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Sample records for induces p53-dependent apoptosis

  1. Developmental regulation of p53-dependent radiation-induced thymocyte apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentil Dit Maurin, A; Lemercier, C; Collin-Faure, V; Marche, P N; Jouvin-Marche, E; Candéias, S M

    2015-01-01

    The production of T cell receptor αβ+ (TCRαβ+) T lymphocytes in the thymus is a tightly regulated process that can be monitored by the regulated expression of several surface molecules, including CD4, CD8, cKit, CD25 and the TCR itself, after TCR genes have been assembled from discrete V, D (for TCR-β) and J gene segments by a site-directed genetic recombination. Thymocyte differentiation is the result of a delicate balance between cell death and survival: developing thymocytes die unless they receive a positive signal to proceed to the next stage. This equilibrium is altered in response to various physiological or physical stresses such as ionizing radiation, which induces a massive p53-dependent apoptosis of CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Interestingly, these cells are actively rearranging their TCR-α chain genes. To unravel an eventual link between V(D)J recombination activity and thymocyte radio-sensitivity, we analysed the dynamics of thymocyte apoptosis and regeneration following exposure of wild-type and p53-deficient mice to different doses of γ-radiation. p53-dependent radio-sensitivity was already found to be high in immature CD4−CD8− (double-negative, DN) cKit+CD25+ thymocytes, where TCR-β gene rearrangement is initiated. However, TCR-αβ−CD8+ immature single-positive thymocytes, an actively cycling intermediate population between the DN and DP stages, are the most radio-sensitive cells in the thymus, even though their apoptosis is only partially p53-dependent. Within the DP population, TCR-αβ+ thymocytes that completed TCR-α gene recombination are more radio-resistant than their TCR-αβ− progenitors. Finally, we found no correlation between p53 activation and thymocyte sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:24635132

  2. Viral Single-Strand DNA Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Fagan, B. Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J.; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H.; Pevny, Larysa H.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication. PMID:22114676

  3. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  4. P53 dependent and independent apoptosis induced by lidamycin in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Jianming; Cheng, Chunlei; Yang, Ajing; He, Qiyang; Li, Diandong; Wang, Zhen

    2007-06-01

    Enediyne compound is one class of antibiotics with very potent anti-cancer activity. However, the role of p53 in enediyne antibiotic-induced cell killing remains elusive. Here we reported the involvement of p53 signaling pathway in apoptosis induction by lidamycin (LDM), a member of the enediyne antibiotic family. We found that LDM at low drug concentration of 10 nmol/L induces apoptotic cell death much more effectively in human colorectal cancer cells with wild type p53 than those with mutant or deleted p53. p53 is functionally activated as an early event in response to low dose LDM that precedes the significant apoptosis induction. The primarily activation of mitochondria as well as the activation of p53 transcriptional targets such as Puma, Bad and Bax in HCT116 p53 wild type cells further demonstrates the key role of p53 in mediating the compound-induced apoptosis. This is further supported by the observation that the absence of Bax or Puma decreases apoptosis dramatically while Bcl-2 overexpression confers partially resistance after drug treatment. Activation of p53 signaling pathway leads to activation of caspases and caspases inhibitor VAD-fmk completely blocks low dose LDM induced apoptosis through the inhibition of mitochondria pathway. In contrast, LDM at higher concentration causes rapid apoptosis through more direct DNA damaging mechanism that is independent of activation of p53 and caspases and cannot be blocked by caspase inhibitor. Taken together, LDM induces apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner when given at low doses, but in a p53-independent manner when given at high doses. This dosage-dependent regimen can be applied to cancer clinic based upon the p53 status of cancer patients. PMID:17534142

  5. p14(ARF) Prevents Proliferation of Aneuploid Cells by Inducing p53-Dependent Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Lorena; Barra, Viviana; Lentini, Laura; Spatafora, Sergio; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Weakening the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint by reduced expression of its components induces chromosome instability and aneuploidy that are hallmarks of cancer cells. The tumor suppressor p14(ARF) is overexpressed in response to oncogenic stimuli to stabilize p53 halting cell progression. Previously, we found that lack or reduced expression of p14(ARF) is involved in the maintenance of aneuploid cells in primary human cells, suggesting that it could be part of a pathway controlling their proliferation. To investigate this aspect further, p14(ARF) was ectopically expressed in HCT116 cells after depletion of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint MAD2 protein that was used as a trigger for aneuploidy. p14(ARF) Re-expression reduced the number of aneuploid cells in MAD2 post-transcriptionally silenced cells. Also aberrant mitoses, frequently displayed in MAD2-depleted cells, were decreased when p14(ARF) was expressed at the same time. In addition, p14(ARF) ectopic expression in MAD2-depleted cells induced apoptosis associated with increased p53 protein levels. Conversely, p14(ARF) ectopic expression did not induce apoptosis in HCT116 p53KO cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor suppressor p14(ARF) may have an important role in counteracting proliferation of aneuploid cells by activating p53-dependent apoptosis. PMID:25752701

  6. Cadmium Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl2 and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl2 concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22448262

  7. p53-dependent apoptosis contributes to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mei; Wei, Li; Guan, Xie; Li, Lianbing; Liu, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread non-occupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. DEHP has various deleterious effects including hepatotoxicity. p53 protein is a central sensor in cell apoptosis. In order to clarify the roles of p53 in DEHP-induced hepatotoxicity, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed daily with DEHP by gavage for 30 days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with DEHP for 24 h after pretreatment with NAC or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results indicated that after exposure to DEHP, hepatic histological changes such as hepatocyte edema, vacuolation and hepatic sinusoidal dilation, and increased apoptosis index were observed. In the liver, DEHP induced oxidative stress and DNA damage, which activated p53 in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with NAC significantly reduced ROS level and p53 expression in BRL cells. The suppressed Mdm2 also contributed to p53 accumulation. Activated p53 mediated hepatocyte apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, inhibiting anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and inducing pro-apoptotic Bax, cytochrome c and caspases. In p53-silenced BRL cells, hepatocyte apoptosis mediated by p53 was attenuated. PCNA protein level was upregulated after p53 gene silencing. However, the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway did not exhibit activated signs in DEHP-caused hepatotoxicity. Taken together, DEHP-caused oxidative stress and Mdm2 downregulation contribute to p53 activation. The p53-dependent apoptotic pathway plays critical and indispensable roles in DEHP-induced hepatotoxicity, while the Fas/FasL pathway does not involve in this molecular event. PMID:26549752

  8. Novel small molecule induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Eun; Min, Yong Ki; Ha, Jae Du; Kim, Bum Tae; Lee, Woo Ghil . E-mail: bigguy@krict.re.kr

    2007-07-06

    Using high-throughput screening with small-molecule libraries, we identified a compound, KCG165 [(2-(3-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy)-1,10b-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c] quinazolin-5(6H)-one)], which strongly activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity. KCG165-induced phosphorylations of p53 at Ser{sup 6}, Ser{sup 15}, and Ser{sup 20}, which are all key residues involved in the activation and stabilization of p53. Consistent with these findings, KCG165 increased level of p53 protein and led to the accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 in the nucleus with the increased occupancy of p53 in the endogenous promoter region of its downstream target gene, p21{sup WAF1/CIP}. Notably, KCG165-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, we suggested topoisomerase II as the molecular target of KCG165. Together, these results indicate that KCG165 may have potential applications as an antitumor agent.

  9. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate-induced apoptosis through the ATM- and p53-dependent intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Schweikl, Helmut; Petzel, Christine; Bolay, Carola; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Krifka, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Resin monomers of dental composites like 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) disturb cell functions including responses of the innate immune system, mineralization and differentiation of dental pulp-derived cells, or induce cell death via apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis is related to the availability of the antioxidant glutathione, although a detailed understanding of the signaling pathways is still unknown. The present study provides insight into the causal relationship between oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, and the specific signaling pathway leading to HEMA-induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. The differential expression of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in HEMA-exposed cells indicated oxidative stress, which was associated with the cleavage of pro-caspase 3 as a critical apoptosis executioner. A 2-fold increase in the amount of mitochondrial superoxide anions after a 24 h exposure to HEMA (6-8 mM) was paralleled by a considerable decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Additionally, expression of proteins critical for the signaling of apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway was detected. Transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms of p53-regulated apoptosis were activated, and p53 was translocated from the cytosol to mitochondria. HEMA-induced transcriptional activity of p53 was indicated by increased levels of PUMA localized to mitochondria as a potent inducer of apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL and Bax suggested that cells responded to stress caused by HEMA via the activation of a complicated and antagonistic machinery of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. A HEMA-induced and oxidative stress-sensitive delay of the cell cycle, indicating a DNA damage response, occurred independent of the influence of KU55399, a potent inhibitor of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) activity. However, ATM, a protein kinase which

  10. Dysfunctional telomeres induce p53-dependent and independent apoptosis to compromise cellular proliferation and inhibit tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Xinwei; Flores, Elsa R; Yu, Jian; Chang, Sandy

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with progressive telomere shortening, resulting in the formation of dysfunctional telomeres that compromise tissue proliferation. However, dysfunctional telomeres can limit tumorigenesis by activating p53-dependent cellular senescence and apoptosis. While activation of both senescence and apoptosis is required for repress tumor formation, it is not clear which pathway is the major tumor suppressive pathway in vivo. In this study, we generated Eμ-myc; Pot1b(∆/∆) mouse to directly compare tumor formation under conditions in which either p53-dependent apoptosis or senescence is activated by telomeres devoid of the shelterin component Pot1b. We found that activation of p53-dependent apoptosis plays a more critical role in suppressing lymphoma formation than p53-dependent senescence. In addition, we found that telomeres in Pot1b(∆/∆) ; p53(-/-) mice activate an ATR-Chk1-dependent DNA damage response to initiate a robust p53-independent, p73-dependent apoptotic pathway that limited stem cell proliferation but suppressed B-cell lymphomagenesis. Our results demonstrate that in mouse models, both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis are important to suppressing tumor formation. PMID:27113195

  11. Neuropeptide Y protects kidney against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating p53-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namoh; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Min Hee; Lee, Jong Kil; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury. However, the role of NPY in chemotherapy- induced nephrotoxicity has not been studied. Here, we show that NPY rescues renal dysfunction by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity through Y1 receptor, suggesting that NPY can protect kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity as a possible useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 288-292]. PMID:26728272

  12. TEL/ETV6 induces apoptosis in 32D cells through p53-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, Tetsuya; Maki, Kazuhiro; Waga, Kazuo; Mitani, Kinuko . E-mail: kinukom-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2006-08-25

    TEL is an ETS family transcription factor that is critical for maintaining hematopoietic stem cells in adult bone marrow. To investigate the roles of TEL in myeloid proliferation and differentiation, we introduced TEL cDNA into mouse myeloid 32Dcl3 cells. Overexpression of TEL repressed interleukin-3-dependent proliferation through blocking cell cycle progression. Also, the presence of TEL triggered apoptosis through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on exposure to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. We found an increase in p53 protein and its DNA binding in the TEL-overexpressing cells. Forced expression of TEL stimulated transcription via the p53-responsive element and increased the expression of cellular target genes for p53 such as cell cycle regulator p21 and apoptosis inducer Puma. Consistently, induction of apoptosis was delayed by pifithrin-{alpha} treatment and completely blocked by increased expression of Bcl-2 in the TEL-overexpressing cells. These data collectively suggest that TEL exerts a tumor suppressive function through augmenting the p53 pathway and facilitates normal development of myelopoiesis.

  13. Chromium oxide nanoparticle-induced genotoxicity and p53-dependent apoptosis in human lung alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Violet Aileen; Jain, Abhishek Kumar; Gupta, Govind Sharan; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-10-01

    Chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ) nanoparticles (NPs) are being increasingly used as a catalyst for aromatic compound manufacture, abrading agents and as pigments (e.g., Viridian). Owing to increased applications, it is important to study the biological effects of Cr2 O3 NPs on human health. The lung is one of the main exposure routes to nanomaterials; therefore, the present study was designed to determine the genotoxic and apoptotic effect of Cr2 O3 NPs in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The study also elucidated the molecular mechanism of its toxicity. Cr2 O3 NPs led to DNA damage, which was deduced by comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The damage could be mediated by the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Further, the oxygen species led to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2 leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by Cr2 O3 NPs, which ultimately leads to cell death. Hence, there is a need of regulations to be imposed in NP usage. The study provided insight into the caspase-dependent mechanistic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:26086747

  14. Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro by inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Soo A; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Intra-articular injection of local anesthetics (LAs) is a common procedure for therapeutic purposes. However, LAs have been found toxic to articular cartilage, and hyaluronan may attenuate this toxicity. In this study we investigated whether hyaluronan attenuated lidocaine-induced chondrotoxicity, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line SW1353 and newly isolated murine chondrocytes were incubated in culture medium containing hyaluronan and/or lidocaine for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with DAPI staining, caspase 3/7 activity assay and flow cytometry. Cell cycle distributions, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined using flow cytometry. The expression of p53 and p53-regulated gene products was measured with Western blotting. Results: Lidocaine (0.005%−0.03%) dose-dependently decreased the viability of SW1353 cells. This local anesthetic (0.015%, 0.025%) induced apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and loss of ΔΨm, and markedly increased ROS production in SW1353 cells. Hyaluronan (50−800 μg/mL) alone did not affect the cell viability, but co-treatment with hyaluronan (200 μg/mL) significantly attenuated lidocaine-induced apoptosis and other abnormalities in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with lidocaine and hyaluronan significantly decreased the levels of p53 and its transcription targets Bax and p21 in SW1353 cells, although treatment with lidocaine alone did not significantly change these proteins. Similar results were obtained in ex vivo cultured murine chondrocytes. Conclusion: Hyaluronan suppresses lidocaine-induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes in vitro through inhibiting the p53-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27041463

  15. Calcarea carbonica induces apoptosis in cancer cells in p53-dependent manner via an immuno-modulatory circuit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complementary medicines, including homeopathy, are used by many patients with cancer, usually alongside with conventional treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms underneath the anti-cancer effect, if any, of these medicines have still remained unexplored. To this end we attempted to evaluate the efficacy of calcarea carbonica, a homeopathic medicine, as an anti-cancer agent and to delineate the detail molecular mechanism(s) underlying calcerea carbonica-induced tumor regression. Methods To investigate and delineate the underlying mechanisms of calcarea carbonica-induced tumor regression, Trypan blue dye-exclusion test, flow cytometric, Western blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were employed. Further, siRNA transfections and inhibitor studies were used to validate the involvement of p53 pathway in calcarea carbonica-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Results Interestingly, although calcarea carbonica administration to Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC)- and Sarcoma-180 (S-180)-bearing Swiss albino mice resulted in 30-35% tumor cell apoptosis, it failed to induce any significant cell death in ex vivo conditions. These results prompted us to examine whether calcarea carbonica employs the immuno-modulatory circuit in asserting its anti-tumor effects. Calcarea carbonica prevented tumor-induced loss of effector T cell repertoire, reversed type-2 cytokine bias and attenuated tumor-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation in tumor-bearing host. To confirm the role of immune system in calcarea carbonica-induced cancer cell death, a battery of cancer cells were co-cultured with calcarea carbonica-primed T cells. Our results indicated a "two-step" mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by calcarea carbonica i.e., (1) activation of the immune system of the host; and (2) induction of cancer cell apoptosis via immuno-modulatory circuit in p53-dependent manner by down-regulating Bcl-2:Bax ratio. Bax up-regulation resulted in

  16. p53-Dependent apoptosis induced in human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells by PM(2.5) sampled from air in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Liang, Guiqiang; Qin, Huiyan; Peng, Xiaowu; Huang, Jiongli; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Zhang, Li'e; Chen, Li; Ye, Li; Niu, Piye; Zou, Yunfeng

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. In this study, human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells were exposed to different concentrations (16-128 µg/ml) of PM(2.5) for 24 h to investigate the apoptosis induced by PM(2.5). The results showed that PM(2.5) exposure significantly induced apoptosis, DNA strand breaks, and oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner in 16-HBE cells. The expression of p53 and p73 increased significantly along with the dose of PM(2.5) in 16-HBE cells, whereas the expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1) decreased; the expression of mdm2 increased and then decreased, but not significantly. Taken together, these observations indicate that PM(2.5) may lead to oxidative damage and induce apoptosis through the p53-dependent pathway in 16-HBE cells. p53-Dependent apoptosis mediated by DNA strand breaks may be an important mechanism of PM(2.5)-induced apoptosis in 16-HBE cells. PMID:25133668

  17. Leukocyte Elastase Induces Lung Epithelial Apoptosis via a PAR-1–, NF-κB–, and p53-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Yamashita, Cory; Zemans, Rachel L.; Briones, Natalie; Van Linden, Annemie; Downey, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Leukocyte elastase induces apoptosis of lung epithelial cells via alterations in mitochondrial permeability, but the signaling pathways regulating this response remain uncertain. Here we investigated the involvement of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), the transcription factor NF-κB, and the protooncogene p53 in this pathway. Elastase-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells correlated temporally with activation of NF-κB, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of p53, increased p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression, and mitochondrial translocation of Bax resulting in enhanced permeability. Elastase-induced apoptosis was also prevented by pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB and p53 and by short interfering RNA knockdown of PAR-1, p53, or PUMA. These inhibitors prevented elastase-induced PUMA expression, mitochondrial translocation of Bax, increased mitochondrial permeability, and attenuated apoptosis. NF-κB inhibitors also reduced p53 phosphorylation. We conclude that elastase-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells is mediated by a PAR-1–triggered pathway involving activation of NF-κB and p53, and a PUMA- and Bax-dependent increase in mitochondrial permeability leading to activation of distal caspases. Further, p53 contributes to elastase-induced apoptosis by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:19307610

  18. Astemizole-Histamine induces Beclin-1-independent autophagy by targeting p53-dependent crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Rekha; Paul, Souren; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis and autophagy are genetically regulated, evolutionarily conserved processes that can jointly seal cancer cell fates, and numerous death stimuli are capable of activating either pathway. Although crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is quite complex and sometimes contradictory, it remains a key factor determining the outcomes of death-related pathologies such as cancer. In the present study, exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to HIS and the H1 receptor antagonist AST both alone and together with HIS (AST-HIS) led to generation of intracellular ROS, which induced massive cellular vacuolization through dilation of the ER and mitochondria. Consequently, apoptosis by Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation were triggered. In addition, AST-HIS caused ER stress-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, with surprisingly no changes in Beclin-1 expression. Non-canonical autophagy was induced via p53 phosphorylation, which increased p53-p62 interactions to enhance Beclin-1-independent autophagy as evidenced by immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation. In the absence of Beclin-1, enhanced autophagy further activated apoptosis through caspase induction. In conclusion, these findings indicate that AST-HIS-induced apoptosis and autophagy can be regulated by ROS-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:26739061

  19. Aciculatin Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis via MDM2 Depletion in Human Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chin-Yu; Tsai, An-Chi; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Hsun; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Aciculatin, a natural compound extracted from the medicinal herb Chrysopogon aciculatus, shows potent anti-cancer potency. This study is the first to prove that aciculatin induces cell death in human cancer cells and HCT116 mouse xenografts due to G1 arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The primary reason for cell cycle arrest and cell death was p53 accumulation followed by increased p21 level, dephosphorylation of Rb protein, PUMA expression, and induction of apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. We demonstrated that p53 allele-null (−/−) (p53-KO) HCT116 cells were more resistant to aciculatin than cells with wild-type p53 (+/+). The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 with siRNA in p53 wild-type cells, indicating that p53 plays a crucial role in aciculatin-induced apoptosis. Although DNA damage is the most common event leading to p53 activation, we found only weak evidence of DNA damage after aciculatin treatment. Interestingly, the aciculatin-induced downregulation of MDM2, an important negative regulator of p53, contributed to p53 accumulation. The anti-cancer activity and importance of p53 after aciculatin treatment were also confirmed in the HCT116 xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that aciculatin treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of MDM2 expression, thereby inducing p53 accumulation without significant DNA damage and genome toxicity. PMID:22912688

  20. A new semisynthetic 1-O-acetyl-6-O-lauroylbritannilactone induces apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma cells through p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang-Yang; Tang, Jiang-Jiang; Gao, Rong-Fang; Guo, Xin; Lei, Ming; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-09-01

    Initiation of apoptosis is an important event for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. Naturally derived products had drawn growing attention as lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery. ABL-L, a semisynthetic analogue of natural sesquiterpenoid 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) isolated from Inula britannica, showed stronger suppression against three solid tumor cell lines with 4-10 fold improvement than ABL. However, its molecular mechanism of cell death induction has still not been determined. The present study evaluated the anticancer efficacy of ABL-L and its biological activities mechanism on human laryngocarcinoma cells HEp-2 in vitro. We found that ABL-L-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest. Typical apoptotic morphological and biochemical features were also observed in treated cells. Furthermore, the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, pro-caspase 3/8/9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP decreased, and the level of pro-apoptotic Bax increased. Involvement of the caspase-mediated apoptosis was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. In addition, ABL-L induced a tumor suppressor p53 and its target genes expression p21, fas, noxa and puma. The results of p53 knockdown suggest that caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by ABL-L was in p53-dependent pathway on HEp-2 cells. Our data indicate that the cytotoxicity of the novel semisynthetic analogue ABL-L involved G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a p53-dependent, caspase-mediated pathway on human laryngocarcinoma cells. PMID:27262408

  1. Cardiac deficiency of single cytochrome oxidase assembly factor scox induces p53-dependent apoptosis in a Drosophila cardiomyopathy model

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Morentin, Leticia; Martínez, Lidia; Piloto, Sarah; Yang, Hua; Schon, Eric A.; Garesse, Rafael; Bodmer, Rolf; Ocorr, Karen; Cervera, Margarita; Arredondo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The heart is a muscle with high energy demands. Hence, most patients with mitochondrial disease produced by defects in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system are susceptible to cardiac involvement. The presentation of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy includes hypertrophic, dilated and left ventricular noncompaction, but the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac impairment are unknown. One of the most frequent OXPHOS defects in humans frequently associated with cardiomyopathy is cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency caused by mutations in COX assembly factors such as Sco1 and Sco2. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the cardiomyopathy associated with Sco deficiency, we have heart specifically interfered scox expression, the single Drosophila Sco orthologue. Cardiac-specific knockdown of scox reduces fly lifespan, and it severely compromises heart function and structure, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyocytes with low levels of scox have a significant reduction in COX activity and they undergo a metabolic switch from OXPHOS to glycolysis, mimicking the clinical features found in patients harbouring Sco mutations. The major cardiac defects observed are produced by a significant increase in apoptosis, which is dp53-dependent. Genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggest that dp53 is directly involved in the development of the cardiomyopathy induced by scox deficiency. Remarkably, apoptosis is enhanced in the muscle and liver of Sco2 knock-out mice, clearly suggesting that cell death is a key feature of the COX deficiencies produced by mutations in Sco genes in humans. PMID:25792727

  2. Epothilones Suppress Neointimal Thickening in the Rat Carotid Balloon-Injury Model by Inducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis through p53-Dependent Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Chul; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs. PMID:27218463

  3. Eriocalyxin B induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through caspase- and p53-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin; Yue, Grace G.L.; Lau, Clara B.S.; Sun, Handong; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung; Han, Quanbin; Leung, Po Sing

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect early and responds poorly to chemotherapy. A breakthrough in the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Eriocalyxin B (EriB), isolated from the Isodon eriocalyx plant, is an ent-kaurane diterpenoid with promise as a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent. The anti-leukemic activity of EriB, including the underlying mechanisms involved, has been particularly well documented. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time EriB's potent cytotoxicity against four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely PANC-1, SW1990, CAPAN-1, and CAPAN-2. The effects were comparable to that of the chemotherapeutic camptothecin (CAM), but with much lower toxicity against normal human liver WRL68 cells. EriB's cytoxicity against CAPAN-2 cells was found to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, the p53 pathway was found to be activated by EriB in these cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that EriB inhibited the growth of human pancreatic tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects. These results suggest that EriB should be considered a candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. -- Highlights: ► We study Eriocalyxin B (EriB)'s cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cell lines. ► EriB inhibits cell proliferation via mediation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. ► The effects are involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis and p53 pathway. ► In vivo study also shows EriB inhibits the growth of human pancreatic tumor. ► EriB can be a good candidate for chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  4. An anthraquinone derivative from Luffa acutangula induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 through p53-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Vanajothi, Ramar; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of 1,8-dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (DHMA) isolated from the Luffa acutangula against human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). Induction of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined through fluorescence microscopic technique. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analysis was carried out to detect the expression of pro-apoptotic (p53, p21, caspase-3, Bax, GADD45A, and ATM) and anti-apoptotic (NF-κB) proteins in NCI-H460 cell line. In silico studies also performed to predict the binding mechanism of DHMA with MDM2-p53 protein. The DHMA inhibited the cell viability of NCI-H460 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 µg/ml. It significantly reduced cell viability correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with ROS generation. The apoptotic cell death was further confirmed through dual staining and DNA fragmentation assay. DHMA significantly increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein such as p53, p21, Bax, and caspase-3 but downregulated the expression of NF-κB in NCI-H460 cell line. In silico studies demonstrate that DHMA formed hydrogen bond interaction with key residues Trp26, Phe55 and Lys24 by which it disrupt the binding of p53 with MDM2 receptor. These findings suggested that DHMA induces apoptosis in NCI-H460 via a p53-dependent pathway. This the first study on cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of DHMA from L. acutangula against NCI-H460 cell line. Therefore, DHMA has therapeutic potential for lung cancer treatment. PMID:26585176

  5. Ser46 phosphorylation and prolyl-isomerase Pin1-mediated isomerization of p53 are key events in p53-dependent apoptosis induced by mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Grison, Alice; Mantovani, Fiamma; Comel, Anna; Agostoni, Elena; Gustincich, Stefano; Persichetti, Francesca; Del Sal, Giannino

    2011-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for huntingtin protein. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which mutant huntingtin (mHtt) may trigger striatal neurodegeneration, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, mHtt induces DNA damage and activates a stress response. In this context, p53 plays a crucial role in mediating mHtt toxic effects. Here we have dissected the pathway of p53 activation by mHtt in human neuronal cells and in HD mice, with the aim of highlighting critical nodes that may be pharmacologically manipulated for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that expression of mHtt causes increased phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46, leading to its interaction with phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 and consequent dissociation from the apoptosis inhibitor iASPP, thereby inducing the expression of apoptotic target genes. Inhibition of Ser46 phosphorylation by targeting homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), PKCδ, or ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase, as well as inhibition of the prolyl isomerase Pin1, prevents mHtt-dependent apoptosis of neuronal cells. These results provide a rationale for the use of small-molecule inhibitors of stress-responsive protein kinases and Pin1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for HD treatment. PMID:22011578

  6. Neocarzinostatin induces an effective p53-dependent response in human papillomavirus-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Adriana; Reyes, Elba; Ocadiz, Rodolfo; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Moreno, Martha; Monroy, Alberto; Gariglio, Patricio

    2003-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 viral oncoprotein plays an important role during cervical carcinogenesis. This oncoprotein binds the tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Therefore, it is generally assumed that in HPV-positive cancer cells p53 function is completely abolished. Nevertheless, recent findings suggest that p53 activity can be recovered in cells expressing endogenous E6 protein. To investigate whether p53-dependent functions controlling genome integrity, cell proliferation, and apoptosis can be reactivated in cervical cancer cells, we examined the capacity of HeLa, INBL, CaSki, C33A, and ViBo cell lines to respond to neocarzinostatin (NCS), a natural product which induces single- and double-strand breaks in DNA. We found that NCS treatment inhibits cellular proliferation through G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. This effect was preceded by nuclear accumulation of p53 protein and by an increase of p21 transcripts. Although apoptosis was blocked in ViBo cells (HPV-negative), nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 and inhibition of cell proliferation are observed after NCS treatment. These results suggest that HPV-positive cervical cancer cells are capable of responding efficiently to DNA damage provoked by NCS treatment through a p53-dependent pathway in spite of the presence of E6 protein. PMID:12750435

  7. A novel dithiocarbamate derivative induces cell apoptosis through p53-dependent intrinsic pathway and suppresses the expression of the E6 oncogene of human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Qi, Hongxue; Li, Xiaobo; Hou, Xueling; Lu, Xueying; Xiao, Xiangwen

    2015-06-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies. PMID:25772545

  8. 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation Impairs Learning and Spatial Memory via Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Induced p53-Dependent/Independent Hippocampal Apoptosis: Molecular Basis and Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Saba; Banerjee, Somanshu; Singh, Surya Pal; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-12-01

    A close association between microwave (MW) radiation exposure and neurobehavioral disorders has been postulated but the direct effects of MW radiation on central nervous system still remains contradictory. This study was performed to understand the effect of short (15 days) and long-term (30 and 60 days) low-level MW radiation exposure on hippocampus with special reference to spatial learning and memory and its underlying mechanism in Swiss strain male mice, Mus musculus. Twelve-weeks old mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz MW radiation (continuous-wave [CW] with overall average power density of 0.0248 mW/cm(2) and overall average whole body specific absorption rate value of 0.0146 W/Kg) for 2 h/day over a period of 15, 30, and 60 days). Spatial learning and memory was monitored by Morris Water Maze. We have checked the alterations in hippocampal oxidative/nitrosative stress, neuronal morphology, and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive executioner Caspase- (pro-Caspase-3), and uncleaved Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in the hippocampal subfield neuronal and nonneuronal cells (DG, CA1, CA2, and CA3). We observed that, short-term as well as long-term 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases the oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to enhanced apoptosis in hippocampal subfield neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Present findings also suggest that learning and spatial memory deficit which increases with the increased duration of MW exposure (15 < 30 < 60 days) is correlated with a decrease in hippocampal subfield neuronal arborization and dendritic spines. These findings led us to conclude that exposure to CW MW radiation leads to oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53-dependent/independent activation of hippocampal neuronal and nonneuronal apoptosis associated with spatial memory loss. PMID:26396154

  9. The induction of polyploidy or apoptosis by the Aurora A kinase inhibitor MK8745 is p53-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Alan L; Schwartz, Gary K

    2012-01-01

    Aurora kinases are mitotic serine/threonine protein kinases and are attractive novel targets for anticancer therapy. Many small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases are currently undergoing clinical trials. Aurora A kinase is essential for successful mitotic transition. MK8745 is a novel and selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. MK8745 induced apoptotic cell death in a p53-dependent manner when tested in vitro in cell lines of multiple lineages. Cells expressing wild-type p53 showed a short delay in mitosis followed by cytokinesis, resulting in 2N cells along with apoptosis. However, cells lacking or with mutant p53 resulted in a prolonged arrest in mitosis followed by endoreduplication and polyploidy. Cytokinesis was completely inhibited in p53-deficient cells, as observed by the absence of 2N cell population. The induction of apoptosis in p53-proficient cells was associated with activation of caspase 3 and release of cytochrome c but was independent of p21. Exposure of p53 wild-type cells to MK8745 resulted in the induction of p53 phosphorylation (ser15) and an increase in p53 protein expression. p53-dependent apoptosis by MK8745 was further confirmed in HCT 116 p53−/− cells transfected with wild-type p53. Transient knockdown of Aurora A by specific siRNA recapitulated these p53-dependent effects, with greater percent induction of apoptosis in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, our studies show p53 as a determining factor for induction of apoptosis vs. polyploidy upon inhibition of Aurora A. PMID:22293494

  10. SMC3 knockdown triggers genomic instability and p53-dependent apoptosis in human and zebrafish cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    Background The structural maintenance of chromosome 3 (SMC3) protein is a constituent of a number of nuclear multimeric protein complexes that are involved in DNA recombination and repair in addition to chromosomal segregation. Overexpression of SMC3 activates a tumorigenic cascade through which mammalian cells acquire a transformed phenotype. This has led us to examine in depth how SMC3 level affects cell growth and genomic stability. In this paper the effect of SMC3 knockdown has been investigated. Results Mammalian cells that are SMC3 deficient fail to expand in a clonal population. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism, experiments were conducted in zebrafish embryos in which cell competence to undergo apoptosis is acquired at specific stages of development and affects tissue morphogenesis. Zebrafish Smc3 is 95% identical to the human protein, is maternally contributed, and is expressed ubiquitously at all developmental stages. Antisense-mediated loss of Smc3 function leads to increased apoptosis in Smc3 expressing cells of the developing tail and notocord causing morphological malformations. The apoptosis and the ensuing phenotype can be suppressed by injection of a p53-specific MO that blocks the generation of endogenous p53 protein. Results in human cells constitutively lacking p53 or BAX, confirmed that a p53-dependent pathway mediates apoptosis in SMC3-deficient cells. A population of aneuploid cells accumulated in zebrafish embryos following Smc3-knockdown whereas in human cells the transient downregulation of SMC3 level lead to the generation of cells with amplified centrosome number. Conclusion Smc3 is required for normal embryonic development. Its deficiency affects the morphogenesis of tissues with high mitotic index by triggering an apoptotic cascade involving p53 and the downstream p53 target gene bax. Cells with low SMC3 level display centrosome abnormalities that can lead to or are the consequence of dysfunctional mitosis and

  11. p53-dependent SIRT6 expression protects Aβ42-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Sun; Choi, Hyunjung; Song, Hyundong; Hwang, Yu Jin; Kim, Ahbin; Ryu, Hoon; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and age-related neurodegenerative disease. Elucidating the cellular changes that occur during ageing is an important step towards understanding the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. SIRT6 is a member of the mammalian sirtuin family of anti-aging genes. However, the relationship between SIRT6 and AD has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that SIRT6 protein expression levels are reduced in the brains of both the 5XFAD AD mouse model and AD patients. Aβ42, a major component of senile plaques, decreases SIRT6 expression, and Aβ42-induced DNA damage is prevented by the overexpression of SIRT6 in HT22 mouse hippocampal neurons. Also, there is a strong negative correlation between Aβ42-induced DNA damage and p53 levels, a protein involved in DNA repair and apoptosis. In addition, upregulation of p53 protein by Nutlin-3 prevents SIRT6 reduction and DNA damage induced by Aβ42. Taken together, this study reveals that p53-dependent SIRT6 expression protects cells from Aβ42-induced DNA damage, making SIRT6 a promising new therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:27156849

  12. Identification of novel radiation-induced p53-dependent transcripts extensively regulated during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Quintens, Roel; Verreet, Tine; Janssen, Ann; Neefs, Mieke; Leysen, Liselotte; Michaux, Arlette; Verslegers, Mieke; Samari, Nada; Pani, Giuseppe; Verheyde, Joris; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a potent activator of the tumor suppressor gene p53, which itself regulates the transcription of genes involved in canonical pathways such as the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis as well as other biological processes like metabolism, autophagy, differentiation and development. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on gene expression data from different in vivo and in vitro experiments to identify a signature of early radiation-responsive genes which were predicted to be predominantly regulated by p53. Moreover, we found that several genes expressed different transcript isoforms after irradiation in a p53-dependent manner. Among this gene signature, we identified novel p53 targets, some of which have not yet been functionally characterized. Surprisingly, in contrast to genes from the canonical p53-regulated pathways, our gene signature was found to be highly enriched during embryonic and post-natal brain development and during in vitro neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we could show that for a number of genes, radiation-responsive transcript variants were upregulated during development and differentiation, while radiation non-responsive variants were not. This suggests that radiation exposure of the developing brain and immature cortical neurons results in the p53-mediated activation of a neuronal differentiation program. Overall, our results further increase the knowledge of the radiation-induced p53 network of the embryonic brain and provide more evidence concerning the importance of p53 and its transcriptional targets during mouse brain development. PMID:25681390

  13. Low Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity is Caused by p53-dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Enns, L; Bogen, K; Wizniak, J; Murtha, A; Weinfeld, M

    2004-04-08

    Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Many tumor cell lines have been observed to exhibit a hypersensitivity to radiation doses below 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. However, the underlying processes for this phenomenon remain unclear. Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times post irradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to gamma radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. The A549 and T98G cells, but not MCF7 cells, showed the marked hypersensitivity at doses <50 cGy. To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (annexin-V binding). We observed that caspase-3 activation and annexin-V binding mirrored the proliferation curves for the cell lines. Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and annexin-V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. When p53-inactive cell lines (2800T skin fibroblasts and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells) were examined for similar patterns, we found that there was no HRS and apoptosis was not detectable by annexin-V or caspase-3 assays. Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis.

  14. Novel p53-dependent anticancer strategy by targeting iron signaling and BNIP3L-induced mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wilfinger, Nastasia; Austin, Shane; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Berger, Walter; Reipert, Siegfried; Praschberger, Monika; Paur, Jakob; Trondl, Robert; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Nowikovsky, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies BNIP3L as the key regulator of p53-dependent cell death mechanism in colon cancer cells targeted by the novel gallium based anticancer drug, KP46. KP46 specifically accumulated into mitochondria where it caused p53-dependent morphological and functional damage impairing mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. Furthermore, competing with iron for cellular uptake, KP46 lowered the intracellular labile iron pools and intracellular heme. Accordingly, p53 accumulated in the nucleus where it activated its transcriptional target BNIP3L, a BH3 only domain protein with functions in apoptosis and mitophagy. Upregulated BNIP3L sensitized the mitochondrial permeability transition and strongly induced PARKIN-mediated mitochondrial clearance and cellular vacuolization. Downregulation of BNIP3L entirely rescued cell viability caused by exposure of KP46 for 24 hours, confirming that early induced cell death was regulated by BNIP3L. Altogether, targeting BNIP3L in wild-type p53 colon cancer cells is a novel anticancer strategy activating iron depletion signaling and the mitophagy-related cell death pathway. PMID:26517689

  15. RNF12 promotes p53-dependent cell growth suppression and apoptosis by targeting MDM2 for destruction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Wang, Chenji; Jin, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Jiantao; Zhang, Enceng; Yang, Xianmei; Wang, Dejie; Huang, Haojie; Yu, Long; Zhang, Pingzhao

    2016-05-28

    The oncoprotein MDM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets tumor suppressor p53 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Dysregulation of MDM2-p53 axis was frequently observed in human cancers. Originally, it is proposed that MDM2 degradation was mainly achieved by destructive self-ubiquitination. However, recent study suggests that MDM2 may be targeted for degradation by an external E3 ubiquitin ligase(s) under physiological levels. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF12 as an MDM2-interacting protein through yeast two hybrid methods. We demonstrated that RNF12 targets MDM2 for ubiquitination and proteasomal-dependent degradation, which is independent of MDM2's self-ubiquitination activity. Accordingly, RNF12 elevates p53 protein level by abrogating MDM2-mediated p53 degradation and ubiquitination. Finally, we showed that RNF12 regulates cell growth suppression and DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Taken together, we establish RNF12 as a novel positive regulator of p53 pathway and an external E3 ubiquitin ligase for MDM2 destruction. These data shed light on the potential roles of RNF12 in MDM2-p53 axis and tumor suppression. PMID:26926424

  16. Intravital imaging reveals p53-dependent cancer cell death induced by phototherapy via calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    Missiroli, Sonia; Poletti, Federica; Ramirez, Fabian Galindo; Morciano, Giampaolo; Morganti, Claudia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Mammano, Fabio; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in biology is signal transduction monitoring in a physiological context. Intravital imaging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of tumor and host cell behaviors in the tumor environment. However, these deep tissue imaging techniques have not yet been adopted to investigate the second messenger calcium (Ca2+). In the present study, we established conditions that allow the in vivo detection of Ca2+ signaling in three-dimensional tumor masses in mouse models. By combining intravital imaging and a skinfold chamber technique, we determined the ability of photodynamic cancer therapy to induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and, consequently, an increase in cell death in a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:25544762

  17. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M; Leibowitz, Brian J; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G; Dunn, James C Y; Martin, Martin G; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  18. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M.; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  19. Cytoplasmic CUL9/PARC ubiquitin ligase is a tumor suppressor and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xin-Hai; Bai, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Smith, Matthew D.; Whitewolf, Gabrielle; Jin, Ran; Xiong, Yue

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of cell stresses, including DNA damage, signal to p53 through post-translational modification of p53. The cytoplasmic functions of p53 are emerging as an important constituent of p53’s role in tumor suppression. Here we report that deletion of the Cul9 (formerly Parc) gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to p53 and localizes in the cytoplasm, resulted in spontaneous tumor development, accelerated Eμ-Myc-induced lymphomagenesis and rendered mice susceptible to carcinogenesis. Cul9-p53 double mutant mice exhibited indistinguishable tumor phenotypes as p53 single mutant mice, indicating that the function of Cul9 in tumor suppression is largely mediated by p53. Deletion of Cul9 had no significant effect on cell cycle progression, but attenuated DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Ectopic expression of wild-type CUL9, but not a point mutant CUL9 deficient in p53 binding, promotes apoptosis. These results demonstrate CUL9 as a potential p53 activating E3 ligase in the cytoplasm. PMID:21487039

  20. Amphipathic silica nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity through oxidative stress mediated and p53 dependent apoptosis pathway in human liver cell line HL-7702 and rat liver cell line BRL-3A.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Daiying; Duan, Zhenfang; Jia, Yuanyuan; Chu, Tianxue; He, Qiong; Yuan, Juan; Dai, Wei; Li, Zengqiang; Xing, Liguo; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism of amphipathic silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) exposure to human normal liver HL-7702 cells and rat normal liver BRL-3A cells. Prior to the cellular studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and X ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize SiO2 NPs, which proved the amorphous nature of SiO2 NPs with TEM diameter of 19.8±2.7nm. Further studies proved that exposure to SiO2 NPs dose-dependently induced cytotoxicity as revealed by cell counting kit (CCK-8) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, with more severe cytotoxicity in HL-7702 cells than BRL-3A cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) assays showed elevated oxidative stress in both cells. Morphological studies by microscopic observation, Hochest 33258 and AO/EB staining indicated significant apoptotic changes after the cells being exposed to SiO2 NPs. Further studies by western blot indicated that SiO2 NPs exposure to both cells up-regulated p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels. Activated caspase-3 activity detected by colorimetric assay kit and caspase-3/7 activity detected by fluorescent real-time detection kit were significantly increased by SiO2 NPs exposure. In addition, antioxidant vitamin C significantly attenuated SiO2 NPs-induced caspase-3 activation, which indicated that SiO2 NPs-induced oxidative stress was involved in the process of HL-7702 and BRL-3A cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that SiO2 NPs-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 and BRL-3A cells was through oxidative stress mediated and p53, caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 dependent pathway and HL-7702 cells were more sensitive to SiO2 NPs-induced cytotoxicity than BRL-3A cells. PMID:27187187

  1. Regulation of p53-dependent apoptosis, transcriptional repression, and cell transformation by phosphorylation of the 55-kilodalton E1B protein of human adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, J G; Branton, P E

    1997-01-01

    The adenovirus type 5 55-kDa E1B protein (E1B-55kDa) cooperates with E1A gene products to induce cell transformation. E1A proteins stimulate DNA synthesis and cell proliferation; however, they also cause rapid cell death by p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. It is believed that the role of the E1B-55kDa protein in transformation is to protect against p53-dependent apoptosis by binding to and inactivating p53. It has been shown previously that the 55-kDa polypeptide abrogates p53-mediated transactivation and that mutants defective in p53 binding are unable to cooperate with E1A in transformation. We have previously mapped phosphorylation sites near the carboxy terminus of the E1B-55kDa protein at Ser-490 and Ser-491, which lie within casein kinase II consensus sequences. Conversion of these sites to alanine residues greatly reduced transforming activity, and although the mutant 55-kDa protein was found to interact with p53 at normal levels, it was somewhat defective for suppression of p53 transactivation activity. We now report that a nearby residue, Thr-495, also appears to be phosphorylated. We demonstrate directly that the wild-type 55-kDa protein is able to block E1A-induced p53-dependent apoptosis, whereas cells infected by mutant pm490/1/5A, which contains alanine residues at all three phosphorylation sites, exhibited extensive DNA fragmentation and classic apoptotic cell death. The E1B-55kDa product has been shown to exhibit intrinsic transcriptional repression activity when localized to promoters, such as by fusion with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, even in the absence of p53. Such repression activity was totally absent with mutant pm490/1/5A. These data suggested that inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis may depend on the transcriptional repression function of the 55-kDa protein, which appears to be regulated be phosphorylation at the carboxy terminus. PMID:9094635

  2. The absence of Prep1 causes p53-dependent apoptosis of mouse pluripotent epiblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Laurent, Audrey; Girasoli, Sara; Turco, Margherita; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Jenkins, Nancy A; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa; Copeland, Neal G; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Disruption of mouse Prep1, which codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, leads to embryonic lethality during post-implantation stages. Prep1(-/-) embryos stop developing after implantation and before anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formation. In Prep1(-/-) embryos at E6.5 (onset of gastrulation), the AVE is absent and the proliferating extra-embryonic ectoderm and epiblast, marked by Bmp4 and Oct4, respectively, are reduced in size. At E.7.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos are small and very delayed, showing no evidence of primitive streak or of differentiated embryonic lineages. Bmp4 is expressed residually, while the reduced number of Oct4-positive cells is constant up to E8.5. At E6.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos retain a normal mitotic index but show a major increase in cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL staining, indicating apoptosis. Therefore, the mouse embryo requires Prep1 when undergoing maximal expansion in cell number. Indeed, the phenotype is partially rescued in a p53(-/-), but not in a p16(-/-), background. Apoptosis is probably due to DNA damage as Atm downregulation exacerbates the phenotype. Despite this early lethal phenotype, Prep1 is not essential for ES cell establishment. A differential embryonic expression pattern underscores the unique function of Prep1 within the Meis-Prep family. PMID:20826531

  3. Bcl6a function is required during optic cup formation to prevent p53-dependent apoptosis and colobomata

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoon; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Gross, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in BCOR (Bcl6 corepressor) are found in patients with oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome, a congenital disorder affecting visual system development, and loss-of-function studies in zebrafish and Xenopus demonstrate a role for Bcor during normal optic cup development in preventing colobomata. The mechanism whereby BCOR functions during eye development to prevent colobomata is not known, but in other contexts it serves as a transcriptional corepressor that potentiates transcriptional repression by B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6). Here, we have explored the function of the zebrafish ortholog of Bcl6, Bcl6a, during eye development, and our results demonstrate that Bcl6a, like Bcor, is required to prevent colobomata during optic cup formation. Our data demonstrate that Bcl6a acts downstream of Vax1 and Vax2, known regulators of ventral optic cup formation and choroid fissure closure, and that bcl6a is a direct target of Vax2. Together, this regulatory network functions to repress p53 expression and thereby suppress apoptosis in the developing optic cup. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that Bcl6a functions cooperatively with Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 in a common gene regulatory network that acts to repress p53 and prevent colobomata. Together, these data support a model in which p53-dependent apoptosis needs to be tightly regulated for normal optic cup formation and that Bcl6a, Bcor, Rnf2 and Hdac1 activities mediate this regulation. PMID:23669349

  4. Chemotherapy-induced Dkk-1 expression by primary human mesenchymal stem cells is p53 dependent.

    PubMed

    Hare, Ian; Evans, Rebecca; Fortney, James; Moses, Blake; Piktel, Debbie; Slone, William; Gibson, Laura F

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are abundant throughout the body and regulate signaling within tumor microenvironments. Wnt signaling is an extrinsically regulated pathway that has been shown to regulate tumorigenesis in many types of cancer. After evaluating a panel of Wnt activating and inhibiting molecules, we show that primary human MSCs increase the expression of Dkk-1, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, into the extracellular environment following chemotherapy exposure in a p53-dependent manner. Dkk-1 has been shown to promote tumor growth in several models of malignancy, suggesting that MSC-derived Dkk-1 could counteract the intent of cytotoxic chemotherapy, and that pharmacologic inhibition of Dkk-1 in patients receiving chemotherapy treatment for certain malignancies may be warranted. PMID:27586146

  5. P53-dependent upregulation of neutral sphingomyelinase-2: role in doxorubicin-induced growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Shamseddine, A A; Clarke, C J; Carroll, B; Airola, M V; Mohammed, S; Rella, A; Obeid, L M; Hannun, Y A

    2015-01-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a ceramide-generating enzyme that has been implicated in growth arrest, apoptosis and exosome secretion. Although previous studies have reported transcriptional upregulation of nSMase2 in response to daunorubicin, through Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, the role of the DNA damage pathway in regulating nSMase2 remains unclear. In this study, we show that doxorubicin induces a dose-dependent induction of nSMase2 mRNA and protein with concomitant increases in nSMase activity and ceramide levels. Upregulation of nSMase2 was dependent on ATR, Chk1 and p53, thus placing it downstream of the DNA damage pathway. Moreover, overexpression of p53 was sufficient to transcriptionally induce nSMase2, without the need for DNA damage. DNA-binding mutants as well as acetylation mutants of p53 were unable to induce nSMase2, suggesting a role of nSMase2 in growth arrest. Moreover, knockdown of nSMase2 prevented doxorubicin-induced growth arrest. Finally, p53-induced nSMase2 upregulation appears to occur via a novel transcription start site upstream of exon 3. These results identify nSMase2 as a novel p53 target gene, regulated by the DNA damage pathway to induce cell growth arrest. PMID:26512957

  6. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  7. HZE particle radiation induces tissue-specific and p53-dependent mutagenesis in transgenic animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Kanazawa, N.; Lutze-Mann, L.; Winegar, R.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic animals, with the integrated target gene, provide a unique approach for measuring and characterizing mutations in any tissue of the animal. We are using the plasmid-based lacZ transgenic mice with different p53 genetic background to examine radiation-induced genetic damage resulting from exposure to heavy particle radiation. We measured lacZ mutation frequencies (MF) in the brain and spleen tissues at various times after exposing animals to an acute dose of 1 Gy of 1GeV/amu iron particles. MF in the spleen of p53+/+ animals increased up to 2.6-fold above spontaneous levels at 8 weeks post irradiation. In contrast, brain MF from the same animals increased 1.7-fold above controls in the same period. In the p53-/- animals, brain MF increased to 2.2-fold above spontaneous levels at 1 week after treatment, but returned to control levels thereafter. Radiation also induced alterations in the spectrum of mutants in both tissues, accompanied by changes in the frequency of mutants with deletions extending past the transgene into mouse genomic DNA. Our results indicate that the accumulation of transgene MF after radiation exposure is dependant on the tissue examined as well as the p53 genetic background of the animals.

  8. HZE particle radiation induces tissue-specific and p53-dependent mutagenesis in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Chang, P Y; Kanazawa, N; Lutze-Mann, L; Winegar, R

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic animals, with the integrated target gene, provide a unique approach for measuring and characterizing mutations in any tissue of the animal. We are using the plasmid-based lacZ transgenic mice with different p53 genetic background to examine radiation-induced genetic damage resulting from exposure to heavy particle radiation. We measured lacZ mutation frequencies (MF) in the brain and spleen tissues at various times after exposing animals to an acute dose of 1 Gy of 1GeV/amu iron particles. MF in the spleen of p53+/+ animals increased up to 2.6-fold above spontaneous levels at 8 weeks post irradiation. In contrast, brain MF from the same animals increased 1.7-fold above controls in the same period. In the p53-/- animals, brain MF increased to 2.2-fold above spontaneous levels at 1 week after treatment, but returned to control levels thereafter. Radiation also induced alterations in the spectrum of mutants in both tissues, accompanied by changes in the frequency of mutants with deletions extending past the transgene into mouse genomic DNA. Our results indicate that the accumulation of transgene MF after radiation exposure is dependant on the tissue examined as well as the p53 genetic background of the animals. PMID:11776257

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein induces lung epithelial cell cycle arrest through a p53 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Bian, Tao; Gibbs, John D; Örvell, Claes; Imani, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of viral respiratory infections in children. Our previous study showed that the RSV infection induced lung epithelial cell cycle arrest, which enhanced virus replication. To address the mechanism of RSV-induced cell cycle arrest, we examined the contribution of RSV-matrix (RSV-M) protein. In this report, we show that in both the A549 cell line and primary human bronchial epithelial (PHBE) cells, transfection with RSV-M protein caused the cells to proliferate at a slower rate than in control cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that RSV-M protein induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells, and G1 and G2/M phase arrest in PHBE cells. Interestingly, RSV-M expression induced p53 and p21 accumulation and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Further, induction of cell cycle arrest by RSV-M was not observed in a p53-deficient epithelial cell line (H1299). However, cell cycle arrest was restored after transfection of p53 cDNA into H1299 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that RSV-M protein regulates lung epithelial cell cycle through a p53-dependent pathway, which enhances RSV replication. PMID:22662266

  10. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons.

    PubMed

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric; Mattson, Marc P

    2002-03-19

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3'-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-alpha, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-alpha diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  11. Silencing of protein kinase D2 induces glioma cell senescence via p53-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Heffeter, Petra; Wintersperger, Andrea; Asslaber, Martin; Frank, Saša; Hammer, Astrid; Strohmaier, Heimo; DeVaney, Trevor; Mrfka, Manuel; Eder, Hans; Windpassinger, Christian; Ireson, Christopher R.; Mischel, Paul S.; Berger, Walter; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive tumor of the central nervous system with a dismal prognosis for affected patients. Aberrant protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been implicated in gliomagenesis, and a member of the PKC-activated protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was identified as mediator of GBM growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The outcome of PRKD2 silencing and pharmacological inhibition on glioma cell proliferation was established with different glioma cell lines. Western blotting, senescence assays, co-immunoprecipitation, fluorescence activated cell sorting, quantitative PCR, and immunofluorescence microscopy were utilized to analyze downstream signaling. Results RNA-interference (21-mer siRNA) and pharmacological inhibition (CRT0066101) of PRKD2 profoundly inhibited proliferation of p53wt (U87MG, A172, and primary GBM2), and p53mut (GM133, T98G, U251, and primary Gli25) glioma cells. In a xenograft experiment, PRKD2 silencing significantly delayed tumor growth of U87MG cells. PRKD2 silencing in p53wt and p53mut cells was associated with typical hallmarks of senescence and cell cycle arrest in G1. Attenuated AKT/PKB phosphorylation in response to PRKD2 silencing was a common observation made in p53wt and p53mut GBM cells. PRKD2 knockdown in p53wt cells induced upregulation of p53, p21, and p27 expression, decreased phosphorylation of CDK2 and/or CDK4, hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and reduced transcription of E2F1. In p53mut GM133 and primary Gli25 cells, PRKD2 silencing increased p27 and p15 and reduced E2F1 transcription but did not affect pRb phosphorylation. Conclusions PRKD2 silencing induces glioma cell senescence via p53-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:24463355

  12. The p53-dependent radioadaptive response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    We already reported that conditioning exposures at low doses, or at low dose-rates, lowered radiation-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells in vitro and in the spleens of mice in vivo. In this study, the aim was to characterize the p53-dependent radioadaptive response at the molecular level. We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulation of p53, Hdm2, and iNOS was analyzed with Western blotting. The quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about 2-4 fold after challenging irradiation following a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of Pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor), RITA or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover, radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of the radioadaptive response acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Quinone Metabolite Promotes p53-Dependent DNA Damage Checkpoint Activation, S-Phase Cycle Arrest and Extrinsic Apoptosis in Human Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiufang; Li, Lingrui; Shi, Qiong; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-11-16

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. The toxic behavior and mechanism of PCBs individuals and congeners have been extensively investigated. However, there is only limited information on their metabolites. Our previous studies have shown that a synthetic PCB metabolite, PCB29-pQ, causes oxidative damage with the evidence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mitochondrial-derived intrinsic apoptosis. Here, we investigate the effects of PCB29-pQ on DNA damage checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and death receptor-related extrinsic apoptosis in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our results illustrate that PCB29-pQ increases the S-phase cell population by down-regulating cyclins A/D1/E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK 2/4/6), and cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) and up-regulating p21/p27 protein expressions. PCB29-pQ also induces apoptosis via the up-regulation of Fas/FasL and the activation of caspase 8/3. Moreover, p53 plays a pivotal role in PCB29-pQ-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the activation of ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 checkpoints. Cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death were attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, these results demonstrate that PCB29-pQ induces oxidative stress and promotes p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation, S-phase cycle arrest, and extrinsic apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:26451628

  14. Trifluridine Induces p53-Dependent Sustained G2 Phase Arrest with Its Massive Misincorporation into DNA and Few DNA Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Iimori, Makoto; Niimi, Shinichiro; Tsukihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sugiko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Kiniwa, Mamoru; Ando, Koji; Tokunaga, Eriko; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Kitao, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Trifluridine (FTD) is a key component of the novel oral antitumor drug TAS-102, which consists of FTD and a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor. Like 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), a deoxynucleoside form of 5-fluorouracil metabolite, FTD is sequentially phosphorylated and not only inhibits thymidylate synthase activity, but is also incorporated into DNA. Although TAS-102 was effective for the treatment of refractory metastatic colorectal cancer in clinical trials, the mechanism of FTD-induced cytotoxicity is not completely understood. Here, we show that FTD as well as FdUrd induce transient phosphorylation of Chk1 at Ser345, and that this is followed by accumulation of p53 and p21 proteins in p53-proficient human cancer cell lines. In particular, FTD induced p53-dependent sustained arrest at G2 phase, which was associated with a proteasome-dependent decrease in the Cyclin B1 protein level and the suppression of CCNB1 and CDK1 gene expression. In addition, a p53-dependent increase in p21 protein was associated with an FTD-induced decrease in Cyclin B1 protein. Although numerous ssDNA and dsDNA breaks were induced by FdUrd, few DNA strand breaks were detected in FTD-treated HCT-116 cells despite massive FTD misincorporation into genomic DNA, suggesting that the antiproliferative effect of FTD is not due to the induction of DNA strand breaks. These distinctive effects of FTD provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying its antitumor effect and may explain the clinical efficacy of TAS-102. PMID:25700705

  15. p53-dependent global nucleotide excision repair of cisplatin-induced intrastrand cross links in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bhana, Sara; Hewer, Alan; Phillips, David H; Lloyd, Daniel R

    2008-03-01

    Cisplatin is an extremely effective chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of testicular and other solid tumours. It induces a variety of structural modifications in DNA, the most abundant being the GpG- and ApG-1,2-intrastrand cross links formed between adjacent purine bases. These cross links account for approximately 90% of cisplatin-induced DNA damage and are thought to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the drug. In human cells, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process removes the intrastrand cross links from the genome, the efficiency of which is likely to be an important determinant of cisplatin cytotoxicity. We have investigated whether the p53 tumour suppressor status affects global NER of cisplatin-induced intrastrand cross links in human cells. We have used a (32)P-postlabelling method to monitor the removal of GpG- and ApG-intrastrand cross links from two human cell models (the 041TR system, in which p53 is regulated by a tetracycline-inducible promoter, together with WI38 fibroblasts and the SV40-transformed derivative VA13) that each differ in p53 status. We demonstrate that the absence of functional p53 leads to persistence of both cisplatin-induced intrastrand cross links in the genome, suggesting that p53 regulates NER of these DNA lesions. This observation extends the role of p53 in NER beyond enhancing the removal of environmentally induced DNA lesions to include those of clinical origin. Given the frequency of p53 mutations in human tumours, these results may have implications for the use of cisplatin in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:18267949

  16. Cyclin G2 is a centrosome-associated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences microtubule stability and induces a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Arachchige Don, Aruni S.; Dallapiazza, Robert F.; Bennin, David A.; Brake, Tiffany; Cowan, Colleen E.; Horne, Mary C. . E-mail: mary-horne@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-10

    Cyclin G2 is an atypical cyclin that associates with active protein phosphatase 2A. Cyclin G2 gene expression correlates with cell cycle inhibition; it is significantly upregulated in response to DNA damage and diverse growth inhibitory stimuli, but repressed by mitogenic signals. Ectopic expression of cyclin G2 promotes cell cycle arrest, cyclin dependent kinase 2 inhibition and the formation of aberrant nuclei [Bennin, D. A., Don, A. S., Brake, T., McKenzie, J. L., Rosenbaum, H., Ortiz, L., DePaoli-Roach, A. A., and Horne, M. C. (2002). Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G{sub 1}/S-phase cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 277, 27449-67]. Here we report that endogenous cyclin G2 copurifies with centrosomes and microtubules (MT) and that ectopic G2 expression alters microtubule stability. We find exogenous and endogenous cyclin G2 present at microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) where it colocalizes with centrosomal markers in a variety of cell lines. We previously reported that cyclin G2 forms complexes with active protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and colocalizes with PP2A in a detergent-resistant compartment. We now show that cyclin G2 and PP2A colocalize at MTOCs in transfected cells and that the endogenous proteins copurify with isolated centrosomes. Displacement of the endogenous centrosomal scaffolding protein AKAP450 that anchors PP2A at the centrosome resulted in the depletion of centrosomal cyclin G2. We find that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces microtubule bundling and resistance to depolymerization, inhibition of polymer regrowth from MTOCs and a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we determined that a 100 amino acid carboxy-terminal region of cyclin G2 is sufficient to both direct GFP localization to centrosomes and induce cell cycle inhibition. Colocalization of endogenous cyclin G2 with only one of two GFP-centrin-tagged centrioles

  17. Long non-coding RNA ZFAS1 interacts with CDK1 and is involved in p53-dependent cell cycle control and apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thorenoor, Nithyananda; Faltejskova-Vychytilova, Petra; Hombach, Sonja; Mlcochova, Jitka; Kretz, Markus; Svoboda, Marek; Slaby, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    We determined expression of 83 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and identified ZFAS1 to be significantly up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. In cohort of 119 CRC patients we observed that 111 cases displayed at least two-times higher expression of ZFAS1 in CRC compared to paired normal colorectal tissue (P < 0.0001). By use of CRC cell lines (HCT116+/+, HCT116−/− and DLD-1) we showed, that ZFAS1 silencing decreases proliferation through G1-arrest of cell cycle, and also tumorigenicity of CRC cells. We identified Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) as interacting partner of ZFAS1 by pull-down experiment and RNA immunoprecipitation. Further, we have predicted by bioinformatics approach ZFAS1 to sponge miR-590-3p, which was proved to target CDK1. Levels of CDK1 were not affected by ZFAS1 silencing, but cyclin B1 was decreased in both cell lines. We observed significant increase in p53 levels and PARP cleavage in CRC cell lines after ZFAS1 silencing indicating increase in apoptosis. Our data suggest that ZFAS1 may function as oncogene in CRC by two main actions: (i) via destabilization of p53 and through (ii) interaction with CDK1/cyclin B1 complex leading to cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis. However, molecular mechanisms behind these interactions have to be further clarified. PMID:26506418

  18. AS-2, a novel inhibitor of p53-dependent apoptosis, prevents apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction in a transcription-independent manner and protects mice from a lethal dose of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Akinori; Ariyasu, Shinya; Wang, Bing; Asanuma, Tetsuo; Onoda, Takayoshi; Sawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ippei; Togami, Shotaro; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Toshiya; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • A bidentate HQ derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis by DNA damage. • AS-2 does not significantly affect nuclear p53 response. • UV-excited blue emission of AS-2 clearly showed its extranuclear localization. • AS-2 prevents mitochondrial dysfunction despite the increase of mitochondrial p53. • AS-2 protects mice from a radiation dose that causes lethal hematopoietic syndrome. - Abstract: In a previous study, we reported that some tetradentate zinc(II) chelators inhibit p53 through the denaturation of its zinc-requiring structure but a chelator, Bispicen, a potent inhibitor of in vitro apoptosis, failed to show any efficient radioprotective effect against irradiated mice because the toxicity of the chelator to mice. The unsuitability of using tetradentate chelators as radioprotectors prompted us to undertake a more extensive search for p53-inhibiting agents that are weaker zinc(II) chelators and therefore less toxic. Here, we show that an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis through a transcription-independent mechanism. A mechanistic study using cells with different p53 characteristics revealed that the suppressive effect of AS-2 on apoptosis is specifically mediated through p53. In addition, AS-2 was less effective in preventing p53-mediated transcription-dependent events than pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Fluorescence visualization of the extranuclear distribution of AS-2 also supports that it is ineffective on the transcription-dependent pathway. Further investigations revealed that AS-2 suppressed mitochondrial apoptotic events, such as the mitochondrial release of intermembrane proteins and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although AS-2 resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial translocation of p53 as opposed to the decrease of cytosolic p53, and did not affect the apoptotic interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. AS-2 also

  19. Disruption of G1-phase phospholipid turnover by inhibition of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 induces a p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest in G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu Hannah; Zhao, Chunying; Seleznev, Konstantin; Song, Keying; Manfredi, James J; Ma, Zhongmin Alex

    2006-03-15

    The G1 phase of the cell cycle is characterized by a high rate of membrane phospholipid turnover. Cells regulate this turnover by coordinating the opposing actions of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase and the group VI Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2). However, little is known about how such turnover affects cell-cycle progression. Here, we show that G1-phase phospholipid turnover is essential for cell proliferation. Specific inhibition of iPLA2 arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This G1-phase arrest was associated with marked upregulation of the tumour suppressor p53 and the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1. Inactivation of iPLA2 failed to arrest p53-deficient HCT cells in the G1 phase and caused massive apoptosis of p21-deficient HCT cells, suggesting that this G1-phase arrest requires activation of p53 and expression of p21cip1. Furthermore, downregulation of p53 by siRNA in p21-deficient HCT cells reduced the cell death, indicating that inhibition of iPLA2 induced p53-dependent apoptosis in the absence of p21cip1. Thus, our study reveals hitherto unrecognized cooperation between p53 and iPLA2 to monitor membrane-phospholipid turnover in G1 phase. Disrupting the G1-phase phospholipid turnover by inhibition of iPLA2 activates the p53-p21cip1 checkpoint mechanism, thereby blocking the entry of G1-phase cells into S phase. PMID:16492706

  20. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschella, Giuseppe

    2008-04-04

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53.

  1. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53. PMID:18230339

  2. AS-2, a novel inhibitor of p53-dependent apoptosis, prevents apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction in a transcription-independent manner and protects mice from a lethal dose of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akinori; Ariyasu, Shinya; Wang, Bing; Asanuma, Tetsuo; Onoda, Takayoshi; Sawa, Akiko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ippei; Togami, Shotaro; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Toshiya; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we reported that some tetradentate zinc(II) chelators inhibit p53 through the denaturation of its zinc-requiring structure but a chelator, Bispicen, a potent inhibitor of in vitro apoptosis, failed to show any efficient radioprotective effect against irradiated mice because the toxicity of the chelator to mice. The unsuitability of using tetradentate chelators as radioprotectors prompted us to undertake a more extensive search for p53-inhibiting agents that are weaker zinc(II) chelators and therefore less toxic. Here, we show that an 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivative, AS-2, suppresses p53-dependent apoptosis through a transcription-independent mechanism. A mechanistic study using cells with different p53 characteristics revealed that the suppressive effect of AS-2 on apoptosis is specifically mediated through p53. In addition, AS-2 was less effective in preventing p53-mediated transcription-dependent events than pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Fluorescence visualization of the extranuclear distribution of AS-2 also supports that it is ineffective on the transcription-dependent pathway. Further investigations revealed that AS-2 suppressed mitochondrial apoptotic events, such as the mitochondrial release of intermembrane proteins and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although AS-2 resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial translocation of p53 as opposed to the decrease of cytosolic p53, and did not affect the apoptotic interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. AS-2 also protected mice that had been exposed to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation. Our findings indicate that some types of bidentate 8HQ chelators could serve as radioprotectors with no substantial toxicity in vivo. PMID:25026551

  3. Novel Pactamycin Analogs Induce p53 Dependent Cell-Cycle Arrest at S-Phase in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Gunjan; Liang, Xiaobo; Kulesz-Martin, Molly F.; Mahmud, Taifo; Indra, Arup Kumar; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2015-01-01

    Pactamycin, although putatively touted as a potent antitumor agent, has never been used as an anticancer drug due to its high cytotoxicity. In this study, we characterized the effects of two novel biosynthetically engineered analogs of pactamycin, de-6MSA-7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-025) and 7-demethyl-7-deoxypactamycin (TM-026), in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines SCC25 and SCC104. Both TM-025 and TM-026 exert growth inhibitory effects on HNSCC cells by inhibiting cell proliferation. Interestingly, unlike their parent compound pactamycin, the analogs do not inhibit synthesis of nascent protein in a cell-based assay. Furthermore, they do not induce apoptosis or autophagy in a dose- or a time-dependent manner, but induce mild senescence in the tested cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both analogs significantly induce cell cycle arrest of the HNSCC cells at S-phase resulting in reduced accumulation of G2/M-phase cells. The pactamycin analogs induce expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including master regulator p53, its downstream target p21Cip1/WAF1, p27kip21, p19, cyclin E, total and phospho Cdc2 (Tyr15) and Cdc25C. Besides, the analogs mildly reduce cyclin D1 expression without affecting expression of cyclin B, Cdk2 and Cdk4. Specific inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α reduces the percentage of cells accumulated in S-phase, suggesting contribution of p53 to S-phase increase. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Pactamycin analogs TM-025 and TM-026 induce senescence and inhibit proliferation of HNSCC cells via accumulation in S-phase through possible contribution of p53. The two PCT analogs can be widely used as research tools for cell cycle inhibition studies in proliferating cancer cells with specific mechanisms of action. PMID:25938491

  4. A p53-dependent tumor suppressor network is induced by selective miR-125a-5p inhibition in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Marzia; Biamonte, Lavinia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Ronchetti, Domenica; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Botta, Cirino; Leone, Emanuela; Pitari, Maria Rita; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Amodio, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) is emerging as a novel approach to disclose the regulation of tumor suppressor or tumor promoting pathways in tumor cells. Targeting aberrantly expressed miRNAs is therefore a promising strategy for cancer treatment. By miRNA profiling of primary plasma cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients, we previously reported increased miR-125a-5p levels associated to specific molecular subgroups. On these premises, we aimed at investigating the biological effects triggered by miR-125a-5p modulation in MM cells. Expression of p53 pathway-related genes was down-regulated in MM cells transfected with miR-125a-5p mimics. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed specific p53 targeting at 3'UTR level by miR-125a-5p mimics. Interestingly, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) affected the miR-125a-5p/p53 axis, since adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs strongly up-regulated miR-125a-5p levels, while reduced p53 expression. Moreover, ectopic miR-125a-5p reduced, while miR-125-5p inhibitors promoted, the expression of tumor suppressor miR-192 and miR-194, transcriptionally regulated by p53. Lentiviral-mediated stable inhibition of miR-125a-5p expression in wild-type p53 MM cells dampened cell growth, increased apoptosis and reduced cell migration. Importantly, inhibition of in vitro MM cell proliferation and migration was also achieved by synthetic miR-125a-5p inhibitors and was potentiated by the co-expression of miR-192 or miR-194. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-125a-5p antagonism results in the activation of p53 pathway in MM cells, underlying the crucial role of this miRNA in the biopathology of MM and providing the molecular rationale for the combinatory use of miR-125a inhibitors and miR-192 or miR-194 mimics for MM treatment. PMID:24819167

  5. Silibinin enhances the repair of ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage by activating p53-dependent nucleotide excision repair mechanism in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Guillermo-Lagae, Ruth; Deep, Gagan; Ting, Harold; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) is the main cause of DNA damage in epidermal cells; and if not repaired, this DNA damage leads to skin cancer. In earlier studies, we have reported that natural flavonolignan silibinin exerts strong chemopreventive efficacy against UVB-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis; however mechanistic studies are still being actively pursued. Here, we investigated the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in silibinin's efficacy to repair UVB-induced DNA damage. Normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were exposed to UVB (1 mJ/cm2) with pre- or post- silibinin (100 μM) treatment, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) formation/repair was measured. Results showed that post-UVB silibinin treatment accelerates DNA repair via activating the NER pathway including the expression of XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A), XPB, XPC, and XPG. In UVB exposed fibroblasts, silibinin treatment also increased p53 and GADD45α expression; the key regulators of the NER pathway and DNA repair. Consistently, post-UVB silibinin treatment increased the mRNA transcripts of XPA and GADD45α. Importantly, silibinin showed no effect on UVB-induced DNA damage repair in XPA- and XPB-deficient human dermal fibroblasts suggesting their key role in silibinin-mediated DNA damage repair. Moreover, in the presence of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53, the DNA repair efficacy of silibinin was compromised associated with a reduction in XPA and GADD45α transcripts. Together, these findings suggest that silibinin's efficacy against UVB-induced photodamage is primarily by inhibiting NER and p53; and these findings further support silibinin's usage as a potential inexpensive, effective, and non-toxic agent for skin cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26447614

  6. {sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Su Xiaoming; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

  7. A Chromatin-Focused siRNA Screen for Regulators of p53-Dependent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sammons, Morgan A.; Zhu, Jiajun; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    The protein product of the Homo sapiens TP53 gene is a transcription factor (p53) that regulates the expression of genes critical for the response to DNA damage and tumor suppression, including genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism, and a number of other tumorigenesis-related pathways. Differential transcriptional regulation of these genes is believed to alter the balance between two p53-dependent cell fates: cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. A number of previously identified p53 cofactors covalently modify and alter the function of both the p53 protein and histone proteins. Both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in chromatin modifiers have been strongly implicated in cancer development; thus, we sought to identify novel chromatin regulatory proteins that affect p53-dependent transcription and the balance between the expression of pro-cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic genes. We utilized an siRNA library designed against predicted chromatin regulatory proteins, and identified known and novel chromatin-related factors that affect both global p53-dependent transcription and gene-specific regulators of p53 transcriptional activation. The results from this screen will serve as a comprehensive resource for those interested in further characterizing chromatin and epigenetic factors that regulate p53 transcription. PMID:27334938

  8. A Chromatin-Focused siRNA Screen for Regulators of p53-Dependent Transcription.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Morgan A; Zhu, Jiajun; Berger, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    The protein product of the Homo sapiens TP53 gene is a transcription factor (p53) that regulates the expression of genes critical for the response to DNA damage and tumor suppression, including genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism, and a number of other tumorigenesis-related pathways. Differential transcriptional regulation of these genes is believed to alter the balance between two p53-dependent cell fates: cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. A number of previously identified p53 cofactors covalently modify and alter the function of both the p53 protein and histone proteins. Both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in chromatin modifiers have been strongly implicated in cancer development; thus, we sought to identify novel chromatin regulatory proteins that affect p53-dependent transcription and the balance between the expression of pro-cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic genes. We utilized an siRNA library designed against predicted chromatin regulatory proteins, and identified known and novel chromatin-related factors that affect both global p53-dependent transcription and gene-specific regulators of p53 transcriptional activation. The results from this screen will serve as a comprehensive resource for those interested in further characterizing chromatin and epigenetic factors that regulate p53 transcription. PMID:27334938

  9. Chemical Inhibition of Wild-Type p53-Induced Phosphatase 1 (WIP1/PPM1D) by GSK2830371 Potentiates the Sensitivity to MDM2 Inhibitors in a p53-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Arman; Hawthorne, Thomas A; Nakjang, Sirintra; Lunec, John

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity to MDM2 inhibitors is widely different among responsive TP53 wild-type cell lines and tumors. Understanding the determinants of MDM2 inhibitor sensitivity is pertinent for their optimal clinical application. Wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase-1 (WIP1) encoded by PPM1D, is activated, gained/amplified in a range of TP53 wild-type malignancies, and is involved in p53 stress response homeostasis. We investigated cellular growth/proliferation of TP53 wild-type and matched mutant/null cell line pairs, differing in PPM1D genetic status, in response to Nutlin-3/RG7388 ± a highly selective WIP1 inhibitor, GSK2830371. We also assessed the effects of GSK2830371 on MDM2 inhibitor-induced p53(Ser15) phosphorylation, p53-mediated global transcriptional activity, and apoptosis. The investigated cell line pairs were relatively insensitive to single-agent GSK2830371. However, a non-growth-inhibitory dose of GSK2830371 markedly potentiated the response to MDM2 inhibitors in TP53 wild-type cell lines, most notably in those harboring PPM1D-activating mutations or copy number gain (up to 5.8-fold decrease in GI50). Potentiation also correlated with significant increase in MDM2 inhibitor-induced cell death endpoints that were preceded by a marked increase in a WIP1 negatively regulated substrate, phosphorylated p53(Ser15), known to increase p53 transcriptional activity. Microarray-based gene expression analysis showed that the combination treatment increases the subset of early RG7388-induced p53 transcriptional target genes. These findings demonstrate that potent and selective WIP1 inhibition potentiates the response to MDM2 inhibitors in TP53 wild-type cells, particularly those with PPM1D activation or gain, while highlighting the mechanistic importance of p53(Ser15) and its potential use as a biomarker for response to this combination regimen. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 379-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26832796

  10. p53-Dependent Activation of microRNA-34a in Response to Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines Not Impaired by Dominant Negative p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Novello, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Laura; Conti, Amalia; Quattrini, Irene; Pollino, Serena; Perego, Paola; Picci, Piero; Benassi, Maria Serena

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and prevalently occurs in the second decade of life. Etoposide, a chemotherapeutic agent used in combined treatments of recurrent human OS, belongs to the topoisomerase inhibitor family and causes DNA breakage. In this study we evaluated the cascade of events determined by etoposide-induced DNA damage in OS cell lines with different p53 status focusing on methylation status and expression of miR-34a that modulate tumor cell growth and cell cycle progression. Wild-type p53 U2-OS cells and U2-OS cells expressing dominant-negative form of p53 (U2- OS175) were more sensitive to etoposide than p53-deficient MG63 and Saos-2 cells, showing increased levels of unmethylated miR-34a, reduced expression of CDK4 and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In contrast, MG63 and Saos-2 cell lines presented aberrant methylation of miR-34a promoter gene with no miR-34a induction after etoposide treatment, underlining the close connection between p53 expression and miR-34a methylation status. Consistently, in p53siRNA transfected U2-OS cells we observed loss of miR-34a induction after etoposide exposure associated with a partial gain of gene methylation and cell cycle progress towards G2/M phase. Our results suggest that the open and unmethylated conformation of the miR-34a gene may be regulated by p53 able to bind the gene promoter. In conclusion, cell response to etoposide-induced DNA damage was not compromised in cells with dominant-negative p53 expression. PMID:25490093

  11. The influence of SV40 immortalization of human fibroblasts on p53-dependent radiation responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (SV40 Tag) has been ascribed many functions critical to viral propagation, including binding to the mammalian tumor suppressor p53. Recent studies have demonstrated that SV40-transformed murine cells have functional p53. The status of p53 in SV40-immortalized human cells, however, has not been characterized. We have found that in response to ionizing radiation, p53-dependent p21 transactivation activity is present, albeit reduced, in SV40-immortalized cells and that this activity can be further reduced with either dominant negative p53 expression or higher SV40 Tag expression. Furthermore, overexpression of p53 in SV40-immortalized ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells restores p53-dependent p21 induction to typical A-T levels. All SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited an absence of G1 arrest. Moreover, all SV40-immortalized cell lines exhibited increased apoptosis relative to primary cells in response to ionizing radiation, suggesting that SV40 immortalization results in a unique phenotype with regard to DNA damage responses. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. p53-dependent inhibition of mammalian cell survival by a genetically selected peptide aptamer that targets the regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Martel, V; Filhol, O; Colas, P; Cochet, C

    2006-11-30

    Based on the perturbation of its expression in human cancers and on its involvement in transformation and tumorigenesis, protein kinase CK2 has recently attracted attention as a potential therapeutic target. To assess the value of CK2 as a target for antiproliferative strategies, we have initiated a program aiming to develop inhibitors targeting specifically the regulatory CK2beta subunit. Here, we use a two-hybrid approach to isolate from combinatorial libraries, peptide aptamers that specifically interact with CK2beta. One of these (P1), which has significant sequence homology to the cytomegalovirus IE2 protein, binds with high affinity to the N-terminal domain of CK2beta without disrupting the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-P1 in different mammalian cell lines activates p53 phosphorylation on serine 15, induces an upregulation of p21 and the release of the Cyt-C and apoptosis-inducing factor proapoptotic proteins triggering caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. GFP-P1-induced apoptosis is associated with a p53-dependent pathway as cell death was abrogated in p53 knocked out cells. In summary, our data show that genetically selected peptide aptamers that specifically target CK2beta can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells through the recruitment of a p53-dependent apoptosis pathway. They also emphasize the critical role of CK2beta for cell survival and might allow the design of novel proapoptotic agents targeting this protein. PMID:16751801

  13. Expression of cFLIPL Determines the Basal Interaction of Bcl-2 With Beclin-1 and Regulates p53 Dependent Ubiquitination of Beclin-1 During Autophagic Stress.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Kishu; Pathak, Chandramani

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two different physiological processes, which is required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The apoptosis associated proteins such as Bcl-2 and p53 have a close association with autophagic proteins HMGB1 and Beclin-1 to modulate autophagic signaling. We demonstrate here the involvement of anti-apoptotic protein cFLIPL in the regulation of autophagy during cellular stress. We found that ectopic expression of cFLIPL decreases the sensitivity of HEK 293T cells against rapamycin and H2 O2 induced autophagic stress. Notably, the selective knockdown of cFLIPL augments autophagic stress in the cells accompanied with JNK1 activation and p53 dependent ubiquitination of Beclin-1. However, re-expression of cFLIPL in cFLIP knockdown cells restores autophagic equilibrium collectively with reversible effects on JNK1 and Beclin-1 integrity. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis suggests that cFLIPL is essential to maintain the canonical interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1 to regulate autophagic stress and cell death. Altogether, our findings suggest that expression of cFLIPL regulates the basal interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1 and substantiates p53 dependent ubiquitination of Beclin-1 during autophagic stress to determine the fate of cell death or survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1757-1768, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26682748

  14. Implication of p53-dependent cellular senescence related gene, TARSH in tumor suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Wakoh, Takeshi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Terauchi, Kunihiko; Sugimoto, Masataka; Ishigami, Akihito; Shimada, Jun-ichi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2009-03-20

    A novel target of NESH-SH3 (TARSH) was identified as a cellular senescence related gene in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) replicative senescence, the expression of which has been suppressed in primary clinical lung cancer specimens. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of TARSH involved in pulmonary tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the reduction of TARSH gene expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system robustly inhibited the MEFs proliferation with increase in senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) activity. Using p53{sup -/-} MEFs, we further suggest that this growth arrest by loss of TARSH is evoked by p53-dependent p21{sup Cip1} accumulation. Moreover, we also reveal that TARSH reduction induces multicentrosome in MEFs, which is linked in chromosome instability and tumor development. These results suggest that TARSH plays an important role in proliferation of replicative senescence and may serve as a trigger of tumor development.

  15. Hypoxia-induced p53 modulates both apoptosis and radiosensitivity via AKT

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Foskolou, Iosifina P.; Abraham, Aswin G.; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Tellier, Céline; Haider, Syed; Span, Paul N.; O’Neill, Eric E.; Buffa, Francesca M.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in tumors harboring p53 mutations has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy; however, the transcriptional targets that mediate hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis is reliant on the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of p53 but not on the acetylation sites K120 and K164, which, in contrast, are essential for DNA damage–induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Evaluation of hypoxia-induced transcripts in multiple cell lines identified a group of genes that are hypoxia-inducible proapoptotic targets of p53, including inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5D), pleckstrin domain–containing A3 (PHLDA3), sulfatase 2 (SULF2), B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2), and KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 3 (KANK3). These targets were also regulated by p53 in human cancers, including breast, brain, colorectal, kidney, bladder, and melanoma cancers. Downregulation of these hypoxia-inducible targets associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that hypoxia-induced apoptosis contributes to p53-mediated tumor suppression and treatment response. Induction of p53 targets, PHLDA3, and a specific INPP5D transcript mediated apoptosis in response to hypoxia through AKT inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of AKT led to apoptosis in the hypoxic regions of p53-deficient tumors and consequently increased radiosensitivity. Together, these results identify mediators of hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis and suggest AKT inhibition may improve radiotherapy response in p53-deficient tumors. PMID:25961455

  16. Tumor-specific activation of the C-JUN/MELK pathway regulates glioma stem cell growth in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunyu; Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Yeshavanth K; Joshi, Kaushal; Nakamura, Yuko; Kurt, Habibe; Gupta, Snehalata; Nakano, Ichiro

    2013-05-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that glioma stem cells (GSCs) may contribute to therapy resistance in high-grade glioma (HGG). Although recent studies have shown that the serine/threonine kinase maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) is abundantly expressed in various cancers, the function and mechanism of MELK remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that MELK depletion by shRNA diminishes the growth of GSC-derived mouse intracranial tumors in vivo, induces glial fibrillary acidic protein (+) glial differentiation of GSCs leading to decreased malignancy of the resulting tumors, and prolongs survival periods of tumor-bearing mice. Tissue microarray analysis with 91 HGG tumors demonstrates that the proportion of MELK (+) cells is a statistically significant indicator of postsurgical survival periods. Mechanistically, MELK is regulated by the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling and forms a complex with the oncoprotein c-JUN in GSCs but not in normal progenitors. MELK silencing induces p53 expression, whereas p53 inhibition induces MELK expression, indicating that MELK and p53 expression are mutually exclusive. Additionally, MELK silencing-mediated GSC apoptosis is partially rescued by both pharmacological p53 inhibition and p53 gene silencing, indicating that MELK action in GSCs is p53 dependent. Furthermore, irradiation of GSCs markedly elevates MELK mRNA and protein expression both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, recurrent HGG tumors following the failure of radiation and chemotherapy exhibit a statistically significant elevation of MELK protein compared with untreated newly diagnosed HGG tumors. Together, our data indicate that GSCs, but not normal cells, depend on JNK-driven MELK/c-JUN signaling to regulate their survival, maintain GSCs in an immature state, and facilitate tumor radioresistance in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:23339114

  17. Zebularine inhibits tumorigenesis and stemness of colorectal cancer via p53-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Yi-Ting; Shun, Chia-Tung; Lin, Shan-Hu; Wei, Tzu-Tang; Chuang, Shu-Hui; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation is frequently found in tumor cells and inhibition of DNA methylation is an effective anticancer strategy. In this study, the therapeutic effect of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine (Zeb) on colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. Zeb exhibited anticancer activity in cell cultures, tumor xenografts and mouse colitis-associated CRC model. It stabilizes p53 through ribosomal protein S7 (RPS7)/MDM2 pathways and DNA damage. Zeb-induced cell death was dependent on p53. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were affected by Zeb. Zeb induced p53-dependent ER stress and autophagy. Pro-survival markers of ER stress/UPR (GRP78) and autophagy (p62) were increased in tumor tissues of CRC patients, AOM/DSS-induced CRC mice and HCT116-derived colonospheres. Zeb downregulates GRP78 and p62, and upregulates a pro-apoptotic CHOP. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of Zeb. PMID:24225777

  18. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang; Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ge; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COH-203 exhibits anti-hepatoma effects in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. • COH-203 inhibits tubulin polymerization. • COH-203 induces mitotic arrest followed by mitotic slippage in BEL-7402 cells. • COH-203 induces p53-dependent senescence in BEL-7402 cells. - Abstract: 5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1, 2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14{sup Arf}–p53–p21 and p16{sup INK4α}–Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  19. Nucleolus-derived mediators in oncogenic stress response and activation of p53-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2016-08-01

    Rapid growth and division of cells, including tumor ones, is correlated with intensive protein biosynthesis. The output of nucleoli, organelles where translational machineries are formed, depends on a rate of particular stages of ribosome production and on accessibility of elements crucial for their effective functioning, including substrates, enzymes as well as energy resources. Different factors that induce cellular stress also often lead to nucleolar dysfunction which results in ribosome biogenesis impairment. Such nucleolar disorders, called nucleolar or ribosomal stress, usually affect cellular functioning which in fact is a result of p53-dependent pathway activation, elicited as a response to stress. These pathways direct cells to new destinations such as cell cycle arrest, damage repair, differentiation, autophagy, programmed cell death or aging. In the case of impaired nucleolar functioning, nucleolar and ribosomal proteins mediate activation of the p53 pathways. They are also triggered as a response to oncogenic factor overexpression to protect tissues and organs against extensive proliferation of abnormal cells. Intentional impairment of any step of ribosome biosynthesis which would direct the cells to these destinations could be a strategy used in anticancer therapy. This review presents current knowledge on a nucleolus, mainly in relation to cancer biology, which is an important and extremely sensitive element of the mechanism participating in cellular stress reaction mediating activation of the p53 pathways in order to counteract stress effects, especially cancer development. PMID:27142852

  20. MDM2 Inhibition Sensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to Androgen Ablation and Radiotherapy in a p53-Dependent Manner12

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Felix Y.; Zhang, Yu; Kothari, Vishal; Evans, Joseph R.; Jackson, William C.; Chen, Wei; Johnson, Skyler B.; Luczak, Connor; Wang, Shaomeng; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increased murine double minute 2 (MDM2) expression, independent of p53 status, is associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for men with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. We assessed MI-219, a small molecule inhibitor of MDM2 with improved pharmacokinetics over nutlin-3, for sensitization of prostate cancer cells to radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy, a standard treatment option for men with high-risk prostate cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of MDM2 inhibition by MI-219 was assessed in vitro and in vivo with mouse xenograft models across multiple prostate cancer cell lines containing varying p53 functional status. RESULTS: MDM2 inhibition by MI-219 resulted in dose- and time-dependent p53 activation and decreased clonogenic cell survival after radiation in a p53-dependent manner. Mechanistically, radiosensitization following inhibition of MDM2 was largely the result of p53-dependent increases in apoptosis and DNA damage as evidenced by Annexin V flow cytometry and γ-H2AX foci immunofluorescence. Similarly, treatment with MI-219 enhanced response to antiandrogen therapy via a p53-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death. Lastly, triple therapy with radiation, androgen deprivation therapy, and MI-219 decreased xenograft tumor growth compared with any single- or double-agent treatment. CONCLUSION: MDM2 inhibition with MI-219 results in p53-dependent sensitization of prostate cancer cells to radiation, antiandrogen therapy, and the combination. These findings support MDM2 small molecule inhibitor therapy as a therapy intensification strategy to improve clinical outcomes in high-risk localized prostate cancer. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: The combination of radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy is a standard treatment option for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Despite improvements in outcomes when androgen deprivation therapy is added to radiation, men with high-risk prostate cancer have significant risk for

  1. Fast neutrons-induced apoptosis is Fas-independent in lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Barbara; Benzina, Sami; Jeannequin, Pierre; Dufour, Patrick; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Jean-Marc; Gueulette, John; Bischoff, Pierre L. . E-mail: Pierre.Bischoff@ircad.u-strasbg.fr

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown that ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells differs according to their p53 status, and that caspase 8-mediated cleavage of BID is involved in the p53-dependent pathway. In the present study, we investigated the role of Fas signaling in caspase 8 activation induced by fast neutrons irradiation in these cells. Fas and FasL expression was assessed by flow cytometry and by immunoblot. We also measured Fas aggregation after irradiation by fluorescence microscopy. We found a decrease of Fas expression after irradiation, but no change in Fas ligand expression. We also showed that, in contrast to the stimulation of Fas by an agonistic antibody, Fas aggregation did not occur after irradiation. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that fast neutrons induced-apoptosis is Fas-independent, even in p53-dependent apoptosis.

  2. Ceramide Synthase 6 Is a Novel Target of Methotrexate Mediating Its Antiproliferative Effect in a p53-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Fekry, Baharan; Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Amin; Krupenko, Sergey A.; Krupenko, Natalia I.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) is elevated in response to folate stress in cancer cells, leading to enhanced production of C16-ceramide and apoptosis. Antifolate methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in chemotherapy of several types of cancer, is a strong inhibitor of folate metabolism. Here we investigated whether this drug targets CerS6. We observed that CerS6 protein was markedly elevated in several cancer cell lines treated with MTX. In agreement with the enzyme elevation, its product C16-ceramide was also strongly elevated, so as several other ceramide species. The increase in C16-ceramide, however, was eliminated in MTX-treated cells lacking CerS6 through siRNA silencing, while the increase in other ceramides sustained. Furthermore, the siRNA silencing of CerS6 robustly protected A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells from MTX toxicity, while the silencing of another ceramide synthase, CerS4, which was also responsive to folate stress in our previous study, did not interfere with the MTX effect. The rescue effect of CerS6 silencing upon MTX treatment was further confirmed in HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines. Interestingly, CerS6 itself, but not CerS4, induced strong antiproliferative effect in several cancer cell lines if elevated by transient transfection. The effect of MTX on CerS6 elevation was likely p53 dependent, which is in agreement with the hypothesis that the protein is a transcriptional target of p53. In line with this notion, lometrexol, the antifolate inducing cytotoxicity through the p53-independent mechanism, did not affect CerS6 levels. We have also found that MTX induces the formation of ER aggregates, enriched with CerS6 protein. We further demonstrated that such aggregation requires CerS6 and suggests that it is an indication of ER stress. Overall, our study identified CerS6 and ceramide pathways as a novel MTX target. PMID:26783755

  3. A Novel Anticancer Agent, 8-Methoxypyrimido[4′,5′:4,5]thieno(2,3-b) Quinoline-4(3H)-One Induces Neuro 2a Neuroblastoma Cell Death through p53-Dependent, Caspase-Dependent and -Independent Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Upasana; Sidhar, Himakshi; Ghate, Pankaj S.; Advirao, Gopal M.; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Giri, Ranjit K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants and fourth most common cancer in children. Despite recent advances in cancer treatments, the prognosis of stage-IV neuroblastoma patients continues to be dismal which warrant new pharmacotherapy. A novel tetracyclic condensed quinoline compound, 8-methoxypyrimido [4′,5′:4,5]thieno(2,3-b) quinoline-4(3H)-one (MPTQ) is a structural analogue of an anticancer drug ellipticine and has been reported to posses anticancer property. Study on MPTQ on neuroblastoma cells is very limited and mechanisms related to its cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells are completely unknown. Here, we evaluated the anticancer property of MPTQ on mouse neuro 2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and investigated the mechanisms underlying MPTQ-mediated neuro 2a cell death. MPTQ-mediated neuro 2a and SH-SY5Y cell deaths were found to be dose and time dependent. Moreover, MPTQ induced cell death reached approximately 99.8% and 90% in neuro 2a and SH-SY5Y cells respectively. Nuclear oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and Terminal dUTP Nick End Labelling assays indicated MPTQ-mediated neuro 2a cell death involved apoptosis. MPTQ-mediated apoptosis is associated with increased phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and Ser20 which correlates with the hyperphosphorylation of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated the increased level of Bax protein in MPTQ treated neuro 2a cells. MPTQ-mediated apoptosis is also associated with increased activation of caspase-9, -3 and -7 but not caspase-2 and -8. Furthermore, increased level of caspase-3 and cleaved Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase were observed in the nucleus of MPTQ treated neuro 2a cells, suggesting the involvement of caspase-dependent intrinsic but not extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Increased nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor suggests additional involvement of caspase-independent apoptosis pathway in MPTQ treated neuro 2a cells. Collectively

  4. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  5. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  6. The energy blockers bromopyruvate and lonidamine lead GL15 glioblastoma cells to death by different p53-dependent routes.

    PubMed

    Davidescu, Magdalena; Macchioni, Lara; Scaramozzino, Gaetano; Cristina Marchetti, Maria; Migliorati, Graziella; Vitale, Rita; Corcelli, Angela; Roberti, Rita; Castigli, Emilia; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidation. This difference between normal and cancer cells provides a biochemical basis for new therapeutic strategies aimed to block the energy power plants of cells. The effects produced by the energy blockers bromopyruvate (3BP) and lonidamine (LND) and the underlying biochemical mechanisms were investigated in GL15 glioblastoma cells. 3BP exerts early effects compared to LND, even though both drugs lead cells to death but by different routes. A dramatic decrease of ATP levels occurred after 1 hour treatment with 3BP, followed by cytochrome c and hexokinase II degradation, and by the decrease of both LC3I/LC3II ratio and p62, markers of an autophagic flux. In addition, Akt(Ser(473)) and p53(Ser(15)/Ser(315)) dephosphorylation occurred. In LND treatment, sustained ATP cellular levels were maintained up to 40 hours. The autophagic response of cells was overcome by apoptosis that was preceded by phosphatidylinositol disappearance and pAkt decrease. This last event favored p53 translocation to mitochondria triggering a p53-dependent apoptotic route, as observed at 48 and 72 hours. Adversely, in 3BP treatment, phospho-p53 dephosphorylation targeted p53 to MDM2-dependent proteolysis, thus channeling cells to irreversible autophagy. PMID:26387611

  7. The energy blockers bromopyruvate and lonidamine lead GL15 glioblastoma cells to death by different p53-dependent routes

    PubMed Central

    Davidescu, Magdalena; Macchioni, Lara; Scaramozzino, Gaetano; Cristina Marchetti, Maria; Migliorati, Graziella; Vitale, Rita; Corcelli, Angela; Roberti, Rita; Castigli, Emilia; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidation. This difference between normal and cancer cells provides a biochemical basis for new therapeutic strategies aimed to block the energy power plants of cells. The effects produced by the energy blockers bromopyruvate (3BP) and lonidamine (LND) and the underlying biochemical mechanisms were investigated in GL15 glioblastoma cells. 3BP exerts early effects compared to LND, even though both drugs lead cells to death but by different routes. A dramatic decrease of ATP levels occurred after 1 hour treatment with 3BP, followed by cytochrome c and hexokinase II degradation, and by the decrease of both LC3I/LC3II ratio and p62, markers of an autophagic flux. In addition, Akt(Ser473) and p53(Ser15/Ser315) dephosphorylation occurred. In LND treatment, sustained ATP cellular levels were maintained up to 40 hours. The autophagic response of cells was overcome by apoptosis that was preceded by phosphatidylinositol disappearance and pAkt decrease. This last event favored p53 translocation to mitochondria triggering a p53-dependent apoptotic route, as observed at 48 and 72 hours. Adversely, in 3BP treatment, phospho-p53 dephosphorylation targeted p53 to MDM2-dependent proteolysis, thus channeling cells to irreversible autophagy. PMID:26387611

  8. p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitkin, Nikita A.; Hook, Christina D.; Schwartz, Anton M.; Biswas, Subir; Kochetkov, Dmitry V.; Muratova, Alisa M.; Afanasyeva, Marina A.; Kravchenko, Julia E.; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Kuprash, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated expression of chemokine receptors in tumors has been reported in many instances and is related to a number of survival advantages for tumor cells including abnormal activation of prosurvival intracellular pathways. In this work we demonstrated an inverse correlation between expression levels of p53 tumor suppressor and CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Lentiviral transduction of MCF-7 cells with p53 shRNA led to elevated CXCR5 at both mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of CXCR5 in p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells was also increased as shown by activation of target gene expression and chemotaxis in response to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13. Using deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the cxcr5 gene promoter and enhancer elements, we demonstrated that p53 appears to act upon cxcr5 promoter indirectly, by repressing the activity of NFκB transcription factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene analysis, we further demonstrated that p65/RelA was able to bind the cxcr5 promoter in p53-dependent manner and to directly transactivate it when overexpressed. Through the described mechanism, elevated CXCR5 expression may contribute to abnormal cell survival and migration in breast tumors that lack functional p53. PMID:25786345

  9. Inhibition of p53-dependent transcription by BOX-I phospho-peptide mimetics that bind to p300

    PubMed Central

    Dornan, David; Hupp, Ted R.

    2001-01-01

    The N-terminal BOX-I domain of p53 containing a docking site for the negative regulator MDM2 and the positive effector p300, harbours two recently identified phosphorylation sites at Thr18 or Ser20 whose affect on p300 is undefined. Biochemical assays demonstrate that although MDM2 binding is inhibited by these phosphorylations, p300 binding is strikingly stabilized by Thr18 or Ser20 phosphorylation. Introducing EGFP-BOX-I domain peptides with an aspartate substitution at Thr18 or Ser20 induced a significant inhibition of endogenous p53-dependent transcription in cycling cells, in irradiated cells, as well as in cells transiently co-transfected with p300 and p53. In contrast an EGFP-wild-type BOX-I domain peptide stimulated p53 activity via inhibition of MDM2 protein binding. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p53 at Thr18 or Ser20 can activate p53 by stabilizing the p300–p53 complex and also identify a class of small molecular weight ligands capable of selective discrimination between MDM2- and p300-dependent activities. PMID:11258706

  10. Inhibition of p53-dependent transcription by BOX-I phospho-peptide mimetics that bind to p300.

    PubMed

    Dornan, D; Hupp, T R

    2001-02-01

    The N-terminal BOX-I domain of p53 containing a docking site for the negative regulator MDM2 and the positive effector p300, harbours two recently identified phosphorylation sites at Thr18 or Ser20O whose affect on p300 is undefined. Biochemical assays demonstrate that although MDM2 binding is inhibited by these phosphorylations, p300 binding is strikingly stabilized by Thr18 or Ser20 phosphorylation. Introducing EGFP-BOX-I domain peptides with an aspartate substitution at Thr18 or Ser20 induced a significant inhibition of endogenous p53-dependent transcription in cycling cells, in irradiated cells, as well as in cells transiently co-transfected with p300 and p53. In contrast an EGFP-wild-type BOX-I domain peptide stimulated p53 activity via inhibition of MDM2 protein binding. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p53 at Thr18 or Ser20 can activate p53 by stabilizing the p300-p53 complex and also identify a class of small molecular weight ligands capable of selective discrimination between MDM2- and p300-dependent activities. PMID:11258706

  11. Rpl22 loss impairs the development of B lymphocytes by activating a p53-dependent checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Fahl, Shawn P.; Harris, Bryan; Coffey, Francis; Wiest, David L.

    2014-01-01

    While ribosomal proteins facilitate the ribosome’s core function of translation, emerging evidence suggests that some ribosomal proteins are also capable of performing tissue restricted functions either from within specialized ribosomes or from outside of the ribosome. In particular, we have previously demonstrated that germline ablation of the gene encoding ribosomal protein Rpl22 causes a selective and p53 dependent arrest of αβ T cell progenitors at the β-selection checkpoint. We have now identified a crucial role for Rpl22 during early B cell development. Germline ablation of Rpl22 results in a reduction in the absolute number of B-lineage progenitors in the bone marrow beginning at the pro-B cell stage. Although Rpl22-deficient proB cells are hyporesponsive to IL-7, a key cytokine required for early B cell development, the arrest of B cell development does not result from disrupted IL-7 signaling. Instead, p53 induction appears to be responsible for the developmental defects, as Rpl22-deficiency causes increased expression of p53 and activation of downstream p53 target genes and p53-deficiency rescues the defect in B cell development in Rpl22-deficient mice. Interestingly, the requirement for Rpl22 in the B cell lineage appears to be developmentally restricted, since Rpl22-deficient splenic B cells proliferate normally in response to antigen receptor and toll receptor stimuli and undergo normal class switch recombination. These results indicate that Rpl22 performs a critical, developmentally restricted role in supporting early B cell development by preventing p53-induction. PMID:25416806

  12. PIM1 destabilization activates a p53-dependent response to ribosomal stress in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Vinay; Caldarola, Sara; Aria, Valentina; Monteleone, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Gargioli, Cesare; Cannata, Stefano; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-04-26

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis triggers a stress response (ribosomal stress) that can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. Signaling pathways activated by ribosomal stress are specifically involved in the pathological mechanism of a group of disorders defined as ribosomopathies. However, more generally, the quality control of ribosome synthesis is part of the regulatory circuits that control cell metabolism. A number of studies identified tumor suppressor p53 as a central player in ribosomal stress. We have previously reported that the kinase PIM1 plays a role as a sensor for ribosome deficiency. In this report we address the relationship between PIM1 and p53 in cancer cell lines after depletion of a ribosomal protein. We identified a novel signaling pathway that includes the kinase AKT and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. In fact, our results indicate that the lower level of PIM1, induced by ribosomal stress, causes inactivation of AKT, inhibition of MDM2 and a consequent p53 stabilization. Therefore, we propose that activation of p53 in response to ribosomal stress, is dependent on the pathway PIM1-AKT-MDM2. In addition, we report evidence that PIM1 level may be relevant to assess the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ribosomal stress. PMID:26993775

  13. Hdm2 and Nitric Oxide Radicals Contribute to the P53-Dependent Radioadaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Matsumoto, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to characterize the radioadaptive response at the molecular level. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53-containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulations of p53, the human homolog of endogenous murine double minute 2 (Hdm2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase were analyzed with Western blotting. Quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. Results: In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low-dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about two- to fourfold after challenging irradiation subsequent to a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of 5, 5'-(2, 5-Furanidiyl)bis-2-thiophenemethanol (RITA) or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with isosorbide dinitrate (an NO-generating agent) alone. Conclusions: These findings suggest that NO radicals are initiators of the radioadaptive response, acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  14. Zinc deficiency induces apoptosis via mitochondrial p53- and caspase-dependent pathways in human neuronal precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Morgan, Thomas J; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity was accompanied by efflux of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24h of zinc deficiency. Measurement of caspase cleavage, mRNA, and treatment with caspase inhibitors revealed the involvement of caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 in zinc deficiency-mediated apoptosis. Down-stream targets of caspase activation, including the nuclear structure protein lamin and polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP), which participates in DNA repair, were also cleaved. Transfection with a dominant-negative p53 construct and use of the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-μ, established that these alterations were largely dependent on p53. Together these data identify a cascade of events involving mitochondrial p53 as well as p53-dependent caspase-mediated mechanisms leading to apoptosis during zinc deficiency. PMID:25467851

  15. CEP63 deficiency promotes p53-dependent microcephaly and reveals a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Marko; Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Terré, Berta; Gómez, Rocío; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Pacheco, Sarai; Knobel, Philip A.; Martínez-Marchal, Ana; Aivio, Suvi; Palenzuela, Lluís; Wolfrum, Uwe; McKinnon, Peter J.; Suja, José A.; Roig, Ignasi; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H.

    2015-01-01

    CEP63 is a centrosomal protein that facilitates centriole duplication and is regulated by the DNA damage response. Mutations in CEP63 cause Seckel syndrome, a human disease characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. Here we demonstrate that Cep63 deficient mice recapitulate Seckel syndrome pathology. The attrition of neural progenitor cells involves p53-dependent cell death and brain size is rescued by the deletion of p53. Cell death is not the result of an aberrant DNA damage response but is triggered by centrosome-based mitotic errors. In addition, Cep63 loss severely impairs meiotic recombination, leading to profound male infertility. Cep63 deficient spermatocytes display numerical and structural centrosome aberrations, chromosome entanglements and defective telomere clustering, suggesting that a reduction in centrosome-mediated chromosome movements underlies recombination failure. Our results provide novel insight into the molecular pathology of microcephaly and establish a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination. PMID:26158450

  16. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Filesi, Carmelina; Galvano, Fabio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Masella, Roberta; Giovannini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 macrophages. We found that the presence of PCA in cells treated with oxLDL completely inhibited the p53-dependent apoptosis induced by oxLDL. PCA decreased oxLDL-induced ROS overproduction and in particular prevented the early increase of ROS. This decrease seemed to be the main signal responsible for maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis hindering the activation of p53 induced by ROS, p38MAPK, and PKCδ. Consequently the overexpression of the proapoptotic p53-target genes such as p66Shc protein did not occur. Finally, we demonstrated that PCA induced the activation of JNK, which, in turn, determined the increase of nuclear Nrf2, leading to inhibition of the early ROS overproduction. We concluded that the antiapoptotic mechanism of PCA was most likely related to the activation of the JNK-mediated survival signals that strengthen the cellular antioxidant defences rather than to the PCA antioxidant power. PMID:26180584

  17. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Filesi, Carmelina; Galvano, Fabio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Masella, Roberta; Giovannini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 macrophages. We found that the presence of PCA in cells treated with oxLDL completely inhibited the p53-dependent apoptosis induced by oxLDL. PCA decreased oxLDL-induced ROS overproduction and in particular prevented the early increase of ROS. This decrease seemed to be the main signal responsible for maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis hindering the activation of p53 induced by ROS, p38MAPK, and PKCδ. Consequently the overexpression of the proapoptotic p53-target genes such as p66Shc protein did not occur. Finally, we demonstrated that PCA induced the activation of JNK, which, in turn, determined the increase of nuclear Nrf2, leading to inhibition of the early ROS overproduction. We concluded that the antiapoptotic mechanism of PCA was most likely related to the activation of the JNK-mediated survival signals that strengthen the cellular antioxidant defences rather than to the PCA antioxidant power. PMID:26180584

  18. GAMT, a p53-Inducible Modulator of Apoptosis, Is Critical for the Adaptive Response to Nutrient Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Takao; Brown-Endres, Lauren; Chu, Kiki; Ongusaha, Pat P.; Ohtsuka, Takao; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Lee, Sam W.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53 tumor suppressor protein has a well-established role in cell fate decision-making processes. However, recent discoveries indicate that p53 has a non-tumor-suppressive role. Here, we identify GAMT (guanidinoacetate methyltransferase), an enzyme involved in creatine synthesis, as a p53 target gene and a key downstream effector of adaptive response to nutrient stress. We show that GAMT is not only involved in p53-dependent apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress but is important for apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation. Additionally, p53→GAMT up-regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO) induced by glucose starvation, utilizing this pathway as an alternate ATP-generating energy source. These results highlight that p53-dependent regulation of GAMT allows cells to maintain energy levels sufficient to undergo apoptosis or survival under conditions of nutrient stress. p53→GAMT pathway represents a new link between cellular stress responses and processes of creatine synthesis and FAO, demonstrating a further role of p53 in cellular metabolism. PMID:19917247

  19. POZ/BTB and AT-hook-containing zinc finger protein 1 (PATZ1) inhibits endothelial cell senescence through a p53 dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cho, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, K J; Kim, J-R

    2012-01-01

    Vascular cell senescence, induced by the DNA damage response or inflammatory stress, contributes to age-associated vascular disease. Using complementary DNA microarray technology, we found that the level of POZ/BTB and AT-hook-containing zinc finger protein 1 (PATZ1) is downregulated during endothelial cell (EC) senescence. PATZ1 may have an important role as a transcriptional repressor in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation; however, the role of PATZ1 in EC senescence and vascular aging remains unidentified. Knockdown of PATZ1 in young cells accelerated premature EC senescence, which was confirmed by growth arrest, increased p53 protein level and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and repression of EC tube formation. In contrast, overexpression of PATZ1 in senescent cells reversed senescent phenotypes. Cellular senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown in young cells was rescued by knockdown of p53, but not by knockdown of p16INK4a. PATZ1 knockdown increased ROS levels, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine abolished EC senescence induced by PATZ1 knockdown. Notably, PATZ1 immunoreactivity was lower in ECs of atherosclerotic tissues than those of normal arteries in LDLR−/− mice, and immunoreactivity also decreased in ECs of old human arteries. These results suggest that PATZ1 may have an important role in the regulation of EC senescence through an ROS-mediated p53-dependent pathway and contribute to vascular diseases associated with aging. PMID:22052190

  20. CAPE Analogs Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Harquail, Jason; Lassalle-Claux, Grégoire; Belbraouet, Mehdi; Jean-Francois, Jacques; Touaibia, Mohamed; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women worldwide. As a result, many have turned their attention to new alternative approaches to treat this disease. Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), a well-known active compound from bee propolis, has been previously identified as a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer molecule. In fact, CAPE is well documented as inducing cell death by inhibiting NFκB and by inducing pro-apoptotic pathways (i.e., p53). With the objective of developing stronger anticancer compounds, we studied 18 recently described CAPE derivatives for their ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Five of the said compounds, including CAPE, were selected and subsequently characterised for their anticancer mechanism of action. We validated that CAPE is a potent inducer of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, some newly synthesized CAPE derivatives also showed greater cell death activity than the lead CAPE structure. Similarly to CAPE, analog compounds elicited p53 activation. Interestingly, one compound in particular, analog 10, induced apoptosis in a p53-mutated cell line. These results suggest that our new CAPE analog compounds may display the capacity to induce breast cancer apoptosis in a p53-dependent and/or independent manner. These CAPE analogs could thus provide new therapeutic approaches for patients with varying genotypic signatures (such as p53 mutations) in a more specific and targeted fashion. PMID:26184141

  1. p53-dependent but ATM-independent inhibition of DNA synthesis and G2 arrest in cadmium-treated human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Feng |; Zhou Tong; Simpson, Dennis; Zhou Yingchun; Boyer, Jayne; Chen Bo |; Jin Taiyi; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Kaufmann, William . E-mail: wkarlk@med.unc.edu

    2007-01-15

    This study focused on the activation of cell cycle checkpoint responses in diploid human fibroblasts that were treated with cadmium chloride and the potential roles of ATM and p53 signaling pathways in cadmium-induced responses. The alkaline comet assay indicated that cadmium caused a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage. Cells that were rendered p53-defective by expression of a dominant-negative p53 allele or knockdown of p53 mRNA were more resistant to cadmium-induced inactivation of colony formation than normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells. Synchronized fibroblasts in S were more sensitive to cadmium toxicity than cells in G1, suggesting that cadmium may target some element of DNA replication. Cadmium produced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis. An immediate inhibition was associated with severe delay in progression through S phase and a delayed inhibition seen 24 h after treatment was associated with accumulation of cells in G2. AT and normal cells displayed similar patterns of inhibition of DNA synthesis and G2 delay after treatment with cadmium, while p53-defective cells displayed significantly less of the delayed inhibition of DNA synthesis and accumulation in G2 post-treatment. Total p53 protein and ser15-phosphorylated p53 were induced by cadmium in normal and AT cells. The p53 transactivation target Gadd45{alpha} was induced in both p53-effective and p53-defective cells after 4 h cadmium treatment, and this was associated with an acute inhibition of mitosis. Cadmium produced a very unusual pattern of toxicity in human fibroblasts, inhibiting DNA replication and inducing p53-dependent growth arrest but without induction of p21{sup Cip1/Waf1} or activation of Chk1.

  2. Overexpression of TDP-43 causes partially p53-dependent G2/M arrest and p53-independent cell death in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kikyo; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2012-01-11

    It has been hypothesized that the dysregulation of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) in neurons is closely linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. However, it remains undefined whether the dysregulation of TDP-43 in non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells, contributes to the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative diseases. Primarily using HeLa cells, we show that a low-grade overexpression of TDP-43, 2- to 5-fold greater than endogenous expression, which is thought to mimic the gain of function of TDP-43, induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death in cultured non-neuronal cells. Since the activation of p53 may induce G2/M arrest and/or cell death in many abnormal situations, we examined the mechanism underlying G2/M arrest from the standpoint of p53 regulation. It was determined that the TDP-43-induced G2/M arrest was attenuated, while TDP-43-induced death was not attenuated, in cells in which the p53 function was compromised. These data collectively indicate that TDP-43 causes G2/M arrest in a partially p53-dependent manner and it causes cell death in a p53-independent manner in cycling cells. Because it is likely that the impaired proliferation in glial cells causes a decrease in the neuron-supporting ability, these findings further suggests that the gain of function of TDP-43 may cause neurotoxicity by inducing cell cycle arrest and death in glial cells. PMID:22133803

  3. Space experiment "Rad Gene"-report 1; p53-Dependent gene expression in human cultured cells exposed to space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences: space radiations and microgravity. A p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a role as a guardian of the genome through the activity of p53-centered signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to clarify the biological effects of space radiations, microgravity and a space environment on the gene and protein expression of p53-dependent regulated genes. Space experiments were performed with two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines: one cells line (TSCE5) bears a wild-type p53 gene status, and another cells line (WTK1) bears a mutated p53 gene status. Un-der one gravity or microgravity condition, the cells were grown in the cell biology experimental facility (CBEF) of the International Space Station (ISS) for 8 days without experiencing the stress during launching and landing because the cells were frozen during these periods. Ground control samples also were cultured for 8 days in the CBEF on the ground during the same periods as space flight. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by using DNA chip (a 44k whole human genome microarray, Agilent Technologies Inc.) and protein chip (PanoramaTM Ab MicroArray, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), respectively. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression in cultured cells after space flight during 133 days with frozen condition. We report the results and discussion from the viewpoint of the functions of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes after an exposure to space radiations and/or microgravity. The initial goal of this space experiment was completely achieved. It is expected that data from this type of work will be helpful in designing physical protection from the deleterious effects of space radiations during long term stays in space.

  4. PUMA is invovled in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis of mouse cerebral astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Tian, M; Jin, L; Jia, H; Jin, Y

    2015-01-22

    PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is required for p53-dependent and p53-independent forms of apoptosis. PUMA has been invovled in the onset and progress of several diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and ischemic brain disease. Although many studies have shown that ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) can induce the apoptosis of astrocytes, the role of PUMA in I/R-mediated apoptosis of cerebral astrocyte apoptosis remains unclear. To mimic in vivo I/R conditions, primary mouse cerebral astrocytes were incubated in a combinational cultural condition of oxygen, glucose, and serum deprivation (OSGD) for 1 h followed by reperfusion (OSGD/R). Cell death determination assays and cell viability assays indicated that OSGD and OSGD/R induce the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The expression of PUMA was significantly elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD/R. Moreover, targeted down-regulation of PUMA by siRNA transfection significantly decreased the OSGD/R-induced apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. We also found that OSGD and OSGD/R triggered the release of cytochrome c in astrocytes, indicating the dependence on a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was extremely generated during OSGD and OSGD/R, and the elimination of ROS by treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) remarkably inhibited the expression of PUMA and the apoptosis of primary cerebral astrocytes. The activation of Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 was extremely elevated in primary cerebral astrocytes during OSGD. In addition, we found that knockdown of PUMA led to the depressed expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 during OSGD/R. These results indicate that PUMA is invovled in the apoptosis of cerebral astrocytes upon I/R injury. PMID:25451294

  5. Terpinen-4-ol Induces Apoptosis in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Shan; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Huang, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Pei-Shan; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, JingHua-Tsai; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Terpinen-4-ol, a monoterpene component of the essential oils of several aromatic plants, exhibits antitumor effects. In this study, the antitumor effects of terpinen-4-ol and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for it were evaluated and studied, respectively on human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Our results indicated that terpinen-4-ol elicited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, as determined by MTT assay. Increased sub-G1 population and annexin-V binding, activation of caspases 9 and 3, cleavage of poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP), and a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) indicated involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in terpinen-4-ol-treated A549 and CL1-0 cells. Elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease in IAP family proteins XIAP and survivin were also observed following terpinen-4-ol treatment. Notably, terpinen-4-ol was able to increase p53 levels in A549 and CL1-0 cells. Diminution of p53 by RNA interference induced necrosis instead of apoptosis in A549 cells following terpinen-4-ol treatment, indicating that terpinen-4-ol-elicited apoptosis is p53-dependent. Moreover, intratumoral administration of terpinen-4-ol significantly suppressed the growth of s.c. A549 xenografts by inducing apoptosis, as confirmed by TUNEL assay. Collectively, these data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying terpinen-4-ol-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells, rendering this compound a potential anticancer drug for NSCLC. PMID:21760828

  6. Climacostol reduces tumour progression in a mouse model of melanoma via the p53-dependent intrinsic apoptotic programme

    PubMed Central

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Buonanno, Federico; Zecchini, Silvia; Giavazzi, Alessio; Proietti Serafini, Francesca; Catalani, Elisabetta; Guerra, Laura; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Picchietti, Simona; Fausto, Anna Maria; Giorgi, Simone; Marcantoni, Enrico; Clementi, Emilio; Ortenzi, Claudio; Cervia, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Climacostol, a compound produced by the ciliated protozoan Climacostomum virens, displayed cytotoxic properties in vitro. This study demonstrates that it has anti-tumour potential. Climacostol caused a reduction of viability/proliferation of B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells, a rapidly occurring DNA damage, and induced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway characterised by the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, the release of Cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and the activation of Caspase 9-dependent cleavage of Caspase 3. The apoptotic mechanism of climacostol was found to rely on the up-regulation of p53 and its targets Noxa and Puma. In vivo analysis of B16-F10 allografts revealed a persistent inhibition of tumour growth rate when melanomas were treated with intra-tumoural injections of climacostol. In addition, it significantly improved the survival of transplanted mice, decreased tumour weight, induced a remarkable reduction of viable cells inside the tumour, activated apoptosis and up-regulated the p53 signalling network. Importantly, climacostol toxicity was more selective against tumour than non-tumour cells. The anti-tumour properties of climacostol and the molecular events associated with its action indicate that it is a powerful agent that may be considered for the design of pro-apoptotic drugs for melanoma therapy. PMID:27271364

  7. Climacostol reduces tumour progression in a mouse model of melanoma via the p53-dependent intrinsic apoptotic programme.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Buonanno, Federico; Zecchini, Silvia; Giavazzi, Alessio; Proietti Serafini, Francesca; Catalani, Elisabetta; Guerra, Laura; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Picchietti, Simona; Fausto, Anna Maria; Giorgi, Simone; Marcantoni, Enrico; Clementi, Emilio; Ortenzi, Claudio; Cervia, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Climacostol, a compound produced by the ciliated protozoan Climacostomum virens, displayed cytotoxic properties in vitro. This study demonstrates that it has anti-tumour potential. Climacostol caused a reduction of viability/proliferation of B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells, a rapidly occurring DNA damage, and induced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway characterised by the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, the release of Cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and the activation of Caspase 9-dependent cleavage of Caspase 3. The apoptotic mechanism of climacostol was found to rely on the up-regulation of p53 and its targets Noxa and Puma. In vivo analysis of B16-F10 allografts revealed a persistent inhibition of tumour growth rate when melanomas were treated with intra-tumoural injections of climacostol. In addition, it significantly improved the survival of transplanted mice, decreased tumour weight, induced a remarkable reduction of viable cells inside the tumour, activated apoptosis and up-regulated the p53 signalling network. Importantly, climacostol toxicity was more selective against tumour than non-tumour cells. The anti-tumour properties of climacostol and the molecular events associated with its action indicate that it is a powerful agent that may be considered for the design of pro-apoptotic drugs for melanoma therapy. PMID:27271364

  8. Marijuana smoke condensate induces p53-mediated apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Jung, Mi Hyun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Since the largely abused worldwide used of marijuana, there have been many ongoing debates regarding the adverse health effects of marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking was recently proved to cause pulmonary toxicity by inducing genotoxic effects or generating reactive oxygen species. Because p53, a tumor suppressor gene, has an important pathophysiologic role in the regulation of lung epithelial cell DNA damage responses, we hypothesized that p53 may be involved in the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by marijuana smoking. First, we confirmed that marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) induces oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells. We observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was increased by MSC in the DCFH-DA assay. Also, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase) activity and their mRNA expressions were up-regulated by MSC. Second, we investigated p53 involvement in the MSC-induced apoptotic pathway in BEAS-2B cells. The results showed that MSC increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bax) were increased by MSC and phospho-p53, along with the increase of Bax protein expression by MSC. Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression were partially blocked by an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin-α). The results indicate that p53 plays a role in MSC-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that MSC partially induces p53-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human lung epithelial cells and this may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23665932

  9. Deoxyinosine triphosphate induces MLH1/PMS2- and p53-dependent cell growth arrest and DNA instability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Abolhassani, Nona; Iyama, Teruaki; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Shiomi, Naoko; Mori, Masahiko; Shiomi, Tadahiro; Noda, Tetsuo; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyinosine (dI) occurs in DNA either by oxidative deamination of a previously incorporated deoxyadenosine residue or by misincorporation of deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) from the nucleotide pool during replication. To exclude dITP from the pool, mammals possess specific hydrolysing enzymes, such as inosine triphosphatase (ITPA). Previous studies have shown that deficiency in ITPA results in cell growth suppression and DNA instability. To explore the mechanisms of these phenotypes, we analysed ITPA-deficient human and mouse cells. We found that both growth suppression and accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA of ITPA-deficient cells depended on MLH1/PMS2. The cell growth suppression of ITPA-deficient cells also depended on p53, but not on MPG, ENDOV or MSH2. ITPA deficiency significantly increased the levels of p53 protein and p21 mRNA/protein, a well-known target of p53, in an MLH1-dependent manner. Furthermore, MLH1 may also contribute to cell growth arrest by increasing the basal level of p53 activity. PMID:27618981

  10. A Temperature Sensitive Variant of p53 Drives p53-Dependent MicroRNA Expression without Evidence of Widespread Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Miguel A.; Vanzyl, Erin J.; Hamill, Jeff D.; Pan, Elysia; Marcellus, Kristen A.; Tolls, Victoria J.; Alonzi, Rhea C.; Pastic, Alyssa; Rambo, Teeghan M. E.; Sayed, Hadil; McKay, Bruce C.

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor is a transcription factor that can regulate the expression of numerous genes including many encoding proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). The predominant outcomes of a typical p53 response are the initiation of apoptotic cascades and the activation of cell cycle checkpoints. HT29-tsp53 cells express a temperature sensitive variant of p53 and in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, these cells preferentially undergo G1 phase cell cycle arrest at the permissive temperature that correlates with increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. Recent evidence also suggests that a variety of miRNAs can induce G1 arrest by inhibiting the expression of proteins like CDK4 and CDK6. Here we used oligonucleotide microarrays to identify p53-regulated miRNAs that are induced in these cells undergoing G1 arrest. At the permissive temperature, the expression of several miRNAs was increased through a combination of either transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. In particular, miR-34a-5p, miR-143-3p and miR-145-5p were strongly induced and they reached levels comparable to that of reference miRNAs (miR-191 and miR-103). Importantly, miR-34a-5p and miR-145-5p are known to silence the Cdk4 and/or Cdk6 G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). Surprisingly, there was no p53-dependent decrease in the expression of either of these G1 cdks. To search for other potential targets of p53-regulated miRNAs, p53-downregulated mRNAs were identified through parallel microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Once again, there was no clear effect of p53 on the repression of mRNAs under these conditions despite a remarkable increase in p53-induced mRNA expression. Therefore, despite a strong p53 transcriptional response, there was no clear evidence that p53-responsive miRNA contributed to gene silencing. Taken together, the changes in cell cycle distribution in this cell line at the permissive temperature is likely attributable to transcriptional

  11. In several cell types tumour suppressor p53 induces apoptosis largely via Puma but Noxa can contribute.

    PubMed

    Michalak, E M; Villunger, A; Adams, J M; Strasser, A

    2008-06-01

    The ability of p53 to induce apoptosis in cells with damaged DNA is thought to contribute greatly to its tumour suppressor function. P53 has been proposed to induce apoptosis via numerous transcriptional targets or even by direct cytoplasmic action. Two transcriptional targets shown to mediate its apoptotic role in several cell types encode Noxa and Puma, BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family. To test if their functions in p53-dependent apoptosis overlap, we generated mice lacking both. These mice develop normally and no tumours have yet arisen. In embryonic fibroblasts, the absence of both Noxa and Puma prevented induction of apoptosis by etoposide. Moreover, following whole body gamma-irradiation, the loss of both proteins protected thymocytes better than loss of Puma alone. Indeed, their combined deficiency protected thymocytes as strongly as loss of p53 itself. These results indicate that, at least in fibroblasts and thymocytes, p53-induced apoptosis proceeds principally via Noxa and Puma, with Puma having the predominant role in diverse cell types. The absence of tumours in the mice suggests that tumour suppression by p53 requires functions in addition to induction of apoptosis. PMID:18259198

  12. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: A Novel Inhibitor of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-p38-Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Dependent Cigarette Smoke-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fallica, Jonathan; Varela, Lidenys; Johnston, Laura; Kim, Bo; Serebreni, Leonid; Wang, Lan; Damarla, Mahendra; Kolb, Todd M; Hassoun, Paul M; Damico, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the leading cause of emphysema. CS mediates pathologic emphysematous remodeling of the lung via apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells resulting in enlargement of the airspaces, loss of the capillary bed, and diminished surface area for gas exchange. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, is reduced both in a preclinical model of CS-induced emphysema and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly those with the most severe disease and emphysematous phenotype. MIF functions to antagonize CS-induced DNA damage, p53-dependent apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells (EndoCs) and resultant emphysematous tissue remodeling. Using primary alveolar EndoCs and a mouse model of CS-induced lung damage, we investigated the capacity and molecular mechanism(s) by which MIF modifies oxidant injury. Here, we demonstrate that both the activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a superoxide-generating enzyme obligatory for CS-induced DNA damage and EndoC apoptosis, and superoxide concentrations are increased after CS exposure in the absence of MIF. Both XOR hyperactivation and apoptosis in the absence of MIF occurred via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family member, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), was necessary for CS-induced p38 activation and EndoC apoptosis. MIF was sufficient to directly suppress ASK1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, MIF suppresses CS-mediated cytotoxicity in the lung, in part by antagonizing ASK1-p38-XOR-dependent apoptosis. PMID:26390063

  13. PUMA promotes Bax translocation in FOXO3a-dependent pathway during STS-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Chen, Qun

    2009-08-01

    PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, also called Bbc3) was first identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that is transcriptionally up-regulated by p53 and activated upon p53-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as treatment with DNA-damaging drugs or UV irradiation. Recently studies have been shown that Puma is also up-regulated in response to certain p53-independent apoptotic stimuli, such as growth factor deprivation or treatment with glucocorticoids or STS (staurosporine). However, the molecular mechanisms of PUMA up-regulation and how PUMA functions in response to p53-independent apoptotic stimuli remain poorly understood. In this study, based on real-time single cell analysis, flow cytometry and western blotting technique, we investigated the function of PUMA in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) after STS treatment. Our results show that FOXO3a was activated by STS stimulation and then translocated from cytosol to nucleus. The expression of PUMA was up-regulated via a FOXO3a-dependent manner after STS treatment, while p53 had little function in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis and Bax translocation induced by STS were not blocked by Pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor), which suggested that p53 was not involved in this signaling pathway. Taken together, these results indicate that PUMA promoted Bax translocation in a FOXO3a-dependment pathway during STS-induced apoptosis, while p53 was dispensable in this process.

  14. Calmodulin antagonists induce platelet apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhicheng; Li, Suping; Shi, Quanwei; Yan, Rong; Liu, Guanglei; Dai, Kesheng

    2010-04-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) antagonists induce apoptosis in various tumor models and inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis, thus some of which have been extensively used as anti-cancer agents. In platelets, CaM has been found to bind directly to the cytoplasmic domains of several platelet receptors. Incubation of platelets with CaM antagonists impairs the receptors-related platelet functions. However, it is still unknown whether CaM antagonists induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that CaM antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W7), tamoxifen (TMX), and trifluoperazine (TFP) induce apoptotic events in human platelets, including depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. CaM antagonists did not incur platelet activation as detected by P-selectin surface expression and PAC-1 binding. However, ADP-, botrocetin-, and alpha-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor surface were significantly reduced in platelets pre-treated with CaM antagonists. Furthermore, cytosolic Ca(2+) levels were obviously elevated by both W7 and TMX, and membrane-permeable Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM significantly reduced apoptotic events in platelets induced by W7. Therefore, these findings indicate that CaM antagonists induce platelet apoptosis. The elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels may be involved in the regulation of CaM antagonists-induced platelet apoptosis. PMID:20172594

  15. Fluoxetine protects against IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis via downregulation of p53.

    PubMed

    Shan, Han; Bian, Yaqi; Shu, Zhaoma; Zhang, Linxia; Zhu, Jialei; Ding, Jianhua; Lu, Ming; Xiao, Ming; Hu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of neurological diseases including stroke, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In the present study, we addressed the molecular events in fluoxetine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute neuronal injury and inflammation-induced neuronal apoptosis. We showed that treatment of fluoxetine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) with twice injections at 1 h and 12 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) respectively alleviated neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis in a mouse ischemic stroke model, accompanied by inhibiting interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Bax and p53 expression and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 level. We next mimicked neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke with IL-1β in primary cultured cortical neurons and found that pretreatment with fluoxetine (1 μM) prevented IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis and upregulation of p53 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p53 overexpression in N2a cell line abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of fluoxetine, indicating that p53 downregulation is required for the protective role of fluoxetine in IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis. Fluoxetine downregulating p53 expression could be mimicked by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38, but blocked by anisomycin, a p38 activator. Collectively, our findings have revealed that fluoxetine protects against IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis via p38-p53 dependent pathway, which give us an insight into the potential of fluoxetine in terms of opening up novel therapeutic avenues for neurological diseases including stroke. PMID:26976669

  16. PUMA Binding Induces Partial Unfolding within BCL-xL to Disrupt p53 Binding and Promote Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Follis, Ariele Viacava; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Fisher, John C.; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Grace, Christy R.; Nourse, Amanda; Baran, Katherine; Ou, Li; Min, Lie; White, Stephen W.; Green, Douglas R.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Following DNA damage, nuclear p53 induces the expression of PUMA, a BH3-only protein that binds and inhibits the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire, including BCL-xL. PUMA, unique amongst BH3-only proteins, disrupts the interaction between cytosolic p53 and BCL-xL, allowing p53 to promote apoptosis via direct activation of the BCL-2 effector molecules, BAX and BAK. Structural investigations using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed that PUMA binding induced partial unfolding of two α-helices within BCL-xL. Wild-type PUMA or a PUMA mutant incapable of causing binding-induced unfolding of BCL-xL equivalently inhibited the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 repertoire to sensitize for death receptor (DR)-activated apoptosis, but only wild-type PUMA promoted p53-dependent, DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that PUMA-induced partial unfolding of BCL-xL disrupts interactions between cytosolic p53 and BCL-xL, releasing the bound p53 to initiate apoptosis. We propose that regulated unfolding of BCL-xL provides a mechanism to promote PUMA-dependent signaling within the apoptotic pathways. PMID:23340338

  17. Targeting Pro-Apoptotic TRAIL Receptors Sensitizes HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells to Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maduro, John H.; Vries, Elisabeth de; Meersma, Gert-Jan; Hougardy, Brigitte; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Jong, Steven de

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of irradiation in combination with drugs targeting the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor (DR)4 and DR5 and their mechanism of action in a cervical cancer cell line. Methods and Materials: Recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) and the agonistic antibodies against DR4 and DR5 were added to irradiated HeLa cells. The effect was evaluated with apoptosis and cytotoxicity assays and at the protein level. Membrane receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry. Small-interfering RNA against p53, DR4, and DR5 was used to investigate their function on the combined effect. Results: rhTRAIL and the agonistic DR4 and DR5 antibodies strongly enhanced 10-Gy-induced apoptosis. This extra effect was 22%, 23%, and 29% for rhTRAIL, DR4, and DR5, respectively. Irradiation increased p53 expression and increased the membrane expression of DR5 and DR4. p53 suppression, as well as small-interfering RNA against DR5, resulted in a significant downregulation of DR5 membrane expression but did not affect apoptosis induced by irradiation and rhTRAIL. After small-interfering RNA against DR4, rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis and the additive effect of irradiation on rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis were abrogated, implicating an important role for DR4 in apoptosis induced through irradiation in combination with rhTRAIL. Conclusion: Irradiation-induced apoptosis is strongly enhanced by targeting the pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptors DR4 or DR5. Irradiation results in a p53-dependent increase in DR5 membrane expression. The sensitizing effect of rhTRAIL on irradiation in the HeLa cell line is, however especially mediated through the DR4 receptor.

  18. E2F1 and E2F2 prevent replicative stress and subsequent p53-dependent organ involution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Ara, A; Zenarruzabeitia, O; Buelta, L; Merino, J; Zubiaga, A M

    2015-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires tight regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors share a critical role in tissue homeostasis, since their combined inactivation results in overall organ involution, specially affecting the pancreatic gland, which subsequently triggers diabetes. We have examined the mechanism by which these E2Fs regulate tissue homeostasis. We show that pancreas atrophy in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice is associated with mitochondrial apoptosis and activation of the p53 pathway in young animals, before the development of diabetes. A deregulated expression of E2F target genes was detected in pancreatic cells of young DKO animals, along with unscheduled DNA replication and activation of a DNA damage response. Importantly, suppression of DNA replication in vivo with aphidicolin led to a significant inhibition of the p53 pathway in DKO pancreas, implying a causal link between DNA replication stress and p53 activation in this model. We further show that activation of the p53 pathway has a key role in the aberrant phenotype of DKO mice, since targeted inactivation of p53 gene abrogated cellular apoptosis and prevented organ involution and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice lacking E2F1/E2F2. Unexpectedly, p53 inactivation unmasked oncogenic features of E2F1/E2F2-depleted cells, as evidenced by an accelerated tumor development in triple-knockout mice compared with p53(-/-) mice. Collectively, our data reveal a role for E2F1 and E2F2 as suppressors of replicative stress in differentiating cells, and uncover the existence of a robust E2F-p53 regulatory axis to enable tissue homeostasis and prevent tumorigenesis. These findings have implications in the design of approaches targeting E2F for cancer therapy. PMID:25656653

  19. The potassium ion channel opener NS1619 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in A2780 ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han Xiaobing; Xi Ling; Wang Hui; Huang Xiaoyuan; Ma Xiangyi; Han Zhiqiang; Wu Peng; Ma Xiaoli; Lu Yunping; Wang, Gang Zhou Jianfeng; Ma Ding

    2008-10-17

    Diverse types of voltage-gated potassium (K{sup +}) channels have been shown to be involved in regulation of cell proliferation. The maxi-conductance Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels (BK channels) may play an important role in the progression of human cancer. To explore the role of BK channels in regulation of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells, the effects of the specific BK channel activator NS1619 on induction of apoptosis in A2780 cells were observed. Following treatment with NS1619, cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis of A2780 cells pretreated with NS1619 was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis of cellular DNA and flow cytometry. Our data demonstrate that NS1619 inhibits the proliferation of A2780 cells in a dosage and time dependent manner IC{sub 50} = 31.1 {mu}M, for 48 h pretreatment and induces apoptosis. Western blot analyses showed that the anti-proliferation effect of NS1619 was associated with increased expression of p53, p21, and Bax. These results indicate that BK channels play an important role in regulating proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells and may induce apoptosis through induction of p21{sup Cip1} expression in a p53-dependent manner.

  20. NML-mediated rRNA base methylation links ribosomal subunit formation to cell proliferation in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Waku, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yuka; Yokoyama, Wataru; Nomura, Naoto; Kako, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2016-06-15

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) act as scaffolds and ribozymes in ribosomes, and these functions are modulated by post-transcriptional modifications. However, the biological role of base methylation, a well-conserved modification of rRNA, is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a nucleolar factor, nucleomethylin (NML; also known as RRP8), is required for the N(1)-methyladenosine (m(1)A) modification in 28S rRNAs of human and mouse cells. NML also contributes to 60S ribosomal subunit formation. Intriguingly, NML depletion increases 60S ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) levels in the ribosome-free fraction and protein levels of p53 through an RPL11-MDM2 complex, which activates the p53 pathway. Consequently, the growth of NML-depleted cells is suppressed in a p53-dependent manner. These observations reveal a new biological function of rRNA base methylation, which links ribosomal subunit formation to p53-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in mammalian cells. PMID:27149924

  1. Activation of p53-Dependent Growth Suppression in Human Cells by Mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Lee, Carolyn; Bonifant, Challice L.; Ressom, Habtom; Waldman, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to identify genes whose expression is regulated by activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, we performed microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR on an isogenic set of PTEN gene-targeted human cancer cells. Numerous p53 effectors were upregulated following PTEN deletion, including p21, GDF15, PIG3, NOXA, and PLK2. Stable depletion of p53 led to reversion of the gene expression program. Western blots revealed that p53 was stabilized in HCT116 PTEN−/− cells via an Akt1-dependent and p14ARF-independent mechanism. Stable depletion of PTEN in untransformed human fibroblasts and epithelial cells also led to upregulation of p53 and senescence-like growth arrest. Simultaneous depletion of p53 rescued this phenotype, enabling PTEN-depleted cells to continue proliferating. Next, we tested whether oncogenic PIK3CA, like inactivated PTEN, could activate p53. Retroviral expression of oncogenic human PIK3CA in MCF10A cells led to activation of p53 and upregulation of p53-regulated genes. Stable depletion of p53 reversed these PIK3CA-induced expression changes and synergized with oncogenic PIK3CA in inducing anchorage-independent growth. Finally, targeted deletion of an endogenous allele of oncogenic, but not wild-type, PIK3CA in a human cancer cell line led to a reduction in p53 levels and a decrease in the expression of p53-regulated genes. These studies demonstrate that activation of PI3K signaling by mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA can lead to activation of p53-mediated growth suppression in human cells, indicating that p53 can function as a brake on phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate-induced mitogenesis during human cancer pathogenesis. PMID:17060456

  2. Grifola frondosa Glycoprotein GFG-3a Arrests S phase, Alters Proteome, and Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fengjie; Zan, Xinyi; Li, Yunhong; Sun, Wenjing; Yang, Yan; Ping, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    GFG-3a is a novel glycoprotein previously purified from the fermented mycelia of Grifola frondosa with novel sugar compositions and protein sequencing. The present study aims to investigate its effects on the cell cycle, differential proteins expression, and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Our findings revealed that GFG-3a induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at S phase. GFG-3a treatment resulted in the differential expression of 21 proteins in SGC-7901 cells by upregulating 10 proteins including RBBP4 associated with cell cycle arrest and downregulating 11 proteins including RUVBL1, NPM, HSP90AB1, and GRP78 involved in apoptosis and stress response. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis also suggested that GFG-3a could increase the expressions of Caspase-8/-3, p53, Bax, and Bad while decrease the expressions of Bcl2, Bcl-xl, PI3K, and Akt1. These results indicated that the stress response, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated, Caspase-8/-3-dependent, and PI3k/Akt pathways were involved in the GFG-3a-induced apoptosis process in SGC-7901 cells. These findings might provide a basis to prevent or treat human gastric cancer with GFG-3a and understand the tumor-inhibitory molecular mechanisms of mushroom glycoproteins. PMID:27040446

  3. p53-Dependent Senescence in Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Chronic Normoxia Is Potentiated by Low-Dose γ-Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ingawale, Yashodhara; Hertlein, Heidi; Nelson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a source of adult multipotent cells important in tissue regeneration. Murine MSCs are known to proliferate poorly in vitro under normoxia. The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of nonphysiological high oxygen and low-dose γ-irradiation onto growth, senescence, and DNA damage. Tri-potent bone marrow-derived MSCs from p53 wildtype and p53−/− mice were cultured under either 21% or 2% O2. Long-term observations revealed a decreasing ability of wildtype mMSCs to proliferate and form colonies under extended culture in normoxia. This was accompanied by increased senescence under normoxia but not associated with telomere shortening. After low-dose γ-irradiation, the normoxic wildtype cells further increased the level of senescence. The number of radiation-induced γH2AX DNA repair foci was higher in mMSCs kept under normoxia but not in p53−/− cells. P53-deficient MSCs additionally showed higher clonogeneity, lower senescence levels, and fewer γH2AX repair foci per cell as compared to their p53 wildtype counterparts irrespective of oxygen levels. These results reveal that oxygen levels together with γ-irradiation and p53 status are interconnected factors modulating growth capacity of BM MSCs in long-term culture. These efforts help to better understand and optimize handling of MSCs prior to their therapeutic use. PMID:26788069

  4. A Zebrafish Model of 5q-Syndrome Using CRISPR/Cas9 Targeting RPS14 Reveals a p53-Independent and p53-Dependent Mechanism of Erythroid Failure.

    PubMed

    Ear, Jason; Hsueh, Jessica; Nguyen, Melinda; Zhang, QingHua; Sung, Victoria; Chopra, Rajesh; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Lin, Shuo

    2016-05-20

    5q-syndrome is a distinct form of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) where a deletion on chromosome 5 is the underlying cause. MDS is characterized by bone marrow failures, including macrocytic anemia. Genetic mapping and studies using various models support the notion that ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) is the candidate gene for the erythroid failure. Targeted disruption of RPS14 causes an increase in p53 activity and p53-mediated apoptosis, similar to what is observed with other ribosomal proteins. However, due to the higher risk for cancer development in patients with ribosome deficiency, targeting the p53 pathway is not a viable treatment option. To better understand the pathology of RPS14 deficiency in 5q-deletion, we generated a zebrafish model harboring a mutation in the RPS14 gene. This model mirrors the anemic phenotype seen in 5q-syndrome. Moreover, the anemia is due to a late-stage erythropoietic defect, where the erythropoietic defect is initially p53-independent and then becomes p53-dependent. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of this model to test various pharmacological agents, such as RAP-011, L-leucine, and dexamethasone in order to identify molecules that can reverse the anemic phenotype. PMID:27216296

  5. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer cells is dependent on Bax- and Bak-induction pathway and synergistically activated by BH3-mimetic ABT-263 in p53 wild-type and mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Nakajima, Wataru; Seike, Masahiro; Gemma, Akihiko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-29

    Cisplatin is a highly effective anticancer drug for treatment of various tumors including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is especially useful in cases nonresponsive to molecular-targeted drugs. Accumulating evidence has shown that cisplatin activates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway, but it also induces apoptosis in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here we demonstrated that DNA-damage inducible proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology region 3)-only Bcl-2 family members, Noxa, Puma, Bim and Bid, are not involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines. In contrast, the expression of proapoptotic multidomain Bcl-2-family members, Bak and Bax, was induced by cisplatin in p53-dependent and -independent manners, respectively. Moreover, in wild-type p53-expressing cells, cisplatin mainly used the Bak-dependent apoptotic pathway, but this apoptotic pathway shifted to the Bax-dependent pathway by loss-of-function of p53. Furthermore, both Bak- and Bax-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-XL knockdown, but not by Mcl-1 knockdown. From this result, we tested the effect of ABT-263 (Navitoclax), the specific inhibitor of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, but not Mcl-1, and found that ABT-263 synergistically enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells in the presence or absence of p53. These results indicate a novel regulatory system in cisplatin-induced NSCLC cell apoptosis, and a candidate efficient combination chemotherapy method against lung cancers. PMID:26996126

  6. Decitabine and SAHA-Induced Apoptosis Is Accompanied by Survivin Downregulation and Potentiated by ATRA in p53-Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brodská, Barbora; Otevřelová, Petra; Holoubek, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    While p53-dependent apoptosis is triggered by combination of methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine (DAC) and histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in leukemic cell line CML-T1, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as survivin and Bcl-2 deregulation participated in DAC + SAHA-induced apoptosis in p53-deficient HL-60 cell line. Moreover, decrease of survivin expression level is accompanied by its delocalization from centromere-related position in mitotic cells suggesting that both antiapoptotic and cell cycle regulation roles of survivin are affected by DAC + SAHA action. Addition of subtoxic concentration of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) increases the efficiency of DAC + SAHA combination on viability, apoptosis induction, and ROS generation in HL-60 cells but has no effect in CML-T1 cell line. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors showed no damage induced by DAC + SAHA + ATRA combination. Therefore, combination of ATRA with DAC and SAHA represents promising tool for therapy of leukemic disease with nonfunctional p53 signalization. PMID:25140197

  7. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaozhong Robinson, Joshua F.; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung Woo; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-12-15

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known environmental toxicant and carcinogen as well as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. The underlying mechanism of this dual capability, however, is not fully understood. Tumor suppressor gene p53, a pivotal cell cycle checkpoint signaling protein, has been hypothesized to play a possible role in mediating As-induced toxicity and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we found that arsenite (As{sup 3+}) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in both p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). There was, however, a distinction between genotypes in the apoptotic response, with a more prominent induction of caspase-3 in the p53{sup -/-} cells than in the p53{sup +/+} cells. To examine this difference further, a systems-based genomic analysis was conducted comparing the critical molecular mechanisms between the p53 genotypes in response to As{sup 3+}. A significant alteration in the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway was found in both genotypes. In p53{sup +/+} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced p53-dependent gene expression alterations in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation genes. However, in the p53{sup -/-} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced a significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (Noxa) and down-regulation of genes in immune modulation. Our findings demonstrate that As-induced cell death occurs through a p53-independent pathway in p53 deficient cells while apoptosis induction occurs through p53-dependent pathway in normal tissue. This difference in the mechanism of apoptotic responses between the genotypes provides important information regarding the apparent dichotomy of arsenic's dual mechanisms, and potentially leads to further advancement of its utility as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  8. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Robinson, Joshua F.; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung Woo; Sidhu, Jaspreet S; Faustman, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known environmental toxicant and carcinogen as well as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. The underlying mechanism of this dual capability, however, is not fully understood. Tumor suppressor gene p53, a pivotal cell cycle checkpoint signaling protein, has been hypothesized to play a possible role in mediating As-induced toxicity and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we found that arsenite (As3+) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in both p53+/+ and p53−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). There was, however, a distinction between genotypes in the apoptotic response, with a more prominent induction of caspase-3 in the p53−/− cells than in the p53+/+ cells. To examine this difference further, a systems-based genomic analysis was conducted comparing the critical molecular mechanisms between the p53 genotypes in response to As3+. A significant alteration in the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway were found in both genotypes. In p53+/+ MEFs, As3+ induced p53-dependent gene expression alterations in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation genes. However, in the p53−/− MEFs, As3+ induced a significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (Noxa) and down-regulation of genes in immune modulation. Our findings demonstrate that As-induced cell death occurs through a p53-independent pathway in p53 deficient cells while apoptosis induction occurs through p53-dependent pathway in normal tissue. This difference in the mechanism of apoptotic responses between the genotypes provides important information regarding the apparent dichotomy of arsenic’s dual mechanisms, and potentially leads to further advancement of its utility as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:18929588

  9. Hypoxia downregulates p53 but induces apoptosis and enhances expression of BAD in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxia is commonly assigned a role in the placental dysfunction characteristic of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We previously showed that hypoxia upregulates p53 and enhances apoptosis in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia also induces apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts by upregulation of p53. Primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts that had differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts by 52 h were exposed for ≤24 h to 20% or <1% oxygen in the presence or absence of staurosporine or the p53 modulators nutlin-3, pifithrin-α, and pifithrin-μ. Proteins were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence. Compared with 20% oxygen, exposure of syncytiotrophoblasts to <1% oxygen upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and rapidly downregulated p53. Activity of p53 in hypoxic syncytiotrophoblasts was reduced by the higher expression of the negative p53 regulator MDMX and by the reduction of phosphorylation of p53 at Ser(392), which reduces p53 activity. Conversely, staurosporine, a kinase inhibitor, and nutlin-3, a drug that enhances p53 expression, both raised p53 levels and increased the rate of apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with vehicle controls. Immunofluorescence staining showed p53 immunolocalized to both cytoplasm and nuclei of nutlin-3-exposed syncytiotrophoblasts. The hypoxia-induced apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts correlated with enhanced expression of the proapoptotic BAD and a reduced level of antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylated on Ser(112). We surmise that cell death induced by extreme hypoxia in syncytiotrophoblasts follows a non-p53-dependent pathway, unlike that of a nonhypoxic stimulus and unlike hypoxic cytotrophoblasts. We speculate that downregulation of p53 activity in response to hypoxia reduces or eliminates the apoptosis transduced by the p53 pathway in syncytiotrophoblasts, thereby limiting cell death and maintaining the integrity of this

  10. Hypoxia downregulates p53 but induces apoptosis and enhances expression of BAD in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S.; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is commonly assigned a role in the placental dysfunction characteristic of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We previously showed that hypoxia upregulates p53 and enhances apoptosis in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia also induces apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts by upregulation of p53. Primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts that had differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts by 52 h were exposed for ≤24 h to 20% or <1% oxygen in the presence or absence of staurosporine or the p53 modulators nutlin-3, pifithrin-α, and pifithrin-μ. Proteins were detected by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence. Compared with 20% oxygen, exposure of syncytiotrophoblasts to <1% oxygen upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and rapidly downregulated p53. Activity of p53 in hypoxic syncytiotrophoblasts was reduced by the higher expression of the negative p53 regulator MDMX and by the reduction of phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392, which reduces p53 activity. Conversely, staurosporine, a kinase inhibitor, and nutlin-3, a drug that enhances p53 expression, both raised p53 levels and increased the rate of apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with vehicle controls. Immunofluorescence staining showed p53 immunolocalized to both cytoplasm and nuclei of nutlin-3-exposed syncytiotrophoblasts. The hypoxia-induced apoptosis in syncytiotrophoblasts correlated with enhanced expression of the proapoptotic BAD and a reduced level of antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylated on Ser112. We surmise that cell death induced by extreme hypoxia in syncytiotrophoblasts follows a non-p53-dependent pathway, unlike that of a nonhypoxic stimulus and unlike hypoxic cytotrophoblasts. We speculate that downregulation of p53 activity in response to hypoxia reduces or eliminates the apoptosis transduced by the p53 pathway in syncytiotrophoblasts, thereby limiting cell death and maintaining the integrity of this critical

  11. Parental exposure to natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) induced changes in transcription of apoptosis-related genes in offspring zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Grześ, Irena M; Karlsson, Camilla; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Aleström, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is an integral element of development that may also be initiated by environmental contaminants. The aim of the present study was to assess potential changes in the regulation of apoptotic genes in zebrafish embryos following parental exposure to two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP). The mixture from Lake Mjøsa contained exceptionally high concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as relatively high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The mixture from Lake Losna contained background concentrations of POP. Genes involved in the apoptotic machinery were screened for their expression profile at four time points during embryonic development. Thirteen and 15 genes involved in apoptosis were found to be significantly upregulated in the high-exposure and background exposure groups, respectively, compared with controls. Modulation of apoptotic genes was restricted only to the first time point, which corresponds with the blastula stage. Although there were substantial differences in POP concentrations between mixtures, genes underlying the apoptosis process showed almost similar responses to the two mixtures. In both exposure groups the main executors of apoptosis p53, casp 2, casp 6, cassp 8, and BAX displayed upregulation compared to controls, suggesting that these POP induce apoptosis via a p53-dependent mechanism. Upregulation of genes that play a critical role in apoptosis suggests that disturbance of normal apoptotic signaling during gametogenesis and embryogenesis may be one of the central mechanisms involved in adverse reproductive effects produced by POP in zebrafish. PMID:27484141

  12. Stapled α−helical peptide drug development: A potent dual inhibitor of MDM2 and MDMX for p53-dependent cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yong S.; Graves, Bradford; Guerlavais, Vincent; Tovar, Christian; Packman, Kathryn; To, Kwong-Him; Olson, Karen A.; Kesavan, Kamala; Gangurde, Pranoti; Mukherjee, Aditi; Baker, Theresa; Darlak, Krzysztof; Elkin, Carl; Filipovic, Zoran; Qureshi, Farooq Z.; Cai, Hongliang; Berry, Pamela; Feyfant, Eric; Shi, Xiangguo E.; Horstick, James; Annis, D. Allen; Manning, Anthony M.; Fotouhi, Nader; Nash, Huw; Vassilev, Lyubomir T.; Sawyer, Tomi K.

    2013-01-01

    Stapled α−helical peptides have emerged as a promising new modality for a wide range of therapeutic targets. Here, we report a potent and selective dual inhibitor of MDM2 and MDMX, ATSP-7041, which effectively activates the p53 pathway in tumors in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, ATSP-7041 binds both MDM2 and MDMX with nanomolar affinities, shows submicromolar cellular activities in cancer cell lines in the presence of serum, and demonstrates highly specific, on-target mechanism of action. A high resolution (1.7-Å) X-ray crystal structure reveals its molecular interactions with the target protein MDMX, including multiple contacts with key amino acids as well as a role for the hydrocarbon staple itself in target engagement. Most importantly, ATSP-7041 demonstrates robust p53-dependent tumor growth suppression in MDM2/MDMX-overexpressing xenograft cancer models, with a high correlation to on-target pharmacodynamic activity, and possesses favorable pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution properties. Overall, ATSP-7041 demonstrates in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept that stapled peptides can be developed as therapeutically relevant inhibitors of protein–protein interaction and may offer a viable modality for cancer therapy. PMID:23946421

  13. Stapled α-helical peptide drug development: a potent dual inhibitor of MDM2 and MDMX for p53-dependent cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yong S; Graves, Bradford; Guerlavais, Vincent; Tovar, Christian; Packman, Kathryn; To, Kwong-Him; Olson, Karen A; Kesavan, Kamala; Gangurde, Pranoti; Mukherjee, Aditi; Baker, Theresa; Darlak, Krzysztof; Elkin, Carl; Filipovic, Zoran; Qureshi, Farooq Z; Cai, Hongliang; Berry, Pamela; Feyfant, Eric; Shi, Xiangguo E; Horstick, James; Annis, D Allen; Manning, Anthony M; Fotouhi, Nader; Nash, Huw; Vassilev, Lyubomir T; Sawyer, Tomi K

    2013-09-01

    Stapled α-helical peptides have emerged as a promising new modality for a wide range of therapeutic targets. Here, we report a potent and selective dual inhibitor of MDM2 and MDMX, ATSP-7041, which effectively activates the p53 pathway in tumors in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, ATSP-7041 binds both MDM2 and MDMX with nanomolar affinities, shows submicromolar cellular activities in cancer cell lines in the presence of serum, and demonstrates highly specific, on-target mechanism of action. A high resolution (1.7-Å) X-ray crystal structure reveals its molecular interactions with the target protein MDMX, including multiple contacts with key amino acids as well as a role for the hydrocarbon staple itself in target engagement. Most importantly, ATSP-7041 demonstrates robust p53-dependent tumor growth suppression in MDM2/MDMX-overexpressing xenograft cancer models, with a high correlation to on-target pharmacodynamic activity, and possesses favorable pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution properties. Overall, ATSP-7041 demonstrates in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept that stapled peptides can be developed as therapeutically relevant inhibitors of protein-protein interaction and may offer a viable modality for cancer therapy. PMID:23946421

  14. Involvement of S100A14 protein in cell invasion by affecting expression and function of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 via p53-dependent transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Chunpeng; Luo, Aiping; Ding, Fang; Ma, Jianlin; Yang, Shouhui; Tian, Yanyan; Tong, Tong; Zhan, Qimin; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-05-18

    S100 proteins have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. As a member of S100 proteins, the role of S100A14 in carcinogenesis has not been fully understood. Here, we showed that ectopic overexpression of S100A14 promotes motility and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. We investigated the underlying mechanisms and found that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 is obviously increased after S100A14 gene overexpression. Inhibition of MMP2 by a specific MMP2 inhibitor at least partly reversed the invasive phenotype of cells overexpressing S100A14. By serendipity, we found that S100A14 could affect p53 transactivity and stability. Thus, we further investigated whether the effect of MMP2 by S100A14 is dependent on p53. A series of biochemical assays showed that S100A14 requires functional p53 to affect MMP2 transcription, and p53 potently transrepresses the expression of MMP2. Finally, RT-quantitative PCR analysis of human breast cancer specimens showed a significant correlation between S100A14 mRNA expression and MMP2 mRNA expression in cases with wild-type p53 but not in cases with mutant p53. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that S100A14 promotes cell motility and invasiveness by regulating the expression and function of MMP2 in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:22451655

  15. LRH-1 drives colon cancer cell growth by repressing the expression of the CDKN1A gene in a p53-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Holly B.; Lai, Chun-Fui; Patel, Hetal; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Lin, Meng-Lay; Feller, Stephan M.; Fuller-Pace, Frances V.; Meek, David W.; Ali, Simak; Buluwela, Laki

    2016-01-01

    Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has been implicated in the progression of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancer (CRC). To determine mechanisms underlying growth promotion by LRH-1 in CRC, we undertook global expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 knockdown in HCT116 cells, which require LRH-1 for growth and in HT29 cells, in which LRH-1 does not regulate growth. Interestingly, expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) was regulated by LRH-1 in HCT116 cells. p21 regulation was not observed in HT29 cells, where p53 is mutated. p53 dependence for the regulation of p21 by LRH-1 was confirmed by p53 knockdown with siRNA, while LRH-1-regulation of p21 was not evident in HCT116 cells where p53 had been deleted. We demonstrate that LRH-1-mediated p21 regulation in HCT116 cells does not involve altered p53 protein or phosphorylation, and we show that LRH-1 inhibits p53 recruitment to the p21 promoter, likely through a mechanism involving chromatin remodelling. Our study suggests an important role for LRH-1 in the growth of CRC cells that retain wild-type p53. PMID:26400164

  16. LRH-1 drives colon cancer cell growth by repressing the expression of the CDKN1A gene in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Holly B; Lai, Chun-Fui; Patel, Hetal; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Lin, Meng-Lay; Feller, Stephan M; Fuller-Pace, Frances V; Meek, David W; Ali, Simak; Buluwela, Laki

    2016-01-29

    Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has been implicated in the progression of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancer (CRC). To determine mechanisms underlying growth promotion by LRH-1 in CRC, we undertook global expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 knockdown in HCT116 cells, which require LRH-1 for growth and in HT29 cells, in which LRH-1 does not regulate growth. Interestingly, expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) was regulated by LRH-1 in HCT116 cells. p21 regulation was not observed in HT29 cells, where p53 is mutated. p53 dependence for the regulation of p21 by LRH-1 was confirmed by p53 knockdown with siRNA, while LRH-1-regulation of p21 was not evident in HCT116 cells where p53 had been deleted. We demonstrate that LRH-1-mediated p21 regulation in HCT116 cells does not involve altered p53 protein or phosphorylation, and we show that LRH-1 inhibits p53 recruitment to the p21 promoter, likely through a mechanism involving chromatin remodelling. Our study suggests an important role for LRH-1 in the growth of CRC cells that retain wild-type p53. PMID:26400164

  17. 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in response to centrosome loss and prolonged mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Mazo, Gregory; Das, Tuhin; Goodman, Joshua; Kim, Minhee; O'Rourke, Brian P; Izquierdo, Denisse; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Mitosis occurs efficiently, but when it is disturbed or delayed, p53-dependent cell death or senescence is often triggered after mitotic exit. To characterize this process, we conducted CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function screens using a cell-based assay in which mitosis is consistently disturbed by centrosome loss. We identified 53BP1 and USP28 as essential components acting upstream of p53, evoking p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in response not only to centrosome loss, but also to other distinct defects causing prolonged mitosis. Intriguingly, 53BP1 mediates p53 activation independently of its DNA repair activity, but requiring its interacting protein USP28 that can directly deubiquitinate p53 in vitro and ectopically stabilize p53 in vivo. Moreover, 53BP1 can transduce prolonged mitosis to cell cycle arrest independently of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), suggesting that while SAC protects mitotic accuracy by slowing down mitosis, 53BP1 and USP28 function in parallel to select against disturbed or delayed mitosis, promoting mitotic efficiency. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16270.001 PMID:27371829

  18. Inhibitory role of cAMP on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through dephosphorylation of p53 serine residues.

    PubMed

    Safa, Majid; Kazemi, Ahmad; Zand, Hamid; Azarkeivan, Azita; Zaker, Farhad; Hayat, Parisa

    2010-02-01

    Exposure of cells to chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, a DNA-damaging agent, induces an increase in the levels and activity of the wild-type p53 protein. Less well appreciated was the effect of cAMP levels on posttranslational modifications of p53 in response to doxorubicin. Here we show that elevation of cAMP in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia NALM-6 cells significantly attenuated phosphorylation state of p53 at Ser6, Ser9, Ser15, Ser20, Ser37, Ser46 and Ser392 upon exposure to doxorubicin. Increased cAMP levels also shifted the ratio of the death promoter to death repressor genes via alteration of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP-signaling system may repress p53-dependent apoptosis in malignant cells exposed to doxorubicin. PMID:19882354

  19. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors sensitize tumor cells to nutlin-induced apoptosis: a potent drug combination.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Chit Fang; Dey, Anwesha; Lane, David P

    2007-11-01

    Current chemotherapy focuses on the use of genotoxic drugs that may induce general DNA damage in cancer cells but also high levels of toxicity in normal tissues. Nongenotoxic activation of p53 by targeting specific molecular pathways therefore provides an attractive therapeutic strategy in cancers with wild-type p53. Here, we explored the antitumor potential of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors in combination with a small molecule inhibitor of p53-murine double minute 2 (MDM2) interaction. We show that low doses of CDK inhibitors roscovitine and DRB synergize with the MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3a in the induction of p53 activity and promote p53-dependent apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Statistical measurement of the combination effects shows that the drug combination is additive on the reduction of cell viability and synergistic on inducing apoptosis, a critical end point of cytotoxic drugs. The degree of apoptosis observed 24 to 48 h after drug treatment correlated with the accumulation of p53 protein and concomitant induction of proapoptotic proteins Puma and PIG3. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of this drug combination are validated in a range of tumor-derived cells including melanoma, colon carcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and hepatocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, this drug combination does not induce phosphorylation of Ser(15) on p53 and does not induce genotoxic stress in the cell. Given that many cytotoxic drugs rely on their ability to induce apoptosis via DNA damage-mediated activation of p53, the data presented here may provide a new therapeutic approach for the use of CDK inhibitors and MDM2 antagonists in combinatorial drug therapy. PMID:18025259

  20. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  1. Repression of the antiapoptotic molecule galectin-3 by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2-activated p53 is required for p53-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cecchinelli, Barbara; Lavra, Luca; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Iacovelli, Stefano; Gurtner, Aymone; Gasbarri, Alessandra; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Del Prete, Fabrizio; Trovato, Maria; Piaggio, Giulia; Bartolazzi, Armando; Soddu, Silvia; Sciacchitano, Salvatore

    2006-06-01

    Galectin 3 (Gal-3), a member of the beta-galactoside binding lectin family, exhibits antiapoptotic functions, and its aberrant expression is involved in various aspects of tumor progression. Here we show that p53-induced apoptosis is associated with transcriptional repression of Gal-3. Previously, it has been reported that phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 is important for transcription of proapoptotic genes and induction of apoptosis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is specifically involved in these functions. We show that HIPK2 cooperates with p53 in Gal-3 repression and that this cooperation requires HIPK2 kinase activity. Gene-specific RNA interference demonstrates that HIPK2 is essential for repression of Gal-3 upon induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, expression of a nonrepressible Gal-3 prevents HIPK2- and p53-induced apoptosis. These results reveal a new apoptotic pathway induced by HIPK2-activated p53 and requiring repression of the antiapoptotic factor Gal-3. PMID:16738336

  2. Cyclosporine A Suppressed Glucose Oxidase Induced P53 Mitochondrial Translocation and Hepatic Cell Apoptosis through Blocking Mitochondrial Permeability Transition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Li, Shuang; Liu, Rui; Liao, Nai; Zhang, Tao; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-01-01

    P53 is known as a transcription factor to control apoptotic cell death through regulating a series of target genes in nucleus. There is accumulating evidences show that p53 can directly induce cell apoptosis through transcription independent way at mitochondria. However, the mechanism by which p53 translocation into mitochondria in response to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, glucose oxidase (GOX) was used to induce ROS generation in HepG2 cells and liver tissues of mice. The results showed that p53 was stabilized and translocated to mitochondria in a time and dose dependent manner after GOX exposure. Interestingly, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, cyclosporine A (CsA) was able to effectively reduce GOX mediated mitochondrial p53 distribution without influencing on the expression of p53 target genes including Bcl-2 and Bax. These indicated that CsA could just block p53 entering into mitochondria, but not affect p53-dependent transcription. Meanwhile, CsA failed to inhibit the ROS generation induced by GOX, which indicated that CsA had no antioxidant function. Moreover, GOX induced typical apoptosis characteristics including, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of Bax and release of cytochrome C in mitochondria, accompanied with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These processions were suppressed after pretreatment with CsA and pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ, a specific inhibitor of p53 mitochondrial translocation). In vivo, CsA was able to attenuate p53 mitochondrial distribution and protect mice liver against from GOX mediated apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these suggested that CsA could suppress ROS-mediated p53 mitochondrial distribution and cell apoptosis depended on its inhibition effect to mitochondrial permeability transition. It might be used to rescue the hepatic cell apoptosis in the patients with acute liver injury. PMID:26884717

  3. Cyclosporine A Suppressed Glucose Oxidase Induced P53 Mitochondrial Translocation and Hepatic Cell Apoptosis through Blocking Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Li, Shuang; Liu, Rui; Liao, Nai; Zhang, Tao; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-01-01

    P53 is known as a transcription factor to control apoptotic cell death through regulating a series of target genes in nucleus. There is accumulating evidences show that p53 can directly induce cell apoptosis through transcription independent way at mitochondria. However, the mechanism by which p53 translocation into mitochondria in response to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, glucose oxidase (GOX) was used to induce ROS generation in HepG2 cells and liver tissues of mice. The results showed that p53 was stabilized and translocated to mitochondria in a time and dose dependent manner after GOX exposure. Interestingly, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, cyclosporine A (CsA) was able to effectively reduce GOX mediated mitochondrial p53 distribution without influencing on the expression of p53 target genes including Bcl-2 and Bax. These indicated that CsA could just block p53 entering into mitochondria, but not affect p53-dependent transcription. Meanwhile, CsA failed to inhibit the ROS generation induced by GOX, which indicated that CsA had no antioxidant function. Moreover, GOX induced typical apoptosis characteristics including, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of Bax and release of cytochrome C in mitochondria, accompanied with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These processions were suppressed after pretreatment with CsA and pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ, a specific inhibitor of p53 mitochondrial translocation). In vivo, CsA was able to attenuate p53 mitochondrial distribution and protect mice liver against from GOX mediated apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these suggested that CsA could suppress ROS-mediated p53 mitochondrial distribution and cell apoptosis depended on its inhibition effect to mitochondrial permeability transition. It might be used to rescue the hepatic cell apoptosis in the patients with acute liver injury. PMID:26884717

  4. Adenovirus type 5 early region 4 is responsible for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Marcellus, R C; Teodoro, J G; Wu, T; Brough, D E; Ketner, G; Shore, G C; Branton, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the absence of E1B, the 289- and 243-residue E1A products of human adenovirus type 5 induce p53-dependent apoptosis. However, our group has shown recently that the 289-residue E1A protein is also able to induce apoptosis by a p53-independent mechanism (J. G. Teodoro, G. C. Shore, and P. E. Branton, Oncogene 11:467-474, 1995). Preliminary results suggested that p53-independent cell death required expression of one or more additional adenovirus early gene products. Here we show that both the E1B 19-kDa protein and cellular Bcl-2 inhibit or significantly delay p53-independent apoptosis. Neither early region E2 or E3 appeared to be necessary for such cell death. Analysis of a series of E1A mutants indicated that mutations in the transactivation domain and other regions of E1A correlated with E1A-mediated transactivation of E4 gene expression. Furthermore, p53-deficient human SAOS-2 cells infected with a mutant which expresses E1B but none of the E4 gene products remained viable for considerably longer times than those infected with wild-type adenovirus type 5. In addition, an adenovirus vector lacking both E1 and E4 was unable to induce DNA degradation and cell killing in E1A-expressing cell lines. These data showed that an E4 product is essential for E1A-induced p53-independent apoptosis. PMID:8709247

  5. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells via activation of both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Qin, Qizhi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Hongyan; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The evidence shows that DEHP may exert its toxic effects primarily via MEHP, which is 10-fold more potent than its parent compound in toxicity in vitro. MEHP-induced apoptosis is mediated by either p53-dependent or -independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. In this study, immortalized normal human liver cell line L02 was chosen, as an in vitro model of nonmalignant liver, to elucidate the role of p53 in MEHP-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with MEHP (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 μM) for 24 and 36 h, then small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to specifically silence p53 gene of L02 cells. The results indicated that MEHP caused oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in L02 cells were associated with the p53 signaling pathway. Further study found that MEHP (50.00 and 100.00 μM) induced apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells, along with the up-regulations of Fas and FasL proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 activities. Additionally, both FasL inhibitor (AF-016) and Caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) could prevent the cell apoptosis induced by MEHP. The findings suggested that MEHP-induced apoptosis in L02 cells involving a Caspases-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway and/or death receptor pathway. p53 was not absolutely necessary for MEHP-induced L02 cell apoptosis. PMID:24706461

  6. Apoptosis inducers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Billard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a typical defect in apoptosis and is still an incurable disease. Numerous apoptosis inducers have been described. These synthetic compounds and natural products (mainly derived from plants) display antileukemic properties in vitro and in vivo and some have even been tested in the clinic in CLL. They act through several different mechanisms. Most of them involve proteins of the Bcl-2 family, which are the key regulators in triggering the mitochondrial pathway of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Thus, the Mcl-1/Noxa axis appeared as a target. Here I overview natural and synthetic apoptosis inducers and their mechanisms of action in CLL cells. Opportunities for developing novel, apoptosis-based therapeutics are presented. PMID:24525395

  7. Activation of p53 with Ilimaquinone and Ethylsmenoquinone, Marine Sponge Metabolites, Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Chung, Kyu Jin; Hwang, In Hyun; Gwak, Jungsuk; Park, Seoyoung; Ju, Bong Gun; Yun, Eunju; Kim, Dong-Eun; Chung, Young-Hwa; Na, MinKyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Oh, Sangtaek

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an essential role in the cellular response to stress through regulating the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we used a cell-based reporter system for the detection of p53 response transcription to identify the marine sponge metabolites, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone, as activators of the p53 pathway. We demonstrated that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone efficiently stabilize the p53 protein through promotion of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 in both HCT116 and RKO colon cancer cells. Moreover, both compounds upregulate the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a p53-dependent gene, and suppress proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase-3 cleavage and the population of cells that positively stained with Annexin V-FITC, both of which are typical biochemical markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy was elicited by both compounds, as indicated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta formations and LC3-II turnover in HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone exert their anti-cancer activity by activation of the p53 pathway and may have significant potential as chemo-preventive and therapeutic agents for human colon cancer. PMID:25603347

  8. p53 mediates cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells: inhibitory effects of macrophage migration inhibitor factor.

    PubMed

    Damico, Rachel; Simms, Tiffany; Kim, Bo S; Tekeste, Zenar; Amankwan, Henry; Damarla, Mahendra; Hassoun, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the most common cause of emphysema, a debilitating pulmonary disease histopathologically characterized by the irreversible destruction of lung architecture. Mounting evidence links enhanced endothelial apoptosis causally to the development of emphysema. However, the molecular determinants of human endothelial cell apoptosis and survival in response to CS are not fully defined. Such determinants could represent clinically relevant targets for intervention. We show here that CS extract (CSE) triggers the death of human pulmonary macrovascular endothelial cells (HPAECs) through a caspase 9-dependent apoptotic pathway. Exposure to CSE results in the increased expression of p53 in HPAECs. Using the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α), and RNA interference (RNAi) directed at p53, we demonstrate that p53 function and expression are required for CSE-mediated apoptosis. The expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an antiapoptotic cytokine produced by HPAECs, also increases in response to CSE exposure. The addition of recombinant human MIF prevents cell death from exposure to CSE. Further, the suppression of MIF or its receptor/binding partner, Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab-1), with RNAi enhances the sensitivity of human pulmonary endothelial cells to CSE via a p53-dependent (PFT-α-inhibitable) pathway. Finally, we demonstrate that MIF is a negative regulator of p53 expression in response to CSE, placing MIF upstream of p53 as an antagonist of CSE-induced apoptosis. We conclude that MIF can protect human vascular endothelium from the toxic effects of CSE via the antagonism of p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20448056

  9. Phytochemical regulation of the tumor suppressive microRNA, miR-34a, by p53-dependent and independent responses in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hargraves, Kris G; He, Lin; Firestone, Gary L

    2016-05-01

    The tumor suppressive microRNA miR-34a is transcriptionally regulated by p53 and shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation as well as being a marker of increased disease free survival. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) derived from cruciferous vegetables, artemisinin, extracted from the sweet wormwood plant, and artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, are phytochemicals with anti-tumorigenic properties however, little is known about the role of microRNAs in their mechanism of action. Human breast cancer cells expressing wild-type (MCF-7) or mutant p53 (T47D) were treated with a concentration range and time course of each phytochemical under conditions of cell cycle arrest as detected by flow cytometry to examine the potential connection between miR-34a expression and their anti-proliferative responses. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis of extracted RNA and total protein revealed artemsinin and artesunate increased miR-34a expression in a dose-dependent manner correlating with down-regulation of the miR-34a target gene, CDK4. I3C stimulation of miR-34a expression required functional p53, whereas, both artemisinin and artesunate up-regulated miR-34a expression regardless of p53 mutational status or in the presence of dominant negative p53. Phytochemical treatments inhibited the luciferase activity of a construct containing the wild-type 3'UTR of CDK4, but not those with a mutated miR-34a binding site, whereas, transfection of miR-34a inhibitors ablated the phytochemical mediated down-regulation of CDK4 and induction of cell cycle arrest. Our results suggest that miR-34a is an essential component of the anti-proliferative activities of I3C, artemisinin, and artesunate and demonstrate that both wild-type p53 dependent and independent pathways are responsible for miR-34a induction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25789847

  10. Treatment with a Small Synthetic Compound, KMU-193, induces Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cells through p53 Up-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Lee, Jinho; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer, mortality still is increasing. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of KMU-193, 2-(4-Ethoxy-phenyl)-N-{5-[2-fluoro-4-(4-methyl- piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenylamino]-1H-indazol-3-yl}-acetamide in a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. KMU-193 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, but it did not have anti-proliferative effect in other types of cancer cell lines. KMU-193 further induced apoptosis in association with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PLC-γ1. However, KMU-193 had no apoptotic effect in untransformed cells such as TMCK-1 and BEAS-2B. Interestingly, pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, strongly abrogated KMU- 193-induced apoptosis. KMU-193 treatment enhanced the expression levels of p53 and PUMA. Importantly, p53 siRNA transfection attenuated KMU-193-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrate that KMU-193 has strong apoptotic effects on A549 cells and these are largely mediated through caspase-3- and p53-dependent pathways. PMID:26320467

  11. Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pluchea indica (L.) Less. (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and development as a new anti

  12. Lysosomal destabilization in p53-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xi-Ming; Li, Wei; Dalen, Helge; Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2002-01-01

    The tumor suppressor wild-type p53 can induce apoptosis. M1-t-p53 myeloid leukemic cells have a temperature-sensitive p53 protein that changes its conformation to wild-type p53 after transfer from 37°C to 32°C. We have now found that these cells showed an early lysosomal rupture after transfer to 32°C. Mitochondrial damage, including decreased membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, and the appearance of apoptotic cells occurred later. Lysosomal rupture, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis were all inhibited by the cytokine IL-6. Some other compounds can also inhibit apoptosis induced by p53. The protease inhibitor N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited only cytochrome c release, and the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole inhibited only the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast to IL-6, these other compounds that inhibited some of the later occurring mitochondrial damage did not inhibit the earlier p53-induced lysosomal damage. The results indicate that apoptosis is induced by p53 through a lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway that is initiated by lysosomal destabilization, and that this pathway can be dissected by using different apoptosis inhibitors. These findings on the induction of p53-induced lysosomal destabilization can also help to formulate new therapies for diseases with apoptotic disorders. PMID:11959917

  13. Training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boffi, F M; Cittar, J; Balskus, G; Muriel, M; Desmaras, E

    2002-09-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a genetically controlled response of cells to commit suicide and is associated with DNA fragmentation or laddering. The common inducers of apoptosis include Ca2+i and oxygen free radicals/oxidative stress, which are also implicated in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced myopathies. To examine training-induced apoptosis, Thoroughbred horses were subjected to 3 months training programme on a treadmill. At the end of the training programme venous blood samples were taken for a creatine kinase (CK) assay. In addition, muscle biopsy samples were obtained for a membrane lipid peroxidation measurement by malondialdehyde (MDA) assay and for apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was studied by visualising the apoptotic myocytes on the paraffin sections by the modified TUNEL method. DNA laddering was evaluated by subjecting the DNA obtained from the biopsies to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) of protein-bound MDA, and a nonsignificant trend (P = 0.14) for the control group to have higher levels of CK compared to the trained group. Under light microscopy, percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was higher (P<0.001) in the training group. This result was corroborated with the findings of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, which showed higher ladders of DNA band at the same group. In conclusion, these results clearly demonstrate that there is training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle. It is probable that apoptosis allows the work/recovery/rebound/supercompensation cycle, when unaccustomed muscle cells activate programmed cell death and are replaced by new and stronger cells, which is the mechanism for training-induced increases in fitness. PMID:12405700

  14. Absence of a p53 allele delays nitrogen mustard-induced early apoptosis and inflammation of murine skin

    PubMed Central

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Roy, Srirupa; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Bifunctional alkylating agent sulfur mustard (SM) and its analog nitrogen mustard (NM) cause DNA damage leading to cell death, and potentially activating inflammation. Transcription factor p53 plays a critical role in DNA damage by regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Earlier studies by our laboratory demonstrated phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and an increase in total p53 in epidermal cells both in vitro and in vivo following NM exposure. To elucidate the role of p53 in NM-induced skin toxicity, we employed SKH-1 hairless mice harboring wild type (WT) or heterozygous p53 (p53+/−). Exposure to NM (3.2 mg) caused a more profound increase in epidermal thickness and apoptotic cell death in WT relative to p53+/− mice at 24 h. However, by 72 h after exposure, there was a comparable increase in NM-induced epidermal cell death in both WT and p53+/− mice. Myeloperoxidase activity data showed that neutrophil infiltration was strongly enhanced in NM-exposed WT mice at 24 h persisting through 72 h of exposure. Conversely, robust NM-induced neutrophil infiltration (comparable to WT mice) was seen only at 72 h after exposure in p53+/− mice. Similarly, NM-exposure strongly induced macrophage and mast cell infiltration in WT, but not p53+/− mice. Together, these data indicate that early apoptosis and inflammation induced by NM in mouse skin are p53-dependent. Thus, targeting this pathway could be a novel strategy for developing countermeasures against vesicants-induced skin injury. PMID:23845566

  15. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ΔΨm. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  16. Umbelliprenin Induces Apoptosis in CLL Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Omid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V–FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin. The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate. PMID:24250490

  17. LiCl induces TNF-α and FasL production, thereby stimulating apoptosis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence of cancer in patients with neurological diseases, who have been treated with LiCl, is below average. LiCl is a well-established inhibitor of Glycogen synthase kinase-3, a kinase that controls several cellular processes, among which is the degradation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. We therefore wondered whether LiCl induces p53-dependent cell death in cancer cell lines and experimental tumours. Results Here we show that LiCl induces apoptosis of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell death was accompanied by cleavage of PARP and Caspases-3, -8 and -10. LiCl-induced cell death was not dependent on p53, but was augmented by its presence. Treatment of tumour cells with LiCl strongly increased TNF-α and FasL expression. Inhibition of TNF-α induction using siRNA or inhibition of FasL binding to its receptor by the Nok-1 antibody potently reduced LiCl-dependent cleavage of Caspase-3 and increased cell survival. Treatment of xenografted rats with LiCl strongly reduced tumour growth. Conclusions Induction of cell death by LiCl supports the notion that GSK-3 may represent a promising target for cancer therapy. LiCl-induced cell death is largely independent of p53 and mediated by the release of TNF-α and FasL. Key words: LiCl, TNF-α, FasL, apoptosis, GSK-3, FasL PMID:21609428

  18. Curcumin suppresses the dynamic instability of microtubules, activates the mitotic checkpoint and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mithu; Singh, Parminder; Panda, Dulal

    2010-08-01

    In this study, curcumin, a potential anticancer agent, was found to dampen the dynamic instability of individual microtubules in living MCF-7 cells. It strongly reduced the rate and extent of shortening states, and modestly reduced the rate and extent of growing states. In addition, curcumin decreased the fraction of time microtubules spent in the growing state and strongly increased the time microtubules spent in the pause state. Brief treatment with curcumin depolymerized mitotic microtubules, perturbed microtubule-kinetochore attachment and disturbed the mitotic spindle structure. Curcumin also perturbed the localization of the kinesin protein Eg5 and induced monopolar spindle formation. Further, curcumin increased the accumulation of Mad2 and BubR1 at the kinetochores, indicating that it activated the mitotic checkpoint. In addition, curcumin treatment increased the metaphase/anaphase ratio, indicating that it can delay mitotic progression from the metaphase to anaphase. We provide evidence suggesting that the affected cells underwent apoptosis via the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results support the idea that kinetic stabilization of microtubule dynamics assists in the nuclear translocation of p53. Curcumin exerted additive effects when combined with vinblastine, a microtubule depolymerizing drug, whereas the combination of curcumin with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, produced an antagonistic effect on the inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation. The results together suggested that curcumin inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by inhibiting the assembly dynamics of microtubules. PMID:20646066

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract of Physalis peruviana induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung cancer H661 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Chang, Shun-Pang; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Hou, Fwu-Feuu; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2009-06-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a popular folk medicine used for treating cancer, leukemia, hepatitis, rheumatism and other diseases. In this study, our objectives were to examine the total flavonoid and phenol content of different PP extracts (aqueous: HWEPP; ethanolic: EEPP; supercritical carbon dioxide: SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5) and their antiproliferative effects in human lung cancer H661 cells. Among all the extracts tested, results showed that SCEPP-5 possessed the highest total flavonoid (226.19 +/- 4.15 mg/g) and phenol (100.82 +/- 6.25 mg/g) contents. SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effect on H661 cell proliferation. Using DNA ladder and flow cytometry analysis, SCEPP-5 effectively induced H661 cell apoptosis as demonstrated by the accumulation of Sub-G1 peak and fragmentation of DNA. SCEPP-5 not only induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, it also up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and down-regulated the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP). Furthermore, the apoptotic induction in H661 cells was found to associate with an elevated p53 protein expression, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, these results conclude that SCEPP-5 induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, and its apoptotic induction could be mediated through the p53-dependent pathway and modification of Bax and XIAP proteins expression. The results have also provided important pharmacological backgrounds for the potential use of PP supercritical fluid extract as products for cancer prevention. PMID:19425186

  20. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C.; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  1. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  2. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide induce cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, R Vidya; Murugan, R Senthil; Sripriya, P; Karunagaran, D; Nagini, S

    2010-06-01

    Limonoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have attracted considerable research attention in recent years owing to their potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects. The present study was designed to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which azadirachtin and nimbolide exert cytotoxic effects in the human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide significantly suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase accompanied by p53-dependent p21 accumulation and down-regulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B, cyclin D1 and PCNA. Characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, presence of a subdiploid peak and annexin-V staining pointed to apoptosis as the mode of cell death. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species with decline in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c confirmed that the neem limonoids transduced the apoptotic signal via the mitochondrial pathway. Altered expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and over-expression of caspases and survivin provide compelling evidence that azadirachtin and nimbolide induce a shift of balance toward a pro-apoptotic phenotype. Antioxidants such as azadirachtin and nimbolide that can simultaneously arrest the cell cycle and target multiple molecules involved in mitochondrial apoptosis offer immense potential as anti-cancer therapeutic drugs. PMID:20429769

  3. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Jin . E-mail: jizhong@iupui.edu; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-12-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3{beta}, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3{beta} (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3{beta} inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits.

  4. Loss of p19(Arf) facilitates the angiogenic switch and tumor initiation in a multi-stage cancer model via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ulanet, Danielle B; Hanahan, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The Arf tumor suppressor acts as a sensor of oncogenic signals, countering aberrant proliferation in large part via activation of the p53 transcriptional program, though a number of p53-independent functions have been described. Mounting evidence suggests that, in addition to promoting tumorigenesis via disruptions in the homeostatic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis of overt cancer cells, genetic alterations leading to tumor suppressor loss of function or oncogene gain of function can also incite tumor development via effects on the tumor microenvironment. In a transgenic mouse model of multi-stage pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis (PNET) driven by inhibition of the canonical p53 and Rb tumor suppressors with SV40 large T-antigen (Tag), stochastic progression to tumors is limited in part by a requirement for initiation of an angiogenic switch. Despite inhibition of p53 by Tag in this mouse PNET model, concomitant disruption of Arf via genetic knockout resulted in a significantly accelerated pathway to tumor formation that was surprisingly not driven by alterations in tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis, but rather via earlier activation of the angiogenic switch. In the setting of a constitutional p53 gene knockout, loss of Arf also accelerated tumor development, albeit to a lesser degree. These findings demonstrate that Arf loss of function can promote tumorigenesis via facilitating angiogenesis, at least in part, through p53-independent mechanisms. PMID:20805995

  5. Indirect p53-dependent transcriptional repression of Survivin, CDC25C, and PLK1 genes requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/CDKN1A and CDE/CHR promoter sites binding the DREAM complex

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Annina; Engeland, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p53 is central to cell cycle control by downregulation of cell cycle-promoting genes upon cell stress such as DNA damage. Survivin (BIRC5), CDC25C, and PLK1 encode important cell cycle regulators that are repressed following p53 activation. Here, we provide evidence that p53-dependent repression of these genes requires activation of p21 (CDKN1A, WAF1, CIP1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data indicate that promoter binding of B-MYB switches to binding of E2F4 and p130 resulting in a replacement of the MMB (Myb-MuvB) by the DREAM complex. We demonstrate that this replacement depends on p21. Furthermore, transcriptional repression by p53 requires intact DREAM binding sites in the target promoters. The CDE and CHR cell cycle promoter elements are the sites for DREAM binding. These elements as well as the p53 response of Survivin, CDC25C, and PLK1 are evolutionarily conserved. No binding of p53 to these genes is detected by ChIP and mutation of proposed p53 binding sites does not alter the p53 response. Thus, a mechanism for direct p53-dependent transcriptional repression is not supported by the data. In contrast, repression by DREAM is consistent with most previous findings and unifies models based on p21-, E2F4-, p130-, and CDE/CHR-dependent repression by p53. In conclusion, the presented data suggest that the p53-p21-DREAM-CDE/CHR pathway regulates p53-dependent repression of Survivin, CDC25C, and PLK1. PMID:26595675

  6. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Krom, Bastiaan P; Meijering, Roelien A M; Peters, Brian M; Zhu, Jingsong; Scheper, Mark A; Harris, Megan L; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-06-01

    Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. In addition, we have shown that farnesol can trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells via the classical apoptotic pathways. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind farnesol cytotoxicity in C. albicans, the response to farnesol was investigated, using proteomic analysis. Global protein expression profiles demonstrated significant changes in protein expression resulting from farnesol exposure. Among the downregulated proteins were those involved in metabolism, glycolysis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial electron transport and the respiratory chain, whereas proteins involved in folding, protection against environmental and oxidative stress, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and apoptosis were upregulated. Cellular changes that accompany apoptosis (regulated cell death) were further analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and gene expression analysis. The results indicated reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial degradation, and positive terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the farnesol-exposed cells concurrent with increased expression of antioxidant-encoding and drug response genes. More importantly, the results demonstrated farnesol-induced upregulation of the caspase gene MCA1 and the intracellular presence of activated caspases. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that farnesol promotes apoptosis in C. albicans through caspase activation, implying an important physiological role for farnesol in the fungal cell life cycle with important implications for adaptation and survival. PMID:19364863

  7. Loss of oocytes due to conditional ablation of Murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) gene is p53-dependent and results in female sterility.

    PubMed

    Livera, Gabriel; Uzbekov, Rustem; Jarrier, Peggy; Fouchécourt, Sophie; Duquenne, Clotilde; Parent, Anne-Simone; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Monget, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Murine double minute 2 and 4 (Mdm2, Mdm4) are major p53-negative regulators, preventing thus uncontrolled apoptosis induction in numerous cell types, although their function in the female germ line has received little attention. In the present work, we have generated mice with specific invalidation of Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes in the mouse oocyte (Mdm2(Ocko) and Mdm4(Ocko) mice), to test their implication in survival of these germ cells. Most of the Mdm2(Ocko) but not Mdm4(Ocko) mice were sterile, with a dramatic reduction of the weight of ovaries and genital tract, a strong increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone serum levels, and a reduction of anti-mullerian hormone serum levels. Histological analyses revealed an obvious decrease of the number of growing follicles beyond the primary stage in Mdm2(Ocko) ovaries in comparison to controls, with a pronounced increase in the apparition of primary atretic follicles, most being devoid of oocyte. Similar phenotypes were observed with Mdm2(Ocko) Mdm4(Ocko) ovaries, with no worsening of the phenotype. However, we failed to detect any increase in p53 level in mutant oocytes, nor any other apoptotic marker, introgression of this targeted invalidation in p53-/- mice restored the fertility of females. This study is the first to show that Mdm2, but not Mdm4, has a critical role in oocyte survival and would be involved in premature ovarian insufficiency phenotype. PMID:27364741

  8. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  9. The enhancing effect of genistein on apoptosis induced by trichostatin A in lung cancer cells with wild type p53 genes is associated with upregulation of histone acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Chin; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Pei-Ru; Liu, Shang-Yu; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2016-02-01

    Genistein has been shown to enhance the antitumor activity of trichostatin A (TSA) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. However, whether the combined treatment exerts the same effect in other lung cancer cells is unclear. In the present study we first compared the enhancing effect of genistein on the antitumor effect of TSA in ABC-1, NCI-H460 (H460) and A549 cells. Second, we investigated whether the effects of genistein are associated with increased histone/non-histone protein acetylation. We found that the enhancing effect of genistein on cell-growth-arrest in ABC-1 cells (p53 mutant) was less than in A549 and H460 cells. Genistein enhanced TSA induced apoptosis in A549 and H460 cells rather than in ABC-1 cells. After silencing p53 expression in A549 and H460 cells, the enhancing effect of genistein was diminished. In addition, genistein increased TSA-induced histone H3/H4 acetylation in A549 and H460 cells. Genistein also increased p53 acetylation in H460 cells. The inhibitor of acetyltransferase, anacardic acid, diminished the enhancing effect of genistein on all TSA-induced histone/p53 acetylation and apoptosis. Genistein in combination with TSA increased the expression of p300 protein, an acetyltransferase, in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that genistein also enhanced the antitumor effect of genistein in A549-tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the enhancing effects of genistein on TSA-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells were p53-dependent and were associated with histone/non-histone protein acetylation. PMID:26768552

  10. HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575

  11. p53-dependent chemokine production by senescent tumor cells supports NKG2D-dependent tumor elimination by natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Alexandre; Thompson, Thornton W.; Ardolino, Michele; Lowe, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    The induction of cellular senescence is an important mechanism by which p53 suppresses tumorigenesis. Using a mouse model of liver carcinoma, where cellular senescence is triggered in vivo by inducible p53 expression, we demonstrated that NK cells participate in the elimination of senescent tumors. The elimination of senescent tumor cells is dependent on NKG2D. Interestingly, p53 restoration neither increases ligand expression nor increases the sensitivity to lysis by NK cells. Instead, p53 restoration caused tumor cells to secrete various chemokines with the potential to recruit NK cells. Antibody-mediated neutralization of CCL2, but not CCL3, CCL4 or CCL5, prevented NK cell recruitment to the senescent tumors and reduced their elimination. Our findings suggest that elimination of senescent tumors by NK cells occurs as a result of the cooperation of signals associated with p53 expression or senescence, which regulate NK cell recruitment, and other signals that induce NKG2D ligand expression on tumor cells. PMID:24043758

  12. Oridonin induces apoptosis in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells via p53- and caspase-dependent induction of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Bu, He-Qi; Liu, Dian-Lei; Wei, Wei-Tian; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai; Li, Ye; Cui, Jun-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Oridonin, an active component isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity and the mechanisms of action of oridonin in pancreatic cancer. Oridonin treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cell apoptosis was markedly inhibited by PFT α (pifithrin α), a p53-specific inhibitor, which was applied to evaluate the function of p53, showing that p53 was responsible for the cytotoxity of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin increased the expression of p-p53 with a concomitant increase in p21 in the SW1990 cells. Following treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), the cytotoxity of oridonin was not influenced by JNK (SP600125) and ERK (PD98059), but these effects were opposite to the cytotoxity of oridonin observed with SP203580 treatment. These findings confirmed that orodonin-induced apoptosis was p38-dependent, but JNK- and ERK-independent. Furthermore, the activation of the p38 kinase promoted the activation of p53 and its downstream target p21, and further caused caspase-9 and -3 activation, as demonstrated by evidence showing that the p38 inhibitor SB203580 not only blocked the phosphorylation of p38 but also reduced the activation of p53, p21 and caspase-9 and -3. Collectively, these results suggest that p53-dependent and caspase-dependent induction of p38 MAPK directly participates in apoptosis induced by oridonin. PMID:24297112

  13. Selective IAP inhibition results in sensitization of unstimulated but not CD40-stimulated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Laing, Naomi; Oates, Melanie; Lin, Ke; Johnson, Gillian; Pettitt, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in therapy, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) remains incurable and new treatment strategies are therefore urgently required. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are over-expressed in CLL, suggesting both a role in disease pathogenesis and the potential for therapeutic targeting. To explore these questions, we evaluated the effects on primary CLL cells of AZD5582, a novel potent and selective inhibitor of IAPs. AZD5582 at nanomolar concentrations induced extensive degradation of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2, but minimally of X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP). However, these effects of AZD5582 produced little or no direct cytotoxicity, nor did they sensitize CLL cells to p53-dependent killing by fludarabine or p53-independent killing by dexamethasone. In contrast, AZD5582 significantly enhanced apoptosis induced by the death receptor (DR) agonist tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Importantly, killing by TRAIL plus AZD5582 was independent of adverse prognostic features including TP53 deletion which is strongly associated with chemoresistance in CLL. Coculture experiments involving transfected mouse fibroblasts expressing human CD40L (CD154) to mimic the effect of T cells at sites of tissue involvement showed that CD40 stimulation almost completely prevented the killing of CLL cells by TRAIL plus AZD5582 despite up-regulating TRAIL receptors 1 and 2. In conclusion, our findings confirm the rate-limiting, upstream involvement of IAPs in the extrinsic but not intrinsic apoptotic pathway of CLL cells and suggest that drug combinations that simultaneously activate DRs and inhibit IAPs may have therapeutic potential in patients with CLL who have failed T-cell-depleting chemotherapy. PMID:25505620

  14. Selective IAP inhibition results in sensitization of unstimulated but not CD40-stimulated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Laing, Naomi; Oates, Melanie; Lin, Ke; Johnson, Gillian; Pettitt, Andrew R

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent advances in therapy, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) remains incurable and new treatment strategies are therefore urgently required. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are over-expressed in CLL, suggesting both a role in disease pathogenesis and the potential for therapeutic targeting. To explore these questions, we evaluated the effects on primary CLL cells of AZD5582, a novel potent and selective inhibitor of IAPs. AZD5582 at nanomolar concentrations induced extensive degradation of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2, but minimally of X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP). However, these effects of AZD5582 produced little or no direct cytotoxicity, nor did they sensitize CLL cells to p53-dependent killing by fludarabine or p53-independent killing by dexamethasone. In contrast, AZD5582 significantly enhanced apoptosis induced by the death receptor (DR) agonist tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Importantly, killing by TRAIL plus AZD5582 was independent of adverse prognostic features including TP53 deletion which is strongly associated with chemoresistance in CLL. Coculture experiments involving transfected mouse fibroblasts expressing human CD40L (CD154) to mimic the effect of T cells at sites of tissue involvement showed that CD40 stimulation almost completely prevented the killing of CLL cells by TRAIL plus AZD5582 despite up-regulating TRAIL receptors 1 and 2. In conclusion, our findings confirm the rate-limiting, upstream involvement of IAPs in the extrinsic but not intrinsic apoptotic pathway of CLL cells and suggest that drug combinations that simultaneously activate DRs and inhibit IAPs may have therapeutic potential in patients with CLL who have failed T-cell-depleting chemotherapy. PMID:25505620

  15. Minnelide/Triptolide Impairs Mitochondrial Function by Regulating SIRT3 in P53-Dependent Manner in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Corey, Catherine; Scott, Iain; Shiva, Sruti; D’Cunha, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Minnelide/Triptolide (TL) has recently emerged as a potent anticancer drug in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the precise mechanism of its action remains ambiguous. In this study, we elucidated the molecular basis for TL-induced cell death in context to p53 status. Cell death was attributed to dysfunction of mitochondrial bioenergetics in p53-deficient cells, which was characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration, steady-state ATP level and membrane potential, but augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS production resulted in oxidative stress in TL-treated cells. This was exhibited by elevated nuclear levels of a redox-sensitive transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2), along with diminished cellular glutathione (GSH) content. We further demonstrated that in the absence of p53, TL blunted the expression of mitochondrial SIRT3 triggering increased acetylation of NDUAF9 and succinate dehydrogenase, components of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC). TL-mediated hyperacetylation of complexes I and II proteins and these complexes displayed decreased enzymatic activities. We also provide the evidence that P53 regulate steady-state level of SIRT3 through Proteasome-Pathway. Finally, forced overexpression of Sirt3, but not deacetylase-deficient mutant of Sirt3 (H243Y), restored the deleterious effect of TL on p53-deficient cells by rescuing mitochondrial bioenergetics. On contrary, Sirt3 deficiency in the background of wild-type p53 triggered TL-induced mitochondrial impairment that echoed TL effect in p53-deficeint cells. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which TL exerts its potent effects on mitochondrial function and ultimately the viability of NSCLC tumor. PMID:27501149

  16. Minnelide/Triptolide Impairs Mitochondrial Function by Regulating SIRT3 in P53-Dependent Manner in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Corey, Catherine; Scott, Iain; Shiva, Sruti; D'Cunha, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Minnelide/Triptolide (TL) has recently emerged as a potent anticancer drug in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the precise mechanism of its action remains ambiguous. In this study, we elucidated the molecular basis for TL-induced cell death in context to p53 status. Cell death was attributed to dysfunction of mitochondrial bioenergetics in p53-deficient cells, which was characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration, steady-state ATP level and membrane potential, but augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS production resulted in oxidative stress in TL-treated cells. This was exhibited by elevated nuclear levels of a redox-sensitive transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2), along with diminished cellular glutathione (GSH) content. We further demonstrated that in the absence of p53, TL blunted the expression of mitochondrial SIRT3 triggering increased acetylation of NDUAF9 and succinate dehydrogenase, components of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC). TL-mediated hyperacetylation of complexes I and II proteins and these complexes displayed decreased enzymatic activities. We also provide the evidence that P53 regulate steady-state level of SIRT3 through Proteasome-Pathway. Finally, forced overexpression of Sirt3, but not deacetylase-deficient mutant of Sirt3 (H243Y), restored the deleterious effect of TL on p53-deficient cells by rescuing mitochondrial bioenergetics. On contrary, Sirt3 deficiency in the background of wild-type p53 triggered TL-induced mitochondrial impairment that echoed TL effect in p53-deficeint cells. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which TL exerts its potent effects on mitochondrial function and ultimately the viability of NSCLC tumor. PMID:27501149

  17. Rabies virus matrix protein induces apoptosis by targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jie; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hai-Long; Mo, Kai-Kun; Yan, Yan; Xu, Yun-Bin; Liao, Min; Su, Shuo; Hu, Rong-Liang; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2016-09-10

    Apoptosis, as an innate antiviral defense, not only functions to limit viral replication by eliminating infected cells, but also contribute to viral dissemination, particularly at the late stages of infection. A highly neurotropic CVS strain of rabies virus induces apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the detailed mechanism of CVS-mediated neuronal apoptosis is not entirely clear. Here, we show that CVS induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by dissipating mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and AIF. CVS blocks Bax activation at the early stages of infection; while M protein partially targets mitochondria and induces mitochondrial apoptosis at the late stages of infection. The α-helix structure spanning 67-79 amino acids of M protein is essential for mitochondrial targeting and induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that CVS functions on mitochondria to regulate apoptosis at different stages of infection, so as to for viral replication and dissemination. PMID:27426727

  18. B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is mediated by down-regulation of Bcl-2 via p53 binding to P2 promoter TATA box

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Xin; Xu Ke; Xu Yufang; Liu Jianwen Qian Xuhong

    2011-10-01

    The Bcl-2 family contains a panel of proteins which are conserved regulators of apoptosis in mammalian cells, like the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. According to its significant role in altering susceptibility to apoptosis, the deciphering of the mechanism of Bcl-2 expression modulation may be crucial for identifying therapeutics strategies for cancer. Treatment with naphthalimide-based DNA intercalators, including M2-A and R16, generally leads to a decrease in Bcl-2 intracellular amounts. Whereas the interest for these chemotherapeutics is accompanied by advances in the fundamental understanding of their anticancer properties, the molecular mechanism underlying changes in Bcl-2 expression remains poorly understood. We report here that p53 contributes to Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by B1, a novel naphthalimide-based DNA intercalating agent. Indeed, the decrease in Bcl-2 protein levels observed during B1-induced apoptosis was correlated to the decrease in mRNA levels, as a result of the inhibition of Bcl-2 transcription and promoter activity. In this context, we evaluated p53 contribution in the Bcl-2 transcriptional down-regulation. We found a significant increase of p53 binding to P{sub 2} promoter TATA box in MCF7 cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These data suggest that B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is associated with the activation of p53 and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Our study strengthens the links between p53 and Bcl-2 at a transcriptional level, upon naphthalimide-based DNA intercalator treatment. - Research Highlights: > B1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, following a transcriptional decrease in Bcl-2. > B1 treatment triggered p53 activation and leads to a p53-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2. > B1 induced significant increase of p53 binding to Bcl-2 P{sub 2} promoter TATA box.

  19. Research Advances on Pathways of Nickel-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Chen, Lian; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of nickel (Ni) are harmful to humans and animals. Ni targets a number of organs and produces multiple toxic effects. Apoptosis is important in Ni-induced toxicity of the kidneys, liver, nerves, and immune system. Apoptotic pathways mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Fas, and c-Myc participate in Ni-induced cell apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism of apoptosis caused by Ni is still unclear. Understanding the mechanism of Ni-induced apoptosis may help in designing measures to prevent Ni toxicity. PMID:26703593

  20. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma

  1. Participation of cyclin A in Myc-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, A T; Cohen, K J; Barrett, J F; Bergstrom, D A; Dang, C V

    1994-01-01

    The involvement of c-Myc in cellular proliferation or apoptosis has been linked to differential cyclin gene expression. We observed that in both proliferating cells and cells undergoing apoptosis, cyclin A (but not B, C, D1, and E) mRNA level was elevated in unsynchronized Myc-overexpressing cells when compared with parental Rat1a fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that Zn(2+)-inducible cyclin A expression was sufficient to cause apoptosis. When Myc-induced apoptosis was blocked by coexpression of Bcl-2, the levels of cyclin C, D1, and E mRNAs were also elevated. Thus, while apoptosis induced by c-Myc is associated with an elevated cyclin A mRNA level, protection from apoptosis by coexpressed Bcl-2 is associated with a complementary increase in cyclin C, D1, and E mRNAs. Images PMID:8041712

  2. Platelets induce apoptosis via membrane-bound FasL

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Rebecca I.; Reichenbach, Frank; Kraft, Peter; Kumar, Anil; Lescan, Mario; Todt, Franziska; Göbel, Kerstin; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Geisler, Tobias; Bauer, Axel; Olbrich, Marcus; Schaller, Martin; Wesselborg, Sebastian; O’Reilly, Lorraine; Meuth, Sven G.; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Gawaz, Meinrad; Li, Xuri; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Edlich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    After tissue injury, both wound sealing and apoptosis contribute to restoration of tissue integrity and functionality. Although the role of platelets (PLTs) for wound closure and induction of regenerative processes is well established, the knowledge about their contribution to apoptosis is incomplete. Here, we show that PLTs present the death receptor Fas ligand (FasL) on their surface after activation. Activated PLTs as well as the isolated membrane fraction of activated PLTs but not of resting PLTs induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in primary murine neuronal cells, human neuroblastoma cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Membrane protein from PLTs lacking membrane-bound FasL (FasL△m/△m) failed to induce apoptosis. Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in target cells was not required for PLT-induced cell death, but increased the apoptotic response to PLT-induced Fas signaling. In vivo, PLT depletion significantly reduced apoptosis in a stroke model and an inflammation-independent model of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-induced retinal apoptosis. Furthermore, experiments using PLT-specific PF4Cre+ FasLfl/fl mice demonstrated a role of PLT-derived FasL for tissue apoptosis. Because apoptosis secondary to injury prevents inflammation, our findings describe a novel mechanism on how PLTs contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:26232171

  3. PRMT6 mediates CSE induced inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naixing; Chen, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zeng, Huihui; He, Xue; Zhu, Yingqun

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces apoptosis and inflammation, but the mechanism is unknown. Arginine methyltransferase (PRMT6) catalyzes the asymmetric di-methylation of histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2me2a) to control global level transcription. We hypothesized that PRMT6 mediates CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation through H3R2me2a. The apoptosis after CSE treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was fully measured with real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and Annexin-V staining. Meanwhile, the inflammation in HUVECs after CSE exposure was detected with real-time reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and ELISA. CSE treatment promoted apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs, coinciding with the decreased protein abundance of PRMT6. Meanwhile, HUVECs transfected with PRMT6 expressing plasmid inhibited the CSE-induced apoptosis and inflammation. Also, the inhibition of PRMT6 promoted the apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs induced by CSE. Notably, H3R2me2a was associated with the modulation of PRMT6 in CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs. In conclusion, PRMT6 mediates CSE induced apoptosis and inflammation through H3R2me2a in HUVECs. PMID:25481537

  4. Role of PUMA in methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanxiang; Qincao, Litao; Xu, Jingtao; Du, Sihao; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to methamphetamine (METH), a widely used illicit drug, has been shown to cause neuron apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a key mediator in neuronal apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of PUMA in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis. We determined PUMA protein expression in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells after METH exposure using western blot. We also observed the effect of METH on neuronal apoptosis after silencing PUMA expression with siRNA using TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Additionally, to investigate possible mechanisms of METH-induced PUMA-mediated neuronal apoptosis, we measured the protein expression of apoptotic markers, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (cyto c), after METH treatment with or without PUMA knockdown. Results showed that METH exposure induced cell apoptosis, increased PUMA protein levels, activated caspase-3 and PARP, elevated Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression, as well as increased the release of cyto c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm in both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. All these effects were attenuated or reversed after silencing PUMA. A schematic depicting the role of PUMA in METH-induced mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was proposed. Our results suggest that PUMA plays an important role in METH-triggered apoptosis and it may be a potential target for ameliorating neuronal injury and apoptosis caused by METH. PMID:26524635

  5. Marine Drugs Regulating Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)

    PubMed Central

    Elmallah, Mohammed I. Y.; Micheau, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine biomass diversity is a tremendous source of potential anticancer compounds. Several natural marine products have been described to restore tumor cell sensitivity to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced cell death. TRAIL is involved during tumor immune surveillance. Its selectivity for cancer cells has attracted much attention in oncology. This review aims at discussing the main mechanisms by which TRAIL signaling is regulated and presenting how marine bioactive compounds have been found, so far, to overcome TRAIL resistance in tumor cells. PMID:26580630

  6. Retinoids induce Nur77-dependent apoptosis in mouse thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Beáta; Tóth, Katalin; Sarang, Zsolt; Garabuczi, Éva; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2015-03-01

    Nur77 is a transcription factor, which plays a determinant role in mediating T cell receptor-induced cell death of thymocytes. In addition to regulation of transcription, Nur77 contributes to apoptosis induction by targeting mitochondria, where it can convert Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein into a proapoptotic molecule. Previous studies have demonstrated that retinoids are actively produced in the mouse thymus and can induce a transcription-dependent apoptosis in mouse thymocytes. Here we show that retinoic acids induce the expression of Nur77, and retinoid-induced apoptosis is completely dependent on Nur77, as retinoids were unable to induce apoptosis in Nur77 null thymocytes. In wild-type thymocytes retinoids induced enhanced expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, TRAIL, NDG-1, Gpr65 and Bid, all of them in a Nur77-dependent manner. The combined action of these proteins led to Caspase 8-dependent Bid cleavage in the mitochondria. In addition, we could demonstrate the Nur77-dependent induction of STAT1 leading to enhanced Bim expression, and the mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 leading to the exposure of the Bcl-2/BH3 domain. The retinoid-induced apoptosis was dependent on both Caspase 8 and STAT1. Our data together indicate that retinoids induce a Nur77-dependent cell death program in thymocytes activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. PMID:25576519

  7. Mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis induced by photofrin-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunxia; Xing, Da

    2007-05-01

    Apoptosis is an important cellular event that plays a key role in pathogeny and therapy of many diseases. The mechanisms of the initiation and regulation of PDT-induced apoptosis are complex. Some PDT-associated apoptosis pathways involved plasma membrane death receptors, mitochondria, lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In order to determine the apoptosis pathway induced by Photofrin-PDT, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to monitor the dynamics of caspase-3 activation after PDT treatment and also measured caspase-8 activity. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we found that Photofrin were localized primarily in mitochondria, the primary targets of Photofrin-PDT. Formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected within minutes after PDT treatment. This was followed by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activity, caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. After PDT treatment, caspase-3 was activated rapidly while caspase-8 remained inactivated. Our results indicated that PDT-induced apoptosis was initiated from mitochondria pathway and independent of caspase-8 activation. The activation of caspase-3 by PDT started 20 minutes after treatment and completed in about 15 minutes. PDT-induced apoptosis is directly initiated from mitochondria pathway and not involved in the death receptors-dependent pathway. Our results demonstrated that FRET could be an effective tool to determine PDT-induced apoptosis and other cell death mechanism.

  8. The flavonoid quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells through p53 induction and NF-κB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, R; Senthil Murugan, R; Maitreyi, S; Ramalingam, K; Karunagaran, D; Nagini, S

    2010-12-15

    With increasing use of plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals has gained increasing momentum for anticancer drug design. The dietary phytochemical quercetin, modulates several signal transduction pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of quercetin on cell viability, and to determine the molecular mechanism of quercetin-induced cell death by investigating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl1, Bax, Bad, p-Bad), cytochrome C, Apaf-1, caspases, and survivin as well as the cell cycle regulatory proteins (p53, p21, cyclin D1), and NF-κB family members (p50, p65, IκB, p-IκB-α, IKKβ and ubiquitin ligase) in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The results demonstrate that quercetin suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis through a p53-dependent mechanism. This involved characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and NF-κB family members, upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome C, Apaf-1 and caspases, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and survivin. Quercetin that exerts opposing effects on different signaling networks to inhibit cancer progression is a classic candidate for anticancer drug design. PMID:20858478

  9. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Yim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  10. Trauma patients’ elevated Tumor Necrosis Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) contributes to increased T cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Bankey, Paul E.; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppression resulting from excessive post-trauma apoptosis of hyperactivated Tcells is controversial. TRAIL mediated Tcell apoptosis decreases highly activated Tcells’ responses. Caspase-10, a particular TRAIL target, was increased in trauma patients’ Tcells with concomitantly elevated plasma TRAIL levels. These patients’ Tcells developed anergy, implicating increased TRAIL-mediated Tcell apoptosis in post-trauma Tcell anergy. Control Tcells cultured with patients’ sera containing high TRAIL levels increased their Caspase-10 activity and apoptosis. Stimulated primary Tcells are TRAIL apoptosis resistant. Increased plasma Thrombospondin-1 and Tcell expression of CD47, a Thrombospondin-1 receptor, preceded patients’ Tcell anergy. CD47 triggering of Tcells increased their sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Augmentation of Tcell TRAIL-induced apoptosis was secondary to CD47 triggered activation of the Src homology-containing phosphatase-1(SHP-1) and was partially blocked by a SHP-1 inhibitor. We suggest that combined post-trauma CD47 triggering, SHP-1 mediated NFκB suppression, and elevated TRAIL levels increase patients’ CD47 expressing Tcell apoptosis, thus contributing to subsequent Tcell anergy. PMID:22926077

  11. UXT plays dual opposing roles on SARM-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sethurathinam, Shalini; Singh, Laishram Pradeepkumar; Panneerselvam, Porkodi; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2013-10-11

    Apoptosis is a vital defense mechanism for the clearance of infected cells. Ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), which exists in two isoforms (V1 and V2), interact with both apoptotic and cellular proteins. By yeast two-hybrid analysis, we found that UXT interacts with SARM (sterile α and HEAT armadillo motif-containing protein). Since SARM is a TLR adaptor which induces intrinsic apoptosis following immune activation, we were prompted to query whether UXT and SARM might co-regulate apoptosis. We found that the UXT isoforms elicit dual opposing regulatory effects on SARM-induced apoptosis; while UXT V1, co-expressed with SARM, caused a reduction in caspase 8 activity, UXT V2 strongly increased caspase 8 activity and enhanced SARM-induced apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway and depolarizing the mitochondria. PMID:24021647

  12. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  13. Characterization of radiation-induced Apoptosis in rodent cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Min; Chen, Changhu; Ling, C.C.

    1997-03-01

    For REC:myc(ch1), Rat1 and Rat1:myc{sub b} cells, we determined the events in the development of radiation-induced apoptosis to be in the following order: cell division followed by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, loss of adhesion and the uptake of vital dye. Experimental data which were obtained using {sup 4}He ions of well defined energies and which compared the dependence of apoptosis and clonogenic survival on {sup 4}He range strongly suggested that in our cells both apoptosis and loss of clonogenic survival resulted from radiation damage to the cell nucleus. Corroboratory evidence was that BrdU incorporation sensitized these cells to radiation-induced apoptosis. Comparing the dose response for apoptosis and the clonogenic survival curves for Rat1 and Rat1:myc{sub b} cells, we concluded that radiation-induced cell inactivation as assayed by clonogenic survival, and that a modified linear-quadratic model, proposed previously, modeled such a contribution effectively. In the same context, the selective increase in radiation-induced apoptosis. Comparing the dose response for apoptosis and the clonogenic survival curves for Rat1 and Rat1:myc{sub b} cells, we concluded that radiation-induced apoptosis contributed to the overall radiation-induced cell inactivation as assayed by clonogenic survival, and that a modified linear-quadratic model, proposed previously, modeled such a contribution effectively. In the same context, the selective increase in radiation-induced apoptosis during late S and G{sub 2} phases reduced the relative radioresistance observed for clonogenic survival during late S and G{sub 2} phases. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

  15. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans induces apoptosis in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satsuki; Sugimura, Norihiko; Nakashima, Keisuke; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kowashi, Yusuke

    2005-03-01

    It has previously been reported that the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 and the human oral epithelial cell line KB undergo apoptosis as a result of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that apoptosis regulation is modulated by multiple phosphorylation of several different protein kinases, including the major subtypes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. The MAPK family promotes cell survival and/or proliferation in response to growth factor stimulation, or apoptosis in response to various stress stimuli. The primary objective of the present investigation was to clarify whether human immune cells undergo apoptosis following A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and, if so, to establish the involvement of the MAPK family. Human monocytic THP-1 cells were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans in microtubes. Lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture supernatant and DNA fragmentation in the cells were monitored. DNA fragmentation was also identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cell death following A. actinomycetemcomitans infection occurred by apoptosis, shown by an increase in the proportion of fragmented DNA and the typical ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. Furthermore, p38 MAPK activity and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels increased following A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. In contrast, cell death and TNF-alpha levels in infected cells decreased upon addition of a p38 inhibitor or an anti-TNF-alpha antibody. However, exogenous TNF-alpha could not induce apoptosis in uninfected THP-1 cells. Interestingly, p38 MAPK activity diminished in the presence of anti-TNF-alpha antibody. These findings indicated that A. actinomycetemcomitans infection induces apoptosis in THP-1 cells and that p38 MAPK activity is directly involved in apoptosis. TNF-alpha may play an indirect role in apoptosis via enhanced p38 MAPK activity. A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced

  16. Preventive effects of bicarbonate on cerivastatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kaido, Fumie; Kagawa, Toshiki; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2007-08-16

    Although HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors such as statins are the most widely used cholesterol-lowering agents, there is a risk of myopathy or rhabdmyolysis occurring in patients taking these drugs. It has been reported that a number of lipophilic statins cause apoptosis in various cells, but it is still not clear whether intracellular acidification is involved in statin-induced apoptosis. There have been few studies aimed at identifying compounds that suppress statin-induced myotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the relationship between cerivastatin-induced apoptosis and intracellular acidification and the effect of bicarbonate on cerivastatin-induced apoptosis using an RD cell line as a model of in vitro skeletal muscle. Cerivastatin reduced the number of viable cells and caused dramatic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, cerivastatin-induced apoptosis was associated with intracellular acidification and caspase-9 and -3/7 activation. On the other hand, bicarbonate suppressed cerivastatin-induced pH alteration, caspase activation, morphological change and reduction of cell viability. Accordingly, bicarbonate suppressed statin-induced apoptosis. The strategy to combine statins with bicarbonate can lead to reduction in the chance of the severe adverse events including myopathy or rhabdmyolysis. PMID:17553641

  17. Phellinus linteus sensitises apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Collins, L; Zhu, T; Guo, J; Xiao, Z J; Chen, C-Y

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom, which mainly consists of polysaccharides, possesses antitumour activity. The mechanisms of PL against malignant growth remain unknown. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) has been shown to induce apoptosis via initiating a caspase cascade. In this investigation, we tested the effect of PL on Dox-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We showed that PL or Dox, at relatively low doses, does not induce apoptosis in the cells. However, combination treatment with low doses of PL and Dox results in a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis. In this apoptotic process, caspases 8, 3 and BID are cleaved, and the addition of caspase inhibitor z-VADfmk completely blocks apoptosis. In addition, JNK is activated in response to PL or the combination treatment in LNCaP cells. The suppression of JNK partially inhibits the induction of apoptosis elicited by the co-treatment. These findings indicate that PL has a synergistic effect with Dox to activate caspases in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Our study also suggests that PL has therapeutic potential to augment the magnitude of apoptosis induced by antiprostate cancer drugs. PMID:16868541

  18. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and p53 in lncRNA MEG3-induced human hepatoma HepG2 cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Pei; Huang, Zhen-Lun; Liu, Li-Xuan; Xiang, Meng-Qi; Li, Guo-Ping; Feng, Jia-Lin; Liu, Bin; Wu, Ling-Fei

    2016-09-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes. Although downregulation of lncRNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) has been identified in several types of cancers, little is known concerning its biological role and regulatory mechanism in hepatoma. Our previous studies demonstrated that MEG3 induces apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. The aim of the present study was to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in MEG3‑induced apoptosis. Recombinant lentiviral vectors containing MEG3 (Lv‑MEG3) were constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells. A 3‑(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, RT‑PCR, flow cytometry, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were applied. Transfected HepG2 cells were also transplanted into nude mice, and the tumor growth curves were determined. The results showed that the recombinant lentivirus of MEG3 was transfected successfully into the HepG2 cells and the expression level of MEG3 was significantly increased. Ectopic expression of MEG3 inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and also induced apoptosis. Ectopic expression of MEG3 increased ER stress‑related proteins 78‑kDa glucose‑regulated protein (GRP78), inositol‑requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), RNA‑dependent protein kinase‑like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase‑3, as well as p53 and NF‑κB expression accompanied by NF‑κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NF‑κB with Bay11‑7082 decreased p53 expression in the MEG3‑transfected cells. These results indicate that MEG3 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis, partially via the activation of the ER stress and p53 pathway, in which NF‑κB signaling is required for p53 activation in ER stress. PMID:27432655

  19. The Interplays between Autophagy and Apoptosis Induced by Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ji; Huang, He; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A) cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62). Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection. PMID:23437282

  20. ATP depletion inhibits glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, C; Bonavita, F; Stanic', I; Farruggia, G; Falcieri, E; Robuffo, I; Pignatti, C; Muscari, C; Rossoni, C; Guarnieri, C; Caldarera, C M

    1997-01-01

    In quiescent thymocytes, mitochondrial de-energization was not correlated to apoptotic death. In fact, thymocytes treated with oligomycin, a highly specific inhibitor of ATP synthase, alone or with atractyloside to block ATP translocation from the cytoplasm, were alive, even if their mitochondria were depolarized, as revealed by flow cytometry after Rhodamine 123 staining. Furthermore, oligomycin was a powerful inhibitor of apoptosis induced in rat thymocytes by dexamethasone and, to a lesser extent, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and etoposide, but was without effect when apoptosis was induced by staurosporine, and increased cell death in mitogen-treated thymocytes. The inhibition of apoptosis was confirmed by morphological criteria, inhibition of inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and inhibition of the loss of membrane integrity. The anti-apoptotic effect of oligomycin in cells treated with A23187 or etoposide was correlated to the inhibition of protein synthesis, while inhibition of apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, already evident at an oligomycin concentration of 10 ng/ml, was instead strictly correlated to the effect exerted on the cellular ATP level. Thymocyte apoptosis triggered by dexamethasone was blocked or delayed by inhibitors of respiratory-chain uncouplers, inhibitors of ATP synthase and antioxidants: a lasting protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was always correlated to a drastic and rapid reduction in ATP level (31-35% of control), while a delay in the death process was characterized by a moderate decrease in ATP (73-82% of control). Oligomycin inhibited the specific binding of radioactive corticosteroid to thymocyte nuclei, confirming the inhibitory effect of ATP depletion on glucocorticoid binding and suggesting that ATP depletion is a common mediator of the anti-apoptotic action of different effectors in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the reported data indicate that ATP may act as a cellular modulator of some

  1. ATP depletion inhibits glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, C; Bonavita, F; Stanic', I; Farruggia, G; Falcieri, E; Robuffo, I; Pignatti, C; Muscari, C; Rossoni, C; Guarnieri, C; Caldarera, C M

    1997-03-15

    In quiescent thymocytes, mitochondrial de-energization was not correlated to apoptotic death. In fact, thymocytes treated with oligomycin, a highly specific inhibitor of ATP synthase, alone or with atractyloside to block ATP translocation from the cytoplasm, were alive, even if their mitochondria were depolarized, as revealed by flow cytometry after Rhodamine 123 staining. Furthermore, oligomycin was a powerful inhibitor of apoptosis induced in rat thymocytes by dexamethasone and, to a lesser extent, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and etoposide, but was without effect when apoptosis was induced by staurosporine, and increased cell death in mitogen-treated thymocytes. The inhibition of apoptosis was confirmed by morphological criteria, inhibition of inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and inhibition of the loss of membrane integrity. The anti-apoptotic effect of oligomycin in cells treated with A23187 or etoposide was correlated to the inhibition of protein synthesis, while inhibition of apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, already evident at an oligomycin concentration of 10 ng/ml, was instead strictly correlated to the effect exerted on the cellular ATP level. Thymocyte apoptosis triggered by dexamethasone was blocked or delayed by inhibitors of respiratory-chain uncouplers, inhibitors of ATP synthase and antioxidants: a lasting protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was always correlated to a drastic and rapid reduction in ATP level (31-35% of control), while a delay in the death process was characterized by a moderate decrease in ATP (73-82% of control). Oligomycin inhibited the specific binding of radioactive corticosteroid to thymocyte nuclei, confirming the inhibitory effect of ATP depletion on glucocorticoid binding and suggesting that ATP depletion is a common mediator of the anti-apoptotic action of different effectors in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the reported data indicate that ATP may act as a cellular modulator of some

  2. Apoptosis in vascular cells induced by cold atmospheric plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladek, Raymond; Stoffels, Eva

    2006-10-01

    Apoptosis is a natural mechanism of cellular self-destruction. It can be triggered by moderate, yet irreversible damage. Apoptosis plays a major role in tissue renewal. Artificial apoptosis induction will become a novel therapy that meets all requirements for tissue-saving surgery. Diseased tissues can disappear without inflammation and scarring. This is particularly important in treatment of blockages in body tracts (e.g. cardiovascular diseases). Artificial induction of apoptosis can be achieved by means of cold plasma treatment. In this work an atmospheric micro-plasma operated in helium/air has been used to induce apoptosis in vascular cells. Parametric studies of apoptosis induction have been conducted; the efficiency is almost 100%. The apoptotic factors are ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). Their densities in the plasma have been measured by mass spectrometry. For apoptosis induction, RNS seem to be more important than ROS, because of their relative abundance. Moreover, addition of a ROS scavenger (ascorbic acid) to the cell culture medium does not reduce the occurrence of apoptosis. Cold plasma is a very efficient tool for fundamental studies of apoptosis, and later, for controlled tissue removal in vivo.

  3. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chen-Tzu; Chen, Bing-Chang; Yu, Chung-Chi; Weng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Shih, Chung-Hung; Lin, Chien-Huang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN), two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH)), a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor (curcumin). Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis. PMID:19405983

  4. Glucocorticoid Induced Leucine Zipper inhibits apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by doxorubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, David; Strom, Joshua; Chen, Qin M.

    2014-04-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an indispensable chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various forms of neoplasia such as lung, breast, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern for patients receiving Dox therapy. Previous work from our laboratory indicated that glucocorticoids (GCs) alleviate Dox-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Here we have found Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ) to be a mediator of GC-induced cytoprotection. GILZ was found to be induced in cardiomyocytes by GC treatment. Knocking down of GILZ using siRNA resulted in cancelation of GC-induced cytoprotection against apoptosis by Dox treatment. Overexpressing GILZ by transfection was able to protect cells from apoptosis induced by Dox as measured by caspase activation, Annexin V binding and morphologic changes. Western blot analyses indicate that GILZ overexpression prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase-3. When bcl-2 family proteins were examined, we found that GILZ overexpression causes induction of the pro-survival protein Bcl-xL. Since siRNA against Bcl-xL reverses GC induced cytoprotection, Bcl-xL induction represents an important event in GILZ-induced cytoprotection. Our data suggest that GILZ functions as a cytoprotective gene in cardiomyocytes. - Highlights: • Corticosteroids act as a cytoprotective agent in cardiomyocytes • Corticosteroids induce GILZ expression in cardiomyocytes • Elevated GILZ results in resistance against apoptosis induced by doxorubicin • GILZ induces Bcl-xL protein without inducing Bcl-xL mRNA.

  5. Recovering drug-induced apoptosis subnetwork from Connectivity Map data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiyang; Putcha, Preeti; Silva, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The Connectivity Map (CMAP) project profiled human cancer cell lines exposed to a library of anticancer compounds with the goal of connecting cancer with underlying genes and potential treatments. Since the therapeutic goal of most anticancer drugs is to induce tumor-selective apoptosis, it is critical to understand the specific cell death pathways triggered by drugs. This can help to better understand the mechanism of how cancer cells respond to chemical stimulations and improve the treatment of human tumors. In this study, using CMAP microarray data from breast cancer cell line MCF7, we applied a Gaussian Bayesian network modeling approach and identified apoptosis as a major drug-induced cellular-pathway. We then focused on 13 apoptotic genes that showed significant differential expression across all drug-perturbed samples to reconstruct the apoptosis network. In our predicted subnetwork, 9 out of 15 high-confidence interactions were validated in the literature, and our inferred network captured two major cell death pathways by identifying BCL2L11 and PMAIP1 as key interacting players for the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and TAXBP1 and TNFAIP3 for the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Our inferred apoptosis network also suggested the role of BCL2L11 and TNFAIP3 as "gateway" genes in the drug-induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. PMID:25883971

  6. Molecular mechanisms of nutlin-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manujendra N; Jiang, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy in which p53 is rarely mutated. Thus, activation of the p53 pathway by a small molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction, nutlin, in MM cells retaining wild type p53 is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Recently we reported that nutlin plus velcade (a proteasome inhibitor) displayed a synergistic response in MM. However, the mechanism of the p53-mediated apoptosis in MM has not been fully understood. Our data show that nutlin-induced apoptosis correlated with reduction in cell viability, upregulation of p53, p21 and MDM2 protein levels with a simultaneous increase in pro-apoptotic targets PUMA, Bax and Bak and downregulation of anti-apoptotic targets Bcl2 and survivin and activation of caspase in MM cells harboring wild type p53. Nutlin-induced apoptosis was inhibited when activation of caspase was blocked by the caspase inhibitor. Nutlin caused mitochondrial translocation of p53 where it binds with Bcl2, leading to cytochrome C release. Moreover, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53 by the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor, pifithrin-α, not only inhibited nutlin-induced upregulation of p53-transcriptional targets but also augmented apoptosis in MM cells, suggesting an association of transcription-independent pathway of apoptosis. However, inhibitor of mitochondrial translocation of p53, PFT-µ, did not prevent nutlin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the p53 transcription-dependent pathway was also operational in nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM. Our study provides the evidence that nutlin-induced apoptosis in MM cells is mediated by transcription-dependent and -independent pathways and supports further clinical evaluation of nutlin as a novel therapeutic agent in MM. PMID:20595817

  7. Catalase protects HepG2 cells from apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents by accelerating the degradation of p53.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jingxiang; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2003-02-14

    Oxidants such as H(2)O(2) play a role in the toxicity of certain DNA-damaging agents, a process that often involves the tumor suppressor p53. H(2)O(2) is rapidly degraded by catalase, which protects cells against oxidant injury. To study the effect of catalase on apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents, HepG2 cells were infected with adenovirus containing the cDNA of catalase (Ad-Cat). Forty-eight hours after infection, catalase protein and activity was increased 7-10-fold compared with control cells infected with Ad-LacZ. After treatment with Vp16 or mitomycin C, control cells underwent apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner; however, overexpression of catalase inhibited this apoptosis. Basal levels as well as Vp16- or mitomycin C-stimulated levels of p53 and p21 protein were decreased in the catalase-overexpressing cells as compared with control cells; however, p53 mRNA levels were not decreased by catalase. There was no difference in p53 protein synthesis between catalase-overexpressing cells and control cells. However, pulse-chase experiments indicated that p53 protein degradation was enhanced in the catalase-overexpressing cells. Proteasome inhibitors but not calpeptin prevented the catalase-mediated decrease of p53 content. Whereas Vp16 increased, catalase overexpression decreased the phosphorylation of p53. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid did not prevent the catalase-mediated down-regulation of p53 or phosphorylated p53. These results demonstrate that catalase protects HepG2 cells from apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents in association with decreasing p53 phosphorylation; the latter may lead to an acceleration in the degradation of p53 protein by the proteasome complex. This suggests that the level of catalase may play a critical role in cell-induced resistance to the effects of anti-cancer drugs which up-regulate p53. PMID:12468545

  8. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in cultured rat cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Takadera, Tsuneo . E-mail: t-takadera@hokuriku-u.ac.jp; Ishida, Akira; Ohyashiki, Takao

    2006-01-15

    Recent data suggest that anesthetic drugs cause neurodegeneration during development. Ketamine is frequently used in infants and toddlers for elective surgeries. The purpose of this study is to determine whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is involved in ketamine-induced apoptosis. Ketamine increased apoptotic cell death with morphological changes which were characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation or fragmentation. In addition, insulin growth factor-1 completely blocked the ketamine-induced apoptotic cell death. Ketamine decreased Akt phosphorylation. GSK-3 is known as a downstream target of Akt. The selective inhibitors of GSK-3 prevented the ketamine-induced apoptosis. Moreover, caspase-3 activation was accompanied by the ketamine-induced cell death and inhibited by the GSK-3 inhibitors. These results suggest that activation of GSK-3 is involved in ketamine-induced apoptosis in rat cortical neurons.

  9. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Zoey; Wong, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation. PMID:27331809

  10. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Zoey; Wong, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation. PMID:27331809

  11. Apoptosis induced by dioscin in Hela cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Zhao; Ju, Yong

    2002-02-01

    Dioscin, a saponin extracted from the root of Polygonatum Zanlanscianense Pamp, markedly inhibited proliferation of Hela cells. The results indicated that Hela cells underwent apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners when treated with Dioscin. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were also detected. The low enzymatic activity of caspase-8 and high activity of caspase-9 showed that the mitochondrial pathway was activated in apoptosis. The reduced expression of the survival protein Bcl-2 also confirmed this result. These studies may be significant in finding a new drug to treat human cervical cancer. PMID:11853164

  12. Downregulation of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, K; Akaike, Y; Masuda, K; Kuwano, Y; Nishida, K; Yamagishi, N; Kajita, K; Tanahashi, T; Rokutan, K

    2014-03-13

    Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) likely has wide-ranging roles in gene expression and facilitation of tumor cell growth. SRSF3 knockdown induced G1 arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells (HCT116) in association with altered expression of 833 genes. Pathway analysis revealed 'G1/S Checkpoint Regulation' as the most highly enriched category in the affected genes. SRSF3 knockdown did not induce p53 or stimulate phosphorylation of p53 or histone H2A.X in wild-type HCT116 cells. Furthermore, the knockdown induced G1 arrest in p53-null HCT116 cells, suggesting that p53-dependent DNA damage responses did not mediate the G1 arrest. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting confirmed that SRSF3 knockdown reduced mRNA and protein levels of cyclins (D1, D3 and E1), E2F1 and E2F7. The decreased expression of cyclin D and E2F1 likely impaired the G1-to-S-phase progression. Consequently, retinoblastoma protein remained hypophosphorylated in SRSF3 knockdown cells. The knockdown also induced apoptosis in association with reduction of BCL2 protein levels. We also found that SRSF3 knockdown facilitated skipping of 81 5'-nucleotides (27 amino acids) from exon 8 of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) and produced a HIPK2 Δe8 isoform. Full-length HIPK2 (HIPK2 FL) is constantly degraded through association with an E3 ubiquitin ligase (Siah-1), whereas HIPK2 Δe8, lacking the 27 amino acids, lost Siah-1-binding ability and became resistant to proteasome digestion. Interestingly, selective knockdown of HIPK2 FL induced apoptosis in various colon cancer cells expressing wild-type or mutated p53. Thus, these findings disclose an important role of SRSF3 in the regulation of the G1-to-S-phase progression and alternative splicing of HIPK2 in tumor growth. PMID:23503458

  13. Antioxidants induce apoptosis of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Rzepczynska, Izabela J; Foyouzi, Nastaran; Piotrowski, Piotr C; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Cress, Amanda; Duleba, Antoni J

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of growth of ovarian theca-interstitial tissues is essential for normal ovarian development and function. Reactive oxygen species are involved in modulation of signal transduction pathways, including regulation of tissue growth and apoptosis. Previously, we have demonstrated that antioxidants inhibit proliferation of theca-interstitial cells. This report evaluates the effects of antioxidants on apoptosis of rat theca-interstitial cells. The cells were cultured in chemically defined media without or with vitamin E succinate and ebselen. Apoptosis was evaluated by cytochemical assessment of nuclear morphology, activity of executioner caspases 3 and 7, and determination of staining with annexin V in combination with propidium iodide. Both tested antioxidants induced significant morphological changes consistent with apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, nuclear shrinkage, and pyknosis. Antioxidants also induced other hallmarks of apoptosis including increased activity of caspases 3/7 as well as increased staining with annexin V. The present findings demonstrate that antioxidants with distinctly different mechanisms of action induce a series of events consistent with the process of apoptosis in ovarian mesenchyme. These observations may be of translational-clinical relevance, providing mechanistic support for the use of antioxidants in the treatment of PCOS, a condition associated with excessive growth and activity of theca-interstitial cells. PMID:20844276

  14. X-ray-induced cell death: Apoptosis and necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hisako; Shinohara, Kunio

    1994-10-01

    X-ray-induced cell death in MOLT-4N1, a subclone of MOLT-4 cells, and M10 cells was studied with respect to their modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. MOLT-4N1 cells showed radiosensitivity similar to that of M10 cells, a radiosensitive mutant of L5178Y, as determined by the colony formation assay. Analysis of cell size demonstrated that MOLT-4N1 cells increased in size at an early stage after irradiation and then decreased to a size smaller than that of control cells, whereas the size of irradiated M10 cells increased continuously. Apoptosis detected by morphological changes and DNA ladder formation (the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments) occurred in X-irradiated MOLT-4N1 cells but not in M10 cells. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the ladder formation involved an intermediate-sized DNA (about 20 kbp). Most of the DNA was detected at the origin in both methods of electrophoresis in the case of M10 cells, though a trace amount of ladder formation was observed. Heat treatment of M10 cells induced apoptosis within 30 min after treatment, in contrast to MOLT-4N1 cells. The results suggest that apoptosis and necrosis are induced by X rays in a manner which is dependent on the cell line irrespective of the capability of the cells to develop apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was the earliest change observed in the development of apoptosis. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, MIAO-QIAN; SU, FEI-FEI; XU, XUAN; LIU, XIONG-TAO; WANG, HONG-TAO; ZHANG, WEI; LI, XUE; LIAN, CHENG; ZHENG, QIANG-SUN; FENG, ZHI-CHUN

    2016-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase-3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII-induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced p-Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII-induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26862035

  16. Csk regulates angiotensin II-induced podocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ren, Zhilong; Yang, Qian; Ding, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    Increasing data have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) perpetuates podocyte injury and promotes progression to end-stage kidney disease. The mechanism underlying Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis has not been established. C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) is a cytoplasmic kinase that interacts with scaffolding proteins involved in cell growth, adhesion, and polarization, and the role of Csk in regulating cellular apoptosis has gradually attracted attention. This study evaluates the role of Csk in Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis. In vivo, Wistar rats were randomly subjected to a normal saline or Ang II infusion. In vitro, we exposed differentiated mouse podocytes to Ang II. Ang II increased Csk expression and induced podocyte apoptosis, stimulated Csk translocation and binding to Caveolin-1, and stimulated decreased Fyn pY416, increased Fyn pY529, and nephrin dephosphorylation. Csk knockdown prevented Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis, reduced Fyn kinase inactivation, and increased the interaction between nephrin and the activated form of Fyn, accompanied by a reduced interaction between Csk and Caveolin-1. These findings indicate that Ang II induces podocyte injury via a Csk-dependent pathway. PMID:27225249

  17. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-11-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells. PMID:22915764

  18. Denbinobin induces apoptosis by apoptosis-inducing factor releasing and DNA damage in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Yao-Ting; Pai, Hui-Chen; Teng, Che-Ming

    2008-11-01

    Denbinobin is a phenanthraquinone derivative present in the stems of Ephemerantha lonchophylla. We showed that denbinobin induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116) in a concentration-dependent manner. The addition of a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) did not suppress the denbinobin-induced apoptotic effect, and denbinobin-induced apoptosis was not accompanied by processing of procaspase-3, -6, -7, -9, and -8. However, denbinobin triggered the translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. Small interfering RNA targeting of AIF effectively protected HCT-116 cells against denbinobin-induced apoptosis. Denbinobin treatment also caused DNA damage, activation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, and upregulation of numerous downstream effectors (p21WAF1/CIP1, Bax, PUMA, and NOXA). A HCT-116 xenograft model demonstrated the in vivo efficacy and low toxicity of denbinobin. Taken together, our findings suggest that denbinobin induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells via DNA damage and an AIF-mediated pathway. These results indicate that denbinobin has potential as a novel anticancer agent. PMID:18607570

  19. Calpain Inhibitor PD150606 Attenuates Glutamate Induced Spiral Ganglion Neuron Apoptosis through Apoptosis Inducing Factor Pathway In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Mi, Wen-Juan; Wang, Jian; Lin, Ying; Chen, Fu-Quan; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research aimed to investigate whether glutamate induced spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) apoptosis through apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) pathway. And verify whether PD150606, a calpain inhibitor could prevent apoptosis by inhibiting cleaving and releasing AIF in mitochondrion. Methods SGNs of postnatal days 0-3 were harvested and cultured in dishes. 20 mM Glu, the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and calpain inhibitor PD150606 were added into cultured dishes separately. We used optical microscope and immunofluoresence staining to observe cell morphology and AIF distribution, RT-PCR and Westernblot to analyse AIF and calpain expression in SGNs. TUNEL assay was used to test cell apoptosis. Results Cell morphology and nuclear translocation of AIF were altered in SGNs by 20 mM Glu treated in vitro. The axon of SGN shortened, more apoptosis SGN were observed and the expression of AIF and calpain were up-regulated in Glu-treated group than the normal one (P<0.05). The same experiments were conducted in 20 mM+PD150606 treated group and 20 mM+Z-VAD-FMK group. Obviously AIF were located from cytoplasm to the nuclear and the expressions of AIF and calpain were down-regulated by PD150606 (P<0.05). Positive cells in TUNEL staining decreased after PD150606 treating. However, Z-VAD-FMK had no influence on AIF, calpain expression or cell apoptosis. Conclusion The AIF-related apoptosis pathway is involved in the process of Glu-induced SGN injury. Furthermore, the inhibition of calpain can prevent AIF from releasing the nuclear or inducing SGN apoptosis. PMID:25874633

  20. Induction of p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis by exportin-1 (XPO1) inhibition in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mariko; Ishizawa, Jo; Ruvolo, Vivian; Dilip, Archana; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; McDonnell, Timothy J; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael; Tabe, Yoko; Yokoo, Masako; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Kojima, Kensuke

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear transporter exportin-1 (XPO1) is highly expressed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. XPO1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in MCL cells. Given that p53 is a cargo protein of XPO1, we sought to determine the significance of p53 activation through XPO1 inhibition in SINE-induced apoptosis of MCL cells. We investigated the prognostic impact of XPO1 expression in MCL cells using Oncomine analysis. The significance of p53 mutational/functional status on sensitivity to XPO1 inhibition in cell models and primary MCL samples, and the functional role of p53-mediated apoptosis signaling, were also examined. Increased XPO1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in MCL patients. The XPO1 inhibitor KPT-185 induced apoptosis in MCL cells through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and p53 status was a critical determinant of its apoptosis induction. The KPT-185-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in the MCL cells occurred in a transcription-dependent manner. Exportin-1 appears to influence patient survival in MCL, and the SINE XPO1 antagonist KPT-185 effectively activates p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis, which would provide a novel strategy for the therapy of MCL. PMID:24766216

  1. Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Montano-Hirose, J A; Lafon, M

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response. PMID:9311815

  2. The retinoblastoma protein induces apoptosis directly at the mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Hilgendorf, Keren I.; Leshchiner, Elizaveta S.; Nedelcu, Simona; Maynard, Mindy A.; Calo, Eliezer; Ianari, Alessandra; Walensky, Loren D.; Lees, Jacqueline A.

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein gene RB-1 is mutated in one-third of human tumors. Its protein product, pRB (retinoblastoma protein), functions as a transcriptional coregulator in many fundamental cellular processes. Here, we report a nonnuclear role for pRB in apoptosis induction via pRB's direct participation in mitochondrial apoptosis. We uncovered this activity by finding that pRB potentiated TNFα-induced apoptosis even when translation was blocked. This proapoptotic function was highly BAX-dependent, suggesting a role in mitochondrial apoptosis, and accordingly, a fraction of endogenous pRB constitutively associated with mitochondria. Remarkably, we found that recombinant pRB was sufficient to trigger the BAX-dependent permeabilization of mitochondria or liposomes in vitro. Moreover, pRB interacted with BAX in vivo and could directly bind and conformationally activate BAX in vitro. Finally, by targeting pRB specifically to mitochondria, we generated a mutant that lacked pRB's classic nuclear roles. This mito-tagged pRB retained the ability to promote apoptosis in response to TNFα and also additional apoptotic stimuli. Most importantly, induced expression of mito-tagged pRB in Rb−/−;p53−/− tumors was sufficient to block further tumor development. Together, these data establish a nontranscriptional role for pRB in direct activation of BAX and mitochondrial apoptosis in response to diverse stimuli, which is profoundly tumor-suppressive. PMID:23618872

  3. 6-Gingerol induces autophagy to protect HUVECs survival from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Sun, Xiance; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Xiaofang; Chen, Min; Yao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Qinghua; Yang, Guang

    2016-08-25

    6-Gingerol, the major pharmacologically-active component of ginger, has the potential to prevent heart disease. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, the protective effect of 6-gingerol against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33342 and Flow cytometry analysis. To further elucidate the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy, we tested the expression of autophagy related proteins, LC3B, Bcl-2, Beclin1, AKT, p-AKT, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p-mTOR. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential and the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated. Our data revealed that 6-gingerol significantly reduced apoptosis by inducing autophagy. It has been demonstrated that 6-gingerol suppressed the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, increased the expression of Beclin1 to promote autophagy, and increased Bcl-2 expression to inhibit apoptosis. In addition, the damage of mitochondrial was protected, and ROS level was decreased by 6-gingerol. These firmly indicate 6-gingerol has a strong protective ability against the apoptosis caused by oxidative stress in HUVECs, and the mechanism may relate to the induction of autophagy. Our data suggest 6-gingerol may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:27451028

  4. Autophagy Regulates Colistin-Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Yonghao; Ding, Wenjian; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli

    2015-01-01

    Colistin is a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent study demonstrated that colistin induces apoptosis in primary chick cortex neurons and PC-12 cells. Although apoptosis and autophagy have different impacts on cell fate, there is a complex interaction between them. Autophagy plays an important role as a homeostasis regulator by removing excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of autophagy and apoptosis regulation in PC-12 cells in response to colistin treatment. PC-12 cells were exposed to colistin (125 to 250 μg/ml), and autophagy was detected by visualization of monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled vacuoles, LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) immunofluorescence microscopic examination, and Western blotting. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, and Western blotting. Autophagosomes were observed after treatment with colistin for 12 h, and the levels of LC3-II gene expression were determined; observation and protein levels both indicated that colistin induced a high level of autophagy. Colistin treatment also led to apoptosis in PC-12 cells, and the level of caspase-3 expression increased over the 24-h period. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased colistin toxicity in PC-12 cells remarkably. However, rapamycin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 and decreased the rate of apoptosis of PC-12 cells. Our results demonstrate that colistin induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC-12 cells and that the latter was affected by the regulation of autophagy. It is very likely that autophagy plays a protective role in the reduction of colistin-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. PMID:25645826

  5. An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Matt; Carmichael, Amtul R.; Griffiths, Helen R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using flow cytometric analysis of cells labeled with cyclin A, annexin V and propidium iodide, we describe a time and dose-dependent arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis following extract treatment in MCF-7 (WT-p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant-p53) human breast cancer cell lines with a markedly reduced effect on primary human mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of p53 protein expression and of its downstream transcription targets, p21 and BAX, revealed a p53 associated growth arrest within 5 hours of extract treatment and apoptosis within 24 hours. DNA double strand breaks measured as γ-H2AX were detected early in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. However, loss of cell viability was only partly due to a p53-driven response; as MDA-MB-231 and p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells both underwent cell cycle arrest and death following extract treatment. p53-independent growth arrest and cytotoxicity following DNA damage has been previously ascribed to FOXO3a expression. Here, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, FOXO3a expression was increased significantly within 3 hours of extract treatment and FOXO3 siRNA reduced the extract-induced loss of cell viability in both cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate for the first time that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms, with activation of the DNA damage response. We also show that FOXO3a is required for activity in the absence of p53. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53

  6. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Cai-ping; Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    The degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with the death of chondrocytes in apoptosis fashion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), higher expression following acute damage in OA patients, has been shown to be up-regulated during apoptosis in a bulk of experimental models. This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of H2O2-induced rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. Articular cartilage was biopsied from the joints of 6 weeks old New Zealand rabbits. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability. We used flow cytometry to assess the form of cell death with Annexin-V/PI double staining, and found that H2O2 treatment induced apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Exposure of chondrocytes to 1.5 mM of H2O2 for 2 h induced a burst apoptosis that can be alleviated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pretreatment, an anti-oxidant amino-acid derivative. Loss of mitochondria membrane potential (▵Ψm) was evaluated using confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry (FCM). H2O2 treatment induced a marked reduction of ▵Ψm, and the abrupt disappearance of ▵Ψm occurred within 5 minutes. These results indicate that H2O2 induces a rapid apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in rabbit chondrocytes.

  7. Iron dysregulation combined with aging prevents sepsis-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G.; Stromberg, Paul E.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vyas, Dinesh; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Karl, Irene E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Sepsis, iron loading and aging cause independent increases in gut epithelial and splenic apoptosis. It is unknown how their combination will affect apoptosis and systemic cytokine levels. Methods Hfe−/− mice (a murine homolog of hemochromatosis) abnormally accumulate iron in their tissues. Aged (24–26 months) or mature (16–18 months) Hfe−/− mice and wild type (WT) littermates were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy. Intestine, spleen, and blood were harvested 24 hours later and assessed for apoptosis and cytokine levels. Results Gut epithelial and splenic apoptosis were low in both aged septic and sham Hfe−/− mice, regardless of the amount of iron in their diet. Mature septic WT mice had increased apoptosis compared to age-matched sham WT mice. Mature septic Hfe−/− mice had similar levels of intestinal cell death to age-matched septic WT mice but higher levels of splenic apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly lower in septic aged Hfe−/− mice than septic mature Hfe−/− animals. Interleukin-6 was elevated in septic aged Hfe−/− mice compared to sham mice. Conclusions Although sepsis, chronic iron dysregulation, and aging each increase gut and splenic apoptosis, their combination yields cell death levels similar to sham animals despite the fact that aged Hfe−/− mice are able to mount an inflammatory response following CLP and mature Hfe−/− mice have elevated sepsis-induced apoptosis. Combining sepsis with two risk factors that ordinarily increase cell death and increase mortality in CLP yields an apoptotic response that could not have been predicted based upon each element in isolation. PMID:15921699

  8. Cellular Oxidative Stress and the Control of Apoptosis by Wild-Type p53, Cytotoxic Compounds, and Cytokines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotem, Joseph; Peled-Kamar, Mira; Groner, Yoram; Sachs, Leo

    1996-08-01

    Apoptosis induced by wild-type p53 or cytotoxic compounds in myeloid leukemic cells can be inhibited by the cytokines interleukin 6, interleukin 3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interferon γ and by antioxidants. The antioxidants and cytokines showed a cooperative protective effect against induction of apoptosis. Cells with a higher sensitivity to induction of apoptosis and required a higher cytokine concentration to inhibit apoptosis. Decreasing the intrinsic oxidative stress in cells by antioxidants thus inhibited apoptosis, whereas increasing this intrinsic stress by adding H2O2 enhanced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 was not preceded by increased peroxide production or lipid peroxidation and the protective effect of cytokines was not associated with a decrease in these properties. The results indicate that the intrinsic degree of oxidative stress can regulate cell susceptibility to wild-type p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of apoptosis and the ability of cytokines to protect cells against apoptosis.

  9. An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17β level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

  10. Cystamine induces AIF-mediated apoptosis through glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Yup; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Ju, Mi-kyeong; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Lim, Jisun; Lee, Seungun; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Park, Hyun Ho; Choi, Kihang; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, In-Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Cystamine and its reduced form cysteamine showed protective effects in various models of neurodegenerative disease, including Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Other lines of evidence demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of cysteamine on duodenal mucosa leading to ulcer development. However, the mechanism for cystamine cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here, we report a new pathway in which cystamine induces apoptosis by targeting apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). By screening of various cell lines, we observed that cystamine and cysteamine induce cell death in a cell type-specific manner. Comparison between cystamine-sensitive and cystamine-resistant cell lines revealed that cystamine cytotoxicity is not associated with unfolded protein response, reactive oxygen species generation and transglutaminase or caspase activity; rather, it is associated with the ability of cystamine to trigger AIF nuclear translocation. In cystamine-sensitive cells, cystamine suppresses the levels of intracellular glutathione by inhibiting γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression that triggers AIF translocation. Conversely, glutathione supplementation completely prevents cystamine-induced AIF translocation and apoptosis. In rats, cysteamine administration induces glutathione depletion and AIF translocation leading to apoptosis of duodenal epithelium. These results indicate that AIF translocation through glutathione depletion is the molecular mechanism of cystamine toxicity, and provide important implications for cystamine in the neurodegenerative disease therapeutics as well as in the regulation of AIF-mediated cell death. PMID:25549939

  11. (+)-Catechin protects dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism underlying skin aging, as it triggers apoptosis in various cell types, including fibroblasts, which play important roles in the preservation of healthy, youthful skin. Catechins, which are antioxidants contained in green tea, exert various actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of (+)-catechin on apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in fibroblasts. Methods Fibroblasts (NIH3T3) under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM) were treated with either vehicle or (+)-catechin (0–100 μM). The effect of (+)-catechin on cell viability, apoptosis, phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinases (JNK) and p38, and activation of caspase-3 in fibroblasts under oxidative stress were evaluated. Results Hydrogen peroxide induced apoptotic cell death in fibroblasts, accompanied by induction of phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Pretreatment of the fibroblasts with (+)-catechin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and reduced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Conclusion (+)-Catechin protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. These results suggest that (+)-catechin has potential as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of skin aging. PMID:24712558

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid induces necrosis and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Holtsberg, F W; Steiner, M R; Keller, J N; Mark, R J; Mattson, M P; Steiner, S M

    1998-01-01

    A diverse body of evidence indicates a role for the lipid biomediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the CNS. This study identifies and characterizes the induction of neuronal death by LPA. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons from embryonic rat brains with 50 microM LPA resulted in neuronal necrosis, as determined morphologically and by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. A concentration of LPA as low as 10 microM led to the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In contrast, treatment of neurons with 0.1 or 1.0 microM LPA resulted in apoptosis, as determined by chromatin condensation. In addition, neuronal death induced by 1 microM LPA was characterized as apoptotic on the basis of terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, externalization of phosphatidylserine, and protection against chromatin condensation, TUNEL staining, and phosphatidylserine externalization by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases, i.e., members of the interleukin-1beta converting enzyme family. Studies with antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors did not indicate a significant role for these receptors in apoptosis induced by 1 microM LPA. LPA (1 microM) also induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, pretreatment of neurons with cyclosporin A protected against the LPA-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, LPA, at pathophysiological levels, can induce neuronal apoptosis and could thereby participate in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9422348

  13. Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Guadarrama-Solís, Adriana; Muñoz-Seca, Carmen; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the process of bleaching vital, discolored teeth, low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are effective alternatives to heat-activated 30% H2O2. However, interest has been expressed in the assessment of pathological effects of long-term exposure to bleaching agents such as irritation and ulceration of the gingival or other soft tissues. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide on apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid and caspase-3 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. HGF cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was both dose and time dependent. The addition of H2O2 resulted in the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and an increase of Caspase-3 cleavage. Data suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HGF is intrinsic pathway involved the release of apoptotic signal from mitochondria. PMID:26884825

  14. Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Guadarrama-Solís, Adriana; Muñoz-Seca, Carmen; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the process of bleaching vital, discolored teeth, low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are effective alternatives to heat-activated 30% H2O2. However, interest has been expressed in the assessment of pathological effects of long-term exposure to bleaching agents such as irritation and ulceration of the gingival or other soft tissues. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide on apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid and caspase-3 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. HGF cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was both dose and time dependent. The addition of H2O2 resulted in the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and an increase of Caspase-3 cleavage. Data suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HGF is intrinsic pathway involved the release of apoptotic signal from mitochondria. PMID:26884825

  15. Glutathione peroxidase-1 protects from CD95-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gouaze, Valerie; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Cuvillier, Olivier; Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Frisach, Marie-Francoise; Mirault, Marc-Edouard; Levade, Thierry

    2002-11-01

    Through the induction of apoptosis, CD95 plays a crucial role in the immune response and the elimination of cancer cells. Ligation of CD95 receptor activates a complex signaling network that appears to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the place of ROS production in CD95-mediated apoptosis and the role of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1). Anti-CD95 antibodies triggered an early generation of ROS in human breast cancer T47D cells that was blocked by overexpression of GPx1 and inhibition of initiator caspase activation. Enforced expression of GPx1 also resulted in inhibition of CD95-induced effector caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic cell death. Resistance to CD95-mediated apoptosis was not due to an increased expression of anti-apoptotic molecules and could be reversed by glutathione-depleting agents. In addition, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL prevented CD95-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, it did not inhibit the early ROS production. Moreover, Bcl-xL but not GPx1 overexpression could suppress the staurosporine-induced late generation of ROS and subsequent cell death. Altogether, these findings suggest that GPx1 functions upstream of the mitochondrial events to inhibit the early ROS production and apoptosis induced by CD95 ligation. Finally, transgenic mice overexpressing GPx1 were partially protected from the lethal effect of anti-CD95, underlying the importance of peroxide formation (and GPx1) in CD95-triggered apoptosis. PMID:12221075

  16. Taurine induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiali; Lu, Hongfei; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Chunju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zheng, Shuangyan; Wan, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Taurine (Tau), the most abundant free amino acid in humans has numerous potential health benefits through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, limited studies have assessed its effect on tumors and the antitumor mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the cellular and molecular changes induced by Tau, leading to the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 is p53 proficient (p53+/+) and MDA-MB-231 is a p53 null mutant (p53-/-). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by MTT. Flow cytometry and hoechst33342 fluorescent staining were employed to detect apoptosis. Spectrophotometry was used to detect caspase-3 activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the levels of mRNA and proteins of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax and Bcl-2. Finally, the affect of Tau on the growth of MDA-MB-231-cell-nude mice xenografts was examined. In the study, Tau inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of the two cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the inhibitory effect of Tau on p53-/- cancer cells was clearly significant compared to the p53+/+ cancer cells. Further studies showed that Tau promoted apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and inhibited the growth of tumor in nude mice by inducing the expression of PUMA, which further up- and downregulated the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein, giving rise to increased activation of caspase-3. Collectively, these results indicate that Tau is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of breast cancer through increasing the PUMA expression independent of p53 status. PMID:25395275

  17. MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Peng, Zhilan

    2013-03-01

    The balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is critical for normal development and for the maintenance of homeostasis in adult organisms. Disruption of this balance has been implicated in a large number of disease processes, ranging from autoimmunity and neurodegenerative disorders to cancer. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, responsible for mediating the majority of intracellular proteolysis, plays a crucial role in the regulation of many normal cellular processes, including the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Apoptosis in cancer cells is closely connected with the activity of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The peptide-aldehyde proteasome inhibitor MG132 (carbobenzoxyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine) induces the apoptosis of cells by a different intermediary pathway. Although the pathway of induction of apoptosis is different, it plays a crucial role in anti-tumor treatment. There are many cancer-related molecules in which the protein levels present in cells are regulated by a proteasomal pathway; for example, tumor inhibitors (P53, E2A, c-Myc, c-Jun, c-Fos), transcription factors (transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B, IκBα, HIFI, YYI, ICER), cell cycle proteins (cyclin A and B, P27, P21, IAP1/3), MG132 induces cell apoptosis through formation of reactive oxygen species or the upregulation and downregulation of these factors, which is ultimately dependent upon the activation of the caspase family of cysteine proteases. In this article we review the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in order to provide information required for research. PMID:22897979

  18. Salmonella typhimurium Invasion Induces Apoptosis in Infected Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monack, Denise M.; Raupach, Barbel; Hromockyj, Alexander E.; Falkow, Stanley

    1996-09-01

    Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail to induce apoptosis. The activation state of the macrophage plays a significant role in the response of macrophages to Salmonella invasion, perhaps indicating that the signal or receptor for initiating programmed cell death is upregulated in activated macrophages. The ability of Salmonella to promote apoptosis may be important for the initiation of infection, bacterial survival, and escape of the host immune response.

  19. Sustained adenosine exposure causes lung endothelial apoptosis: a possible contributor to cigarette smoke-induced endothelial apoptosis and lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Sakhatskyy, Pavlo; Newton, Julie; Shamirian, Paul; Hsiao, Vivian; Curren, Sean; Gabino Miranda, Gustavo Andres; Pedroza, Mesias; Blackburn, Michael R.; Rounds, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Cigarette smoke (CS) causes lung EC apoptosis and emphysema. In this study, we show that CS exposure increased lung tissue adenosine levels in mice, an effect associated with increased lung EC apoptosis and the development of emphysema. Adenosine has a protective effect against apoptosis via adenosine receptor-mediated signaling. However, sustained elevated adenosine increases alveolar cell apoptosis in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. We established an in vitro model of sustained adenosine exposure by incubating lung EC with adenosine in the presence of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, deoxycoformicin. We demonstrated that sustained adenosine exposure caused lung EC apoptosis via nucleoside transporter-facilitated intracellular adenosine uptake, subsequent activation of p38 and JNK in mitochondria, and ultimately mitochondrial defects and activation of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Our results suggest that sustained elevated adenosine may contribute to CS-induced lung EC apoptosis and emphysema. Our data also reconcile the paradoxical effects of adenosine on apoptosis, demonstrating that prolonged exposure causes apoptosis via nucleoside transporter-mediated intracellular adenosine signaling, whereas acute exposure protects against apoptosis via activation of adenosine receptors. Inhibition of adenosine uptake may become a new therapeutic target in treatment of CS-induced lung diseases. PMID:23316066

  20. Chemotherapeutic-Induced Apoptosis – A Phenotype for Pharmacogenomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yujia; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Wheeler, Heather E.; Ziliak, Dana M.; Huang, R. Stephanie; Dolan, M. Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Lymphoblastoid cell lines have been used as a model system to identify genetic determinants of chemotherapeutic-induced cytotoxicity, a phenotype thought to represent cellular sensitivity to drug. However, cytotoxicity is a broad measurement encompassing cell cycle inhibition as well as cell death (apoptotic and non-apoptotic). We evaluated caspase 3/7 mediated cellular apoptosis with six chemotherapeutic agents: 5′-deoxy-fluorouridine, pemetrexed, cytarabine, paclitaxel, carboplatin and cisplatin. Using monozygotic twin pair and sibling pair lymphoblastoid cell lines, we identified conditions for measurement of caspase activity. Although treatment with 5′-deoxy-fluorouridine and pemetrexed for up to 24 h did not result in significant apoptosis or inter-individual variation in caspase dependent cell death; paclitaxel, cisplatin, carboplain and cytarabine treatment for 24 h resulted in 9.4, 9.1, 7.0 and 6.0 fold increases in apoptosis relative to control, respectively. There was a weak correlation between caspase activity and cytotoxicity (r2=0.03 to 0.29) demonstrating that cytotoxicity and apoptosis are two distinct phenotypes that may produce independent genetic associations. Estimated heritability (h2) for apoptosis was 0.57 and 0.29 for cytarabine (5 μM and 40 μM respectively), 0.22 for paclitaxel (12.5 nM), and 0.34 for cisplatin (5 μM). The HapMap CEU panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines (n = 77) were evaluated for sensitivity to cisplatin followed by genome wide association studies with over 2 million SNPs at p < 0.001. We identified a significant enrichment of cisplatin-induced apoptosis SNPs within the significant cisplatin induced cytotoxicity SNPs and an enrichment of expression quantitative trait loci. PMID:21642893

  1. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 µM capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Apoptosis of Astrocytes: Therapeutic Intervention by Minocycline.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpita; Patro, Nisha; Patro, Ishan K

    2016-05-01

    Astrocytes are most abundant glial cell type in the brain and play a main defensive role in central nervous system against glutamate-induced toxicity by virtue of numerous transporters residing in their membranes and an astrocyte-specific enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). In view of that, a dysregulation in the astrocytic activity following an insult may result in glutamate-mediated toxicity accompanied with astrocyte and microglial activation. The present study suggests that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation results in significant astrocytic apoptosis compared to other cell types in hippocampus and minocycline could not efficiently restrict the glutamate-mediated toxicity and apoptosis of astrocytes. Upon LPS exposure 76 % astrocytes undergo degeneration followed by 44 % oligodendrocytes, 26 % neurons and 10 % microglia. The pronounced astrocytic apoptosis resulted from the LPS-induced glutamate excitotoxicity leading to their hyperactivation as evident from their hypertrophied morphology, glutamate transporter 1 upregulation and downregulation of GS. Therapeutic minocycline treatment to LPS-infused rats efficiently restricted the inflammatory response and degeneration of other cell types but could not significantly combat with the apoptosis of astrocytes. Our study demonstrates a novel finding on cellular degeneration in the hippocampus revealing more of astrocytic death and suggests a more careful consideration on the protective efficacy of minocycline. PMID:26188416

  3. Phytoconstituents as apoptosis inducing agents: strategy to combat cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Subodh; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2016-08-01

    Advancement in the field of cancer molecular biology has aided researchers to develop various new chemopreventive agents which can target cancer cells exclusively. Cancer chemopreventive agents have proficiency to inhibit, reverse and delay process of carcinogenesis during its early and later course. Chemopreventive agents can act as antioxidative, antimutagenic/antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory agents or via aiming various molecular targets in a cell to induce cell death. Apoptosis is a kind of cell death which shows various cellular morphological alterations such as cell shrinkage, blebbing of membrane, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies etc. Nowadays, apoptosis is being one of the new approaches for the identification and development of novel anticancer therapies. For centuries, plants are known to play part in daily routine from providing food to management of human health. In the last two decades, diverse phytochemicals and various botanical formulations have been characterized as agents that possess potential to execute cancer cells via inducing apoptosis. Data obtained from the research carried out globally pointed out that natural products are the potential candidates which have capability to combat cancer. In the present review, we surveyed literature on natural products which throws light on the mechanism through which these phytochemicals induce apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:26239338

  4. Determinants of PDT-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Luo, Yu; Kim, Hyeong-Reh C.

    2000-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy can initiate cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Using agents with known patterns of sub-cellular localization, we examined the correlation between sites of photodamage and the mode of cell death, using murine leukemia cells in vitro. Mitochondrial or mitochondrial/lysosomal photodamage caused the rapid release of cytochrome c. This effect was not temperature sensitive, and could be demonstrated immediately after irradiation of photosensitized cells at 10 degrees C. Subsequent warming to 37 degrees C led to a rapid apoptotic response, consistent with the known ability of cytochrome c to trigger the activation of caspase-3. In contrast, lysosomal or lysosomal/membrane photodamage resulted in the release of cathepsins and other proteolytic enzymes. A subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in mitochondrial degradation, leading to loss of cytochrome c within 30 min. The apoptotic response was both delayed and incomplete, with many dead cells not exhibiting an apoptotic morphology. The latter outcome was traced to photodamage to procaspase-3, an effect not observed with sensitizers that caused mainly mitochondrial photodamage. Studies in a cell-free system demonstrated that agents with lysosomal and/or membrane targets could bring about photoinactivation of caspase-3. These result are consistent with the proposal that photodynamic therapy can both activate and inactivate components of the apoptotic process.

  5. Plasma-activated medium induced apoptosis on tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kano, Hiroyuki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2013-09-01

    The non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) has attracted attention in cancer therapy. In this study, the fresh medium was treated with our developed NEAPP, ultra-high electron density (approximately 2 × 1016 cm-3). The medium called the plasma-activated medium (PAM) killed not normal cells but tumor cells through induction of apoptosis. Cell proliferation assays showed that the tumor cells were selectively killed by the PAM. Those cells induced apoptosis using an apoptotic molecular marker, cleaved Caspase3/7. The molecular mechanisms of PAM-mediated apoptosis in the tumor cells were also found that the PAM downregulated the expression of AKT kinase, a marker molecule in a survival signal transduction pathway. These results suggest that PAM may be a promising tool for tumor therapy by downregulating the survival signals in cancers.

  6. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Particle Ration Induced Apoptosis in Lymphocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yufang

    Space radiation, composed of high-energy charged nuclei (HZE particles) and protons, has been previously shown to severely impact immune homeostasis in mice. To determine the molecular mechanisms that mediate acute lymphocyte depletion following exposure to HZE particle radiation mice were exposed to particle radiation beams at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We found that mice given whole body 5 6Fe particle irradiation (1GeV /n) had dose-dependent losses in total lymphocyte numbers in the spleen and thymus (using 200, 100 and 50 cGy), with thymocytes being more sensitive than splenocytes. All phenotypic subsets were reduced in number. In general, T cells and B cells were equally sensitive, while CD8+ T cells were more senstive than CD4+ T cells. In the thymus, immature CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes were exquisitely sensitive to radiation-induced losses, single-positive CD4 or CD8 cells were less sensitive, and the least mature double negative cells were resistant. Irradiation of mice deficient in genes encoding essential apoptosis-inducing proteins revealed that the mechanism of lymphocyte depletion is independent of Fas ligand and TRAIL (TNF-ralated apoptosis-inducing ligand), in contrast to γ-radiation-induced lymphocyte losses which require the Fas-FasL pathway. Using inhibitors in vitro, lymphocyte apoptosis induced by HZE particle radiation was found to be caspase dependent, and not involve nitric oxide or oxygen free radicals.

  8. Hypoxia-activated apoptosis of cardiac myocytes requires reoxygenation or a pH shift and is independent of p53

    PubMed Central

    Bishopric, Nanette H.; Discher, Daryl J.; Kaiser, Shari; Hernandez, Olga; Sato, Barbara; Zang, Jie; Webster, Keith A.

    1999-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion activate cardiac myocyte apoptosis, which may be an important feature in the progression of ischemic heart disease. The relative contributions of ischemia and reperfusion to apoptotic signal transduction have not been established. We report here that severe chronic hypoxia alone does not cause apoptosis of cardiac myocytes in culture. When rapidly contracting cardiac myocytes were exposed to chronic hypoxia, apoptosis occurred only when there was a decrease in extracellular pH ([pH]o). Apoptosis did not occur when [pH]o was neutralized. Addition of acidic medium from hypoxic cultures or exogenous lactic acid stimulated apoptosis in aerobic myocytes. Hypoxia-acidosis–mediated cell death was independent of p53: equivalent apoptosis occurred in cardiac myocytes isolated from wild-type and p53 knockout mice, and hypoxia caused no detectable change in p53 abundance or p53-dependent transcription. Reoxygenation of hypoxic cardiac myocytes induced apoptosis in 25–30% of the cells and was also independent of p53 by the same criteria. Finally, equivalent levels of apoptosis, as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, were induced by ischemia-reperfusion, but not by ischemia alone, of Langendorff-perfused hearts from wild-type and p53 knockout mice. We conclude that acidosis, reoxygenation, and reperfusion, but not hypoxia (or ischemia) alone, are strong stimuli for programmed cell death that is substantially independent of p53. J. Clin. Invest. 104:239–252 (1999). PMID:10430605

  9. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer. PMID:25364657

  10. Herbal medicine as inducers of apoptosis in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer. PMID:25364657