Implications for Nanoparticle Testing

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Duffin, Rodger; Poland, Craig A.; Howie, Sarah E.M.; MacNee, William; Bradley, Mark; Megson, Ian L.; Donaldson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. Objectives We examined hazards of several well-characterized high production volume NPs because of increasing concern about occupational exposure via inhalation. Methods A panel of well-characterized NPs [cerium oxide (CeO2NP), titanium dioxide (TiO2NP), carbon black (CBNP), silicon dioxide (SiO2NP), nickel oxide (NiONP), zinc oxide (ZnONP), copper oxide (CuONP), and amine-modified polystyrene beads] was instilled into lungs of rats. We evaluated the inflammation potencies of these NPs 24 hr and 4 weeks postinstillation. For NPs that caused significant inflammation at 24 hr, we then investigated the characteristics of the inflammation. All exposures were carried out at equal-surface-area doses. Results Only CeO2NP, NiONP, ZnONP, and CuONP were inflammogenic to the lungs of rats at the high doses used. Strikingly, each of these induced a unique inflammatory footprint both acutely (24 hr) and chronically (4 weeks). Acutely, patterns of neutrophil and eosinophil infiltrates differed after CeO2NP, NiONP, ZnONP, and CuONP treatment. Chronic inflammatory responses also differed after 4 weeks, with neutrophilic, neutrophilic/lymphocytic, eosinophilic/fibrotic/granulomatous, and fibrotic/granulomatous inflammation being caused respectively by CeO2NP, NiONP, ZnONP, and CuONP. Conclusion Different types of inflammation imply different hazards in terms of pathology, risks, and risk severity. In vitro testing could not have differentiated these complex hazard outcomes, and this has important implications for the global strategy for NP hazard assessment. Our results demonstrate that NPs cannot be viewed as a single hazard entity and that risk assessment should be performed separately and with caution for different NPs. PMID:20729176

  17. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury. PMID:26770647

  18. Polymethoxyflavone Apigenin-Trimethylether Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in Nontransformed Porcine Intestinal Cell Line IPEC-J2.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Orsolya; Palócz, Orsolya; Pászti-Gere, Erzsébet; Gálfi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin and its trimethylated analogue (apigenin-trimethylether) has been investigated in order to evaluate whether these flavonoids could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation in IPEC-J2 non-transformed intestinal epithelial cells. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA were measured as a marker of inflammatory response. The extracellular H2O2 level in IPEC-J2 cells was also monitored by Amplex Red assay. Our data revealed that both compounds had significant lowering effect on the inflammatory response. Apigenin (at 25 μM) significantly decreased gene expression of IL-6 in LPS-treated cells, while apigenin-trimethylether in the same concentration did not influence IL-6 mRNA level. Both apigenin and apigenin-trimethylether reduced IL-8 gene expression significantly. TNF-α mRNA level was decreased by apigenin-trimethylether, which was not influenced by apigenin. Treatment with both flavonoids caused significant reduction in the mRNA level of COX-2, but the anti-inflammatory effect of the methylated analogue was more effective than the unmethylated one. Furthermore, both flavonoids reduced significantly the level of extracellular H2O2 compared to the control cells. In conclusion, the methylated apigenin analogue could avoid LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and it could be applied in the future as an effective anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:26180592

  19. Polymethoxyflavone Apigenin-Trimethylether Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in Nontransformed Porcine Intestinal Cell Line IPEC-J2

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Orsolya; Palócz, Orsolya; Pászti-Gere, Erzsébet; Gálfi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin and its trimethylated analogue (apigenin-trimethylether) has been investigated in order to evaluate whether these flavonoids could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation in IPEC-J2 non-transformed intestinal epithelial cells. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA were measured as a marker of inflammatory response. The extracellular H2O2 level in IPEC-J2 cells was also monitored by Amplex Red assay. Our data revealed that both compounds had significant lowering effect on the inflammatory response. Apigenin (at 25 μM) significantly decreased gene expression of IL-6 in LPS-treated cells, while apigenin-trimethylether in the same concentration did not influence IL-6 mRNA level. Both apigenin and apigenin-trimethylether reduced IL-8 gene expression significantly. TNF-α mRNA level was decreased by apigenin-trimethylether, which was not influenced by apigenin. Treatment with both flavonoids caused significant reduction in the mRNA level of COX-2, but the anti-inflammatory effect of the methylated analogue was more effective than the unmethylated one. Furthermore, both flavonoids reduced significantly the level of extracellular H2O2 compared to the control cells. In conclusion, the methylated apigenin analogue could avoid LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and it could be applied in the future as an effective anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:26180592

  20. Cold-Induced Browning Dynamically Alters the Expression Profiles of Inflammatory Adipokines with Tissue Specificity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Qiangling; Sun, Bo; Yan, Jianqun

    2016-01-01

    Cold exposure or β₃-adrenoceptor agonist treatment induces the adipose tissues remodeling, relevant for beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue (WAT). It remains unclear whether this process influences inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues. We determine the temporal profile of cold or β₃-adrenoceptor agonist (CL316,243)-induced changes in the expression of inflammatory adipokines in adipose tissues in mice or primary mice adipocytes. Male C57BL/6J mice at eight weeks old were exposed to 4 °C for 1-5 days. Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and epididymal WAT (eWAT) were harvested for gene and protein expression analysis. In addition, cultured primary mice brown adipocyte (BA) and white adipocyte (WA) treated with or without CL316,243 were harvested for gene expression analysis. The inflammatory adipokines expressed significantly higher in WAT than BAT at baseline. They were rapidly changed in iBAT, while down-regulated in sWAT and up-regulated in eWAT during the cold acclimation. Upon CL316,243 treatment, detected inflammatory adipokines except Leptin were transiently increased in both BA and WA. Our in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that the browning process alters the inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues, which is acutely responded to in iBAT, dynamically decreased in sWAT whilst increased in eWAT for compensation. PMID:27223282

  1. Human mesenchymal stem cells suppress the stretch-induced inflammatory miR-155 and cytokines in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Li, Yi-Shuan Julie; Zhou, Jing; Shih, Yu-Ru Vernon; Miller, Marina; Broide, David; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Current research in pulmonary pathology has focused on inflammatory reactions initiated by immunological responses to allergens and irritants. In addition to these biochemical stimuli, physical forces also play an important role in regulating the structure, function, and metabolism of the lung. Hyperstretch of lung tissues can contribute to the inflammatory responses in asthma, but the mechanisms of mechanically induced inflammation in the lung remain unclear. Our results demonstrate that excessive stretch increased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs), including IL-8. This increase of IL-8 secretion was due to an elevated microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression, which caused the suppression of Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) production and the subsequent activation of JNK signaling. In vivo studies in our asthmatic mouse model also showed such changes in miR-155, IL-8, and SHIP1 expressions that reflect inflammatory responses. Co-culture with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) reversed the stretch-induced hBEC inflammatory responses as a result of IL-10 secretion by hMSCs to down-regulate miR-155 expression in hBECs. In summary, we have demonstrated that mechanical stretch modulates the homeostasis of the hBEC secretome involving miR-155 and that hMSCs can be used as a potential therapeutic approach to reverse bronchial epithelial inflammation in asthma. PMID:23967196

  2. Cold-Induced Browning Dynamically Alters the Expression Profiles of Inflammatory Adipokines with Tissue Specificity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiao; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Qiangling; Sun, Bo; Yan, Jianqun

    2016-01-01

    Cold exposure or β3-adrenoceptor agonist treatment induces the adipose tissues remodeling, relevant for beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue (WAT). It remains unclear whether this process influences inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues. We determine the temporal profile of cold or β3-adrenoceptor agonist (CL316,243)-induced changes in the expression of inflammatory adipokines in adipose tissues in mice or primary mice adipocytes. Male C57BL/6J mice at eight weeks old were exposed to 4 °C for 1–5 days. Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and epididymal WAT (eWAT) were harvested for gene and protein expression analysis. In addition, cultured primary mice brown adipocyte (BA) and white adipocyte (WA) treated with or without CL316,243 were harvested for gene expression analysis. The inflammatory adipokines expressed significantly higher in WAT than BAT at baseline. They were rapidly changed in iBAT, while down-regulated in sWAT and up-regulated in eWAT during the cold acclimation. Upon CL316,243 treatment, detected inflammatory adipokines except Leptin were transiently increased in both BA and WA. Our in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that the browning process alters the inflammatory adipokines expression in adipose tissues, which is acutely responded to in iBAT, dynamically decreased in sWAT whilst increased in eWAT for compensation. PMID:27223282

  3. Specific Lipopolysaccharide Serotypes Induce Differential Maternal and Neonatal Inflammatory Responses in a Murine Model of Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    Migale, Roberta; Herbert, Bronwen R; Lee, Yun S; Sykes, Lynne; Waddington, Simon N; Peebles, Donald; Hagberg, Henrik; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R; MacIntyre, David A

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is recognized as a key mediator of both normal and preterm birth but is also associated with neonatal neurological injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to stimulate inflammatory pathways in animal models of infection/inflammation-induced preterm labor; however, inconsistencies in maternal and neonatal responses to LPS are frequently reported. We hypothesized that LPS serotype-specific responses may account for a portion of these inconsistencies. Four different Escherichia coli LPS serotypes (O111:B4, O55:B5, O127:B8, and O128:B12) were administered to CD1 mice via intrauterine injection at gestational day 16. Although control animals delivered at term 60 ± 15 hours postinjection (p.i.), those administered with O111:B4 delivered 7 ± 2 hours p.i., O55:B5 delivered 10 ± 3 hours p.i., O127:B8 delivered 16 ± 10 hours p.i., and O128:B12 delivered 17 ± 2 hours p.i. (means ± SD). A correlation between the onset of preterm labor and myometrial activation of the inflammatory transcription factor, activator protein 1, but not NF-κB was observed. Specific LPS serotypes induced differential activation of downstream contractile and inflammatory pathways in myometrium and neonatal pup brain. Our findings demonstrate functional disparity in inflammatory pathway activation in response to differing LPS serotypes. Selective use of LPS serotypes may represent a useful tool for targeting specific inflammatory response mechanisms in these models. PMID:26212908

  4. Ampelopsis japonica Makino Extract Inhibits the Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns in Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Duck; Kim, Sue Jeong; Kim, Dong-Il; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratinocytes are the major cells in epidermis, providing barrier components such as cornified cells through the sophisticated differentiation process. In addition, keratinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. It has been known that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including double-strand RNA and nucleotides can provoke inflammatory reaction in keratinocytes. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ampelopsis japonica Makino extract (AE) on PAMPs-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes. Methods The effects of AE were determined using poly (I:C)-induced inflammation and imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis models. Results In cultured keratinocytes, AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced release of caspase-1 active form (p20), and down-regulated nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. In imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis model, topical application of AE resulted in significant reduction of epidermal hyperplasia. Conclusion These results suggest that AE may be a potential candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation. PMID:27274634

  5. Echinacoside Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inflammatory Responses in PC12 Cells via Reducing ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hua; Xuan, Zhao-Hong; Tian, Shuo; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses are involved in the mechanism of cell damage in PD. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a dopamine analog, specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Echinacoside (ECH) is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, showing a variety of neuroprotective effects in previous studies. The present study was to investigate its effect against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and possible mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that 6-OHDA reduced cell viability, decreased oxidation-reduction activity, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis compared with untreated PC12 cells. However, echinacoside treatment significantly attenuated these changes induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, echinacoside also could significantly alleviate the inflammatory responses induced by 6-OHDA. Further research showed that echinacoside could reduce 6-OHDA-induced ROS production in PC12 cells. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of echinacoside against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity may be involve in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses by reducing ROS production. PMID:25788961

  6. LPS-Induced Lung Inflammation in Marmoset Monkeys – An Acute Model for Anti-Inflammatory Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seehase, Sophie; Lauenstein, Hans-Dieter; Schlumbohm, Christina; Switalla, Simone; Neuhaus, Vanessa; Förster, Christine; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Pfennig, Olaf; Fuchs, Eberhard; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Bleyer, Martina; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:22952743

  7. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  8. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Cormac T.; Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T.; Ryan, Silke

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  9. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation of mouse macrophages by inducing the expression of DUSP1.

    PubMed

    Köröskényi, Krisztina; Kiss, Beáta; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine is known to reduce inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages produce adenosine, and the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling activated in an autocrine manner attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation. It has been suggested that A2AR signaling inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inhibition was not identified so far. Here we report that LPS stimulation enhances A2AR expression in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and loss of A2ARs results in enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response. Loss of A2ARs in A2AR null macrophages did not alter the LPS-induced NF-κB activation, but an enhanced basal and LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases (especially that of JNKs) was detected in A2AR null cells. A2AR signaling did not alter the LPS-induced phosphorylation of their upstream kinases, but by regulating adenylate cyclase activity it enhanced the expression of dual specific phosphatase (DUSP)1, a negative regulator of MAP kinases. As a result, lower basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels can be detected in A2AR null macrophages. Silencing of DUSP1 mRNA expression resulted in higher basal and LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation in wild type macrophages, but had no effect on that in A2AR null cells. Our data indicate that A2AR signaling regulates both basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 levels in macrophages via activating the adenylate cyclase pathway. PMID:27066978

  10. Cross-talk between TLR4 and PPARγ pathways in the arachidonic acid-induced inflammatory response in pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Mateu, A; Ramudo, L; Manso, M A; De Dios, I

    2015-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is generally associated with inflammation in different settings. We assess the molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response exerted by AA on pancreatic acini as an approach to acute pancreatitis (AP). Celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor), TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) and 15d-PGJ2 (PPARγ agonist) were used to ascertain the signaling pathways. In addition, we examine the effects of TAK-242 and 15d-PGJ2 on AP induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO). To carry out in vitro studies, acini were isolated from pancreas of control rats. Generation of PGE2 and TXB2, activation of pro-inflammatory pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT3) and overexpression of CCL2 and P-selectin was found in AA-treated acini. In addition, AA up-regulated TLR4 and down-regulated PPARγ expression. Celecoxib prevented the up-regulation of CCL2 and P-selectin but did not show any effect on the AA-mediated changes in TLR4 and PPARγ expression. TAK-242, reduced the generation of AA metabolites and repressed both the cascade of pro-inflammatory events which led to CCL2 and P-selectin overexpression as well as the AA-induced PPARγ down-regulation. Thus, TLR4 acts as upstream activating pro-inflammatory and inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways. 15d-PGJ2 down-regulated TLR4 expression and hence prevented the synthesis of AA metabolites and the inflammatory response mediated by them. Reciprocal negative cross-talk between TLR4 and PPARγ pathways is evidenced. In vivo experiments showed that TAK-242 and 15d-PGJ2 treatments reduced the inflammatory response in BPDO-induced AP. We conclude that through TLR4-dependent mechanisms, AA up-regulated CCL2 and P-selectin in pancreatic acini, partly mediated by the generation of PGE2 and TXB2, which activated pro-inflammatory pathways, but also directly by down-regulating PPARγ expression with anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro and in vivo studies support the role of TLR4 in AP and the use of TLR4 inhibitors and

  11. Resolvin D1 Attenuates Poly(I:C)-Induced Inflammatory Signaling in Human Airway Epithelial Cells via TAK1

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hsi-Min; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Levy, Elizabeth P.; Fulton, Robert A.; Owens, Kristina M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium are lung sentinel cells and are the first to contact inhaled inflammatory insults including air pollutants, smoke and microorganisms. To avoid damaging exuberant or chronic inflammation, the inflammatory process must be tightly controlled and terminated once the insult is mitigated. Inflammation-resolution is now known to be an active process involving a new genus of lipid mediators called “specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators” (SPMs) that includes resolvin D1 (RvD1). We and others have reported that RvD1 counteracts pro-inflammatory signaling and promotes resolution. A knowledge gap is that the specific cellular targets and mechanisms of action for RvD1 remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the mechanism whereby RvD1 disrupts inflammatory mediator production induced by the viral mimic poly(I:C) in primary human lung epithelial cells. RvD1 strongly suppressed the viral mimic poly(I:C)-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production and pro-inflammatory signaling involving MAP kinases and NF-κB. Most importantly, we found that RvD1 inhibited the phosphorylation of TAK1, a key upstream regulatory kinase common to both the MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways, by inhibiting the formation of a poly(I:C)-induced signaling complex composed of TAK1, TAB1 and TRAF6. We confirmed that ALX/FPR2 and GPR32, two RvD1 receptors, were expressed on hSAEC. Furthermore, blocking these receptors abrogated the inhibitory action of RvD1. Herein, we present the idea that RvD1 has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving agent, possibly in the context of exuberant host responses to damaging respirable agents such as viruses. PMID:25320283

  12. Oxysophocarpine Ameliorates Carrageenan-induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Expressions of Prostaglandin E2 and Cytokines in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Ling; Jin, Shao-Ju; Zhou, Ru; Qiao, Hai-Qi; Du, Juan; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Cheng-Jun; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Oxysophocarpine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides. We investigated the analgesic effect of oxysophocarpine on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in mice, in order to explore its possible mechanisms. Mouse ear swelling tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests were used to investigate the effects of oxysophocarpine on inflammatory pain in mice. Morphological changes on inflamed paw sections were measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 were investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In our results, oxysophocarpine shows a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the mouse ear swelling test. Oxysophocarpine also significantly reduced the paw edema volume and improved mechanical allodynia threshold value on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, as well as relieved paw tissues inflammatory damage and reduced the numbers of neutrophils in mice. Oxysophocarpine significantly suppressed over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2, and inhibited the over-phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Based on these findings we propose that oxysophocarpine attenuates inflammatory pain by suppressing the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6. PMID:26132856

  13. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Astaxanthin on the Sickness Behavior Induced by Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chang-jiang; Zhang, Fang; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Hu, Xiao-tong; Chen, Jing; Wen, Xiang-ru; Sun, Ying; Zheng, Kui-yang; Tang, Ren-xian; Song, Yuan-jian

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammation appears to play a critical role in sickness behavior caused by diabetes mellitus. Astaxanthin has been used in treating diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications because of its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions. However, whether astaxanthin can improve sickness behavior induced by diabetes and its potential mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on diabetes-elicited abnormal behavior in mice and its corresponding mechanisms. An experimental diabetic model was induced by streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) and astaxanthin (25 mg/kg/day) was provided orally for 10 weeks. Body weight and water consumption were measured, and the sickness behavior was evaluated by the open field test (OFT) and closed field test (CFT). The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was measured, and the frontal cortical cleaved caspase-3 positive cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression levels were also investigated. Furthermore, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in the frontal cortex was detected to determine whether the protective effect of astaxanthin on sickness behavior in diabetic mice is closely related to CBS. As expected, we observed that astaxanthin improved general symptoms and significantly increase horizontal distance and the number of crossings in the OFT and CFT. Furthermore, data showed that astaxanthin could decrease GFAP-positive cells in the brain and down-regulate the cleaved caspase-3, IL-6, and IL-1β, and up-regulate CBS in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that astaxanthin provides neuroprotection against diabetes-induced sickness behavior through inhibiting inflammation, and the protective effects may involve CBS expression in the brain. PMID:25971983

  14. Tetracycline Inhibits Local Inflammation Induced by Cerebral Ischemia via Modulating Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yongjun; Zhu, Juehua; Wu, Li; Xu, Gelin; Dai, Jianwu; Liu, Xinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background Tetracycline exerts neuroprotection via suppressing the local inflammation induced by cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. Methodology/Principal Findings The mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 and the number of activated microglia were measured to detect the inflammatory process in the ischemic hemisphere. The key proteins of nuclear factor kappa B pathway and the binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B were also measured. Two key components of autophagy, Beclin 1 and LC3, were detected by western blotting. Pretreatment with tetracycline inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 and decreased the numbers of activated and phagocytotic microglia. Tetracycline down regulated the total and phosphorylated expressions of IKK, IκB and p65 (P<0.05). The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, inhibited inflammation and activation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway. The levels of Beclin 1 and LC3 were decreased by 3-methyladenine and tetracycline. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggested that pretreatment of tetracycline may inhibit autophagy in the ischemic stroke brain and then suppress the inflammatory process via inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway. PMID:23144925

  15. Thiopurines related malignancies in inflammatory bowel disease: Local experience in Granada, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, María; Cabello-Tapia, Maria José; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De Teresa-Galván, Javier; Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of neoplasms in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and the potential causative role of thiopurines. METHODS: We performed an observational descriptive study comparing the incidence of malignancies in IBD patients treated with thiopurines and patients not treated with these drugs. We included 812 patients which were divided in two groups depending on whether they have received thiopurines or not. We have studied basal characteristics of both groups (age when the disease was diagnosed, sex, type of IBD, etc.) and treatments received (Azathioprine, mercaptopurine, infliximab, adalimumab or other immunomodulators), as well as neoplasms incidence. Univariate analysis was performed with the student t test, χ2 test or Wilcoxon exact test as appropriate. A logistic regression analysis was performed as multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was establish at P values of less than 0.05, and 95%CI were used for the odds ratios. RESULTS: Among 812 patients included, 429 (52.83%) have received thiopurines: 79.5% azathioprine, 14% mercaptopurine and 6.5% both drugs. 44.76% of patients treated with thiopurines and 46, 48% of patients who did not receive this treatment were women (P > 0.05). The proportion of ulcerative colitis patients treated with thiopurines was 30.3% compare to 66. 67% of patients not treated (P < 0.001). Mean azathioprine dose was 123.79 ± 36.5 mg/d (range: 50-250 mg/d), mean usage time was 72.16 ± 55.7 mo (range: 1-300 mo) and the accumulated dose along this time was 274.32 ± 233.5 g (1.5-1350 g). With respect to mercaptopurine, mean dose was 74.7 ± 23.9 mg/d (range: 25-150 mg/d), mean usage time of 23.37 ± 27.6 mo (range: 1-118 mo), and the accumulated dose along this time was 52.2 ± 63.5 g (range: 1.5-243 g). Thiopurine S-methyltransferase activity was tested in 66% of patients treated with thiopurines, among which 98.2% had an intermediate or high activity. Among the patients treated with thiopurines

  16. Efficient Inhibition of wear debris-induced inflammation by locally delivered siRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Xiaochun; Tao Kun; Cheng Tao; Zhu Junfeng; Zhang Xianlong

    2008-12-12

    Aseptic loosening is the most common long-term complication of total joint replacement, which is associated with the generation of wear debris. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) on wear debris-induced inflammation. A local delivery of lentivirus-mediated TNF-{alpha} siRNA into the modified murine air pouch, which was stimulated by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, resulted in significant blockage of TNF-{alpha} both in mRNA and protein levels for up to 4 weeks. In addition, significant down-regulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was observed in TNF-{alpha} siRNA-treated pouches. The safety profile of gene therapy was proven by Bioluminescent assay and quantitative fluorescent flux. Histological analysis revealed less inflammatory responses (thinner pouch membrane and decreased cellular infiltration) in TNF-{alpha} siRNA-treated pouches. These findings suggest that local delivery of TNF-{alpha} siRNA might be an excellent therapeutic candidate to inhibit particle-induced inflammation.

  17. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  18. Indicaxanthin from cactus pear fruit exerts anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenin-induced rat pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Mario; Ianaro, Angela; Tersigni, Mariaroberta; Panza, Elisabetta; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional research has shifted recently from alleviating nutrient deficiencies to chronic disease prevention. We investigated the activity of indicaxanthin, a bioavailable phytochemical of the betalain class from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Miller) in a rat model of acute inflammation. Rat pleurisy was achieved by injection of 0.2 mL of λ-carrageenin in the pleural cavity, and rats were killed 4, 24, and 48 h later; exudates were collected to analyze inflammatory parameters, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cells recruited in pleura were analyzed for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation. Indicaxanthin (0.5, 1, or 2 μmol/kg), given orally before carrageenin, time- and dose-dependently, reduced the exudate volume (up to 70%) and the number of leukocytes recruited in the pleural cavity (up to 95%) at 24 h. Pretreatment with indicaxanthin at 2 μmol/kg inhibited the carrageenin-induced release of PGE(2) (91.4%), NO (67.7%), IL-1β (53.6%), and TNF-α (71.1%), and caused a decrease of IL-1β (34.5%), TNF-α (81.6%), iNOS (75.2%), and COX2 (87.7%) mRNA, as well as iNOS (71.9%) and COX-2 (65.9%) protein expression, in the recruited leukocytes. Indicaxanthin inhibited time- and dose- dependently the activation of NF-κB, a key transcription factor in the whole inflammatory cascade. A pharmacokinetic study with a single 2 μmol/kg oral administration showed a maximum 0.22 ± 0.02 μmol/L (n = 15) plasma concentration of indicaxanthin, with a half-life of 1.15 ± 0.11 h. When considering the high bioavailability of indicaxanthin in humans, our findings suggest that this dietary pigment has the potential to improve health and prevent inflammation-based disorders. PMID:24306215

  19. Extraordinary Light-Induced Local Angular Momentum near Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alabastri, Alessandro; Yang, Xiao; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Everitt, Henry O; Nordlander, Peter

    2016-04-26

    The intense local field induced near metallic nanostructures provides strong enhancements for surface-enhanced spectroscopies, a major focus of plasmonics research over the past decade. Here we consider that plasmonic nanoparticles can also induce remarkably large electromagnetic field gradients near their surfaces. Sizeable field gradients can excite dipole-forbidden transitions in nearby atoms or molecules and provide unique spectroscopic fingerprinting for chemical and bimolecular sensing. Specifically, we investigate how the local field gradients near metallic nanostructures depend on geometry, polarization, and wavelength. We introduce the concept of the local angular momentum (LAM) vector as a useful figure of merit for the design of nanostructures that provide large field gradients. This quantity, based on integrated fields rather than field gradients, is particularly well-suited for optimization using numerical grid-based full wave electromagnetic simulations. The LAM vector has a more compact structure than the gradient matrix and can be straightforwardly associated with the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field incident on the plasmonic structures. PMID:27045994

  20. The Myeloid LSECtin Is a DAP12-Coupled Receptor That Is Crucial for Inflammatory Response Induced by Ebola Virus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dianyuan; Han, Xintao; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Zaopeng; Liu, Di; Han, Ke; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Wenting; Dong, Qingyang; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Tang, Li; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Fatal Ebola virus infection is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response similar to septic shock. Ebola glycoprotein (GP) is involved in this process through activating dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. However, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we showed that LSECtin (also known as CLEC4G) plays an important role in GP-mediated inflammatory responses in human DCs. Anti-LSECtin mAb engagement induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in DCs, whereas silencing of LSECtin abrogated this effect. Intriguingly, as a pathogen-derived ligand, Ebola GP could trigger TNF-α and IL-6 release by DCs through LSECtin. Mechanistic investigations revealed that LSECtin initiated signaling via association with a 12-kDa DNAX-activating protein (DAP12) and induced Syk activation. Mutation of key tyrosines in the DAP12 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif abrogated LSECtin-mediated signaling. Furthermore, Syk inhibitors significantly reduced the GP-triggered cytokine production in DCs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that LSECtin is required for the GP-induced inflammatory response, providing new insights into the EBOV-mediated inflammatory response. PMID:26943817

  1. Nuclear DNA damage-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes UVB-induced inflammatory responses in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Nakashima, Masaya; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-26

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight can result in DNA damage and an inflammatory reaction of the skin commonly known as sunburn, which in turn can lead to cutaneous tissue disorders. However, little has been known about how UV-induced DNA damage mediates the release of inflammatory mediators from keratinocytes. Here, we show that UVB radiation intensity-dependently increases NLRP3 gene expression and IL-1β production in human keratinocytes. Knockdown of NLRP3 with siRNA suppresses UVB-induced production of not only IL-1β, but also other inflammatory mediators, including IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2. In addition, inhibition of DNA damage repair by knockdown of XPA, which is a major component of the nucleotide excision repair system, causes accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that NLRP3 expression is also elevated in UV-irradiated human epidermis. Overall, our findings indicate that UVB-induced DNA damage initiates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to release of various inflammatory mediators from human keratinocytes. PMID:27343554

  2. The citrus flavonone naringenin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory pain and leukocyte recruitment by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Mizokami, Sandra S; Borghi, Sergio M; Bordignon, Juliano; Silva, Rangel L; Cunha, Thiago M; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major structural component of Gram-negative bacteria cell wall and a highly pro-inflammatory toxin. Naringenin is found in Citrus fruits and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of NF-κB activation but its effects in LPS-induced inflammatory pain and leukocyte recruitment were not investigated yet. We investigated the effects of naringenin in mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and leukocyte recruitment induced by intraplantar injection of LPS in mice. We found that naringenin reduced hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli, myeloperoxidase (MPO, a neutrophil and macrophage marker) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, a macrophage marker) activities, oxidative stress and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) production in the paw skin. In the peritoneal cavity, naringenin reduced neutrophil and mononuclear cell recruitment, and abrogated MPO and NAG activity, cytokine and superoxide anion production, and lipid peroxidation. In vitro, pre-treatment with naringenin inhibited superoxide anion and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) production by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Finally, we demonstrated that naringenin inhibited NF-κB activation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, naringenin is a promising compound to treat LPS-induced inflammatory pain and leukocyte recruitment. PMID:27260463

  3. Polyphenolic fraction of Lonicera caerulea L. fruits reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory markers induced by lipopolysaccharide in gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zdarilová, A; Rajnochová Svobodová, A; Chytilová, K; Simánek, V; Ulrichová, J

    2010-06-01

    The most common oral diseases have a microbial aetiology. Pathogenic bacteria liberate a number of irritating agents including a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activates pro-inflammatory cytokines promoting increased activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN). Release of PMN-derived free radicals into an infected gingival area affects gums, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. Berries of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) are rich in phenolics, particularly phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins that have multiple biological activities in vitro and in vivo such as antiadherence, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Studies have shown that polyphenols suppress a number of LPS-induced signals and thus could be effective against gingivitis. Here we assessed effects of the polyphenolic fraction of L. caerulea fruits (PFLC; containing 77% anthocyanins) on LPS-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in human gingival fibroblasts. Application of PFLC (10-50mug/ml) reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion as well as lipid peroxidation in LPS-treated cells. PFLC treatment also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and it suppressed expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects are presumably linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and suggest its use in attenuating the inflammatory process, including periodontal disease. PMID:20332009

  4. The Myeloid LSECtin Is a DAP12-Coupled Receptor That Is Crucial for Inflammatory Response Induced by Ebola Virus Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dianyuan; Han, Xintao; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Zaopeng; Liu, Di; Han, Ke; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Wenting; Dong, Qingyang; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Tang, Li; He, Fuchu

    2016-03-01

    Fatal Ebola virus infection is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response similar to septic shock. Ebola glycoprotein (GP) is involved in this process through activating dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. However, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we showed that LSECtin (also known as CLEC4G) plays an important role in GP-mediated inflammatory responses in human DCs. Anti-LSECtin mAb engagement induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in DCs, whereas silencing of LSECtin abrogated this effect. Intriguingly, as a pathogen-derived ligand, Ebola GP could trigger TNF-α and IL-6 release by DCs through LSECtin. Mechanistic investigations revealed that LSECtin initiated signaling via association with a 12-kDa DNAX-activating protein (DAP12) and induced Syk activation. Mutation of key tyrosines in the DAP12 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif abrogated LSECtin-mediated signaling. Furthermore, Syk inhibitors significantly reduced the GP-triggered cytokine production in DCs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that LSECtin is required for the GP-induced inflammatory response, providing new insights into the EBOV-mediated inflammatory response. PMID:26943817

  5. Acetone extract from Streptoverticillium sp., a bacterium isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil, induces anti-inflammatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Rodrigo B; Galdino, Pablinny M; Penna, Karlla G B D; Hoffmann, Karen; Costa, Elson A; Bataus, Luiz A M

    2013-01-01

    The Streptoverticillium sp. Z1 is an actinomycete isolated from the soil under Cerrado vegetation, the extract of this strain was investigated in nociceptive and inflammatory models. The Streptoverticillium extract (ExS) 50 and 100 mg/kg (s.c.) produced a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings thereby demonstrating an anti-nociceptive effect. In the tail flick test the ExS (s.c.) was inactive. This result implited that ExS does not contain opioid-like compounds with central analgesic properties. In the inflammatory models, ExS 100 and 200 mg/kg (s.c.) were able to inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and, ExS 200 and 500 mg/kg (s.c.) inhibited the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The phospholipase A2 enzymatic assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of ExS was not due to direct effect on phospholipase A2 activity. These data suggest that Streptoverticillium sp. produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory effect and that these metabolites are unable to directly inhibit phospholipase A2 enzyme. PMID:23828355

  6. Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Caulerpa mexicana Suppress Cell Migration and Ear Edema Induced by Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angelica Oliveira; Dantas, Gracielle Rodrigues; Lira, Daysianne Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; de Miranda, George Emmanuel Cavalcanti; de Oliveira Santos, Barbara Viviana; Souto, Janeusa Trindade

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of the inflammatory response is essential to maintaining homeostasis. Several studies have investigated new drugs that may contribute to avoiding or minimizing excessive inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of green algae Caulerpa mexicana on models inflammation. In mice, the inflammatory peritonitis model is induced by zymosan. Previous treatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. mexicana was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity, in a time-dependent but not in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of mice with C. mexicana extracts also decreased the xylene-induced ear edema, exerting strong inhibitory leukocyte migration elicited by zymosan into the air pouch. We concluded that administration of the extracts resulted in a reduction of cell migration to different sites as well as a decrease in edema formation induced by chemical irritants. This study demonstrates for the first time the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts from the green marine algae Caulerpa mexicana. PMID:21892348

  7. Selenium Deficiency-Induced Inflammation and Increased Expression of Regulating Inflammatory Cytokines in the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xing, Houjuan; Yu, Jiao; Zhang, Naisheng; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element, plays an important role in various aspects of health for a wide range of species, including birds. Se deficiency inhibits the growth of immune organs and decreases immune function, leading to many inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the effects and mechanism of dietary Se deficiency on gastrointestinal tract tissue inflammation. The histopathological changes showed that Se deficiency induced inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum). The expression levels of PTGE (prostagland E synthase), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α), and NF-κB (nuclear transfer factor κB) in the gastrointestinal tract tissues (glandular stomach, gizzard, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum) were determined by qPCR on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The results showed that Se deficiency induced high expression levels of PTGE, COX-2, TNF-α, and NF-κB in the gastrointestinal tract tissues. The effects were more obvious in the duodenum and small intestine than those in the glandular stomach, gizzard, and rectum. In addition, the expression levels of these proteins in the gastrointestinal tract tissue increased in a time-dependent manner with Se deficiency feeding time. Furthermore, Se deficiency induced the production of pro-inflammatory factors, thus aggravating inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of Se deficiency on inflammation and other gastrointestinal tract diseases should be further studied. PMID:26899319

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory cytokine secretion in smooth muscle cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Xiao Jie; Cao, Li Juan; Liu, Xin He; Liu, Zhu Hui; Wang, Xiao Qun; Chen, Qiu Jin; Lu, Lin; Shen, Wei Feng; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-regulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regarded as an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in oxLDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in SMCs both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the levels of TLR4, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression were increased in the SMCs of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with femoral artery stenosis. In cultured primary arterial SMCs from wild type mice, oxLDL caused dose- and time-dependent increase in the expression levels of TLR4 and cytokines. These effects were significantly weakened in arterial SMCs derived from TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4-/-). Moreover, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was blocked by TLR4-specific antibodies in primary SMCs. Ox-LDL induced activation of p38 and NFκB was also inhibited in TLR4-/- primary SMCs or when treated with TLR4-specific antibodies. These results demonstrated that TLR4 is a crucial mediator in oxLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion, and p38 and NFκB activation. PMID:24755612

  9. Paeonol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cells and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Liu, Dianfeng; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Sun, Jingjing; Zhong, Weiting; Guo, Weixiao; Huo, Meixia; Li, Hongyu; Guan, Shuang; Chen, Zhenwen; Feng, Haihua

    2014-06-01

    Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is the main phenolic compound of the radix of Paeonia suffruticosa which has been used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we primarily investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of paeonol in RAW macrophage cells; and based on these effects, we assessed the protective effects of paeonol on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia in mice. The in vitro study showed that paeonol regulated the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 via inactivation of IκBα, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. In mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are significantly regulated, and thus the survival rates of lipolysaccharide-challenged mice are improved by paeonol (150, 200, or 250 mg/kg). Therefore, paeonol has a beneficial activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell and mouse models. PMID:23413967

  10. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  11. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia. PMID:25790452

  12. Divergent Systemic and Local Inflammatory Response to Hind Limb Demand Ischemia in Wild Type And ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Robert S.; Albadawi, Hassan; Robaldo, Alessandro; Peck, Michael A.; Abularrage, Christopher J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.; Watkins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies were designed to determine whether the ApoE−/− phenotype modulates the local skeletal muscle and systemic inflammatory (plasma) responses to lower extremity demand ischemia. The ApoE−/− phenotype is an experimental model for atherosclerosis in humans. Methods Aged female ApoE −/− and C57BL6 mice underwent femoral artery ligation, then divided into sedentary and demand ischemia (exercise) groups on day 14. Baseline and post exercise limb perfusion and hind limb function were assessed. On day 14, animals in the demand ischemia group underwent daily treadmill exercise through day 28. Sedentary mice were not exercised. On day 28, plasma and skeletal muscle from ischemic limbs were harvested from sedentary and exercised mice. Muscle was assayed for angiogenic and pro-inflammatory proteins, markers of skeletal muscle regeneration, and evidence of skeletal muscle fiber maturation. Results Hind limb ischemia was similar in ApoE −/− and C57 mice prior to the onset of exercise. Under sedentary conditions, plasma VEGF, IL-6, but not KC or MIP-2 were higher in ApoE (P<0.0001). Following exercise, plasma levels of VEGF, KC and MIP-2, but not IL-6 were lower in ApoE (P<0.004). The cytokines KC and MIP-2 in muscle was greater in exercised ApoE−/− mice as compared to C57BL6 mice (p=0.01). Increased PAR activity, and mature muscle regeneration was associated with demand ischemia in the C57BL6 mice as compared to the ApoE −/− mice (p=0.01). Conclusion Demand limb ischemia in the ApoE−/− phenotype exacerbated the expression of select systemic cytokines in plasma and blunted indices of muscle regeneration. PMID:23528286

  13. Local translation and retrograde axonal transport of CREB regulates IL-6-induced nociceptive plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings

  14. Suppressive effects of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill extracts on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzy-Yen; Sun, Hai-Lun; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen; Chen, Pei-Yin; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Kai-Li

    2013-05-01

    Indigofera suffruticosa Mill is used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammation. The aim of this study is to assess the anti-inflammatory potency of I. suffruticosa and its likely molecular mechanisms of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Both water and ethanolic extracts of I. suffruticosa significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α, and pro-interleukin-1β. Moreover, LPS-induced inhibitory factor-κB-α phosphorylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear protein-DNA binding affinity, and NF-κB reporter gene activity were dramatically inhibited by I. suffruticosa extracts. Exogenous addition of I. suffruticosa significantly induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, and the presence of HO-1 small interfering RNA partly reversed the inhibitory effects of I. suffruticosa on LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression. Furthermore, I. suffruticosa induced HO-1 expression may be through activation of the ERK/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 pathway. Eight phenolic compounds were found in the I. suffruticosa extracts, but salicylic acid was the only one detected in the plasma of mice fed with I. suffruticosa extracts. In summary, I. suffruticosa have a strong anti-inflammatory property that diminishes pro-inflammatory mediator expressions by lessening LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. PMID:23352929

  15. Local measurement of optically induced photocurrent in semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesova, Marketa; Dobis, Pavel; Tomanek, Pavel; Uhdeova, Nadezda

    2003-07-01

    Photocurrent (PC) spectroscopic techniques have demonstrated to be helpful experimental method to investigate the local properties of bulk semiconductors, microstructures, surfaces and interfaces. We have measured locally induced PC of semiconductor quantum structures using a technique of reflection Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope (r-SNOM) in combination with Ti:Sapphire laser and tuning dye laser and with He-Ne laser. The r-SNOM employs an uncoated and/or Au-metalized single-mode fiber tip both in illumination and collection mode. Taking opportunity of the high lateral resolution of the microscope and combining it with fast micro-PL, it is possible to locate e.g. defects in a multiple quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Near-field characteristics of measured quantities are also discussed.

  16. Interaction-induced localization of mobile impurities in ultracold systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; An, Jin; Ting, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The impurities, introduced intentionally or accidentally into certain materials, can significantly modify their characteristics or reveal their intrinsic physical properties, and thus play an important role in solid-state physics. Different from those static impurities in a solid, the impurities realized in cold atomic systems are naturally mobile. Here we propose an effective theory for treating some unique behaviors exhibited by ultracold mobile impurities. Our theory reveals the interaction-induced transition between the extended and localized impurity states, and also explains the essential features obtained from several previous models in a unified way. Based on our theory, we predict many intriguing phenomena in ultracold systems associated with the extended and localized impurities, including the formation of the impurity-molecules and impurity-lattices. We hope this investigation can open up a new avenue for the future studies on ultracold mobile impurities. PMID:24192986

  17. Interaction-induced localization of mobile impurities in ultracold systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; An, Jin; Ting, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    The impurities, introduced intentionally or accidentally into certain materials, can significantly modify their characteristics or reveal their intrinsic physical properties, and thus play an important role in solid-state physics. Different from those static impurities in a solid, the impurities realized in cold atomic systems are naturally mobile. Here we propose an effective theory for treating some unique behaviors exhibited by ultracold mobile impurities. Our theory reveals the interaction-induced transition between the extended and localized impurity states, and also explains the essential features obtained from several previous models in a unified way. Based on our theory, we predict many intriguing phenomena in ultracold systems associated with the extended and localized impurities, including the formation of the impurity-molecules and impurity-lattices. We hope this investigation can open up a new avenue for the future studies on ultracold mobile impurities.

  18. Tokamak Plasma Flows Induced by Local RF Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    The tokamak plasma flows induced by the local radio frequency (RF) forces in the core region are analyzed. The effective components of local RF forces are composed of the momentum absorption term and the resonant parallel momentum transport term (i.e. the parallel component of the resonant ponderomotive forces). Different momentum balance relations are employed to calculate the plasma flows depending on different assumptions of momentum transport. With the RF fields solved from RF simulation codes, the toroidal and poloidal flows by these forces under the lower hybrid current drive and the mode conversion ion cyclotron resonance heating on EAST-like plasmas are evaluated. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405218, 11325524, 11375235 and 11261140327), in part by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB111002, 2013GB112001 and 2013GB112010), and the Program of Fusion Reactor Physics and Digital Tokamak with the CAS “One-Three-Five” Strategic Planning

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of locally applied enzyme-loaded ultradeformable vesicles on an acute cutaneous model.

    PubMed

    Simões, Sandra; Marques, Cláudia; Cruz, Maria Eugénia; Martins, Maria Bárbara Figueira

    2009-11-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) are active scavengers of reactive oxygen species and were incorporated into ultradeformable vesicles with the aim of increasing enzyme bioavailability (skin delivery). These special very adaptable vesicles have been formulated and optimized for enzyme transport in order to penetrate into or across the intact skin barrier. Anti-inflammatory activity of SOD-loaded, CAT-loaded and of SOD- and CAT-loaded ultradeformable vesicles applied epicutaneously was measured using different protein doses on the skin, on an arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear oedema. The biological anti-oedema activity is a measurement of drug-targeting potentiation in the organ. Delivery by means of deformable vesicles was compared to conventional vesicles or the absence of an enzyme carrier mediated transport. This was done at various times following prophylactic application of the test formulations. Positive reference groups were treated epicutaneously with several low molecular weight non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The latter included indomethacin (3 mg kg(-1)), etofenamate (30 mg kg(-1)) and piroxicam (1 mg kg(-1)) and reduced the oedema by 94 +/- 4%, 81 +/- 4% and 42 +/- 5%, respectively, if measured 30 min after ear treatment with a NSAID. Of the enzyme-loaded carriers tested, only the enzyme-loaded ultradeformable vesicles reduced the swelling of ears significantly: SOD (90 microg kg(-1)), CAT (250 microg kg(-1)) and SOD (90 microg kg(-1)) plus CAT (250 microg kg(-1)) reduced the oedema by 70 +/- 12%, 65 +/- 10% and 61 +/- 19%, respectively, at t = 30 min. Aqueous enzyme solutions and empty carriers had no such effect. The combination of two enzymes resulted in no increased therapeutic effect, but the results are inconclusive since only two dose combinations were tested. The results presented in this study suggest that antioxidant enzymes delivered by means of ultradeformable lipid vesicles can serve as a novel region

  20. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 9 attenuates sepsis-induced mortality through suppressing excessive inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Yang, Xiaohua; Xiang, Yianxiao; Li, Hui; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Jun; Caudle, Yi; Zhang, Xiumei; Yin, Deling

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality, is caused by overwhelming systemic host-inflammatory response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in induction of hyperinflammation and tissue damage in sepsis. In this study, we demonstrate a protective role of TLR9 inhibition against the dysregulated inflammatory response and tissue injury in sepsis. TLR9 deficiency decreased the mortality of mice following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) -induced sepsis. TLR9 knockout mice showed dampened p38 activation and augmented Akt phosphorylation in the spleen, lung and liver. In addition, TLR9 deficiency decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines and attenuated splenic apoptosis after CLP. These results indicate that TLR9 inhibition might offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of sepsis. PMID:25880099

  1. SIK inhibition in human myeloid cells modulates TLR and IL-1R signaling and induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria Stella; Gilliéron, Corine; Dietrich, Damien; Gabay, Cem

    2016-05-01

    Macrophage polarization into a phenotype producing high levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and low levels of proinflammatory IL-12 and TNF-α cytokines plays a pivotal role in the resolution of inflammation. Salt-inducible kinases synergize with TLR signaling to restrict the formation of these macrophages. The expression and function of salt-inducible kinase in primary human myeloid cells are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrated that the differentiation from peripheral blood monocytes to macrophages or dendritic cells induced a marked up-regulation of salt-inducible kinase protein expression. With the use of 2 structurally unrelated, selective salt-inducible kinase inhibitors, HG-9-91-01 and ARN-3236, we showed that salt-inducible kinase inhibition significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-12p40) and increased IL-10 secretion by human myeloid cells stimulated with TLR2 and-4 agonists. Differently than in mouse cells, salt-inducible kinase inhibition did not enhance IL-1Ra production in human macrophages. Salt-inducible kinase inhibition blocked several markers of proinflammatory (LPS + IFN-γ)-polarized macrophages [M(LPS + IFN-γ)] and induced a phenotype characterized by low TNF-α/IL-6/IL-12p70 and high IL-10. The downstream effects observed with salt-inducible kinase inhibitors on cytokine modulation correlated with direct salt-inducible kinase target (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3 and histone deacetylase 4) dephosphorylation in these cells. More importantly, we showed for the first time that salt-inducible kinase inhibition decreases proinflammatory cytokines in human myeloid cells upon IL-1R stimulation. Altogether, our results expand the potential therapeutic use of salt-inducible kinase inhibitors in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26590148

  2. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal-Placental Messaging.

    PubMed

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-02-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta forms the interface between mother and fetus. Highly controlled regulation of trans-placental trafficking is therefore essential for the healthy development of the growing fetus. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of protein and nucleic acids from the human placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi-directional has not yet been explored but could affect placental function and impact on the fetus.We hypothesized that the ability of the placenta to respond to maternal inflammatory signals is mediated by the interaction of maternal immune cell exosomes with placental trophoblast. Utilizing the BeWo cell line and whole placental explants, we demonstrated that the human placenta internalizes macrophage-derived exosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This uptake was via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, macrophage exosomes induced release of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta. Taken together, our data demonstrates that exosomes are actively transported into the human placenta and that exosomes from activated immune cells modulate placental cytokine production. This represents a novel mechanism by which immune cells can signal to the placental unit, potentially facilitating responses to maternal inflammation and infection, and thereby preventing harm to the fetus. PMID:26602702

  3. Anthrapyrazolone analogues intercept inflammatory JNK signals to moderate endotoxin induced septic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Karothu Durga; Trinath, Jamma; Biswas, Ansuman; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2014-11-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is one of the rising causes for mortality worldwide representing nearly 10% of intensive care unit admissions. Susceptibility to sepsis is identified to be mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors and responsive signaling pathways of the host. The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-mediated signaling events play critical role in bacterial infection triggered multi-organ failure, cardiac dysfunction and mortality. In the context of kinase specificities, an extensive library of anthrapyrazolone analogues has been investigated for the selective inhibition of c-JNK and thereby to gain control over the inflammation associated risks. In our comprehensive biochemical characterization, it is observed that alkyl and halogen substitution on the periphery of anthrapyrazolone increases the binding potency of the inhibitors specifically towards JNK. Further, it is demonstrated that hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions generated by these small molecules effectively block endotoxin-induced inflammatory genes expression in in vitro and septic shock in vivo, in a mouse model, with remarkable efficacies. Altogether, the obtained results rationalize the significance of the diversity oriented synthesis of small molecules for selective inhibition of JNK and their potential in the treatment of severe sepsis.

  4. Zinc deficiency enhanced inflammatory response by increasing immune cell activation and inducing IL6 promoter demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carmen P.; Rinaldi, Nicole A.; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Zinc deficiency results in immune dysfunction and promotes systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc deficiency on cellular immune activation and epigenetic mechanisms that promote inflammation. This work is potentially relevant to the aging population given that age-related immune defects, including chronic inflammation, coincide with declining zinc status. Methods and results An in vitro cell culture system and the aged mouse model were used to characterize immune activation and DNA methylation profiles that may contribute to the enhanced proinflammatory response mediated by zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency up-regulated cell activation markers ICAM1, MHC class II, and CD86 in THP1 cells, that coincided with increased IL1β and IL6 responses following LPS stimulation. A decreased zinc status in aged mice was similarly associated with increased ICAM1 and IL6 gene expression. Reduced IL6 promoter methylation was observed in zinc deficient THP1 cells, as well as in aged mice and human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from aged individuals. Conclusion Zinc deficiency induced inflammatory response in part by eliciting aberrant immune cell activation and altered promoter methylation. Our results suggested potential interactions between zinc status, epigenetics, and immune function, and how their dysregulation could contribute to chronic inflammation. PMID:25656040

  5. Gastrointestinal blood loss induced by three different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, A; Hammermaier, A; Nagyiványi, P; Pabst, G; Waitzinger, J

    1995-04-01

    A clinical study was performed on 18 healthy volunteers to compare the gastrointestinal daily blood loss induced by oral intake of three different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lysine clonixinate (CAS 55837-30-4), ibuprofen (CAS 15687-27-1) and acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2 ASA). For quantitative determination of gastrointestinal blood loss, autologous erythrocytes were radiolabelled in vitro with 51Cr and reinfused at study start. The amount of radioactivity excreted in faeces was measured during a placebo baseline phase of three days, a treatment phase of five days with thrice daily dosing of ASA, ibuprofen or lysine clonixinate and a subsequent wash-out phase of five days. The highest increase of mean daily blood loss over baseline was observed after treatment with ASA (+ 1.66 ml/d versus baseline). Treatment with ibuprofen led to an increase of mean daily blood loss by + 0.52 ml/d. During treatment with lysine clonixinate the mean increase of daily blood loss was +0.32 ml/d versus baseline. In the ibuprofen and lysine clonixinate treatment groups the values of mean daily blood loss decreased during the wash-out phase with respect to the verum phase, whereas the mean daily blood loss during the wash-out phase after treatment with ASA even increased in comparison to the verum phase (mean daily blood loss: +2.07 ml/d versus baseline. PMID:7779148

  6. The mycotoxin alternariol induces DNA damage and modify macrophage phenotype and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Solhaug, A; Wisbech, C; Christoffersen, T E; Hult, L O; Lea, T; Eriksen, G S; Holme, J A

    2015-11-19

    Alternariol (AOH), a mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi, is frequently found as a contaminant in fruit and grain products. Here we examined if AOH could modify macrophage phenotype and inflammatory responses. In RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages AOH changed the cell morphology of from round to star-shaped cells, with increased levels of CD83, CD86, CD11b, MHCII and endocytic activity. TNFα and IL-6 were enhanced at mRNA-level, but only TNFα showed increased secretion. No changes were found in IL-10 or IL-12p40 expression. Primary human macrophages changed the cell morphology from round into elongated shapes with dendrite-like protrusions in response to AOH. The levels of CD83 and CD86 were increased, HLA-DR and CD68 were down-regulated and CD80, CD200R and CD163 remained unchanged. Increased secretion of TNFα and IL-6 were found after AOH exposure, while IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70 were not changed. Furthermore, AOH reduced macrophage endocytic activity and autophagosomes. AOH was also found to induce DNA damage, which is suggested to be linked to the morphological and phenotypical changes. Thus, AOH was found to change the morphology and phenotype of the two cell models, but either of them could be characterized as typical M1/M2 macrophages or as dendritic cells (DC). PMID:26341179

  7. Anthrapyrazolone analogues intercept inflammatory JNK signals to moderate endotoxin induced septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Karothu Durga; Trinath, Jamma; Biswas, Ansuman; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is one of the rising causes for mortality worldwide representing nearly 10% of intensive care unit admissions. Susceptibility to sepsis is identified to be mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors and responsive signaling pathways of the host. The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-mediated signaling events play critical role in bacterial infection triggered multi-organ failure, cardiac dysfunction and mortality. In the context of kinase specificities, an extensive library of anthrapyrazolone analogues has been investigated for the selective inhibition of c-JNK and thereby to gain control over the inflammation associated risks. In our comprehensive biochemical characterization, it is observed that alkyl and halogen substitution on the periphery of anthrapyrazolone increases the binding potency of the inhibitors specifically towards JNK. Further, it is demonstrated that hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions generated by these small molecules effectively block endotoxin-induced inflammatory genes expression in in vitro and septic shock in vivo, in a mouse model, with remarkable efficacies. Altogether, the obtained results rationalize the significance of the diversity oriented synthesis of small molecules for selective inhibition of JNK and their potential in the treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:25428720

  8. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  9. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 regulates microvascular endothelial growth induced by inflammatory cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Takasawa, Wataru; Ohnuma, Kei; Hatano, Ryo; Endo, Yuko; Dang, Nam H.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta} induces EC proliferation with reduction of CD26 expression. {yields} CD26 siRNA or DPP-4 inhibition enhances TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta}-induced EC proliferation. {yields} Loss of CD26/DPP-4 enhances aortic sprouting induced by TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta}. {yields} Capillary formation induced by TNF-{alpha} or IL-1{beta} is enahced in the CD26{sup -/-} mice. -- Abstract: CD26/DPP-4 is abundantly expressed on capillary of inflamed lesion as well as effector T cells. Recently, CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been used as a novel oral therapeutic approach for patients with type 2 diabetes. While accumulating data indicate that vascular inflammation is a key feature of both micro- and macro-vascular complications in diabetes, the direct role of CD26/DPP-4 in endothelial biology is to be elucidated. We herein showed that proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-1 reduce expression of CD26 on microvascular endothelial cells, and that genetical or pharmacological inhibition of CD26/DPP-4 enhances endothelial growth both in vitro and in vivo. With DPP-4 inhibitors being used widely in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, our data strongly suggest that DPP-4 inhibition plays a pivotal role in endothelial growth and may have a potential role in the recovery of local circulation following diabetic vascular complications.

  10. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 μg/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-κB) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-κB translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. PMID:25433435

  11. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P < 0.001]) decreased VMR compared with the control group. Metamizole 200 mg/kg did not change responses but dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg metamizole reduced VMR. Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P < 0.05]). Conclusion: Metamizole, dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  12. Higher Activity of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Contributes to Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Sandeep S; Mastropaolo, Lucas A; Murchie, Ryan; Griffiths, Christopher; Thöni, Cornelia; Elkadri, Abdul; Xu, Wei; Mack, Amanda; Walters, Thomas; Guo, Conghui; Mack, David; Huynh, Hien; Baksh, Shairaz; Silverberg, Mark S; Brumell, John H; Snapper, Scott B; Muise, Aleixo M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The NOS2 gene encodes for the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), responsible for nitric oxide (NO) production, which contributes to antimicrobial and antipathogenic activities. Higher levels of both iNOS and NO-induced damage have been observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. NOS2 may have a role in a specific subset of IBD patients with severe and/or extensive colitis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the role of NOS2 in such a subset, very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD). METHODS: Seventeen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS2 gene were successfully genotyped in VEO-IBD patients. Genetic associations were replicated in an independent VEO-IBD cohort. Functional analysis for iNOS activity was performed on the most significantly associated functional variant. RESULTS: The NOS2 rs2297518 SNP was found to be associated in VEO-IBD in two independent cohorts. Upon combined analysis, a coding variant (S608L) showed the strongest association with VEO-IBD (Pcombined=1.13 × 10−6, OR (odds ratio)=3.398 (95% CI (confidence interval) 2.02–5.717)) as well as associations with VEO-Crohn's disease and VEO-ulcerative colitis (UC). This variant also showed an association with UC diagnosed between 11 and 17 years of age but not with adult-onset IBD (>17 years). B-cell lymphoblastoid cell lines genotyped for the risk variant as well as Henle-407 cells transfected with a plasmid construct with the risk variant showed higher NO production. Colonic biopsies of VEO-IBD patients showed higher immunohistochemical staining of nitrotyrosine, indicating more nitrosative stress and tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest the importance of iNOS in genetic susceptibility to younger IBD presentation due to higher NO production. PMID:24430113

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of BV2 microglial cells through TSG-6

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immunocompetent cells in brain tissue and microglia-mediated inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of various neuronal disorders. Recently, many studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display a remarkable ability to modulate inflammatory and immune responses through the release of a variety of bioactive molecules, thereby protecting the central nervous system. Previously, we reported that MSCs have the ability to modulate inflammatory responses in a traumatic brain injury model and that the potential mechanisms may be partially attributed to upregulated TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) expression. However, whether TSG-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by affecting microglia is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of MSCs and TSG-6 in an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial activation model. We found that MSCs and TSG-6 significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in activated microglia. However, MSC effects on microglia were attenuated when TSG-6 expression was silenced. In addition, we found that the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited by TSG-6. Furthermore, we found that the presence of CD44 in BV2 microglial cells was essential for MSC- and TSG-6-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression and of NF-κB and MAPK activation in BV2 microglial cells. The results of this study suggest that MSCs can modulate microglia activation through TSG-6 and that TSG-6 attenuates the inflammatory cascade in activated microglia. Our study indicates that novel mechanisms are responsible for the immunomodulatory effect of MSCs on microglia and that MSCs, as well as TSG-6, might be promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurotraumatic injuries or neuroinflammatory diseases associated with

  14. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC induces a prolonged

  15. Direct In Vivo Inflammatory Cell-Induced Corrosion of CoCrMo Alloy Orthopedic Implant Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi; Arnholt, Christina; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, used for over four decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40 to 100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and HCl to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. PMID:24619511

  16. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:23583806

  17. Cardiac RNA induces inflammatory responses in cardiomyocytes and immune cells via Toll-like receptor 7 signaling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Hongliang; Cai, Jiayan; Zou, Lin; Yan, Dan; Xu, Ganqiong; Li, Dan; Chao, Wei

    2015-10-30

    We have recently reported that extracellular RNA (exRNA) released from necrotic cells induces cytokine production in cardiomyocytes and immune cells and contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the signaling mechanism by which exRNA exhibits its pro-inflammatory effect is unknown. Here we hypothesize that exRNA directly induces inflammation through specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs). To test the hypothesis, we treated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), or mouse neutrophils with RNA (2.5-10 μg/ml) isolated from rat cardiomyocytes or the hearts from mouse, rat, and human. We found that cellular RNA induced production of several cytokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), ILs, TNFα, and the effect was completely diminished by RNase, but not DNase. The RNA-induced cytokine production was partially inhibited in cells treated with TLR7 antagonist or genetically deficient in TLR7. Deletion of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), a downstream adapter of TLRs including TLR7, abolished the RNA-induced MIP-2 production. Surprisingly, genetic deletion of TLR3 had no impact on the RNA-induced MIP-2 response. Importantly, extracellular RNA released from damaged cardiomyocytes also induced cytokine production. Finally, mice treated with 50 μg of RNA intraperitoneal injection exhibited acute peritonitis as evidenced by marked neutrophil and monocyte migration into the peritoneal space. Together, these data demonstrate that exRNA of cardiac origin exhibits a potent pro-inflammatory property in vitro and in vivo and that exRNA induces cytokine production through TLR7-MyD88 signaling. PMID:26363072

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of oroxylin A on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages induced with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; PARK, WANSU

    2016-01-01

    Oroxylin A (5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one; Baicalein 6-methyl ether) is an active flavonoid compound originally isolated from Scutellaria radix, which has been used to treat pulmonary infection in Korea, China, and Japan. Oroxylin A is known to possess dopamine reuptake inhibitor activity. However, the effects of oroxylin A on virus-induced macrophages has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of oroxylin A on double-stranded RNA-induced macrophages were examined. Production of nitric oxide (NO), various cytokines, as well as calcium release and the mRNA expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in dsRNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were evaluated. Oroxylin A restored the cell viability in PIC-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages at concentrations of up to 50 µM. Additionally, oroxylin A significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte macrophage-CSF, leukemia inhibitory factor (IL-6 class cytokine), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as calcium release and the mRNA expression of STAT1 in PIC-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P<0.05). Thus, the present results suggest that oroxylin A has anti-inflammatory properties, associated with its inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in PIC-induced macrophages via the calcium-STAT pathway. PMID:27347031

  19. Study on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of clomipramine in carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat models of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinov, Ilia; Delev, Delian; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Draganova, Krassimira; Kostadinova, Ivanka; Murdjeva, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of clomipramine in carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) models of inflammation by investigating the changes in serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β after single and repeated administration of the drug. In order to study the effect of single and repeated doses of clomipramine on carrageenan-induced paw oedema, male Wistar rats were divided in five groups (n = 8): control, positive control group and three experimental groups treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine, respectively. The effect of single and repeated doses of clomipramine on serum cytokine levels was studied as animals were divided in four groups: two control groups treated with saline and two experimental groups treated with clomipramine 20 mg/kg bw. Carrageenan and LPS were injected immediately after clomipramine or saline injection. Serum cytokine concentrations were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Following acute administration only the highest dose that was used inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation. Oedema inhibition was observed with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine after repeated administration. Single and repeated administration of clomipramine at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw did not significantly change the serum levels of TGF-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α when compared to the controls in carrageenan-induced inflammation. Following LPS-induced inflammation clomipramine significantly increased the serum levels of TGF-1β after repeated administration and decreased TNF-α in rats after single-dose and repeated pretreatment with 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine. A significant increase in the levels of IL-10 in relation to this inflammatory model was observed only in single dose treated animals. Clomipramine possesses an anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan-induced model of exudative inflammation. In LPS-induced inflammation

  20. 5-Fluorouracil Induces Diarrhea with Changes in the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Aquaporins in Mouse Intestines

    PubMed Central

    Sagara, Atsunobu; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Sato, Ken; Nishizaki, Maiko; Shoji, Tetsuro; Horie, Syunji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced diarrhea remain unclear, accumulating evidence has indicated that changes in the mucosal immune system and aquaporins (AQPs) may play a role in its pathogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the possible changes in the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and AQPs in the intestines of mice with 5-FU-induced diarrhea. In the present study, the expressions of mRNAs that encode inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Il-17A and IL-22, were significantly increased throughout the entire colon of mice that exhibited diarrhea following 5-FU administration. In contrast, the gene expression of IFNγ was upregulated only in the distal colon. These increases were significantly reduced by the administration of etanercept. However, 5-FU-induced diarrhea was not recovered by etanercept. On the other hand, the genes for AQPs 4 and 8 were markedly present in the colon, and these expressions in the intestines were significantly decreased by treatment with 5-FU. These decreases were not reversed by etanercept. These findings suggest TNF-α neutralization had no effect on the acutely 5-FU-induced diarrhea and impaired AQPs but reduced dramatically several inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23382968

  1. Parthenolide ameliorates Concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis in mice and modulates the macrophages to an anti-inflammatory state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Huafeng; Fu, Shuyu; Cheng, Xixi; Yang, Fengrui; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yan; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Huang, Wenjing; Yang, Luhong; Na, Dongchen; Da, Yurong; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-09-01

    Parthenolide, the principal sesquiterpene lactone present in medicinal plants such as feverfew, has anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of parthenolide against acute hepatitis in mice. Mice acute hepatitis were induced by Concanavalin A and treated by parthenolide in vivo. Results shown that parthenolide remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of the mice livers with Concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis. Meanwhile, parthenolide treatment recover the liver function which indicated by decreased the serum alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities and promoted the expression of Ki67 in the livers of these mice. In addition, parthenolide administration suppressed the Concanavalin A-induced immune reaction, as indicated by the number of F4/80, CD49b and CD4 cells present in the liver. Furthermore, parthenolide also significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Moreover, parthenolide exposure decreased the phosphorylation of STAT3 and p38, and promoted the phosphorylation of p53 in RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In conclusion, parthenolide represents a drug candidate to protect the liver against Concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis. The possible molecular mechanism involves the anti-inflammatory effects of parthenolide may by suppressing the STAT3/p38 signals and enhanced the p53 signals. PMID:27270078

  2. Arginine Relieves the Inflammatory Response and Enhances the Casein Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianyou; Wang, Chao; Ding, Luoyang; Shen, Yizhao; Cui, Huihui; Wang, Mengzhi; Wang, Hongrong

    2016-01-01

    As one of functional active amino acids, L-arginine holds a key position in immunity. However, the mechanism that arginine modulates cow mammary inflammatory response in ruminant is unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine on inflammatory response and casein expression after challenging the bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were divided into four groups, stimulated with or without LPS (10 μg/mL) and treated with or without arginine (100 μg/mL) for 12 h. The concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways as well as the casein was determined. The results showed that arginine reduced the LPS-induced production like IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS. Though the expression of NF-κB was attenuated and the mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated, arginine had no effect on TLR4 expression. In addition, our results show that the content of β-casein and the total casein were enhanced after arginine was supplemented in LPS-induced BMECs. In conclusion, arginine could relieve the inflammatory reaction induced by LPS and enhance the concentration of β-casein and the total casein in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27110069

  3. C. butyricum lipoteichoic acid inhibits the inflammatory response and apoptosis in HT-29 cells induced by S. aureus lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Qi, Lili; Mei, Lehe; Wu, Zhige; Wang, Hengzheng

    2016-07-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules of gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that Clostridium butyricum LTA (bLTA) significantly inhibited the inflammatory response and apoptosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus LTA (aLTA) in HT-29 cells. aLTA stimulated the inflammatory responses by activating a strong signal transduction cascade through NF-κB and ERK, but bLTA did not activate the signaling pathway. bLTA pretreatment inhibited the activation of the NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway induced by aLTA. The expression and release of cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF-α were also suppressed by bLTA pretreatment. aLTA treatment induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells, but bLTA did not affect the viability of the cells. Further study indicated that bLTA inhibited apoptosis in HT-29 cells induced by aLTA. These results suggest that bLTA may act as an aLTA antagonist and that an antagonistic bLTA may be a useful agent for suppressing the pro-inflammatory activities of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27020942

  4. Barrier protective effects of withaferin A in HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses in both cellular and animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Min, Kyoung-jin; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2012-07-01

    Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, is widely researched for its anti-inflammatory, cardioactive and central nervous system effects. In this study, we first investigated the possible barrier protective effects of WFA against pro-inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice induced by high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and the associated signaling pathways. The barrier protective activities of WFA were determined by measuring permeability, leukocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs. We found that WFA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-mediated barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and adhesion/transendothelial migration of leukocytes to human endothelial cells. WFA also suppressed acetic acid-induced hyperpermeability and carboxymethylcellulose-induced leukocytes migration in vivo. Further studies revealed that WFA suppressed the production of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results suggest that WFA protects vascular barrier integrity by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. -- Highlights: ► Withaferin A inhibited LPS induced HMGB1 release. ► Withaferin A reduced HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated adhesion and migration of leukocytes. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated activation of NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α.

  5. Epac1 and Epac2 are differentially involved in inflammatory and remodeling processes induced by cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburger, Anouk; Timens, Wim; Bos, Sophie; Smit, Marieke; Smrcka, Alan V.; Laurent, Anne-Coline; Cao, Junjun; Hylkema, Machteld; Meurs, Herman; Maarsingh, Harm; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Schmidt, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) induces inflammatory responses characterized by increase of immune cells and cytokine release. Remodeling processes, such as mucus hypersecretion and extracellular matrix protein production, are also directly or indirectly induced by CS. Recently, we showed that activation of the exchange protein directly activa