Science.gov

Sample records for inducing savant skills

  1. Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan

    2009-05-27

    I argue that savant skills are latent in us all. My hypothesis is that savants have privileged access to lower level, less-processed information, before it is packaged into holistic concepts and meaningful labels. Owing to a failure in top-down inhibition, they can tap into information that exists in all of our brains, but is normally beyond conscious awareness. This suggests why savant skills might arise spontaneously in otherwise normal people, and why such skills might be artificially induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. It also suggests why autistic savants are atypically literal with a tendency to concentrate more on the parts than on the whole and why this offers advantages for particular classes of problem solving, such as those that necessitate breaking cognitive mindsets. A strategy of building from the parts to the whole could form the basis for the so-called autistic genius. Unlike the healthy mind, which has inbuilt expectations of the world (internal order), the autistic mind must simplify the world by adopting strict routines (external order). PMID:19528023

  2. Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Allan

    2009-01-01

    I argue that savant skills are latent in us all. My hypothesis is that savants have privileged access to lower level, less-processed information, before it is packaged into holistic concepts and meaningful labels. Owing to a failure in top-down inhibition, they can tap into information that exists in all of our brains, but is normally beyond conscious awareness. This suggests why savant skills might arise spontaneously in otherwise normal people, and why such skills might be artificially induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. It also suggests why autistic savants are atypically literal with a tendency to concentrate more on the parts than on the whole and why this offers advantages for particular classes of problem solving, such as those that necessitate breaking cognitive mindsets. A strategy of building from the parts to the whole could form the basis for the so-called autistic genius. Unlike the healthy mind, which has inbuilt expectations of the world (internal order), the autistic mind must simplify the world by adopting strict routines (external order). PMID:19528023

  3. The Skills and Methods of Calendrical Savants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Richard; O'Connor, Neil; Samella, Katerina

    2003-01-01

    Proposed three criteria to distinguish calendrical savants whose skills depend on memory from those who calculate and applied these to 10 calendrical savants. Results are discussed in relation to views that calendrical savants imply the existence of a modular mathematical intelligence or unconscious integer arithmetic. (SLD)

  4. Savant skills in autism: psychometric approaches and parental reports

    PubMed Central

    Howlin, Patricia; Goode, Susan; Hutton, Jane; Rutter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations of savant skills in autism are based on individual case reports. The present study investigated rates and types of savant skills in 137 individuals with autism (mean age 24 years). Intellectual ability ranged from severe intellectual impairment to superior functioning. Savant skills were judged from parental reports and specified as ‘an outstanding skill/knowledge clearly above participant's general level of ability and above the population norm’. A comparable definition of exceptional cognitive skills was applied to Wechsler test scores—requiring a subtest score at least 1 standard deviation above general population norms and 2 standard deviations above the participant's own mean subtest score. Thirty-nine participants (28.5%) met criteria for either a savant skill or an exceptional cognitive skill: 15 for an outstanding cognitive skill (most commonly block design); 16 for a savant skill based on parental report (mostly mathematical/calculating abilities); 8 met criteria for both a cognitive and parental rated savant skill. One-third of males showed some form of outstanding ability compared with 19 per cent of females. No individual with a non-verbal IQ below 50 met criteria for a savant skill and, contrary to some earlier hypotheses, there was no indication that individuals with higher rates of stereotyped behaviours/interests were more likely to demonstrate savant skills. PMID:19528018

  5. The savant syndrome: intellectual impairment and exceptional skill.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1999-01-01

    Occasionally, people with developmental disability display skills at a level inconsistent with their general intellectual functioning, so-called "savant" behavior. Studies of savant behavior are reviewed to determine their relevance to notions about the importance of general intellective functions in the development of exceptional skill. It is concluded that (a) the skill exhibited by savants shares many characteristics with that in people without disability, (b) the skill is usually accompanied by normative levels of performance on at least some subtests of standardized measures of cognitive achievement, and (c) it is unclear whether savants have distinctive cognitive strengths or motivational dispositions, though their relative prevalence among people with certain kinds of disability suggests predisposing constraints. The author proposes that these skills typically reflect highly elaborated preconceptual representational systems. PMID:9990844

  6. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-05-27

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed. PMID:19528029

  7. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed. PMID:19528029

  8. Neuropsychological Studies of Savant Skills: Can They Inform the Neuroscience of Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A selective review of past and present neuropsychological research on savant skills is highlighted, including both empirical findings and theoretical accounts. Results from this research are then compared to extant results within the giftedness literature. Three major conclusions are taken from this review of the research: (a) savant skills are…

  9. Can the existence of highly accessible concrete representations explain savant skills? Some insights from synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Murray, A Louise

    2010-06-01

    The present review argues that the reification of abstract concepts provides a psychological mediating mechanism for calendar and lightning calculation and possibly even all savant skills. The argument, which draws heavily on the synaesthesia literature has two main strands. First, there is anecdotal evidence for the presence and utilisation of highly accessible concrete representations of abstract concepts in savants. Second, synaesthetes who possess these structures experience cognitive benefits in the same domain. The present review concludes that the putative mechanism discussed here is plausible and has some empirical support, however, is in need of further testing. A number of ways in which to proceed in this task are suggested. PMID:20149553

  10. Calendrical Savants: Exceptionality and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Richard; Carney, Daniel P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The exceptionality of the skills of calendrical savants and the role of practice were investigated. Experiment 1 compared four autistic calendrical savants to Professor Conway, a distinguished mathematician with calendrical skills. Professor Conway answered questions over a greater range of years but some savants knew more calendrical…

  11. Savant-like skills exposed in normal people by suppressing the left fronto-temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan W; Mulcahy, Elaine; Taylor, Janet L; Mitchell, D John; Sachdev, Perminder; Gandevia, Simon C

    2003-12-01

    The astonishing skills of savants have been suggested to be latent in everyone, but are not normally accessible without a rare form of brain impairment. We attempted to simulate such brain impairment in healthy people by directing low-frequency magnetic pulses into the left fronto-temporal lobe. Significant stylistic changes in drawing were facilitated by the magnetic pulses in four of our 11 participants. Some of these "facilitated" participants also displayed enhanced proofreading ability. Our conclusions are derived from 11 right-handed male university students, eight of whom underwent placebo stimulation. We examined performance before, during and after exposure to the stimulation. PMID:15011267

  12. Calendrical savants: exceptionality and practice.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Richard; Carney, Daniel P J

    2006-06-01

    The exceptionality of the skills of calendrical savants and the role of practice were investigated. Experiment 1 compared four autistic calendrical savants to Professor Conway, a distinguished mathematician with calendrical skills. Professor Conway answered questions over a greater range of years but some savants knew more calendrical regularities. Experiment 2 studied the development of a calendrical savant's ability to answer date questions for very remote future years. He started by making written calculations and progressed to mental calculation. His variation in response time for remote dates was similar to that for near dates. The findings are consistent with the view that calendrical savants develop their skills through practice. PMID:16157326

  13. Savant Syndrome: Realities, Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffert, Darold A.

    2014-01-01

    It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50% of cases of savant syndrome have autism…

  14. Savant-like numerosity skills revealed in normal people by magnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan; Bahramali, Homayoun; Hawker, Tobias; Mitchell, D John

    2006-01-01

    Oliver Sacks observed autistic twins who instantly guessed the exact number of matchsticks that had just fallen on the floor, saying in unison "111". To test the suggestion that normal individuals have the capacity for savant numerosity, we temporarily simulated the savant condition in normal people by inhibiting the left anterior temporal lobe of twelve participants with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This site has been implicated in the savant condition. Ten participants improved their ability to accurately guess the number of discrete items immediately following rTMS and, of these, eight became worse at guessing as the effects of the pulses receded. The probability of as many as eight out of twelve people doing best just after rTMS and not after sham stimulation by chance alone is less than one in one thousand. PMID:16836048

  15. Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants.

    PubMed

    Casey, B J; Gordon, C T; Mannheim, G B; Rumsey, J M

    1993-11-01

    A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not differ on a measure of visual sustained attention. Second, the savants failed to detect rare auditory targets significantly more than did the controls. Third, the savants were unable to efficiently divide their attention when required to detect both visual and auditory targets simultaneously. Finally, deficient orienting or a deficit in shifting selective attention from one stimulus location to another was evidenced in overall slower reaction times for the savants across tasks requiring shifts and redirecting of attention. This deficit was attributed to an inability to disengage attention as a result of deficient orienting and overselectivity. PMID:8120129

  16. An idiot savant calendrical calculator with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: implications for an understanding of the savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, J; Ring, H A; Robertson, M M

    1993-11-01

    We describe the existence of the savant syndrome in association with Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS). The presentation of savant abilities is typical of that previously described. Similarities between autism, the disorder most characteristically associated with savants, and GTS in terms of obsessionality are noted. Previously reported psychological studies of autistic savants are briefly reviewed and, together with evidence from neuroimaging in GTS, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and autism, used to support a model of the underpinnings of savant skills. PMID:8134504

  17. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  18. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation. PMID:18311109

  19. Savant talent.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda

    2005-07-01

    The notion of talent is an elusive concept but there appears to be sound evidence that both savants and experts share important qualities. Brief descriptive accounts of the talents displayed by savants are presented, along with a discussion of intelligence, implicit learning, and the organization of knowledge. Cognitive theories helpful in understanding exceptional abilities in people with autism are also discussed. It is concluded that a certain cognitive style, i.e. weak coherence, may predispose individuals to develop their talents. Although it would be interesting to speculate that some great artists and mathematicians show a similar degree of obsessive preoccupation and a cognitive style reminiscent of autistic spectrum disorder, presumably as a strategic mechanism, there is, as yet, little research on the subject. PMID:15991873

  20. Savant syndrome: realities, myths and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A

    2014-03-01

    It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place. PMID:23918440

  1. Intelligence and Savant Syndrome: Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of the Fragments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettelbeck, Ted; Young, Robyn

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that skills displayed by savants are not intelligent and that H. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences fails by overstating the relevance of savant skills and because it disregards research evidence for a general factor. Intelligence theory must compile a structure that accounts for savant skills and intelligence. (SLD)

  2. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  3. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  4. The Savant Syndrome Registry: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A; Rebedew, David L

    2015-08-01

    A registry has been established to document certain characteristics on a sizeable worldwide sample of individuals with savant syndrome, a rare but remarkable condition in which persons with developmental disabilities, brain injury, or brain disease have some spectacular "islands" of skill or ability that stand in jarring, marked contrast to overall handicap. Of the 319 savants included in the registry, 90% are congenital savants, while 10% are acquired savants. The registry includes individuals from 33 countries, with 70% from the United States or Canada. Sex distribution was 79% male vs. 21% female (4:1). This report summarizes the findings in the congenital savant syndrome category of the registry. Among the individuals with congenital savant syndrome, the most common underlying disability was Autistic Spectrum Disorder (75%); various other central nervous system (CNS) disorders were present in the other 25%. Fifty-five percent possessed a single special skill, while 45% had multiple skills. Music was the most frequent principal skill followed by art, memory, mathematics, calendar calculating, language, visual-spatial/mechanical, athletic, computer, extrasensory perception, and other skills. PMID:26436185

  5. Brief Report: Implications of Hyperlexia in an Autistic Savant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.; Lupinetti, Laura

    1993-01-01

    This case study presents a female young adult with autism who was discovered to be hyperlexic and possessing of savant abilities. The paper proposes that hyperlexia (highly developed word recognition skills but little or no comprehension of the words recognized) is a savant ability found in many autistic individuals with exceptional skills and not…

  6. Musical inventiveness of five idiots-savants.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; O'Connor, N; Lee, S

    1987-08-01

    Accounts of musical ability in idiots-savants have up till now been confined to stressing the astounding musical memory which such persons may possess. The present study investigates compositional and improvisational skills in five idiots-savants. The findings interpreted as indicating that a representational system of musical rules and structures is accessible to persons of low general intelligence, and that such a system may underlie reproductive as well as generative musical capacity. PMID:3628629

  7. Savant Syndrome: Case Studies, Hypotheses, and Implications for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Susan Klug; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The concept of savant syndrome, encompassing those individuals historically known as "idiot savants," is reviewed. Case studies demonstrating special abilities in the areas of calendar calculating, musical ability, artistic talent, memorization, mathematical skills, mechanical achievement, and fine sensory discrimination are discussed, as well as…

  8. Prime number identification in idiots savants: can they calculate them?

    PubMed

    Welling, H

    1994-04-01

    Several idiots savants who were able to identify prime numbers have been reported. This ability requires complex calculations, because no simple algorithms are known for determining primes. Many savants, however, who demonstrate this ability, do not possess the arithmetical skills to perform such calculations. Explanations offered for the feats of idiots savants are reviewed in the light of their applicability to the cases of prime identification. Existing models cannot fully explain prime number identification for savants with weak arithmetical skills. The author shows that through the natural tendency of visual perception to be organized symmetrically, a distinction between prime and nonprime numbers can be made. This process could both explain the origin of the interest and the ability to identify prime numbers in mathematically weak savants. PMID:8040161

  9. Musical Idiot Savants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry; DePue, Wallace

    1986-01-01

    Idiot savants are severely retarded persons who have some extraordinary ability. The musical abilities of several idiot savants are discussed. The identification and the direction to facilitate the growth of retarded students who are musically talented should be an important educational goal. (RM)

  10. The savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition. A synopsis: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A

    2009-05-27

    Savant syndrome is a rare, but extraordinary, condition in which persons with serious mental disabilities, including autistic disorder, have some 'island of genius' which stands in marked, incongruous contrast to overall handicap. As many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Whatever the particular savant skill, it is always linked to massive memory. This paper presents a brief review of the phenomenology of savant skills, the history of the concept and implications for education and future research. PMID:19528017

  11. The savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition. A synopsis: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    Treffert, Darold A.

    2009-01-01

    Savant syndrome is a rare, but extraordinary, condition in which persons with serious mental disabilities, including autistic disorder, have some ‘island of genius’ which stands in marked, incongruous contrast to overall handicap. As many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Whatever the particular savant skill, it is always linked to massive memory. This paper presents a brief review of the phenomenology of savant skills, the history of the concept and implications for education and future research. PMID:19528017

  12. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…

  13. Annotation: The Savant Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Whilst interest has focused on the origin and nature of the savant syndrome for over a century, it is only within the past two decades that empirical group studies have been carried out. Methods: The following annotation briefly reviews relevant research and also attempts to address outstanding issues in this research area.…

  14. The mind of the mnemonists: an MEG and neuropsychological study of autistic memory savants.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M; Braun, Christoph; Löw, Andreas; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-12-20

    About 10% of autistic individuals exhibit some form of islets of abilities in the face of serious intellectual or mental disability ("savant syndrome"). The aim of this study was to investigate brain mechanisms in a sample of autistic subjects with outstanding memory. We investigated seven mnemonist savants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and seven matched controls with 151-channel whole-head magnetencephalography in a continuous old-new paradigm. They were presented with 300 pseudowords and 300 shapes and had to indicate by button press, whether the presented stimulus had been shown before. Unexpectedly, mnemonist savants did not perform better than controls, but were outperformed in the recognition of pseudowords. Accordingly, event-related magnetic fields elicited by pseudowords showed widespread old-new effects in controls, but not in savants. A source analysis of its early components revealed right occipital activation in savants, but left parietal activation in controls. This might be related to a visual processing style in mnemonist savants that proved to be inefficient in this task. During the possibly familiarity-based recognition of shapes, there were earlier and more widespread bilateral old-new effects in mnemonist savants, what might reflect their experience with figural material. In a neuropsychological test battery, mnemonist savants performed comparably to autistic people without special memory skills. However, a different factor structure of these tests pointed to a different organization of memory in mnemonist savants compared to controls that is characterized by its relative independence of general intelligence. PMID:20637245

  15. Idiot savants: rate of incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, A L

    1977-02-01

    Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586

  16. Savants, segments, art and autism.

    PubMed

    Pring, L; Hermelin, B; Heavey, L

    1995-09-01

    This study describes two experiments which investigate pattern construction by graphically gifted, autistic savants. We explore whether the notion of weak central coherence in autism might be extended to account for the relatively high frequency of savants among the autistic population. We also suggest that an awareness of constituent segments in wholes may be relevant to artistic talent in general. PMID:7593399

  17. The savant syndrome and its possible relationship to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to review the Savant syndrome (SS), characterized by outstanding islands of mental ability in otherwise handicapped individuals. Two forms exist: The congenital and acquired form. Among the many examples of the congenital form are the calendar calculators, who can quickly provide the day of the week for any date in the past. Other examples are the musical savants with perfect pitch and the hyperlexics, who (in one case) can read a page in 8 seconds and recall the text later at a 99% level. Other types of talents and artistic skills can be found, involving 3-D drawing, map memory, poetry, painting, sculpturing, including one savant who could recite without error the value of Pi to 22,514 places. The acquired form refers to the development of outstanding skills after some brain injury or disease, usually involving the left fronto-temporal area. This type of injury seems to inhibit the 'tyranny of the left hemisphere', allowing the right hemisphere to develop the savant skills. One other way to inhibit the left fronto-temporal area is to use transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal subjects and nearly one-half of these subjects can then perform new skills during the stimulation that they could not perform before. This type of finding indicates the potentiality in all of us for the development of savant skills under special circumstances. Explanations of the congenital SS include enhanced local connectivity as a compensation for underconnectivity of long-range fibers, but also weak central coherence, replaced by great attention to details, enhanced perceptual functioning and obsessive pre-occupation with specific interests. Neurodegenerative Diseases, edited by Shamim I. Ahmad. PMID:22411254

  18. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-05-27

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  19. Melody and pitch processing in five musical savants with congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Woolf, Katherine; Tadic, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    We examined absolute-pitch (AP) and short-term musical memory abilities of five musical savants with congenital blindness, seven musicians, and seven non-musicians with good vision and normal intelligence in two experiments. In the first, short-term memory for musical phrases was tested and the savants and musicians performed statistically indistinguishably, both significantly outperforming the non-musicians and remembering more material from the C major scale sequences than random trials. In the second experiment, participants learnt associations between four pitches and four objects using a non-verbal paradigm. This experiment approximates to testing AP ability. Low statistical power meant the savants were not statistically better than the musicians, although only the savants scored statistically higher than the non-musicians. The results are evidence for a musical module, separate from general intelligence; they also support the anecdotal reporting of AP in musical savants, which is thought to be necessary for the development of musical-savant skill. PMID:18456928

  20. Visual and graphic abilities of the idiot savant artist.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1987-02-01

    Five idiots savants whose artistic output was judged to be at art school entrance standard were matched for performance and verbal IQ with control subjects who had no special artistic talent. Each subject was given tests of reproductive skill with both concrete pictures and unfamiliar and unnameable geometric designs. They were also asked to draw a man, and a test of picture completion was given which involved constructive imagination. In all tests the idiots savants proved clearly superior to IQ-matched controls, indicating the presence of an IQ-independent talent. The results are interpreted in terms of a superior image memory and ready access to a 'picture lexicon'. In addition, the existence of superior graphically directed motor programmes must be assumed. PMID:3575580

  1. A review of Savant Syndrome and its possible relationship to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this article is to review Savant Syndrome, characterized by outstanding islands of mental ability in otherwise handicapped individuals. Two forms exist: the congenital form and the acquired form. Among the many examples of the congenital form are the calendar calculators, who can quickly provide the day of the week for any date in the past; the musical savants, who have perfect pitch; and the hyperlexics, who (in one case) can read a page in 8s and recall the text later at a 99% level. Other types of talents and artistic skills involving three-dimensional drawing, map memory, poetry, painting, and sculpturing are also observed. One savant could recite without error the value of Pi to 22,514 places. Persons with the acquired form develop outstanding skills after brain injury or disease, usually involving the left frontotemporal area. This type of injury seems to inhibit the "tyranny of the left hemisphere," allowing the right hemisphere to develop the savant skills. Another way to inhibit the left frontotemporal area is to use transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal subjects; nearly one-half of these subjects can then perform new skills during the stimulation that they could not perform before. This type of finding indicates the potential in all of us for the development of savant skills in special circumstances. Explanations of congenital Savant Syndrome include enhanced local connectivity as a compensation for underconnectivity of long-range fibers, but also weak central coherence, replaced by great attention to detail, enhanced perceptual functioning, and obsessive preoccupation with specific interests. PMID:20075011

  2. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior of idiots savants.

    PubMed

    Duckett, J

    1977-11-01

    A comparison was made of 25 institutionalized idiots savants and a control group of institutionalized retarded persons matched for age, sex, IQ, and length of institutionalization. As a group, idiots savants were found to be somewhat more disturbed and disturbing than their peers, although they did not show extreme emotional disturbance nor reflect a clear behavioral profile. PMID:930969

  3. Executive Functions in Savant Artists with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Hermelin, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Although executive functions have been widely studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there have been no direct empirical studies of executive abilities in savants with ASD. This study assessed three facets of executive ability (fluency, perseveration and monitoring) in savant artists with ASD, compared to non-talented adults…

  4. Idiots Savants: Can Retarded Individuals Be Gifted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    1990-01-01

    Literature concerning "idiots savants" is reviewed, and various theories and possible explanations are discussed, as are common areas of expertise and cognitive traits. Several case studies are used to illustrate the possible relationship between autism and idiots savants. Educational implications of these findings are considered. (Author/PB)

  5. Creativity in Savant Artists with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Crane, Laura; Hermelin, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display impairments in creativity, yet savant artists with ASD are reported to produce highly novel and original artistic outputs. To explore this paradox, we assessed nine savant artists with ASD, nine talented art students, nine non-artistically talented individuals with ASD, and nine…

  6. The Structure of Savant Calendrical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavey, Lisa; Hermelin, Beate; Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to explore the organization of the calendar knowledge base underlying date calculation by assessing the ability of savant calendar calculators to free recall a series of date lists. Method: Four experiments are reported that assessed recall of structural and non-structural features of the calendar in eight savant calendar calculators…

  7. What the Savant Syndrome Can Tell Us about the Nature and Nurture of Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has begun to illuminate the composition and development of exceptional skills in those with intellectual disability. I argue that this research is relevant to more general discussions of talent. First, it provides a special opportunity to deconstruct talent in different domains. Because savants typically lack the general…

  8. Talents and preoccupations in idiots-savants.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1991-11-01

    The question was asked whether a diagnosis of autism or a tendency to repetitive behaviour and preoccupation with a restricted area of interest, were crucial features of idiot-savant talents. Answers by caretakers to a questionnaire on these topics revealed that autistic and nonautistic savants resembled each other closely in preoccupation but differed from controls matched for IQ and diagnosis. In addition, the mentally handicapped showed fewer repetitive tendencies than did autistic controls. It is concluded that independent of diagnosis, preoccupations and repetitive behaviour appear to be closely associated with the manifestation of idiot-savant talents. PMID:1780408

  9. Creativity in savant artists with autism.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Crane, Laura; Hermelin, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display impairments in creativity, yet savant artists with ASD are reported to produce highly novel and original artistic outputs. To explore this paradox, we assessed nine savant artists with ASD, nine talented art students, nine non-artistically talented individuals with ASD, and nine individuals with mild/moderate learning difficulties (MLD) on tasks in and out of their domain of expertise. This was to ascertain whether the performance of the savant artists was related to their artistic ability, their diagnosis of ASD or their level of intellectual functioning. Results demonstrated that the responses of the art students were more creative (as assessed on measures of fluency, originality, elaboration, and flexibility) than the savant, ASD, and MLD groups on a drawing task. Although the savants did produce more elaborative responses than the ASD and MLD groups, no differences were observed on the other indices of creativity. On a non-drawing task, the savants produced more original outputs than the ASD and MLD groups (scoring similarly to the art students), but group differences were not observed on the other measures. PMID:21486898

  10. Savant officials in the Prussian mining administration.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Prussian State supported savants who combined learned inquiry into nature with technical work. Members of the physical and mathematical classes of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences were involved in State projects such as surveying for the construction of canals, chemical analysis of Silesian iron, production of porcelain and of beet sugar. Some of these men were truly 'hybrid' experts living both in the worlds of State-directed manufacture and academic natural inquiry. Among these savant experts there was a particular sub-group that is at the centre of this paper: mining officials who were also recognized as mineralogists, geologists and chemists. The paper describes and analyses the training and the varied technical and scientific activities of these 'savant officials'. At the centre of attention are the travels of inspection of the mineralogist and mining official Carl Abraham Gerhard (1738-1821) in the late 1760s. I argue that Gerhard's travels of inspection were at the same time geological travels and that savant officials like Gerhard made a significant contribution to the fledgling science of geology. PMID:23057217

  11. Visual and motor functions in graphically gifted savants.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; Pring, L; Heavey, L

    1994-08-01

    Savant artists represent a conundrum to our understanding of the nature of high level specific talents as well as to the concept of general intellectual impairment. In the present paper, we are particularly concerned with the relationship between general perceptual-motor functions in relation to drawing aptitude. Drawing is by definition a perceptual-motor operation, yet mental handicap tends to be associated with some degree of impairment in this area. The following study seeks to isolate such aspects of performance on general perceptual-motor skills that might be associated with drawing ability, and may thus be regarded as building blocks underlying the manifestation of graphic talent. The results are discussed in terms of the relationships between graphic talent, non-verbal intelligence and visual-motor functions. PMID:7991749

  12. Atypical memory performance in an autistic savant.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S; Stip, E; Morasse, K

    1998-11-01

    This study explored the mechanisms underlying the hypermnesia of an autistic savant (NM) through three experiments. The first two served to assess whether absence of interference was responsible for NM's exceptional list memory. The third investigated the type of cues used in recall. Results indicated absence of retroactive interference but presence of slight proactive interference in list recall of proper names. Normal interference effects were found, however, in list recall of common nouns. Exceptional performance was also demonstrated in a missing-name task involving spatial and verbal recall cues. The findings suggest that the outstanding episodic memory presented by some savant persons with autism might be related to an abnormally high resistance to interference. PMID:10320865

  13. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  14. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and ‘weak’ central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  15. The Development of Calendrical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Richard; Stainthorp, Rhonda; Kapnogianni, Stainthorp; Anastasiou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Calendrical calculation is the unusual ability to name days of the week for dates in the past and sometimes the future. Previous investigations of this skill have concerned savants, people with pervasive developmental disorders or general intellectual impairment. This research has yielded a hypothesis about how calendrical skills develop but no…

  16. Astrocyte mega-domain hypothesis of the autistic savantism.

    PubMed

    Mitterauer, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism who show high abilities are called savants. Whereas in their brains a disconnection in and between neural networks has been identified, savantism is yet poorly understood. Focusing on astrocyte domain organization, it is hypothesized that local astrocyte mega-organizations may be responsible for exerting high capabilities in brains of autistic savants. Astrocytes, the dominant glial cell type, modulate synaptic information transmission. Each astrocyte is organized in non-overlapping domains. Formally, each astrocyte contacting n-neurons with m-synapses via its processes generates dynamic domains of synaptic interactions based on qualitative computation criteria, and hereby it structures neuronal information processing. If the number of processes is genetically significantly increased, these astrocytes operate in a mega-domain with a higher complexitiy of computation. From this model savant abilities are deduced. PMID:23098371

  17. Savant: genome browser for high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Fiume, Marc; Williams, Vanessa; Brook, Andrew; Brudno, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies has made it affordable to sequence many individuals' genomes. Simultaneously the computational analysis of the large volumes of data generated by the new sequencing machines remains a challenge. While a plethora of tools are available to map the resulting reads to a reference genome, and to conduct primary analysis of the mappings, it is often necessary to visually examine the results and underlying data to confirm predictions and understand the functional effects, especially in the context of other datasets. Results: We introduce Savant, the Sequence Annotation, Visualization and ANalysis Tool, a desktop visualization and analysis browser for genomic data. Savant was developed for visualizing and analyzing HTS data, with special care taken to enable dynamic visualization in the presence of gigabases of genomic reads and references the size of the human genome. Savant supports the visualization of genome-based sequence, point, interval and continuous datasets, and multiple visualization modes that enable easy identification of genomic variants (including single nucleotide polymorphisms, structural and copy number variants), and functional genomic information (e.g. peaks in ChIP-seq data) in the context of genomic annotations. Availability: Savant is freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/savant Contact: savant@cs.toronto.edu PMID:20562449

  18. Solar Array Verification Analysis Tool (SAVANT) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Long, KIenwyn J.; Curtis, Henry B.; Gardner, Barbara; Davis, Victoria; Messenger, Scott; Walters, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Modeling solar cell performance for a specific radiation environment to obtain the end-of-life photovoltaic array performance has become both increasingly important and, with the rapid advent of new types of cell technology, more difficult. For large constellations of satellites, a few percent difference in the lifetime prediction can have an enormous economic impact. The tool described here automates the assessment of solar array on-orbit end-of-life performance and assists in the development and design of ground test protocols for different solar cell designs. Once established, these protocols can be used to calculate on-orbit end-of-life performance from ground test results. The Solar Array Verification Analysis Tool (SAVANT) utilizes the radiation environment from the Environment Work Bench (EWB) model developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center s Photovoltaic and Space Environmental Effects Branch in conjunction with Maxwell Technologies. It then modifies and combines this information with the displacement damage model proposed by Summers et al. (ref. 1) of the Naval Research Laboratory to determine solar cell performance during the course of a given mission. The resulting predictions can then be compared with flight data. The Environment WorkBench (ref. 2) uses the NASA AE8 (electron) and AP8 (proton) models of the radiation belts to calculate the trapped radiation flux. These fluxes are integrated over the defined spacecraft orbit for the duration of the mission to obtain the total omnidirectional fluence spectra. Components such as the solar cell coverglass, adhesive, and antireflective coatings can slow and attenuate the particle fluence reaching the solar cell. In SAVANT, a continuous slowing down approximation is used to model this effect.

  19. A case of variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C accompanying savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Mio; Jingami, Naoto; Uemura, Kengo; Nakasone, Naoe; Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-06-22

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The diagnosis of adulthood onset NPC is difficult and challenging, especially for neurologists, because the symptoms and signs are not as clear as those in the classical childhood onset NPC and this subtype is not yet widely known. However, the diagnosis can be made by a combination of filipin staining of fibroblast and/or gene analysis. As a disease-specific therapy for NPC has been approved in Japan, the diagnosis of NPC is of significance. PMID:27181747

  20. A Calendar Savant with Episodic Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Berryhill, Marian E.; Drowos, David B.; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures as well as retaining some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient’s memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable. PMID:20104390

  1. Switching skills on by turning off part of the brain.

    PubMed

    Young, Robyn L; Ridding, Michael C; Morrell, Tracy L

    2004-06-01

    Snyder and Mitchell (1999) have argued that the extraordinary skills of savants, including mathematics and drawing, are within us all but cannot normally be accessed without some form of brain damage. It has also been argued that such skills can be made accessible to normal people by switching off part of their brain artificially using magnetic pulses (Carter, 1999). Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to interrupt the function of the frontotemporal lobe, a region of the brain implicated in the development of savant skills (Miller et al., 1996,1998), we tested this hypothesis. Here we show that savant-type skills improved in 5 out of 17 participants during the period of stimulation. The enhanced skills included declarative memory, drawing, mathematics, and calendar calculating. In addition to overall improvement being observed, striking improvements in individual performance on various tasks were also seen. PMID:15788259

  2. The Abilities of a Musical Savant and His Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R. L.; Nettelbeck, T.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of a 12-year-old autistic musical savant revealed that the boy had idiosyncratic levels of cognitive functioning and perfect pitch recognition. His ability to recall and perform musical pieces after listening to a tape recording were found to be exceptional, but dependent upon his familiarity with musical structure and therefore…

  3. Developmental and Psychological Aspects of the Savant Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review examines the psychological aspects of the savant syndrome in people with intellectual disabilities, focusing on the means by which such abilities as calendar calculation are accomplished and highlighting variables (such as intense motivation in one area) postulated as important for development of the syndrome. (Author/DB)

  4. Numbers and letters: exploring an autistic savant's unpracticed ability.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Hermelin, Beate

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an individual with autism and high-level calendar calculation ability who could perform a set of unpracticed letter/number association tasks. The savant's performance was compared with that of two control participants, one a departmental secretary and the other a professor of mathematics. The facility with which the savant could master the rules governing the relationships between the series of items suggests that he possessed a flexibility of mental processing transcending his ability of calendar calculation. Furthermore, he could recalibrate previous knowledge to solve new hitherto unpracticed tasks. When presented with novel problems, the savant, unlike the mathematician, made no initial errors at all on any of the presented tasks, thereby indicating his fast and spontaneous recognition of new rules and of new relationships between items. It is concluded that a cognitive style of 'weak central coherence' as adopted by autistic savants may protect single representations from being retained in the form of stable enduring wholes, and that such a segmentation strategy may allow for the transformation, reorganization and reconstruction of the relationship between single items of information. PMID:12221146

  5. An analysis of calendar performance in two autistic calendar savants.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Daniel P; Squire, Larry R

    2007-08-01

    We acquired large data sets of calendar performance from two autistic calendar savants, DG and RN. An analysis of their errors and reaction times revealed that (1) both individuals had knowledge of calendar information from a limited range of years; (2) there was no evidence for the use of memorized anchor dates that could, by virtue of counting away from the anchors, allow correct responses to questions about other dates; and (3) the two individuals differed in their calendar knowledge, as well as in their ability to perform secondary tasks in which calendar knowledge was assessed indirectly. In view of the fact that there are only 14 possible annual calendars, we suggest that both savants worked by memorizing these 14 possible calendar arrangements. PMID:17686947

  6. Enhanced perception in savant syndrome: patterns, structure and creativity.

    PubMed

    Mottron, Laurent; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2009-05-27

    According to the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) model, autistic perception is characterized by: enhanced low-level operations; locally oriented processing as a default setting; greater activation of perceptual areas during a range of visuospatial, language, working memory or reasoning tasks; autonomy towards higher processes; and superior involvement in intelligence. EPF has been useful in accounting for autistic relative peaks of ability in the visual and auditory modalities. However, the role played by atypical perceptual mechanisms in the emergence and character of savant abilities remains underdeveloped. We now propose that enhanced detection of patterns, including similarity within and among patterns, is one of the mechanisms responsible for operations on human codes, a type of material with which savants show particular facility. This mechanism would favour an orientation towards material possessing the highest level of internal structure, through the implicit detection of within- and between-code isomorphisms. A second mechanism, related to but exceeding the existing concept of redintegration, involves completion, or filling-in, of missing information in memorized or perceived units or structures. In the context of autistics' enhanced perception, the nature and extent of these two mechanisms, and their possible contribution to the creativity evident in savant performance, are explored. PMID:19528021

  7. SAVANT: Solar Array Verification and Analysis Tool Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chock, Ricaurte

    2000-01-01

    The photovoltaics (PV) industry is now being held to strict specifications, such as end-oflife power requirements, that force them to overengineer their products to avoid contractual penalties. Such overengineering has been the only reliable way to meet such specifications. Unfortunately, it also results in a more costly process than is probably necessary. In our conversations with the PV industry, the issue of cost has been raised again and again. Consequently, the Photovoltaics and Space Environment Effects branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has been developing a software tool to address this problem. SAVANT, Glenn's tool for solar array verification and analysis is in the technology demonstration phase. Ongoing work has proven that more efficient and less costly PV designs should be possible by using SAVANT to predict the on-orbit life-cycle performance. The ultimate goal of the SAVANT project is to provide a user-friendly computer tool to predict PV on-orbit life-cycle performance. This should greatly simplify the tasks of scaling and designing the PV power component of any given flight or mission. By being able to predict how a particular PV article will perform, designers will be able to balance mission power requirements (both beginning-of-life and end-of-life) with survivability concerns such as power degradation due to radiation and/or contamination. Recent comparisons with actual flight data from the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) mission validate this approach.

  8. Enhanced perception in savant syndrome: patterns, structure and creativity

    PubMed Central

    Mottron, Laurent; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    According to the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) model, autistic perception is characterized by: enhanced low-level operations; locally oriented processing as a default setting; greater activation of perceptual areas during a range of visuospatial, language, working memory or reasoning tasks; autonomy towards higher processes; and superior involvement in intelligence. EPF has been useful in accounting for autistic relative peaks of ability in the visual and auditory modalities. However, the role played by atypical perceptual mechanisms in the emergence and character of savant abilities remains underdeveloped. We now propose that enhanced detection of patterns, including similarity within and among patterns, is one of the mechanisms responsible for operations on human codes, a type of material with which savants show particular facility. This mechanism would favour an orientation towards material possessing the highest level of internal structure, through the implicit detection of within- and between-code isomorphisms. A second mechanism, related to but exceeding the existing concept of redintegration, involves completion, or filling-in, of missing information in memorized or perceived units or structures. In the context of autistics' enhanced perception, the nature and extent of these two mechanisms, and their possible contribution to the creativity evident in savant performance, are explored. PMID:19528021

  9. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  10. Art and accuracy: the drawing ability of idiot-savants.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; O'Connor, N

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy and the artistic merit of drawings produced by graphically gifted idiot-savants and by artistically able normal children were investigated in various conditions. Drawings had to be executed when a three- or two-dimensional model of the scene to be drawn was in view, or when it had to be remembered or drawn from another viewpoint. It was found that overall accuracy was better for the normal than for the mentally handicapped subjects. In contrast, ratings for artistic merit did not differentiate the groups. It is concluded that while the accuracy of drawings may be related to intelligence, the artistic quality of the graphic production is not. PMID:2312650

  11. On Language Savants and the Structure of the Mind [and] Reply to Bates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Elizabeth; Smith, Neil; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria

    1997-01-01

    Critiques Smith and Tsimpli's (1995) book, "The Mind of the Savant," in which a single case study is used as evidence for the modularity of language. Smith and Tsimpli respond to comments by Bates. (Author/VWL)

  12. Skill Dependent Audiovisual Integration in the Fusiform Induces Repetition Suppression

    PubMed Central

    McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read entails mapping existing phonological representations to novel orthographic representations and is thus an ideal context for investigating experience driven audiovisual integration. Because two dominant brain-based theories of reading development hinge on the sensitivity of the visual-object processing stream to phonological information, we were interested in how reading skill relates to audiovisual integration in this area. Thirty-two children between 8 and 13 years of age spanning a range of reading skill participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task to word pairs presented unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). Skill-dependent sub-additive audiovisual modulation was found in left fusiform gyrus, extending into the putative visual word form area, and was correlated with behavioral orthographic priming. These results suggest learning to read promotes facilitatory audiovisual integration in the ventral visual-object processing stream and may optimize this region for orthographic processing. PMID:25585276

  13. The abilities of a musical savant and his family.

    PubMed

    Young, R L; Nettelbeck, T

    1995-06-01

    The ability of a male autistic savant (TR) to play two unfamiliar piano pieces after listening to a tape-recording was tested, closely following the procedures of Sloboda, Hermelin, and O'Connor (1985). Other components of TR's musical ability--pitch recognition, improvisation, and ability to provide harmonic accompaniment--were also examined. TR's musical precocity was examined in relation to his general level of intellectual functioning as indexed by a battery of standardized psychological tests of intelligence, memory, reading, visual organization, and creativity. His parents and two male siblings also completed tests of intelligence. Results from psychometric testing indicated that TR has idiosyncratic levels of cognitive functioning with difficulties in verbal reasoning but high levels of concentration and memory. His speed of information processing, as indicated by Inspection Time, and was better than average. TR demonstrated perfect pitch recognition and other family members also demonstrated excellent relative pitch. TR's ability to recall and perform structured music within both the diatonic and whole-tone systems was exceptional but dependent upon his familiarity with musical structure and was therefore organized and rule-driven. Furthermore, TR demonstrated competence in improvisation and composition, albeit restricted by his adherence to structural representations of familiar musical rules. PMID:7559290

  14. Motor Skill Learning Induces Changes in White Matter Microstructure and Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A.; Foxley, Sean; Schlagheck, Theresa; Scholz, Jan; Jbabdi, Saad; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Miller, Karla L.; Taylor, Amy; Thomas, Nagheme; Kleim, Jeffrey; Sibson, Nicola R.; Bannerman, David

    2013-01-01

    Learning a novel motor skill is associated with well characterized structural and functional plasticity in the rodent motor cortex. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies of visuomotor learning in humans have suggested that structural plasticity can occur in white matter (WM), but the biological basis for such changes is unclear. We assessed the influence of motor skill learning on WM structure within sensorimotor cortex using both diffusion MRI fractional anisotropy (FA) and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Seventy-two adult (male) rats were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (skilled reaching, unskilled reaching, and caged control). After 11 d of training, postmortem diffusion MRI revealed significantly higher FA in the skilled reaching group compared with the control groups, specifically in the WM subjacent to the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the trained limb. In addition, within the skilled reaching group, FA across widespread regions of WM in the contralateral hemisphere correlated significantly with learning rate. Immunohistological analysis conducted on a subset of 24 animals (eight per group) revealed significantly increased myelin staining in the WM underlying motor cortex in the hemisphere contralateral (but not ipsilateral) to the trained limb for the skilled learning group versus the control groups. Within the trained hemisphere (but not the untrained hemisphere), myelin staining density correlated significantly with learning rate. Our results suggest that learning a novel motor skill induces structural change in task-relevant WM pathways and that these changes may in part reflect learning-related increases in myelination. PMID:24336716

  15. Motor skill learning induces changes in white matter microstructure and myelination.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Foxley, Sean; Schlagheck, Theresa; Scholz, Jan; Jbabdi, Saad; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Miller, Karla L; Taylor, Amy; Thomas, Nagheme; Kleim, Jeffrey; Sibson, Nicola R; Bannerman, David; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-12-11

    Learning a novel motor skill is associated with well characterized structural and functional plasticity in the rodent motor cortex. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies of visuomotor learning in humans have suggested that structural plasticity can occur in white matter (WM), but the biological basis for such changes is unclear. We assessed the influence of motor skill learning on WM structure within sensorimotor cortex using both diffusion MRI fractional anisotropy (FA) and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Seventy-two adult (male) rats were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (skilled reaching, unskilled reaching, and caged control). After 11 d of training, postmortem diffusion MRI revealed significantly higher FA in the skilled reaching group compared with the control groups, specifically in the WM subjacent to the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the trained limb. In addition, within the skilled reaching group, FA across widespread regions of WM in the contralateral hemisphere correlated significantly with learning rate. Immunohistological analysis conducted on a subset of 24 animals (eight per group) revealed significantly increased myelin staining in the WM underlying motor cortex in the hemisphere contralateral (but not ipsilateral) to the trained limb for the skilled learning group versus the control groups. Within the trained hemisphere (but not the untrained hemisphere), myelin staining density correlated significantly with learning rate. Our results suggest that learning a novel motor skill induces structural change in task-relevant WM pathways and that these changes may in part reflect learning-related increases in myelination. PMID:24336716

  16. Bottle, tulip and wineglass: semantic and structural picture processing by savant artists.

    PubMed

    Pring, L; Hermelin, B

    1993-11-01

    Semantic and structural aspects of picture processing were investigated with graphically gifted mentally handicapped subjects and intellectually normal children. The results suggest that savants as well as controls rely primarily on semantically organised memory schemata when reproducing pictures. A semantically determined strategy also determines picture sorting. The findings indicate that within the domain of expertise there appears to be no difference between savants and normals regarding the nature of the mental structures underlying specific talents. The mental structures on which such talents are based, should therefore be regarded as being relatively independent of the level of general cognitive functioning. PMID:8294524

  17. The Autistic Savant: Recognizing and Serving the Gifted Student with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Julie A.; Altman, Reuben

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses attention on the underserved population of gifted students with autism. The article examines savant abilities in the autistic population, needs of the gifted student with autism, similarities between the gifted autistic and other populations, and implications for treatment. (JDD)

  18. An Investigation of the Calendar Calculation Ability of a Chinese Calendar Savant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Eric D. F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Chinese mentally retarded calendar savant (age 19) was evaluated for his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation including converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support hypotheses of use of eidetic imagery, high speed calculation, rote memorization, or keying-off (anchoring) strategies. (Author/DB)

  19. The Savant Syndrome: A Review of the Literature for the Music Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Though music educators work with students who have a special learning need or a gifted ability on a daily basis, encountering a student who has both can be unexpected. The literature presented here can be used as a basis for information pertaining to terminology, studies and theories that attempt to explain the savant syndrome, how to identify it,…

  20. White Matter Microstructure Changes Induced by Motor Skill Learning Utilizing a Body Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Casadio, Maura; Weber, Kenneth A.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Parrish, Todd B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify white matter microstructure changes following bilateral upper extremity motor skill training to increase our understanding of learning-induced structural plasticity and enhance clinical strategies in physical rehabilitation. Eleven healthy subjects performed two visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 9 sessions (2–3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders and upper arms using a body machine interface. Before the start and within 2 days of the completion of training, whole brain diffusion tensor MR imaging data were acquired. Motor training increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the posterior and anterior limbs of the internal capsule, the corona radiata, and the body of the corpus callosum by 4.19% on average indicating white matter microstructure changes induced by activity-dependent modulation of axon number, axon diameter, or myelin thickness. These changes may underlie the functional reorganization associated with motor skill learning. PMID:24220038

  1. Prime Number Identification in Idiots Savants: Can They Calculate Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welling, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The ability of some individuals with mental retardation to identify prime numbers despite their lack of necessary arithmetical skills is discussed. The article suggests that a distinction between prime and nonprime numbers can be made by utilizing the tendency of visual perception to be symmetrically organized. (Author/DB)

  2. Calendar calculating in 'idiots savants': how do they do it?

    PubMed

    Howe, M J; Smith, J

    1988-08-01

    A number of mentally handicapped individuals are able to solve difficult calendar date problems such as specifying the day of the week for a particular date, sometimes over spans of more than 100 years. These individuals are self-taught and do not follow procedures at all similar to the usual, published, algorithms. An investigation of one individual revealed that he retained considerable information about the structure of days in particular months, probably as visual images. His skill closely depended on the extent and form of his knowledge of calendars, and his errors were often a consequence of lack of knowledge about a particular time period. Mentally retarded individuals who perform calendar-date feats are often socially withdrawn and devote considerable periods of time to calendar dates. The most capable calendar-date calculators are usually individuals who have a strong interest in calendars as such. PMID:3167499

  3. Changes in Brain Activation Induced by the Training of Hypothesis Generation Skills: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lee, Jun-Ki; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Jin-Su

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the learning-related changes in brain activation induced by the training of hypothesis generation skills regarding biological phenomena. Eighteen undergraduate participants were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training over a period of 2 months. The…

  4. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: an autism case study

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Lucie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Caron, Chantal; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC’s own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people. PMID:24600416

  5. Correlation between hippocampal levels of neural, epithelial and inducible NOS and spatial learning skills in rats.

    PubMed

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Karakurt, Serdar; Adalı, Orhan; Jakubowska-Doğru, Ewa

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, to better understand the role of different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in hippocampus-dependent forms of learning, we examined the expression of neural, endothelial, and inducible NOS in the hippocampus of young-adult rats classified as "poor" and "good" learners on the basis of their performance in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze. Taking into consideration strain-dependent differences in learning skills and NOS expression, experiments were performed on two different lines of laboratory rats: the inbred Wistar (W) and the outcrossed Wistar/Spraque-Dawley (W/S) line. The hippocampal levels of NOS proteins were assessed by Western Blotting. In the present study, genetically more homogenous W rats showed a slower rate of learning compared to the genetically less homogenous outcrossed W/S rats. The deficient performance in the W rat group compared to outcrossed W/S rats, and in "poor" learners of both groups compared to "good" learners was due to a higher percentage of reference memory errors. The overall NOS levels were significantly higher in W group compared to outcrossed W/S rats. In both rat lines, the rate of learning positively correlated with hippocampal levels of nNOS and negatively correlated with iNOS levels. Hippocampal eNOS levels correlated negatively with animals' performance but only in the W rats. These results suggest that all 3 NOS isoforms are implemented but play different roles in neural signaling. PMID:22909987

  6. The 1988 Jansson memorial lecture. The performance of the 'idiot-savant': implicit and explicit.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N

    1989-04-01

    'Idiots-savants' are people of low intelligence who have one or two outstanding talents such as calendrical calculation, drawing or musical performance. Such people are mostly male and occur with high frequency among the autistic population. Do they perform their amazing feats because of an outstanding memory or do they draw on some faculty of reasoning to help them? Although they cannot easily make clear how they carry out their tasks by using speech, experiments reveal that they follow simple rules which they use to aid them in recalling correct dates and sequences in classical music. It has been said that they cannot abstract but this turns out not to be true: all can abstract to some degree and some are more at home with abstract than with concrete material. Whatever else is true of these handicapped but gifted people their gift becomes apparent at an early age and is apparently not improved by practice. Perhaps the most important conclusion from work with these groups is that their gifts force us to think again about the concept of general intelligence. How far is it possible to have low intelligence and yet be an outstanding musician or artist? Speculation on this idea may force us to revise our concepts of intelligence, neuropsychology and handicap. PMID:2638187

  7. Brain polarization of parietal cortex augments training-induced improvement of visual exploratory and attentional skills.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Fregni, Felipe; Casati, Carlotta; Olgiati, Elena; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2010-08-19

    Recent evidence suggests that behavioural gains induced by behavioural training are maximized when combined with techniques of cortical neuromodulation, such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Here we address the validity of this appealing approach by investigating the effect of coupling a multisensory visual field exploration training with tDCS of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The multisensory visual field exploration training consisted in the practice of visual search through the systematic audio-visual stimulation of the visual field. Neurologically unimpaired participants performed a bimodal exploration training for 30 min, while simultaneously receiving anodal-excitatory PPC tDCS or sham tDCS. In two different experiments, the left and the right hemisphere were stimulated. Outcome measures included visual exploration speed at different time intervals during the training, and the post-training effects on tests assessing visual scanning and visuo-spatial orienting. Results show that PPC tDCS applied to the right, but not to the left, hemisphere increases the training-induced behavioural improvement of visual exploration, as compared to sham tDCS. In addition, right PPC tDCS brings about an improvement of covert visual orienting, in a task different from the visual search practice. In an additional experiment, we confirm that right parietal tDCS by itself, even without the associated training, can lead to enhancement of visual search. Overall, anodal PPC tDCS is a promising technique to enhance visuo-spatial abilities, when combined to a visual field exploration training task. PMID:20599813

  8. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  9. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  10. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  11. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  12. Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Tom

    2007-01-01

    With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

  13. Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Lynn

    This document presents one module in a set of training resources for trainers to use with parents and/or professionals serving children with disabilities; focus is on communication skills. The modules stress content and activities that build skills and offer resources to promote parent-professional collaboration. Each training module takes about 2…

  14. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Three developments lend support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1) advances in cognitive psychology that suggest children are active learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that systematic study skills instruction does improve academic…

  15. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoddon, Ruth V.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Descriptions of activities designed to enhance the learning of library and information skills focus on the location of materials (ready-to-use library skills games); finding materials in the card catalog; and Aesop's fables. Games and puzzles are provided. (CLB)

  16. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xuhua; Liu, Xuefeng; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of cytokine-activated pathway, promotes sprouting of uninjured CST axons to the denervated spinal cord. A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons. Such sprouting can be further enhanced by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative regulator, resulting in significant recovery of skilled locomotion. Ablation of the corticospinal neurons with sprouting axons abolishes the improved behavioural performance. Furthermore, by optogenetics-based specific CST stimulation, we show a direct limb motor control by sprouting CST axons, providing direct evidence for the reformation of a functional circuit. PMID:26598325

  17. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xuhua; Liu, Xuefeng; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of cytokine-activated pathway, promotes sprouting of uninjured CST axons to the denervated spinal cord. A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons. Such sprouting can be further enhanced by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative regulator, resulting in significant recovery of skilled locomotion. Ablation of the corticospinal neurons with sprouting axons abolishes the improved behavioural performance. Furthermore, by optogenetics-based specific CST stimulation, we show a direct limb motor control by sprouting CST axons, providing direct evidence for the reformation of a functional circuit. PMID:26598325

  18. A new device to measure drug-induced changes on reactive and coordinative skills of human performance.

    PubMed

    Linnavuo, M; Ylilääkkölä, P; Mattila, M J; Mäki, M; Seppälä, T

    1987-08-01

    A computerized device for simultaneous measurement of coordinative and reactive skills related to driving was developed and tested in two consecutive trials of psychoactive agents in healthy volunteers. The test system comprises a vehicle, a driving computer (Sinclair QL), and the programming and measurement computer (IBM-PC). The computerized driving programme projects to the colour--TV screen a winding road, and the driver has to keep the car on the road by turning the steering wheel. The driving proceedes at a fixed, fairly rapid rate for 5 min., and the numbers of tracking errors (deviations from the road) as well as the tracking percentage (relative length of the track driven off the road) were computed separately for both halves of the track. During the latter half of the track 60 visual or/and sound stimuli were given in random order, and the driver had to respond or not respond to them by pressing a button or by pushing a foot pedal. The number of reaction errors and the cumulative reaction time were recorded. The programme also provides a histogramme that relates the number of deviations from the road to their duration, enabling a visual judgement of the severity of errors. Matched versions (mirror image, reverse direction) of tracks of varying severity were offered to reduce learning effect during the trial. When testing the device in two placebo-controlled double-blind and cross-over trials, a considerable practice effect on tracking and reaction strategies took place, but after proper training the baselines remained reasonably stable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2890156

  19. Coping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

  20. Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Industry-based skill assessment and certification should (1) be independent of training providers; (2) use variety of instruments; (3) recognize multiple levels of mastery; (4) promote broad training and continuous learning; (5) be geared to high-performance work organizations; (6) be voluntary; and (7) be flexible to keep pace with technology.…

  1. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Verna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides three activities that help develop library skills for elementary school students. One describes a riddle card game that reviews research book terms; one explains a book report activity; and one focuses on cooperative problem-solving activities to find titles by favorite authors. (LRW)

  2. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  3. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  4. SAVANT Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A

    2009-11-03

    This report summarizes the work related to this project that has gone on since February of 2008 and provide proposals for future collaboration with Japan. It will also outline the group's broad vision for safeguards modeling and simulation; this vision should guide the selection and implementation of next steps for the project.

  5. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  6. Leadership skills?

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Senior executive leaders might be interested in applying for the NHS Leadership Academy's director programme, which is designed to 'stretch and challenge' those with an 'existing level of complex leadership skills'. The programme also offers an opportunity for participants to work with other leaders and other parts of the system to enhance inclusiveness. There are three cohorts a year, and the programme runs for a 12 months. Closing dates for applicants are 4 September 2016, 22 January 2017 and 21 May 2017. PMID:27581902

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  8. Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Don

    The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

  9. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  10. Reconceptualising Core Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides an analysis of Core Skill policy and practice in the UK. The author presents a conceptual basis for re-thinking generic Core Skills within educational approaches in teaching and learning. The discussion looks at whether universal notions of generic skills are appropriate when considering post-compulsory pedagogic approaches to…

  11. School Leadership Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  12. The Core Skills Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A British initiative that aims to identify, develop, and assess core skills in post-16 courses and qualifications is summarized in this bulletin. The first section discusses expectations regarding what core skills can achieve. The following section focuses on other purposes to which core skills could contribute, such as broadening the post-16…

  13. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jan P.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

  14. Basic Skills Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lenore; And Others

    This handbook for kindergarten through grade eight provides instructional objectives for student mastery in the basic skills of reading, mathematics, written communication, and oral communication. The section on reading is divided into the following strands: word identification skills; vocabulary skills; comprehension (literal, inferential, and…

  15. Teaching Management Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.; Whetten, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Two articles address the need for training in management skills as part of the management curriculum and provide a model for teaching management skills based on social learning theory. The approach is characterized as an integration of previously-used management teaching approaches. Identification of critical management skills and issues in…

  16. Construction & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

  17. Assessing Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

  18. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  19. Entry Skills for BSNs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Mary K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…

  20. Developing Word Analysis Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Arthur W.

    The importance of word analysis skills to reading ability is discussed, and methodologies for teaching such skills are examined. It is stated that a child cannot become proficient in reading if he does not master the skill of associating printed letter symbols with the sounds they represent. Instructional procedures which augment the alphabet with…

  1. The Differential Effects of Task Complexity on Domain-Specific and Peer Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zundert, Marjo J.; Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Konings, Karen D.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the relationship between domain-specific skills and peer assessment skills as a function of task complexity is investigated. We hypothesised that peer assessment skills were superposed on domain-specific skills and will therefore suffer more when higher cognitive load is induced by increased task complexity. In a mixed factorial…

  2. On Performance Skill Representation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori

    In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.

  3. Assessing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural Minnesota…

  4. Early Communicative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Gilbert F.; Dunn, William R.

    Intended for parents and teachers, the manual offers guidelines for developing communication skills in severely and profoundly mentally handicapped children. An introduction helps the reader determine a suitable starting point and provides a description of early communication skills; Part II describes the five stages in communication development.…

  5. The Employability Skills Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…

  6. Electromechanical Technician Skills Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This document contains test items to measure the job skills of electromechanical technicians. Questions are organized in four sections that cover the following topics: (1) shop math; (2) electricity and electronics; (3) mechanics and machining; and (4) plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and welding skills. Questions call for…

  7. Critical Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

  8. Core Skills in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin provides an update on current developments in core skills in further education. Section 1 contains information about the Further Education Unit's (FEU's) Core Skills Post-16 project, in which colleges are testing principles that underpin all good quality learning programs. Important findings and examples are outlined under the five…

  9. Employability Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    The Employability Skills Center (ESC) of the Division of Adult and Continuing Education (DACE) of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) was created out of a need to help adult students develop the basic skills that are required for success in their chosen vocational programs but not taught in regular adult basic education classes.…

  10. Teaching Comprehension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Association of School Superintendents.

    Materials used in a one-day conference on teaching reading comprehension skills are summarized in this publication. Contents consist of three articles on teaching the comprehension skills, informal reading inventories in science and in geography, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address with comprehension questions, a checklist for the evaluation of teaching…

  11. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  12. Michigan Consumer Education Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Consumers Council, Lansing.

    The booklet identifies consumer skills which a committee of the Michigan Consumers Council believes are essential for students to master prior to graduation from high school. The purpose of the document is to give direction to school districts and teachers on which consumer education skills are needed. The booklet does not contain teaching methods…

  13. Job Keeping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum is designed to help teachers teach a course in job keeping skills to high school students in order to instill in them appropriate attitudes for the world of work. The guide introduces the human aspects of working in an organization. "Job Keeping Skills" is divided into 10 instructional units. Each unit contains four or more lessons…

  14. A national skills standard

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, G.

    1996-06-01

    The United States Department of Education has awarded a contract to an organization named the Vocational-technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) for the development of a skills standard for the HVAC/R industry. This report describes the development of the skills standard.

  15. Improving Library Research Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Catherine W.

    This report describes a program to advance library research skills in two sixth grade science classes. The problem was assessed through a survey, questionnaire, and worksheet, and by direct observation. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students displayed a lack of research skills related to library research. Some of the causes were…

  16. Assessing Applied Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Joe; Castaneda, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A recent employer survey sponsored by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills found that the skills new job entrants most need for success in the workplace--oral and written communication, time management, critical thinking, problem solving, personal accountability, and the ability to work effectively with others--are the areas in which recent…

  17. Elementary TIG Welding Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, John E., III

    The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

  18. Occupational Survival Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.; Nelson, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes a set of twelve curriculum modules called "Occupational Survival Skills" relating to the "human" aspects of work organizations. The modules were based on information from opinion surveys of workers, students, parents, and teachers on what occupational survival skills are and how to teach them. (MF)

  19. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  20. ASTD Update: Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Lei

    As the 16-24 age group, the traditional source of entry level workers, shrinks, employers increasingly have to hire the less advantaged to staff their entry-level work force; they must, therefore, hire people with deficient skills. At the same time, a mix of technical changes and heightened competition is increasing the skill level needed for work…

  1. LabSkills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This article describes LabSkills, a revolutionary teaching tool to improve practical science in schools. LabSkills offers the chance to help improve the exposure that the average Key Stage 5 (age 16-19) student has to practical work. This is a huge area for development being highlighted by universities who are seeing a worryingly growing trend in…

  2. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

  3. Schools, Skills and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop; Vijverberg, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Skill development involves important choices for individuals and school designers: should individuals and schools specialize, or should they aim for an optimal combination of skills? We analyze this question by employing mean-standard deviation analysis and show how cost structure, benefit structure and risk attitudes jointly determine the optimal…

  4. Skills for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This publication contains two miniunits to help students in grades 7-12 build skills for the future. The exercises can also be adapted for use in grades 4-6. Each of the miniunits contains several exercises to build specific skills. Miniunit One, "The Arithmetic of Growth," deals with two concepts--exponential growth and doubling time. These two…

  5. When Thinking Skills Trump Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Fisher, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    A popular response among high school teachers and leaders facing students reading far below grade level, the authors claim, is to adopt back-to-basics packaged programs that focus on discrete skills with little attention to critical reading and writing. The authors express concern that reliance on such programs keeps older struggling readers from…

  6. Not-so-Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  7. Motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for understanding motor skill and the process by which it is acquired. A selective historical overview is presented to demonstrate how the study of movement is a necessary preliminary to the study of motor skill learning. The phenomenon of skill is explored as an inherent feature of goal-directed organisms whose effective functioning depends on achieving a degree of competence in solving problems that are encountered in the everyday world. The relationship between problems and solutions is discussed. Movement is examined as a problem-solving tool and as the means by which the individual expresses skill. Factors that influence the individual's level of skill are fully explored, along with the implications for functional behavior. The creative use of resources in problem solving is thoroughly examined, and tasks are discussed in terms of the demands imposed on the individual. PMID:1989008

  8. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  9. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-20

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236

  10. Survival Skills: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed are five programs (textbooks, audiovisual materials, workbooks, video-cassettes) designed to improve academic survival skills in secondary students. Content emphasis, reading level, rationale, objectives, organization, instructional method, student evaluation, physical features, and recommendations are listed for each. (KC)

  11. Crew Skills and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

    1998-01-01

    One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

  12. Skill in Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval Skill quantifies the ability of one retrieval from a sounder to be more accurate than the best forecast relative to another with the same of another sounder. This is summarized using a Retrieval Anomaly Skill Score (RASS) which is the cor (retrieved-background, truth-background) * sqrt(f), Where f is defined as the ratio of accepted to the possible retrievals. Charts show various features and comparisons of RASS to other methods of retrieval.

  13. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  14. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  15. Interpersonal Skills for Cooperative Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.

    Cooperation among individuals depends upon both the goal structure of the situation and the cooperative skills of the individuals. Since cooperation is probably the most important and basic form of human interaction, the skills of cooperation successfully are some of the most important skills a person needs to master. Cooperative skills include…

  16. 57 Word Attack Skill Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mara, Patricia; Sorenson, Juanita

    These 57 game cards were developed to help teachers build their resource files for word-attack skills. Cards are keyed to skills suggested by the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development and are color-coded according to their appropriateness for children in kindergarten through grade three. The front of each card gives the name of the skill,…

  17. Skills Verdict: Must Do Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    "Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills developments. This report is the…

  18. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  19. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  20. Microneurosurgical Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Ratre, Shailendra; Kher, Yatin; Iqbal, Mohmed

    2016-03-01

    Microneurosurgical operations differ from other surgery. Longer operative time, narrow and deep-seated operative corridors, hand-eye coordination, fine manipulation, and physiologic tremor present special problems. Proper understanding of visual feedback, control of physiologic tremor, better instrument design, and development of surgical skills with better precision is important for optimal surgical results. Using the pen-type precision grip with well-supported arm, wrist, hand, and fingers avoids fatigue and improves precision. Proper instrument design, patient positioning, hemostasis techniques, tilting operative table, good operative microscope, an adjustable chair, careful use of suction tube, bipolar forceps, and brain retraction play important roles in microneurosurgery. Sufficient clinical case volume or opportunity during routine operative hours may not be available in the beginning for young neurosurgeons; microsurgical training using various models can enable them to gain experience. Training models using deep-seated and narrow operative corridors, drilling, knot-tying technique, and anastomosis using fine sutures under high magnification can be practiced for skill improvement. Training laboratory and simulation modules can be useful for resident training and skill acquisition. Indigenously made inexpensive models and comparatively less expensive microscopes can be used in resource-constrained situations. The maintenance of microsurgical ability should be preserved by staying active in operative practice. The knowledge of ergonomics, proper training, observing hand movements of skillful surgeons, and the use of operative videos can improve skill. Endoscopic assistance, computer-assisted robot hand technique, and microtechnology can provide access to the smallest areas of the body. PMID:25915501

  1. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  2. Construction Cluster Skills Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL. Built Environment Partnership.

    Twelve construction cluster skill standards and associated benchmarks were developed as part of a federally funded school-to-work initiative that included the following parties: the Chicago Public Schools; City Colleges of Chicago; and business, labor, and community organizations. The standards, which include core academic, generic workplace…

  3. Building Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2006-01-01

    A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

  4. Maintaining Foreign Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Tarey

    Human beings have as great a capacity for losing or forgetting a language as they do for learning one. Many have lost language skills due to a lack of a linguistically appropriate environment in which to use a particular language. Millions of individuals who have studied a second language in high school or college for several years have lost the…

  5. Measuring Skills and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludeman, Kate

    1991-01-01

    Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

  6. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  7. Skill in Expert Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be…

  8. Rapid Response Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winders, Anna Faye

    2008-01-01

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College's (MGCCC) long-term commitment to providing workforce training in a post-Katrina environment became a catalyst for designing short-term flexible educational opportunities. Providing nationally recognized skills training for the recovery/rebuilding of communities challenged the college to develop innovative,…

  9. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  10. The Skills Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Beatrice Karol; Reeves, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Despite a vocal commitment to fairness, the British Government has, according to these authors, wholeheartedly failed to live up to this pledge when it comes to skills and adult training. A report on adult learning released in December by Demos found a system rife with inequality and contradictions. As the jobs market becomes increasingly…

  11. State Skill Standards: Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  12. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  13. Counseling Skills for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    By necessity, today's teachers do much more than deliver instruction. In the classroom, on the playground, or even in the parking lot, teachers are often called upon to respond quickly and appropriately to students' social and emotional needs, drawing from instinct more than anything else. In this second edition of "Counseling Skills for…

  14. Teaching Thinking Skills: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narode, Ronald; And Others

    This document addresses some of the factors involved in teaching critical thinking skills in the science classroom. It contains sections that deal with: (1) pair problem solving--creating a Socratic learning environment (emphasizes the role of the teacher); (2) writing to learn science (the thought-process protocol); (3) integrating science…

  15. Testing Historical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, Ray

    1980-01-01

    Outlines methods for including skill testing in teacher-made history tests. Focuses on distinguishing fact and fiction, evaluating the reliability of a source, distinguishing between primary and secondary sources, recognizing statements which support generalizations, testing with media, mapping geo-politics, and applying knowledge to new…

  16. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  17. Warm Up with Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Too little time is often spent on warm-up activities in the school or recreation class. Warm-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for warm-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)

  18. Teaching for Skill Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepko, Stevie; Doan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on establishing a mastery climate where all students find success and start on the road to physical literacy. Using a five-step approach, physical educators will be offered guidance for developing practice tasks that lead to skill mastery. These steps include creating a mastery environment, designing deliberate practice tasks,…

  19. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  20. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  1. Developing Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Principals often think of professional development in terms of activities--attending a workshop, networking with colleagues at a conference, reading a professional article or book, and so on. Although these are all good things in and of themselves, genuine professional growth does not occur until knowledge and skills are put into practice at the…

  2. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  3. Teaching Presentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.; Thompson, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Effective teaching of presentation skills focuses on the most important element of the presentation--the message itself. Some instructors place the heaviest emphasis on the messenger (the presenter) and focus their presentation feedback on all the presenter is doing wrong--saying "um," gesturing awkwardly, and so forth. When students receive this…

  4. Math Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.

    2004-01-01

    A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…

  5. Developing Observation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    We typically know children are learning when they are able to make sense of an object's materials or a situation that was previously a bit mysterious and communicate what they have figured out. But what about observing? One of the process skills listed in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), observation is something students have…

  6. Game Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisabeth, Kathryn L.

    Before discussing the development of skills for playing elementary school physical education games, this document lists basic assumptions about children, movement education, games, and elementary school physical education. Four basic concepts, which are common to all team games, are identified: (1) use of personal and moving space and finding…

  7. Basic Skills Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoffrey

    The document describes the basic skills programs in reading and mathematics of the High School in the Community (HSC) in New Haven, Connecticut. HSC, designed to provide a choice of learning environments within the public school system, serves students dissatisfied with their previous school experience. Each student, on entering HSC, is screened…

  8. Basic Skills: Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    A curriculum guide for the visual arts is presented. The goal of elementary and middle school education in the four arts disciplines is the development of basic understanding and skills by every student. In secondary education the aim is to continue a sequential curriculum for those students who study the arts. This document is intended as a guide…

  9. Improving Basic Writing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, Rae Jeane; Zarem, Janet

    The classroom-tested ideas for teaching writing described in this booklet are based on the beliefs that writing is a teachable skill, that it is a process with constituent steps, and that students need evaluation at each stage of writing. Following an introduction that identifies eight steps in the writing process and discusses class organization,…

  10. Oral Skills Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, J. Vernon

    1980-01-01

    Twelve methods to enhance the learning of college students and at the same time increase their oral communication skills and classroom participation are presented. They include: facilitators of class discussions, triadic critiques of students' essays, panel discussions, forum periods, debates, and manuscript reading. (JMD)

  11. The Dynamics of Life Skills Coaching. Life Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtiss, Paul R.; Warren, Phillip W.

    This book is to be used in a Life Skills Coach Training course. Life skills are defined as problem-solving behaviors appropriately and responsibly used in the management of personal affairs. They apply to the following areas of responsibility: self, family, leisure, community, and job. A course aimed at training people in the life skills implies…

  12. Employment Social Skills: What Skills Are Really Valued?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Hughes, Carolyn; Thoma, Colleen A.; Scott, LaRon A.

    2016-01-01

    Although social skills have long been recognized as essential in promoting employees' employability (e.g., maintaining employment), there has been little research about work-related social skills for the last two decades. A systematic replication of Salzberg, Agran, and Lignugaris/Kraft's investigation of critical social skills was conducted.…

  13. Skilled or Skillful: What's the Difference for Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol; Dickinson, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the difference between "drilling for skills" and "becoming skillful readers" and shows how teachers can help students become skillful readers, writers, discussants, and thinkers through literature discussions. Discusses establishing a context for literature study, and initiating and maintaining literature study groups. (SR)

  14. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Metal Stamping Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  15. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000435.htm Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities To use the sharing features ... facility. Who Needs to go to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility? Your health care provider may ...

  16. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need to be transferred to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility. ... Common medical problems that often lead to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility care include: Joint replacement surgery, ...

  17. Secretarial Administration: Secretarial Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jane M.

    1978-01-01

    Secretarial survival skills of communication, organization, and decision making should be incorporated into the secretarial training program, according to the author. She discusses these skills in relation to career mobility. (MF)

  18. Ellenore Flood's Skills Confidence Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    1998-01-01

    Presents background information on the Skills Confidence Inventory (SCI) and the construct it assesses. Interprets the skills confidence and interest profiles of a 29-year-old female high school teacher using the SCI and the Strong Interest Inventory. (MKA)

  19. Plants, Animals and Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Countrystart is a class in which students work with plants and animals, providing numerous opportunities to integrate basic skills teaching. The practical subject area becomes the vehicle to develop other skills needed by students. (JOW)

  20. Computational Skills for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    This interview with Distinguished Science Award recipient Louis J. Gross highlights essential computational skills for modern biology, including: (1) teaching concepts listed in the Math & Bio 2010 report; (2) illustrating to students that jobs today require quantitative skills; and (3) resources and materials that focus on computational skills.

  1. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  2. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  3. Perceptions Concerning Occupational Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert E.

    This volume presents the reports of a series of interrelated studies which were part of a study that developed curriculum materials for teaching occupational survival skills. The first of six sections, Need for Teaching Occupational Survival Skills and Attitudes, discusses the importance of survival skills and describes twelve general topics which…

  4. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  5. Developing Managerial Skills in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madhoun, Mohammed; Analoui, Farhad

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the contribution of management training and development programmes (MTPs) to the development of managerial skills in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Different sets of variables were used to explore the managers' skills development by dividing the managerial skills into three main categories: self, people, and task-related…

  6. Skill Upgrading, Incorporated. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skill Upgrading, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

    As in two other projects in Cleveland and Newark, New Jersey, this project was set up in Baltimore to provide technical assistance in designing ways to meet in-plant skills needs by upgrading job skills on entry workers through High Intensity Training (HIT). Skill Upgrading, Inc. was established in Maryland to provide training and manpower…

  7. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  8. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  9. Measuring Education and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in measuring education and skill that need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor social mobility. Over the past half-century, patterns of educational participation and attainment have become more heterogeneous, a trend that has been accompanied by increases in assessment and testing practices, and the availability of electronic data sources and other administrative records, including official school transcripts that are generally held indefinitely. This article describes the most promising approaches to measuring education and discusses some of the possible challenges for using the information to study social mobility. Measures of educational concepts fall along at least one of several dimensions: credentials earned, qualities of the schools attended, the amount and nature of curricular exposure, and the development and acquisition of skills. Selected data sources, with an emphasis on school transcripts and administrative records, and their possible uses are described. PMID:25983334

  10. Forecasting forecast skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Dalcher, Amnon

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to predict the skill of numerical weather forecasts - a quantity which is variable from day to day and region to region. This has been accomplished using as predictor the dispersion (measured by the average correlation) between members of an ensemble of forecasts started from five different analyses. The analyses had been previously derived for satellite-data-impact studies and included, in the Northern Hemisphere, moderate perturbations associated with the use of different observing systems. When the Northern Hemisphere was used as a verification region, the prediction of skill was rather poor. This is due to the fact that such a large area usually contains regions with excellent forecasts as well as regions with poor forecasts, and does not allow for discrimination between them. However, when regional verifications were used, the ensemble forecast dispersion provided a very good prediction of the quality of the individual forecasts.

  11. Advanced Social Skills. Facilitator's Skill Packets 16-22. Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.

    These facilitator's skill packets contain seven individual packets related to advanced social skills: (1) asking for help; (2) joining in; (3) giving instructions; (4) following instructions; (5) apologizing; (6) convincing others; and (7) making a decision. Each packet contains the following sections: definition of advanced social skills;…

  12. Business Students' Perceptions of Necessary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lajuan; Riley, Monica; Fisher, Diane J.

    2003-01-01

    Business education students (n=100) rated 14 job skills identified by the Secretary's Commission on Necessary Skills. The top characteristic identified was interpersonal skills followed by critical thinking. Other skills included teamwork, problem solving, computer literacy, and multitasking. (JOW)

  13. Microcomputer programming skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some differences in skill and techniques required for conversion from programmer to microprogrammer are discussed. The primary things with which the programmer should work are hardware architecture, hardware/software trade off, and interfacing. The biggest differences, however, will stem from the differences in applications than from differences in machine size. The change to real-time programming is the most important of these differences, particularly on dedicated microprocessors. Another primary change is programming with a more computer-naive user in mind, and dealing with his limitations and expectations.

  14. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  15. Motor-Skill Learning Is Dependent on Astrocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Padmashri, Ragunathan; Suresh, Anand; Boska, Michael D.; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Motor-skill learning induces changes in synaptic structure and function in the primary motor cortex through the involvement of a long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like mechanism. Although there is evidence that calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes plays an important role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, the role of astrocytes in motor-skill learning is not known. To test the hypothesis that astrocytic activity is necessary for motor-skill learning, we perturbed astrocytic function using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We find that perturbation of astrocytes either by selectively attenuating IP3R2 mediated astrocyte Ca2+ signaling or using an astrocyte specific metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) results in impaired motor-skill learning of a forelimb reaching-task in mice. Moreover, the learning impairment caused by blocking astrocytic activity using FC was rescued by administration of the gliotransmitter D-serine. The learning impairments are likely caused by impaired LTP as FC blocked LTP in slices and prevented motor-skill training-induced increases in synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor in vivo. These results support the conclusion that normal astrocytic Ca2+ signaling during a reaching task is necessary for motor-skill learning. PMID:26346977

  16. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  17. Development of Financial Skills. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a six-unit course in developing financial skills that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's six instructional units cover these topics: earning, managing, and spending money; protecting…

  18. Getting Skills Right: Assessing and Anticipating Changing Skill Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Digitalisation, globalisation, demographic shifts and other changes in work organisation are constantly reshaping skill needs. This can lead to persistent skill shortages and mismatch which are costly for individuals, firms and society in terms of lost wages and lower productivity and growth. These costs can be reduced through better assessment…

  19. Voluntary Skill Standards and Certification. Skill Standards: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Joan L.

    This document provides basic information about the establishment, mission, and principal tasks of the National Skill Standards Board (NSSB), which was established as a key part of Goals 2000 and charged with the responsibility of creating a national system of voluntary skill standards to be available for use by employers, workers, unions,…

  20. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  1. Skill analysis part 3: improving a practice skill.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    In this, the third and final article in a series on practice skill analysis, attention is given to imaginative ways of improving a practice skill. Having analysed and evaluated a chosen skill in the previous two articles, it is time to look at new ways to proceed. Creative people are able to be analytical and imaginative. The process of careful reasoning involved in analysing and evaluating a skill will not necessarily be used to improve it. To advance a skill, there is a need to engage in more imaginative, free-thinking processes that allow the nurse to think afresh about his or her chosen skill. Suggestions shared in this article are not exhaustive, but the material presented does illustrate measures that in the author's experience seem to have potential. Consideration is given to how the improved skill might be envisaged (an ideal skill in use). The article is illustrated using the case study of empathetic listening, which has been used throughout this series. PMID:22356066

  2. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Observation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the second of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops observation, a workplace literacy skill identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth (DFY) direct care staff using…

  3. Skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    2014-10-30

    Two practical 'how-to' guides have been launched by NHS Improving Quality to support health and care professionals to improve their skills and knowledge continually. The Learning Handbook ( media.nhsiq.nhs.uk/learninghandbook ) helps readers take a systematic approach to learning, capture and share learning that can inform best practice, and focus on activities that will give them the greatest chance of improved outcomes. It is designed to help people obtain the best value out of all learning opportunities. The Intelligence Handbook ( media.nhsiq.nhs.uk/intelligencehandbook ), on the other hand, guides readers through the process of finding, filtering and understanding intelligence and will help them distil new information and use it to best advantage. Both handbooks signpost to further reading and resources. PMID:25355119

  4. Social skills training for the complex offender: employment seeking skills.

    PubMed

    Twentyman, C T

    1978-04-01

    Compared 11 probationers with a history of psychiatric referral to a randomly selected group of unemployed persons from the State Unemployment Office in a number of job interview assessment situations. The probationers were rated as less skillful and also rated themselves as less likely to obtain employment than did the control Ss. After this pretest, the probationers were assigned to one of two treatment groups in which either monetary incentives for job interviews were provided or a skills training program was initiated. Posttest scores indicated that the skills program was most effective in changing behavioral and cognitive responses. These results generalized during the follow-up period; the skills training group obtained employment more frequently than did the incentive group. Implications for training critical skill deficits are discussed in terms of a response acquisition model. PMID:681505

  5. Medication and skilled work.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A N

    1990-04-12

    There is increasing interest in the way in which drugs impair performance. This has arisen because some may impair day-to-day skills of those whose occupations demand vigilance and motor skill, and of those who are involved in decision making or where interpersonal relations are crucial. For many years the position was adopted, at least in certain occupations where impaired performance could be a danger to others, that the use of any drug should preclude employment. However, recent advances in therapeutics and a greater understanding of drug action in man has made this rather uncomplicated view of life less tenable, and there is now an increasing desire that advances in therapy should, if at all possible, be available to occupational groups, such as airline pilots. In this way the adverse effect which a drug may have on performance has become an important aspect of its clinical profile. Hypnotics appropriate for transient insomnia, which may arise from the irregularity of rest inherent in many occupations, need to be free of residual effects, antihistamines that are sedative must be avoided, and drugs used in the management of mild hypertension, often during the important years of middle life, must be as free as possible from central effects. And it must be emphasized that these drugs are often used by active, healthy or near healthy individuals. The issues involved in the safe use of a particular drug by a particular individual are complex, and as with all aspects of therapeutics it is sometimes necessary to balance efficacy and adverse effects. PMID:1970897

  6. Attention and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time. PMID:15974348

  7. Integrating Mathematics and Geographic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Pamela D.; Savage, Tom V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes the development of a unit for a team-taught middle school program integrating mathematics skills with map and globe skills such as distance, direction, scale, longitude, latitude, location, and climate. Some of the learning activities of the unit are outlined. (Author/SJL)

  8. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  9. Summer Academies for Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen Rae; Smith, Richard Alan

    1988-01-01

    Describes summer school sessions developed by Houston schools to improve performance of academically at-risk eighth graders on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS). Highlights include content area lessons in language arts and mathematics; study and test-taking skills; multimedia instructional materials; and student and…

  10. Learning Outcomes: Skills or Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciancone, Tom; Tout, Dave

    Participants in a teacher workshop compared these two approaches to learning outcomes in adult numeracy: (1) teaching mathematical skills and (2) using and applying mathematics from real life. The first approach was illustrated by an Ontario, Canada, program based on traditional school math, whose outcomes are skill-based and are the following:…

  11. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  12. Skilled up and Having Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

  13. A Comprehensive Pickleball Skills Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasem, Jim

    "Pickleball" is a new racquet sport which is one of the fastest growing educational activities in the Northwest. This paper describes the development of a test battery designed to measure students' pickleball skills for purposes of classification; to determine improvement of playing skills; and to aid in grading of individual performance. Skills…

  14. Student Math Skills Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Odell; And Others

    This mathematics support guide is intended for use by vocational students and instructors as a review of essential mathematics concepts and for problem-solving exercises in the vocations. It is designed to accompany the "Mathematical Skills Inventory," which tests mathematics skills, attitudes, and background. A section entitled Arithmetic Skills…

  15. National Health Care Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.

    This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…

  16. Developing Cognitive Skills Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley A.

    The recognition that children's cognitive skills are evident in visual as well as verbal conventions has led to the construction of the Silver Test of Cognitive and Creative Skills (STCCS) for the assessment and development of children's cognitive abilities. Research on cognition, the role of language in cognition, and left and right brain…

  17. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  18. Communication Skills for Workplace Assessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Deborah

    This document is designed to help develop the communication skills of individuals training for the position of workplace assessor in Australia's National Training Framework and practicing workplace assessors who require additional assistance with on-the-job communication skills. The document consists of 11 units of study that each contain some or…

  19. Enhancing Literacy Skills through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistek-Chandler, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to use technology to enhance literacy skills. Highlights include defining literacy, including information literacy; research to support reading and writing instruction; literacy software; thinking skills; organizational strategies for writing and reading; how technology can individualize literacy instruction; and a new genre of…

  20. Equipping Children With Supervisory Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Edie L.; Anderson, Robert H.

    The professional growth of teachers and improvement in teaching skills are often the results of skillful use by supervisors of clinical procedures of observation in both inservice workshops and student teaching situations. The observation cycle for improving pupil learning has five stages: (1) pre-observation conference between the student…

  1. Introductory Science Skills. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.

    This book is designed to help students understand the nature of scientific inquiry by involving them in doing science rather than merely reading about it. The content of the text emphasizes science process skills, mathematical skills, and the use of theories and models that are fundamental for learning the various science disciplines. The…

  2. Integrating Writing and Negotiation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Carolena Lyons

    2002-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students must integrate writing and negotiation skills with proposal development. Notes that many students have been able to share their problem-solving skills by implementing their proposal at their workplace. Notes students liked the opportunity to select a topic of interest to them. (SG)

  3. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  4. Reference Guide to Developmental Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Special Education District, Gurnee, IL.

    As an aid in devising individualized programs for handicapped students, the document presents a breakdown of developmental skills. Behavioral statements are arranged hierarchically for eleven skill areas (subskills in parentheses); gross motor (walking, eye/arm coordination, singing), fine motor control (grasp, block manipulation, and finger…

  5. Foreign Language Skills and Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Peter A.

    Students of foreign languages insist on seeing the evidence that foreign language skills have something to do with getting jobs in the "real world." Evidence is being ammassed which does show this to be true. Several studies have revealed that American firms are looking for qualified personnel who possess language skills. A survey was initiated at…

  6. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  7. Skills agreement. Recipe for success.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Alexis

    2007-06-21

    The aims of the national health Sector Skills Agreement need regional and local implementation by stakeholders to become reality. Work in the East of England will produce a first regional skills agreement later this year. The Harlow Project is producing award winning process on recuitment and retention. PMID:17847967

  8. Skills that Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Since early 2011, the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) has been involved in supporting learning providers to prepare for and, more recently, to deliver provision through the Skills Funding Agency unit offer for the unemployed. The primary purpose of the provision is to equip learners with skills that will facilitate their…

  9. Production of a Saleable Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon

    1979-01-01

    Looks at schooling as exchange value represented by saleable job skills on exit from high school. Outlines duties and tasks for teachers and students both as managers and performers of the curriculum and discusses standard work skills, concepts, and personal behaviors for exchange value in any occupation. (MF)

  10. Practical Skills and Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    1973-01-01

    Declarers of above average, average, and below average Practical Skills on the ACT Student Profile Report were compared on the basis of OPI personality scale scores by means of multivariate analysis of covariance. Results indicated significant differences by level of Practical Skill and no significant interaction between sex and practical skill…

  11. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  12. Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice, Comp.

    Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

  13. The Rhetoric of Skill Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrah, Charles N.

    The "rhetoric of skill requirements" is a way of describing work by decomposing the human contribution into distinct components. Three important characteristics of this rhetoric are especially germane to an understanding of work. The first characteristic is that jobs and their incumbents can be fully analyzed by breaking them down into skills.…

  14. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  15. The California Basic Skills Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evolution and implementation of the California Basic Skills Initiative (CA BSI), a statewide effort to address ongoing basic skills and ESL needs of community college students and of all campus faculty, administrators, and staff who support these students. CA BSI strategies include assisting every college in assessing…

  16. Self-Managed Skill Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the Relapse Prevention model, which provides the structure in which managers can analyze potential lapses in their own skill retention. Discusses training goals, self-management, specific strategies, choosing a skill to retain, imagery and prediction, and holistic training. (CT)

  17. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  18. Skills for Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Slater, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Assessing kindergarten entry skills is complex, requiring attention to skill proficiency and interactive behaviors deemed critical for learning to occur. In our analysis of a state initiative, pilot data were collected on early literacy and numeracy and 2 aspects of important student interactions in the classroom (social and task behaviors) within…

  19. Putting Skill in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that a focus on human capability and its development can be used to rethink the high skills policy visions favoured over recent decades. The article briefly summarises the increasing concerns with government policy formulas which have adopted a narrow focus such that skill and its accreditation is regarded as the outcome rather…

  20. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  1. Doing Away with "Study Skills"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the widespread approach to enhancing student learning through separate study skills courses is ineffective, and that the term "study skills" itself has misleading implications, which are counterproductive to learning. The main argument is that learning how to study effectively at university cannot be separated from subject…

  2. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  3. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  4. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  5. Do skill-based conditioning games offer a specific training stimulus for junior elite volleyball players?

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the specificity of skill-based conditioning games and compared the effectiveness of skill-based conditioning games and instructional training for improving physical fitness and skill in junior elite volleyball players. Twenty-five junior volleyball players (mean age +/- SE, 15.6 +/- 0.1 years) participated in this study. Heart rate data were collected on all players during the Australian Junior Volleyball Championships. After the competition, players were randomly allocated into a skill-based conditioning games group (n = 12) or an instructional training group (n = 13). Each player participated in a 12-week training program that included 3 organized court training sessions per week. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected between competition and skill-based conditioning games for the percentage of time spent in low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity activities. Skill-based conditioning games induced improvements in vertical jump, spike jump, speed, agility, upper-body muscular power, and estimated maximal aerobic power, whereas technical instruction improved only spike jump and speed. Conversely, instructional training induced meaningful improvements in all measurements of skill, whereas improvements in technical skill after skill-based conditioning games were uncommon and typically small. The results of this study show that skill-based conditioning games offer a specific training stimulus to simulate the physiological demands of competition in junior elite volleyball players. Although the improvements in physical fitness after training were greater with skill-based conditioning games, instructional training resulted in greater improvements in technical skill in these athletes. These findings suggest that a combination of instructional training and skill-based conditioning games is likely to confer the greatest improvements in fitness and skill in junior elite volleyball players. PMID:18550968

  6. Evaluating Social Skills of Sexual Aggressives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Outlines the current means of assessing various social skills and applying skills training treatments to sexual aggressives. A major finding was that treatment in one skills area does not generalize into other skills areas; that is, each skills deficit must be resolved by individual treatment. (Author)

  7. Living Skills as a Core Curriculum Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufty, David

    Schools should help students develop daily living skills in addition to basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and figuring. Living skills are interpreted to include those skills which help students cope with rapid social change. Skills need to be taught on health and nutrition, safety and first aid, interpersonal relationships, family…

  8. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  9. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  10. The Special Education Core Curriculum Manual: Competency Level -- Communication Skills, Mathematics, Life Skills, and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Leonard; And Others

    The manual is intended to provide basic objectives and teaching strategies for teachers of handicapped children at the upper elementary and secondary level in the areas of communication, mathematics, life skills, and study skills. Each subject area is divided into sub-sections under which learning objectives and associated teaching activities are…

  11. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  12. Skills Analysis. Workshop Package on Skills Analysis, Skills Audit and Training Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Geoff; And Others

    This four-part package is designed to assist Australian workshop leaders running 2-day workshops on skills analysis, skills audit, and training needs analysis. Part A contains information on how to use the package and a list of workshop aims. Parts B, C, and D consist, respectively, of the workshop leader's guide; overhead transparency sheets and…

  13. Europe's Skill Challenge: Lagging Skill Demand Increases Risks of Skill Mismatch. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The main findings of Cedefop's latest skill demand and supply forecast for the European Union (EU) for 2010-20, indicate that although further economic troubles will affect the projected number of job opportunities, the major trends, including a shift to more skill-intensive jobs and more jobs in services, will continue. Between 2008 and 2010…

  14. Skills for Dealing with Feelings. Facilitator's Skill Packets 23-29. Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.

    These facilitator's skill packets contain seven individual packets on skills for dealing with feelings: (1) knowing one's feelings; (2) expressing one's feelings; (3) understanding the feelings of others; (4) dealing with someone else's anger; (5) expressing affection; (6) dealing with fear; and (7) rewarding oneself. Each unit contains the…

  15. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  16. Driving skills after whiplash.

    PubMed

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash. PMID:9309948

  17. EVA Skills Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  18. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing To use the sharing ... you may need to go to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility . Skilled nursing facilities provide care ...

  19. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods. PMID:16385137

  20. Creativity in clinical communication: from communication skills to skilled communication.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget

    2011-03-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 217-226 Objectives  The view that training in communication skills produces skilled communication is sometimes criticised by those who argue that communication is individual and intuitive. We therefore examine the validity of the concept of communication as a skill and identify alternative principles to underpin future development of this field. Methods  We critically examine research evidence about the nature of clinical communication, and draw from theory and evidence concerning education and evaluation, particularly in creative disciplines. Results  Skilled communication cannot be fully described using the concept of communication skills. Attempts to do so risk constraining and distorting pedagogical development in communication. Current education practice often masks the difficulties with the concept by introducing subjectivity into the definition and assessment of skills. As all clinical situations differ to some extent, clinical communication is inherently creative. Because it is rarely possible to attribute specific effects to specific elements of communication, communication needs to be taught and evaluated holistically. Conclusions  For communication teaching to be pedagogically and clinically valid in supporting the inherent creativity of clinical communication, it will need to draw from education theory and practice that have been developed in explicitly creative disciplines. PMID:21299597

  1. Courage as a skill.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Kathleen K

    2007-01-01

    A division vice president blows the whistle on corruption at the highest levels of his company. A young manager refuses to work on her boss's pet project because she fears it will discredit the organization. A CEO urges his board, despite push back from powerful, hostile members, to invest in environmentally sustainable technology. What is behind such high-risk, often courageous acts? Courage in business, the author has found, seldom resembles the heroic impulsiveness that sometimes surfaces in life-or-death situations. Rather, it is a special kind of calculated risk taking, learned and refined over time. Taking an intelligent gamble requires an understanding of what she calls the "courage calculation": six discrete decision-making processes that make success more likely while averting rash or unproductive behavior. These include setting attainable goals, tipping the power balance in your favor, weighing risks against benefits, and developing contingency plans. Goals may be organizational or personal. Tania Modic had both types in mind when, as a young bank manager, she overstepped her role by traveling to NewYork--on vacation time and on her own money--to revitalize some accounts that her senior colleagues had allowed to languish. Her high-risk maneuver benefited the bank and gained her a promotion. Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy weighed the risks and benefits before deciding to report a fellow officer who had plagiarized a research paper at a professional army school. In her difficult courage calculation, loyalty to army standards proved stronger than the potential discomfort and embarrassment of "snitching" on a fellow officer. When the skills behind courageous decision making align with a personal, organizational, or societal philosophy, managers are empowered to make bold moves that lead to success for their companies and their careers. PMID:17286075

  2. Strategic leadership: the essential skills.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Krupp, Steve; Howland, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    The more uncertain your environment, the greater the opportunity--if you have the leadership skills to capitalize on it. Research at the Wharton school and at the authors' consulting firm, involving more than 20,000 executives to date, has identified six skills that, when mastered and used in concert, allow leaders to think strategically and navigate the unknown effectively. They are the abilities to anticipate, challenge, interpret, decide, align, and learn. This article describes the six skills in detail and includes a self-assessment that will enable you to identify the ones that most need your attention. The authors have found that strength in one skill cannot easily compensate for a deficit in another. An adaptive strategic leader has learned to apply all six at once. PMID:23390746

  3. "Communication Skills for the Gifted"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1975-01-01

    A teacher training coordinator stresses the importance of developing gifted children's communication abilities and briefly describes two group dynamics activities ("Circle Partners" and "Think Pink") for building listening, interpretation and discussion skills. (LH)

  4. Cognitive Skills and Street Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Matthew; McGuire, Donald

    1981-01-01

    Discusses trends in the descriptive literature about children and the poor. Presents anecdotal material of children's spontaneous street play and analyzes cognitive skills exhibited in these situations. (Author/GC)

  5. A streamlined software environment for situated skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

  6. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID

  7. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  8. On Supporting Physical Skill Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Suwa, Masaki; Kato, Takaaki

    One of the main difficulties in motor skill acquisition is attributed to body control based on wrong mental models. This is true to various domains such as playing sports and playing musical instruments. In order to acquire adequate motor skill by modifying false belief, we need to help people find appropriate key points in achieving a body control and integrate them. In this paper, we investigate three approaches to realize such support. The first one is to encourage exploration of the relations among key points constituting a motor skill, using a technique of meta-cognitive verbalization. The second one is to represent a motor skill by appropriate mechanical models. The third one is to integrate rules for component tasks in achieving a compound task. These three approaches, we argue, help people build an integrated mental model consisting of multiple relations among various key points, one that seems to be indispensable for acquisition of motor skills. These ideas suggest the possibility to create new skill rules to perform difficult tasks automatically.

  9. Defining Generic Skills. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Generic skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for generic skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…

  10. Career Pathways Skill-Building Instructional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    As part of an effort to develop a skill-based education program for students that relates academic skills with workplace skills, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a working instructional model consisting of 6 areas, or strands, and 31 skills. The model is directed at students in grades 9 through 12 and recognizes the importance of…

  11. Integration and Reuse in Cognitive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to…

  12. Career Pathways Skill-Building Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    In an effort to relate academic skills with workplace skills and facilitate the transition from school to work, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a skill-based instructional model targeted at 9th through 12th graders and consisting of 6 instructional areas, or strands, and 31 related skills. This guide provides suggested activities…

  13. The Development of Cognitive Skills through Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Lois M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains methods for structuring student participation in an archaeological expedition to develop the students' self-worth and to increase appreciation for history as it relates to the students' lives. Skills acquired may include: (1) earth science; (2) mathematics; (3) map reading skills; (4) communication skills; (5) writing skills; (6)…

  14. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  15. Developing Basic Skills Programs in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Daisy G., Ed.

    Thirteen authors present twelve articles concerning the development of basic skills programs in secondary schools. These articles focus on the following topic areas: practices and strategies for teaching basic skills in secondary classrooms; language as a factor in basic skills learning; development of skills in oral communication, reading,…

  16. Job Skills Education Program. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Educational Technology.

    This publication provides materials developed by a project designed to transfer a U.S. Army computer-based basic skills curriculum to applications in the vocational skills development of civilian adults. An executive summary of the final report describes the Job Skills Education Program (JSEP), which teaches academic skills that support vocational…

  17. Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills…

  18. Assessing Writing Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further

  19. Investigating Differences in General Comprehension Skill

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Varner, Kathleen R.; Faust, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    For adults, skill at comprehending written language correlates highly with skill at comprehending spoken language. Does this general comprehension skill extend beyond language-based modalities? And if it does, what cognitive processes and mechanisms differentiate individuals who are more versus less proficient in general comprehension skill? In our first experiment, we found that skill in comprehending written and auditory stories correlates highly with skill in comprehending nonverbal, picture stories. This finding supports the hypothesis that general comprehension skill extends beyond language. We also found support for the hypotheses that poorer access to recently comprehended information marks less proficient general comprehension skill (Experiment 2) because less skilled comprehenders develop too many mental substructures during comprehension (Experiment 3), perhaps because they inefficiently suppress irrelevant information (Experiment 4). Thus, the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in capturing and representing the structure of comprehensible information provide one source of individual differences in general comprehension skill. PMID:2140402

  20. Medicine and clinical skills laboratories.

    PubMed

    Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H

    2007-05-01

    The main objective of the medical curriculum is to provide medical students with knowledge, skills and attitudes required for their practice. A decade ago, the UK Medical Council issued a report called "Tomorrow's Doctors"(1) which called for the reduction in the factual content of the medical course with the promotion of problem-based and self-dedicated learning. This report was the basis for a move toward an extensive reform of the medical and nursing curricula. The new reformed curricula enhanced the integrated medical teaching and emphasized the teaching and learning of clinical skills. However, there were still concerns about the standards and appropriateness of the skills of new medical graduates.(2)The changes in the teaching and learning methods, the radical changes in the health care delivery and the rapid growth of technology challenged the traditional way of clinical skills development and led to the emergence of clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) in the medical education of many medical and nursing schools. With the proliferation of the CSLs, it is important to evaluate and introduce the reader to their applications, bearing in mind the paucity of information on this subject particularly over the last couple of years. This article is based on literature review. PMID:23012147

  1. Phacoemulsification skills training and assessment.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Anthony; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Kersey, Tom; Benjamin, Larry; Darzi, Ara; Bloom, Philip

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND The quality of ophthalmic surgical training is increasingly challenged by an untimely convergence of several factors. This article reviews the tools currently available for training and assessment in phacoemulsification surgery. METHODS Medline searches were performed to identify articles with combinations of the following words: phacoemulsification, training, curriculum, virtual reality and assessment. Further articles were obtained by manually searching the reference lists of identified papers. RESULTS Thus far phacoemulsification training outside the operating room include wet labs and micro-surgical skills courses. These methods have been criticised for being unrealistic, inaccurate and inconsistent. Virtual reality simulators have the ability to teach phacoemulsification psychomotor skills, as well as to carry out objective assessment. Other ophthalmic surgical skill assessment tools such as Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS) and Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS) are emerging. Assessor bias is minimised by using video-based assessments, which have been shown to reduce subjectivity. Dexterity analysis technology such as the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device (ICSAD) and virtual reality simulators can be used as objective assessment devices. CONCLUSION Improvements in technology can be utilised in ophthalmology and will help to address the increasingly limited opportunities for training and assessment during training and throughout a subsequent career (re-training and re-validation). This will inevitably translate into enhanced patient care. PMID:19628497

  2. Workforce Skills Development and Engagement in Training through Skill Sets: Literature Review. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, John; Bowman, Kaye; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines the available research on skill sets. It provides background for a larger research project "Workforce skills development and engagement in training through skill sets," the report of which will be released early next year. This paper outlines the origin of skill sets and explains the difference between skill sets…

  3. An Alumni Assessment of MIS Related Job Skill Importance and Skill Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Jerod W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill…

  4. Sensitivity to Sequential Structure in Musical Savants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.

    1995-01-01

    Eight pianists with mild to moderate mental retardation and eight comparison pianists without retardation were asked to duplicate chord sequences of varying length and musical structure in an immediate memory format. All participants were sensitive to the structural dimensions of the material, and differences between groups were restricted to the…

  5. Gourmand savants and environmental determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Myslobodsky, M

    2003-05-01

    Obesity is an embodiment of a multifactorial problem with several intermediates in its casual pathway. Virtually all who have written on obesity have responded to four inter-related factors: genetic, perinatal, environmental, and consumption-expenditure energy imbalance. The message to take home is that while a molecular description of each participant of the obesity machinery seems achievable in principle, a complex model describing all of them is currently beyond our grasp. That is why the eradication of the obesity epidemic is seen in a more precise neuropsychological description of what is wrong with each subset of patients. This review proposes that the neuropsychiatric experience might be the most fundamental for it could help to refocus the view of obesity from 'traditional' environmental factors and lifestyle changes to those dominated by a more 'individual-centred' perspective in which different modes of causal attribution are appropriate. This review advocates the idea of environmental dependency as a determinant of obesity, which has been an important idea in neurosciences for more than 30 years with roots in three important areas: psychological, neuropsychiatric, and experimental. The neuropsychology of obesity is yet to become part of today's agenda of obesity research. PMID:12760447

  6. Sensitivity to sequential structure in musical savants.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1995-01-01

    Eight pianists with mild to moderate degrees of mental retardation and 8 comparison subjects were asked to duplicate chord sequences of varying length and musical structure in an immediate memory format. All participants were sensitive to the structural dimensions of the material, and differences between groups were restricted to the least structured material. PMID:7695881

  7. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  8. Perspective production in a savant autistic draughtsman.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S

    1995-05-01

    This study examines perspective construction in an autistic patient (E.C.) with quasinormal intelligence who exhibits exceptional ability when performing three-dimensional drawings of inanimate objects. Examination of E.C.'s spontaneous graphic productions showed that although his drawings approximate the 'linear perspective' system, the subject does not use vanishing points in his productions. Nevertheless, a formal computational analysis of E.C.'s accuracy in an experimental task showed that he was able to draw objects rotated in three-dimensional space more accurately than over-trained controls. This accuracy was not modified by suppressing graphic cues that permitted the construction of a vanishing point. E.C. was also able to detect a perspective incongruency between an object and a landscape at a level superior to that of control subjects. Since E.C. does not construct vanishing points in his drawings, it is proposed that his production of a precise realistic perspective is reached without the use of explicit or implicit perspective rules. 'Special abilities' in perspective are examined in relation to existing theoretical models of the cognitive deficit in autism and are compared to other special abilities in autism. PMID:7480443

  9. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  10. Communication and Critical Thinking Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2011-03-01

    This talk will discuss how faculty can help graduate students (and even postdocs) improve non-technical professional skills required for success in scientific careers. Examples to be covered will include a) planning and delivering high-quality presentations b) listening critically to others' presentations c) writing grant proposals, cover letters, and CV's d) reviewing manuscripts and responding to referee reports. The faculty member(s) involved must be prepared to project a welcoming attitude, to convey the importance of these skills, and to make a consistent investment of time.

  11. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel's attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel-Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737

  12. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel’s attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel–Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737

  13. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  14. A Skills Perception Inventory for Evaluating Postgraduate Transferable Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat; Walsh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the development, application and results of a skills evaluation inventory which was specifically designed to provide quantitative feedback on the effects of a three-day residential training course attended by PhD students early in their research careers. The course was developed at Imperial College London, partly in…

  15. Management Skills. Skills Task Force Research Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven; Winterton, Jonathan

    A task force was convened to identify the nature, extent, and pattern of skill needs and shortages for managerial occupations in the United Kingdom (UK). The task force began by examining the key challenges facing managers in the UK. The following factors were among those considered: economic policies promoting liberalization and deregulation;…

  16. Improving Listening Skills: Hazards Communication. Listening Skills: Portable Fire Extinguishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Rhonda; And Others

    Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these modules contain materials for improving listening skills that are designed to be used in conjunction with a commercial training video in a required 8-hour Occupational Safety and Health Administration safety course. The first module, which is designed to…

  17. Historic Crafts and Skills. Instructor Manual. Historic Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jim

    Designed for classroom teachers and youth leaders, this self-contained manual contains classroom tested background information, lesson plans, activities, class exercises, tests, suggested visual aids, and references for teaching basic historic crafts and skills to junior high and senior high school students. An introductory section briefly…

  18. Atlas Skills for Learning Rather than Learning Atlas Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, R. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for visual learning and describes an approach to skills instruction which aids students in using atlases. Maintains that teachers must help students see atlases as tools capable of providing useful information rather than experiencing atlas learning as an empty exercise with little relevance to their lives. (JDH)

  19. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  20. Map and Globe Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Although the guide was designed to accompany an instructional television series, it contains teacher-developed activities on map and globe skills which can be selected and adapted to the needs of elementary students independent of the series. Geographic concepts include direction, the globe, boundaries, hemispheres, scale, latitude, longitude, and…

  1. A Shared Responsibility for Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Co-investment between the state, employer, and employee is an intrinsic feature of most vocational and education training systems. The government's strategy is to "profoundly" shift responsibility for funding learning and skills from the state to individuals and businesses. At a time of stringent cuts in publicly-funded further education and the…

  2. THE SWRL COMMUNICATION SKILLS PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHUTZ, RICHARD

    A PROGRAM IN BEGINNING READING AND LISTENING SKILLS, INCLUDING COMPREHENSION OF WRITTEN AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE, IS DESCRIBED. THE PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPLISH CLEARLY DEFINED INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS AND IS CONSTANTLY EVALUATED AND REVISED IN LIGHT OF ACTUAL CLASSROOM EXPERIENCE. INDIVIDUALS FROM REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES, UNIVERSITIES, AND…

  3. Improving Motor Skills through Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to improve a child's motor skills through listening by using three simple steps--recording the auditory model, determining when to use the auditory model, and considering where to use the auditory model. She points out the importance of using a demonstration technique that helps learners understand the…

  4. Intervention LSCI Skills for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe; Chambers, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…

  5. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  6. Cognitive Skills in Workplace Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison

    This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…

  7. An Online Information Skills Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Joanne; Morgan, Fawn; Kinikin, Janae

    2013-01-01

    Looking for new way to teach high school students how to use the library and library resources? The HeLIOS (Hemingway Library Information Online Skills) tutorial, an online tool designed specifically for high school students, may be the answer. For the past two years, students at home, in classrooms, and at libraries throughout Utah have used…

  8. Credentialing of surgical skills centers.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ajit K

    2011-01-01

    Major imperatives regarding quality of patient care and patient safety are impacting surgical care and surgical education. Also, significant emphasis continues to be placed on education and training to achieve proficiency, expertise, and mastery in surgery. Simulation-based surgical education and training can be of immense help in acquiring and maintaining surgical skills in safe environments without exposing patients to risk. Opportunities for repetition of tasks can be provided to achieve pre-established standards, and knowledge and skills can be verified using valid and reliable assessment methods. Also, expertise and mastery can be attained through repeated practice, specific feedback, and establishment of progressively higher learning goals. Simulation-based education and training can help surgeons maintain their skills in infrequently performed procedures and regain proficiency in procedures they have not performed for a period of time. In addition, warm-ups and surgical rehearsals in simulated environments should enhance performance in real settings. Major efforts are being pursued to advance the field of simulation-based surgical education. New education and training models involving validation of knowledge and skills are being designed for practicing surgeons. A competency-based national surgery resident curriculum was recently launched and is undergoing further enhancements to address evolving education and training needs. Innovative simulation-based surgical education and training should be offered at state-of-the-art simulation centers, and credentialing and accreditation of these centers are key to achieving their full potential. PMID:21549986

  9. Eight Skills in Future Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    This article elaborates eight skills in future work which are based on three main changes and are available to different domains of professions. The first change is an increasing technological world for the future. Technology becomes a part of human being's life and affects people's daily life. Mastering relevant competences is necessary to boost…

  10. Community Living Skills Guide: Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Kathy

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Sexuality. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  11. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  12. National Skill Standards Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Vocational Technical Education Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This guide was developed to encourage state policy makers and local school boards to implement the national skill standards formulated by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and the National Automotive Technician Education Foundation (NATEF) in high schools, technical schools, and technical and community colleges.…

  13. Communications skills for CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, M.

    1984-01-01

    A pilot training program in communication skills, listening, conflict solving, and task orientation, for a small but growing commuter airline is discussed. The interactions between pilots and management, and communication among crew members are examined. Methods for improvement of cockpit behavior management personnel relations are investigated.

  14. Developmentally Appropriate Map Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxim, George W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a kindergarten/first-grade and a second-grade program for teaching map reading skills. Suggests that map- reading instruction is required to improve children's geography knowledge. Provides ideas on how to observe the environment, use photos, encourage block play, use books, share maps, construct a model of the classroom, read cardinal…

  15. Teaching Buddy Skills to Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kris; Shafer, Karin; Goldstein, Howard; Kaczmarek, Louise

    1997-01-01

    This manual describes the buddy skills training program, which provides teachers with a set of tested strategies designed to facilitate interactions and support the development of friendships between preschoolers with and without disabilities. The training procedures are philosophically based on social exchange theory. To support the concept of…

  16. Social Skills. News Digest #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James, Ed.; Hobbs, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    This edition of the newsletter of the National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth introduces methods used to change children's behavior and help them acquire the skills needed to work with others, have friendships, achieve independence, and enjoy normal social relationships. Brief articles have the following titles: "Social…

  17. Task Analyses and Objectives for Trainable Mentally Retarded: Communication Skills [and] Daily Living Skills [and] Motor Skills [and] Quantitative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    The document is comprised of objectives and information on step-by-step tasks for instruction of trainable mentally retarded students and for development of individualized education programs. Each objective includes information on materials, behavioral criteria, and a chart to assess task analyzed steps. Four main skill areas are covered (sample…

  18. Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  19. Technology and the Four Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Most L2 instructors implement their curriculum with an eye to improving the four skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Absent in this vision of language are notions of pragmatic, sociolinguistic, and multicultural competencies. Although current linguistic theories posit a more complex, interactive, and integrated model of language,…

  20. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  1. Assessing a Political Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert M.

    This paper describes and evaluates a political skills course for college students. Course objectives include teaching students to do the following: organize and run a meeting; bargain effectively; communicate within and between groups; manage a crisis; organize a political coalition; be aware of personal stress and some of the ways to reduce it;…

  2. Skills for Innovation and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Innovation holds the key to ongoing improvements in living standards, as well as to solving pressing social challenges. Skilled people play a crucial role in innovation through the new knowledge they generate, how they adopt and develop existing ideas, and through their ability to learn new competencies and adapt to a changing environment. This…

  3. Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Don

    1979-01-01

    The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

  4. Assessing Students' Technical Skill Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…

  5. The Search for Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Leonard L.

    A review of communication models and research reveals four areas of communications skill: listening, empathy, non-verbal communication, and expressive abilities. Models of listening behavior suggest that, rather than being a passive activity, listening involves sorting stimuli and encoding messages, analyzing listener needs, and assessing speaker…

  6. Cognitive Achievements in Identification Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Bogner, Franz X.

    2006-01-01

    Species identification tasks are generally accepted as fundamental aspects of biodiversity education. Our educational training unit, therefore, focused on identification skills by introducing stuffed specimens in combination with identification books and preparation booklets. We limited the number of bird species to six. 492 secondary school…

  7. Key Skills and Competencies. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on key skills and competencies and human resource development (HRD). "Career Related Competencies" (Marinka A.C.T. Kuijpers) reports findings from surveys completed by Dutch employees who identified these issues: self-reflection is more important than career control; age and gender influence attitude toward…

  8. Listening Skills in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene; Van Duzer, Carol

    This article examines the listening process and factors affecting listening. It also suggests general guidelines for teaching and assessing listening and gives examples of activities for practicing and developing listening skills for the workplace. Listening is a demanding process that involves the listener, speaker, message content, and…

  9. Meaningful Maths: Teaching Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Miranda Pacaya

    2007-01-01

    In the author's experience, lessons that are clearly meaningful for students beyond the classroom can foster positive attitudes, increase enjoyment, and enhance learning. In this paper she offers suggestions on how to plan for meaningful mathematics lessons using the topic of map skills as an example. She also presents some specific ideas for…

  10. Skills: Onward through the Fog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Jean; Sawma, Terry; Statz, Charles; Vela, Jesse

    The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) was asked to examine the demands of the workplace and determine whether young people are capable of meeting these demands. Six panels were established to examine all manners of jobs from manufacturing to government employment and conduct in-depth interviews with workers in a wide…

  11. Honing Language Skills Using Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhavana, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    Proficiency in English is a prerequisite for students to bag a place in the on/off campus interviews. Irrespective of the profession, vocation and background the students have to hone their LSRW skills in English. Selection procedures like group discussion and video conferencing are hurdles to students who lack language proficiency in English. All…

  12. Helping Children Develop Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Deanna

    Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…

  13. Whole Life Living Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This manual provides ideas to enable Whole Life Program staff and friends to begin expanding on ways to reach and teach survival skills to adults. A list of suggestions for use of the curriculum activities and process appears first. Activities are provided for 11 curriculum areas: emergency procedures; apartment safety; apartment upkeep; food…

  14. Communication Skills for Preventive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Catherine E.; O'Donnell, Joseph F.; Novack, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    Defines and examines a communication model for enhancing the provision and adoption of preventive practices in the primary care setting and discusses teaching that model in the medical school context. Methods for integrating communication skills for prevention into the medical school curriculum are discussed, using examples from Dartmouth (New…

  15. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student…

  16. The True Information Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2001-01-01

    Scrutinizes three prevalent assumptions: (1) the Internet will change everything and everybody; (2) eventually, all human beings will be connected; and (3) people will have to learn a completely new way of thinking. Identifies "nondigital" skills that remain important: interpersonal effectiveness, filtering, propaganda resistance, breadth of…

  17. Entrepreneurship Education: Applying the Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Designed for use with the level 1 curriculum guide (Entrepreneurship Education: Learning the Skills), this level 2 (volume 2) guide focuses on planning and completing student projects. The first of three major sections is designed to familiarize students with how projects are completed. The second section, Resources for Planning and Completing…

  18. Basic Skills--Basic Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conference Board of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The experience of eight prominent Canadian business organizations was examined in terms of how basic skills deficits are identified in their work force, the impact of those deficiencies on organizational competitiveness, and why corporate programs are developed in response to the issue. Some of the key findings were as follows: (1) employee…

  19. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  20. Hard Facts and Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terego, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The argument now raging in academic circles pits those who espouse teaching 21st century skills against those who believe that schools should be teaching explicit and well-sequenced content. This debate has largely been framed as an either-or proposition. In this author's view, portraying this debate as one between two mutually exclusive sides…

  1. Simulations Helping Novices Hone Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Real-time classroom simulations like TeachME, a University of Central Florida project, offer promise for a host of teacher-training applications. Through them, candidates could learn to work with different groups of students, or practice a discrete skill such as classroom management. Most of all, such simulations give teachers in training the…

  2. Promoting Thinking Skills in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glevey, Kwame E.

    2006-01-01

    How children are guided in the development of their thinking is now crucial in the twenty-first century. Over the past decades special thinking skills programmes have been developed to enhance thinking but these programmes have so far been unable to produce clear evidence to support their effectiveness. This article argues that due to the complex…

  3. Skill Components of Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anne E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Some task analysis methods break down a task into a hierarchy of subgoals. Although an important tool of many fields of study, learning to create such a hierarchy (redescription) is not trivial. To further the understanding of what makes task analysis a skill, the present research examined novices' problems with learning Hierarchical Task…

  4. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  5. Skills for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a JISC-funded project which aimed to promote the benefits of improved information skills amongst university managers and administrators. The project ran from January to July 2006 and involved a survey into the way in which managers and administrators use information, followed by a UK-wide training programme. A self-evaluation…

  6. Proposal: Rural Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Stephen C.; Mallan, John T.

    A proposed project would develop a rural policy studies program for high school seniors in northern New York State. The program would deal with value positions as they pertain to the improvement of social conditions, use a variety of sources and kinds of knowledge, emphasize development and use of thinking skills, and concentrate on how knowledge…

  7. Nursing Principles & Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units for a course on nursing principles and skills needed by practical nurses. The 14 units of instruction cover the following: (1) using medical terminology; (2) practicing safety procedures; (3) using the nursing process for care planning; (4) using infection control techniques; (5) preparing a patient…

  8. Working for Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibby, Elizabeth; Jones, Andy; Marsland, Phil

    A project aimed to use United Kingdom full-time undergraduate student work experience as the vehicle for development of the students' skills to improve their subsequent employability upon graduation. It took an employer-led approach to develop a model transferable to other employers and higher education (HE) institutions. Arrangements were made…

  9. Enterprise Skills for the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise economy, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…

  10. Administrative Support Occupations Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    This document establishes a set of performance expectations based on current practices in administrative support occupations. It is designed to assist individuals, training providers, employers, management personnel, and professional organizations in matching knowledge, abilities, and interests to knowledge and skills required for success in…

  11. Library and Information Skills Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vastine, Jim

    This workbook for a library and information skills course at the University of South Florida (USF), Tampa campus, contains the following sections: (1) syllabus; (2) tentative course outline; (3) statement of the course goal, general objectives, and objectives related to LC (Library of Congress) classification and the online catalog, dictionaries…

  12. Work Skills for Prevocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Donald Ray

    A prevocational work skills training program for moderately retarded students emphasizes the need for developmentally appropriate tasks, concern for increasing students' attention span, orderly arrangement within tasks, and increased proficiency after training. Major units in the program focus on concepts of similarity and difference, large and…

  13. Community Living Skills Guide: Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Sheila; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Art. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to eventual…

  14. Skills for All: Proposals for a National Skills Agenda. Final Report of the National Skills Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

    In 1997, a skills task force began a 2-year process of gathering input from English employers and post-16 education and training practitioners and formulating a national skills agenda. The agenda's goals included instilling a culture of lifelong learning in the United Kingdom, better anticipating the evolving skill requirements of employment, and…

  15. Urban College Graduates: Their Investments in and Returns for Strong Quantitative Skills, Social Capital Skills, and Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Marie Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined strong quantitative skills, social capital skills, and soft skills of urban college graduates using data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Household Survey. The urban college graduates lived in Atlanta, Boston, or Los Angeles and had bachelor's, master's, PhD, and professional degrees. Among the three skills…

  16. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

    PubMed

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. PMID:26296039

  17. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  18. Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the behaviors sampled, test administration, scoring, norms, reliability, and validity of the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS), an individually administered test that measures skill development in reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing. (BL)

  19. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need to be transferred to a skilled nursing facility. You should talk about this issue with ... Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare coverage of skilled nursing facility care. Revised January 2015. Available at: www. ...

  20. 49 CFR 383.113 - Required skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.113 Required skills. (a) Pre-trip... on-street and off-street conditions. (e) Simulation technology. A State may utilize simulators...

  1. 49 CFR 383.113 - Required skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.113 Required skills. (a) Pre-trip... on-street and off-street conditions. (e) Simulation technology. A State may utilize simulators...

  2. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need to be transferred to a skilled nursing facility. You should talk about this issue with ... Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare coverage of skilled nursing facility care. Revised January 2015. www.caretelinns.com/ ...

  3. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  4. Skilling Up the Workforce for New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the workforce training process for increasing employee skills and knowledge in building technologies. Each phase in the development and verification of skills and capabilities required to execute work within an individual's area of performance is examined. (GR)

  5. Developing Listening Skills with Authentic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to help English-as-a-Second-Language learners develop effective listening skills. Suggests a process for helping ESL learners develop their listening skills and makes suggestions for how this might be achieved with authentic materials. (VWL)

  6. Transference of Skills between Sports and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jonathan; Srivastava, Ashok; Woo, Hong Seng

    1998-01-01

    A literature review and survey on transferability of skills from sports to business and evidence of mutually beneficial skills transfer. Organizations sponsoring sports offered more than monetary assistance, including managerial help, computer equipment, marketing, etc. (SK)

  7. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    MedlinePlus

    ... to go to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility . Skilled nursing facilities provide care for people who are not yet ... themselves at home. After your stay at the facility, you may be able to return home and ...

  8. The Promise of Middle-Skill Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III; Blackman, Orville; Lewis, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Labor market economists argue that it is difficult to fit occupations into a few skill categories, but most will agree that there are at least three. In this schema, high-skill occupations are those in the professional/technical and managerial categories. Low-skill occupations are in the traditional, in-person service and agricultural categories.…

  9. Bowling: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The manual, part of a series on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, presents ideas for coaching and teaching bowling skills to mentally retarded persons. An overview introduces the sport and lists long-term goals, short-term objectives, and benefits. Warm up exercises are followed by two levels of skill instruction for rolling,…

  10. An Operational Model of Motor Skill Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Victor E. D.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to diagnose motor skills is important for physical educators. The paper discusses processes critical in motor skill diagnosis, proposing an operational model of motor skill development diagnosis for teacher educators and practitioners. The model provides a foundation upon which to build instructional strategies for developing…

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Medical Office Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  12. Creating a National Skills Corporation. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Rob

    To address the skills shortages stemming from the transition to a more technological and skills-intensive economy, Congress established a program whereby funds from H-1B visa fees would provide seed funds for private companies, labor, and government to join together in creating training alliances focused on skills in short supply. Unfortunately,…

  13. Teaching Thinking Skills Using the Concept Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan; Splittgerber, Fred

    A category system for organizing six thinking skills and methods for teaching these skills, using the concept of time, are provided. Representing a proposed sequential order of development, the six thinking skills are: (1) imaging--the creating of an internal mental representation of an external thing and the labeling of that representation, (2)…

  14. Life Skills. Teacher Experiences. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Twenty elementary and secondary teachers participated in workshops designed to present the rationale and process for identifying and effectively teaching parenting skills. Selected classroom experiences are described and analyzed by the teachers, and the grade level, curriculum, school, instructor and life skill involved are given. The skills were…

  15. Thinking Skills in England's National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glevey, Kwame E.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out to explore some of the issues raised by the introduction of a number of particular skills in the English National Curriculum known collectively as thinking skills. These skills are now embedded in the National Curriculum and teachers are required to address them as part of their daily duties. This article argues that…

  16. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  17. Basic Skills Centers for Small High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Laura M.

    A skills center can help students who are not able to demonstrate appropriate mastery level skills in reading and mathematics. The Girard school system (Kansas) has had two skills centers operating successfully since 1975. Individualized methods combined with group interaction are used to accommodate individuality and different learning styles.…

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Nursing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Press Operations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  20. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  1. Adapting Basic Skills to Counsel Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdman, Phyllis; Lampe, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses modification of basic adult interviewing skills, often the focus of skill development component in counselor education programs, for more effective application with elementary-age children. Four specific areas regarding counseling skills discussed: establishing the appropriate physical environment, building trust, maintaining the…

  2. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Landscape Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the landscape technician cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 19 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in…

  3. Social and Emotional Smarts: Key Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes several skills that educators and parents should promote in children and teens entrusted to their care. The skills include self-awareness, self-regulation of emotion, self-monitoring and performance, empathy and perspective taking, and social skills in handling relationships. (SM)

  4. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  5. Teaching First Aid Skills in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stem, Betty; Test, David W.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are procedures for identifying important first aid skills, developing skill analyses, and teaching the skills. The procedures were successfully used to teach moderately mentally handicapped students to communicate an emergency, administer first aid for minor injuries, apply plastic bandages to minor injuries, and administer first aid for…

  6. Integrating Speaking Skills into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan Monroe, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Stressing the importance of incorporating speech skills throughout the curriculum, the articles in this journal provide ideas for developing speaking skills in all subjects and at all levels. The titles of the articles and their authors include the following: (1) "Speaking Skills: A Few Tips from an Old Timer" (Geoffrey R. Butler); (2)…

  7. A Comparison of Student Skill Knowledge Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Elizabeth; Nugent, Rebecca; Dean, Nema

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental goal of educational research is identifying students' current stage of skill mastery (complete/partial/none). In recent years a number of cognitive diagnosis models have become a popular means of estimating student skill knowledge. However, these models become difficult to estimate as the number of students, items, and skills grows.…

  8. Enhancing Systems-Thinking Skills with Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2008-01-01

    Systems thinking is an essential cognitive skill that enables individuals to develop an integrative understanding of a given subject at the conceptual and systemic level. Yet, systems thinking is not usually an innate skill. Helping students develop systems-thinking skills warrants attention from educators. This paper describes a study examining…

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Nursing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards for the nursing cluster are intended to be a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. An introduction provides the Illinois perspective; Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing…

  10. Information Skills for an Information Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawith, Gwen

    1986-01-01

    Although information skills are the most basic of skills, the tendency is to teach strategies related to educational projects, erroneously assuming that these "information skills" are applicable to everyday decision-making. Educated imaginations are needed for today's variety of lifelong creative information situations. (17 references) (CJH)

  11. Virtual Reality Simulator Developed Welding Technology Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Faizal Amin Nur; Baser, Jamil Abd; Masran, Saiful Hadi; Razali, Nizamuddin; Rahim, Bekri

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the suitability of VR welding simulator application towards CBT in developing welding skills upon new trainees at the Centre of Instructor and Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) Shah Alam Selangor and National Youth Skills Institute (IKBN) Pagoh Johor. The significance of the study was to create a…

  12. Behavioral Procedures in Community Survival Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, R. Wayne; Shook, Gerry L.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews strategies for selecting and prioritizing community survival skills for mentally retarded persons and tactics for performing a behavioral task analysis of the identified skill. The behavioral procedures common to community survival skills training programs are described and representative research is reviewed. (Author/CL)

  13. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Legal Office Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the legal office cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 151 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  14. Enhancing Thinking Skills in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ghent, Kathryn; Kanira, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    A case study approach was adopted to investigate two thinking skills programmes for a maximum variation sample of five- to six-year-olds in four schools, in two local authorities (LAs), in England and Wales, using multiple methods. School staff interviewed felt that thinking skills programmes enhanced critical thinking skills and improved use of…

  15. Using Thinking Skills To Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    In theory, effective thinking is a trait that is valued by schools at all levels; however, it is a skill that is very rarely taught. Teaching thinking skills explicitly and embedding them into a literacy curriculum can help students become more effective critical and creative thinkers. This article defines thinking skills, describes how they…

  16. Developing Real-World Spelling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeletti, Sara; Peterson, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies for incorporation into elementary level spelling programs to help students become real-world spellers. The article explains how to make spelling part of the writing process by expanding the word bank, improving proofreading skills, building dictionary skills, and conducting a roundup spelling test to practice new skills. (SM)

  17. Comparing Work Skills Analysis Tools. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Kathryn

    This document outlines the processes and outcomes of a research project conducted to review work skills analysis tools (products and/or services) that profile required job skills and/or assess individuals' acquired skills. The document begins with a brief literature review and discussion of pertinent terminology. Presented next is a list of…

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Foodservice Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the food service cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 41 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  19. Construction of a Physician Skills Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, George V.; Zarconi, Joseph; Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study applied Holland's RIASEC typology to develop a "Physician Skills Inventory". We identified the transferable skills and abilities that are critical to effective performance in medicine and had 140 physicians in 25 different specialties rate the importance of those skills. Principal component analysis of their responses produced…

  20. Evaluating Presentation Skills of Volunteer Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Donna K.

    A systematic method for evaluating the presentation skills of volunteer trainers would enable the discovery of hidden problems. It would also increase individual trainer skills and satisfaction and improve the overall effectiveness of the training program. A first step is to determine the general presentation skills a successful volunteer trainer…

  1. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  2. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  3. Numerically Controlled Machine Tools and Worker Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Jeffrey H.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of data from "Industry Wage Surveys of Machinery Manufacturers" on the skill levels of 57 machining jobs found that introduction of numerically controlled machine tools has resulted in a very small reduction in skill levels or no significant change, supporting neither the deskilling argument nor argument that skill levels increase with…

  4. Using Children's Books to Teach Inquiry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Flevares, Lucia M.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teachers realize the importance of inquiry-based instruction for children's science learning and their development of inquiry skills. The term "inquiry skills" refers to the science process skills scientists use to investigate the natural world--observing, inferring, posing questions, recording data, looking for patterns, and…

  5. Psychological Skill Training and the Aggressive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; Pentz, MaryAnn

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structured learning approach to psychological skill training with aggressive adolescents, examining 30 evaluation-oriented studies of skills training with such youth. Emphasized are relevant experimental designs, prescriptive utilization of skills training, means for enhancing trainee motivation, transfer and maintenance,…

  6. Ohio's Resource Guide for Voluntary Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springfield-Clark Joint Vocational School, Springfield, OH.

    Voluntary skill standards are industry-based, industry-verified performance specifications that identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities individuals need for success in an industry. This resource guide is designed to raise awareness of voluntary skill standards, identify their benefits, and encourage stakeholder involvement in implementation…

  7. Determining the Study Skills of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural Dincer, Guner; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is known that success of a student is affected by the skills of motivation, time management. Studies have showed that there is positive relationship between academic achievement and study skills of a student. Purpose: It is thought that study skills of learners should be defined to be more successful on teaching-learning process.…

  8. Contributions of Study Skills to Academic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Seibert, Jill K.

    2002-01-01

    Study skills are fundamental to academic competence. Effective study skills are associated with positive outcomes across multiple academic content areas and for diverse learners. The purpose of this article is to describe an information-processing perspective on the contribution of study skills to academic competence, and to identify…

  9. Team-Skills Training Enhances Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stratford, Robert J.; Bizo, Lewis A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of team-skills training on collaborative learning in a university setting. Groups worked under one of three conditions: (1) groups received team-skill training as a group and remained in that group (Trained-Together), (2) groups received team-skills training, but were then reassigned into new groups…

  10. Replacing Technically Skilled Workers: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanciew, Cheryl E. P.; Wither, Steven V.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the early 1900s, the United States could either find technically skilled workers based upon their backgrounds or was able to train workers quickly. Farmers, military personnel, and other sources of skilled workers were available to fill the needs of the workforce. These sources of readily available skilled workers are no longer as…

  11. Early Childhood Motor Skills Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelsgaard, Cheri

    This activity book is designed to assist teachers in enhancing preschool children's motor skills, physical development, and social skills, and to build young children's self-esteem. The activities are designed for both disabled and nondisabled children. The first section of the book suggests specific activities in 13 categories of motor skills:…

  12. The Skills Minister's In-Tray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock's, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In the "Adults Learning" autumn issue, the journal staff asked key players in the learning and skills sector what they thought should be at the top of new skills minister Matthew Hancock's in-tray. The new minister shares that his job in the further education and skills sector is to rise to the challenge and play his full part in giving people of…

  13. Finally: A Cure for the Skills Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberger, John

    2001-01-01

    The Manufacturing Skill Standards Council was established to create a system of skill standards, assessments, and certification designed to ensure a qualified, mobile work force to meet the needs of the economy in the 21st century. The system would provide a long-term cure for the skills gap confronting manufacturers. (JOW)

  14. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  15. Management Skills in the Housing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Geoff; Garrick, John; Schaafsma, Hank; Fishman, Rosalie; Stone, Jacqueline

    An assessment of Australia's housing industry determined the level of management skills currently existing in the industry, identified current and future management skills required for the industry, and evaluated current management skill development strategies. Data were collected from the following activities: review of recent literature; study…

  16. Training of component reading skills.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, C A

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen reading-disabled boys, classified according to reading subskill deficits, formed three subgroups: Oral Reading, Associative, and Sequential. On the rationale that training procedures emphasizing accuracy and speed of response to letters, syllables, and words would improve reading skills, the children were trained daily for two and one-half months. Two schedules of testing and training allowed for an untrained control group and a follow-up group. The results indicated that the computer-assisted training procedures were not only effective in improving component reading skills, but in addition there was a transfer of training to achievement measures of reading word recognition. This study lends support to the hypothesis that training according to subgroup classification, using training procedures which incorporate an application of the automaticity theory and a combination of task-analytic and process-oriented models, is an effective training approach for reading-disabled children. PMID:24243467

  17. Comparing the Word Processing and Reading Comprehension of Skilled and Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldenoglu, I. Birkan; Kargin, Tevhide; Miller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the word processing and reading comprehension skilled in and less skilled readers. Forty-nine, 2nd graders (26 skilled and 23 less skilled readers) participated in this study. They were tested with two experiments assessing their processing of isolated real word and pseudoword pairs as well as their reading…

  18. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  19. Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives: A Strategic Approach to Skills Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Recognising both the complexity of skills policies and the potential for peer learning, the OECD has developed a global Skills Strategy that helps countries to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their national skills systems, benchmark them internationally, and develop policies that can transform better skills into better jobs, economic…

  20. A Problem in Online Interpersonal Skills Training: Do Learners Practice Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doo, Min Young

    2006-01-01

    One problem found when teaching interpersonal skills online is learners' lack of opportunity for skill practice. The online learning environment is deficient in face-to-face interaction, and opportunities for self-regulation make it difficult to ensure learners practice skills despite the positive effects of such practice on skill improvement. The…

  1. Conditional Subspace Clustering of Skill Mastery: Identifying Skills that Separate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Rebecca; Ayers, Elizabeth; Dean, Nema

    2009-01-01

    In educational research, a fundamental goal is identifying which skills students have mastered, which skills they have not, and which skills they are in the process of mastering. As the number of examinees, items, and skills increases, the estimation of even simple cognitive diagnosis models becomes difficult. We adopt a faster, simpler approach:…

  2. The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

  3. Accept Responsibility. Work Skills: Work Maturity Skills Competency 6.0. Connections. School and Work Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    This learning module is one of a series that teaches the competencies of "Job Search Skills," part of the "Work Skills" package--a set of competency-based instructional materials written for low-level readers that prepares students with specific job search and job keeping skills. ("Work Skills" is part of the "Connections" package, which…

  4. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  5. Enhancing Generalization of Social Skills: Making Social Skills Curricula Effective after the Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.

    2008-01-01

    Sometimes educators are puzzled by how students can demonstrate a social skill perfectly during a practice session in a social skills curriculum but fail to use the same skill in real-life situations. Students with a lack of social skills are more likely to experience teacher and peer rejection, and are more at risk for negative life outcomes,…

  6. Improving arteriovenous fistula cannulation skills.

    PubMed

    Ball, Lynda K

    2005-01-01

    Cannulation of arteriovenous fistulae is technically more challenging than cannulation of arteriovenous grafts. With the advent of the National Vascular Improvement Initiative, Fistula First, the United States has seen an increase in the number of arteriovenous fistulae. The problem we now face is how to refocus and reeducate nurses to the intricacies of arteriovenous fistula cannulation. Through evidenced-based practice and current best-demonstrated practices, this article will provide the tools needed to improve arteriovenous fistulae cannulation skills. PMID:16425809

  7. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  8. Customer service skills for survival.

    PubMed

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium? PMID:10623133

  9. Psychomotor skills in medical ultrasound imaging: an analysis of the core skill set.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Hyett, Jon

    2014-08-01

    Sonographers use psychomotor skills to perform medical ultrasound examinations. Psychomotor skills describe voluntary movements of the limb, joints, and muscles in response to sensory stimuli and are regulated by the motor neural cortex in the brain. We define a psychomotor skill in relation to medical ultrasound imaging as "the unique mental and motor activities required to execute a manual task safely and efficiently for each clinical situation." Skills in clinical ultrasound practice may be open or closed; most skills used in medical ultrasound imaging are open. Open skills are both complex and multidimensional. Visuomotor and visuospatial psychomotor skills are central components of medical ultrasound imaging. Both types of skills rely on learners having a visual exemplar or standard of performance with which to reference their skill performance and evaluate anatomic structures. These are imperative instructional design principles when teaching psychomotor skills. PMID:25063399

  10. Advances in Teaching and Assessing Nontechnical Skills.

    PubMed

    Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-08-01

    The importance of surgeons' nontechnical skills is gaining widespread recognition as a critical element of high-quality and safe surgical care. This article reviews the knowledge base on training and assessing surgeons, and operating room (OR) teams, in nontechnical aspects of their performance. Nontechnical skills are defined in the context of the OR and key assessment instruments that have been developed to capture these skills are reviewed. Key developments that have taken place in the past decade on formal skills training are discussed, and recommendations to further advance nontechnical skills and team-based training and assessment in surgery are presented. PMID:26210977

  11. Mechanical considerations and design skills.

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, Robert L.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide experienced-based insights into design processes that will benefit designers beginning their employment at Sandia National Laboratories or those assuming new design responsibilities. The main purpose of this document is to provide engineers with the practical aspects of system design. The material discussed here may not be new to some readers, but some of it was to me. Transforming an idea to a design to solve a problem is a skill, and skills are similar to history lessons. We gain these skills from experience, and many of us have not been fortunate enough to grow in an environment that provided the skills that we now need. I was fortunate to grow up on a farm where we had to learn how to maintain and operate several different kinds of engines and machines. If you are like me, my formal experience is partially based upon the two universities from which I graduated, where few practical applications of the technologies were taught. What was taught was mainly theoretical, and few instructors had practical experience to offer the students. I understand this, as students have their hands full just to learn the theoretical. The practical part was mainly left up to 'on the job experience'. However, I believe it is better to learn the practical applications early and apply them quickly 'on the job'. System design engineers need to know several technical things, both in and out of their field of expertise. An engineer is not expected to know everything, but he should know when to ask an expert for assistance. This 'expert' can be in any field, whether it is in analyses, drafting, machining, material properties, testing, etc. The best expert is a person who has practical experience in the area of needed information, and consulting with that individual can be the best and quickest way for one to learn. If the information provided here can improve your design skills and save one design from having a problem, save cost of development, or

  12. Integration and reuse in cognitive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Dario D

    2013-07-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to mechanisms that proceduralize knowledge into more efficient forms, skill acquisition requires tight integration of newly acquired knowledge and previously learned knowledge. Skill acquisition also benefits from reuse of existing knowledge across disparate task domains, relying on indexicals to reference and share necessary information across knowledge components. To demonstrate these ideas, the article proposes a computational model of skill acquisition from instructions focused on integration and reuse, and applies this model to account for behavior across seven task domains. PMID:23551386

  13. Establishing fire safety skills using behavioral skills training.

    PubMed

    Houvouras, Andrew J; Harvey, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area, and (c) report the lighter to an adult. The response sequence was maintained for both participants after training. The use of in situ assessment to evoke and observe infrequent behavior is discussed. PMID:24764225

  14. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

  15. Life Skills Activities for Secondary Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix, Darlene

    This resource for life skills activities for adolescents with special needs covers aspects of interpersonal relationships, communication skills, academic and school skills, practical living skills, vocational skills, problem-solving skills, and lifestyle choices. Included are 190 illustrated activity sheets with related exercises, discussion…

  16. Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

  17. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  18. Internal and external feedback circuits for skilled forelimb movement

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Eiman; Fink, Andrew J.P.; Jessell, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Skilled motor behavior emerges from interactions between efferent neural pathways that induce muscle contraction and feedback systems that report and refine movement. Two broad classes of feedback projections modify motor output, one from the periphery and a second that originates within the central nervous system. The mechanisms through which these pathways influence movement remain poorly understood, however. Here we discuss recent studies that delineate spinal circuitry that binds external and internal feedback pathways to forelimb motor behavior. A spinal presynaptic inhibitory circuit regulates the strength of external feedback, promoting limb stability during goal-directed reaching. A distinct excitatory propriospinal circuit conveys copies of motor commands to the cerebellum, establishing an internal feedback loop that rapidly modulates forelimb motor output. The behavioral consequences of manipulating these two circuits reveal distinct controls on motor performance, and provide an initial insight into feedback strategies that underlie skilled forelimb movement. PMID:25699987

  19. Research Trend of Physical Skill Science --Towards Elucidation of Physical Skill--

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Ueno, Ken; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Kamisato, Shihoko; Kawamoto, Ryuji; Shibuya, Koji; Shiratori, Naruhiko; Suwa, Masaki; Soga, Masato; Taki, Hirokazu; Fujinami, Tsutomu; Hori, Satoshi; Motomura, Yoichi; Morita, Souhei

    Physical skills and language skills are both fundamental intelligent abilities of human being. In this paper, we focus our attention to such sophisticated physical skills as playing sports and playing instruments and introduce research activities aiming at elucidating and verbalizing them. This research area has been launched recently. We introduce approaches from physical modeling, measurements and data analysis, cognitive science and human interface. We also discuss such issues as skill acquisition and its support systems. Furthermore, we consider a fundamental issue of individual differences occurring in every application of skill elucidation. Finally we introduce several attempts of skill elucidation in the fields of dancing, manufacturing, playing string instruments, sports science and medical care.

  20. The odontology victim identification skill assessment system.

    PubMed

    Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A

    2010-05-01

    Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills. PMID:20345802

  1. Project Management: Essential Skill of Nurse Informaticists.

    PubMed

    Sipes, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    With the evolution of nursing informatics (NI), the list of skills has advanced from the original definition that included 21 competencies to 168 basic competencies identified in the TIGER-based Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies (TANIC) and 178 advanced skills in the Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment (NICA) L3/L4 developed by Chamberlain College of Nursing, Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT). Of these competencies, project management is one of the most important essentials identified since it impacts all areas of NI skills and provides an organizing framework for processes and projects including skills such as design, planning, implementation, follow-up and evaluation. Examples of job roles that specifically require project management skills as an essential part of the NI functions include management, administration, leadership, faculty, graduate level master's and doctorate practicum courses. But first, better understanding of the NI essential skills is vital before adequate education and training programs can be developed. PMID:27332201

  2. Teaching cognitive skills improves learning in surgical skills courses: a blinded, prospective, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kohls-Gatzoulis, Julie A.; Regehr, Glenn; Hutchison, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the teaching of cognitive skills within a technical skills course, we carried out a blinded, randomized prospective study. Methods Twenty-one junior residents (postgraduate years 1– 3) from a single program at a surgical-skills training centre were randomized to 2 surgical skills courses teaching total knee arthroplasty. One course taught only technical skill and had more repetitions of the task (5 or 6). The other focused more on developing cognitive skills and had fewer task repetitions (3 or 4). All were tested with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) both before and after the course, as well as a pre- and postcourse error-detection exam and a postcourse exam with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to test their cognitive skills. Results Both groups' technical skills as assessed by OSATS were equivalent, both pre- and postcourse. Taking their courses improved the technical skills of both groups (OSATS, p < 0.01) over their pre-course scores. Both groups demonstrated equivalent levels of knowledge on the MCQ exam, but the cognitive group scored better on the error-detection test (p = 0.02). Conclusions Cognitive skills training enhances the ability to correctly execute a surgical skill. Furthermore, specific training and practice are required to develop procedural knowledge into appropriate cognitive skills. Surgeons need to be trained to judge the correctness of their actions. PMID:15362330

  3. Non-technical skills for scrub practitioners.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2012-12-01

    The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems. PMID:23413634

  4. Dyslexia and music: measuring musical timing skills.

    PubMed

    Overy, Katie; Nicolson, Roderick I; Fawcett, Angela J; Clarke, Eric F

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few decades, a growing amount of research has suggested that dyslexics have particular difficulties with skills involving accurate or rapid timing, including musical timing skills. It has been hypothesised that music training may be able to remediate such timing difficulties, and have a positive effect on fundamental perceptual skills that are important in the development of language and literacy skills (Overy, 2000). In order to explore this hypothesis further, the nature and extent of dyslexics' musical difficulties need to be examined in more detail. In the present study, a collection of musical aptitude tests (MATs) were designed specifically for dyslexic children, in order to distinguish between a variety of musical skills and sub-skills. 15 dyslexic children (age 7-11, mean age 9.0) and 11 control children (age 7-10, mean age 8.9) were tested on the MATs, and their scores were compared. Results showed that the dyslexic group scored higher than the control group on 3 tests of pitch skills (possibly attributable to slightly greater musical experience), but lower than the control group on 7 out of 9 tests of timing skills. Particular difficulties were noted on one of the tests involving rapid temporal processing, in which a subgroup of 5 of the dyslexic children (33%) (mean age 8.4) was found to account for all the significant error. Also, an interesting correlation was found between spelling ability and the skill of tapping out the rhythm of a song, which both involve the skill of syllable segmentation. These results support suggestions that timing is a difficulty area for dyslexic children, and suggest that rhythm skills and rapid skills may need particular attention in any form of musical training with dyslexics. PMID:12625374

  5. The skills of the change master.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1996-11-01

    What are the fundamental skills for dealing with change? Presented here are nine skills that can help you become a change master in an uncertain and turbulent health care environment. These skills range from active listening to seeing the big picture. Managing change--whether solving a problem immediately or knowing that the best decision is to wait--will be fundamental for success. PMID:10162502

  6. Presentation skills for the nurse educator.

    PubMed

    Longo, Anne; Tierney, Carol

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in interdisciplinary bedside rounds, shared governance, and other leadership opportunities, nurses find themselves in positions requiring the creation and delivery of oral presentations. This is not a skill that comes naturally to most nurses and is often noted as the one leadership skill that causes the most personal discomfort. Today educators are in a position to coach inexperienced staff in developing their presentation skills. This article presents recommendations for designing and delivering winning presentations. PMID:22261901

  7. Modeling surgical skill learning with cognitive simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Hyun; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung-hung; Paik, Jaehyon; Ritter, Frank E; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2011-01-01

    We used a cognitive architecture (ACT-R) to explore the procedural learning of surgical tasks and then to understand the process of perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill performance. The ACT-R cognitive model simulates declarative memory processes during motor learning. In this ongoing study, four surgical tasks (bimanual carrying, peg transfer, needle passing, and suture tying) were performed using the da Vinci© surgical system. Preliminary results revealed that an ACT-R model produced similar learning effects. Cognitive simulation can be used to demonstrate and optimize the perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill training. PMID:21335834

  8. Eight Key Mental Skills in Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara M.

    1991-01-01

    Among the mental skills involved in evaluation are reflection and perception; comparison and discrimination; valuing, anticipatory thinking, critical and creative thinking; and reasoning and intuition. (SK)

  9. Teaching communication skills: beyond wishful thinking.

    PubMed

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review. PMID:25664624

  10. 42 CFR 409.32 - Criteria for skilled services and the need for skilled services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patient may need skilled services to prevent further deterioration or preserve current capabilities. For example, a terminal cancer patient may need some of the skilled services described in § 409.33....

  11. 42 CFR 409.32 - Criteria for skilled services and the need for skilled services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... patient may need skilled services to prevent further deterioration or preserve current capabilities. For example, a terminal cancer patient may need some of the skilled services described in § 409.33....

  12. 42 CFR 409.32 - Criteria for skilled services and the need for skilled services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... patient may need skilled services to prevent further deterioration or preserve current capabilities. For example, a terminal cancer patient may need some of the skilled services described in § 409.33....

  13. 42 CFR 409.32 - Criteria for skilled services and the need for skilled services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patient may need skilled services to prevent further deterioration or preserve current capabilities. For example, a terminal cancer patient may need some of the skilled services described in § 409.33....

  14. 42 CFR 409.32 - Criteria for skilled services and the need for skilled services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... patient may need skilled services to prevent further deterioration or preserve current capabilities. For example, a terminal cancer patient may need some of the skilled services described in § 409.33....

  15. Business Demands for Web-Related Skills as Compared to Other Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groneman, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of 23,704 want ads for computer-related jobs revealed that the most frequently mentioned skills were UNIX, SQL programming, and computer security. Curriculum implications were derived from the most desired and less frequently mentioned skills. (SK)

  16. Fundamental Movement Skills Are More than Run, Throw and Catch: The Role of Stability Skills

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, James R.; Barnett, Lisa M.; Butson, Michael L.; Farrow, Damian; Berry, Jason; Polman, Remco C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In motor development literature fundamental movement skills are divided into three constructs: locomotive, object control and stability skills. Most fundamental movement skills research has focused on children’s competency in locomotor and object control skills. The first aim of this study was to validate a test battery to assess the construct of stability skills, in children aged 6 to 10 (M age = 8.2, SD = 1.2). Secondly we assessed how the stability skills construct fitted into a model of fundamental movement skill. Method The Delphi method was used to select the stability skill battery. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess if the skills loaded onto the same construct and a new model of FMS was developed using structural equation modelling. Results Three postural control tasks were selected (the log roll, rock and back support) because they had good face and content validity. These skills also demonstrated good predictive validity with gymnasts scoring significantly better than children without gymnastic training and children from a high SES school performing better than those from a mid and low SES schools and the mid SES children scored better than the low SES children (all p < .05). Inter rater reliability tests were excellent for all three skills (ICC = 0.81, 0.87, 0.87) as was test re-test reliability (ICC 0.87–0.95). CFA provided good construct validity, and structural equation modelling revealed stability skills to be an independent factor in an overall FMS model which included locomotor (r = .88), object control (r = .76) and stability skills (r = .81). Discussion This study provides a rationale for the inclusion of stability skills in FMS assessment. The stability skills could be used alongside other FMS assessment tools to provide a holistic assessment of children’s fundamental movement skills. PMID:26468644

  17. [The Strategic Organization of Skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Eye-movement software was developed in addition to several studies that focused on expert-novice differences in the acquisition and organization of skill. These studies focused on how increasingly complex strategies utilize and incorporate visual look-ahead to calibrate action. Software for collecting, calibrating, and scoring eye-movements was refined and updated. Some new algorithms were developed for analyzing corneal-reflection eye movement data that detect the location of saccadic eye movements in space and time. Two full-scale studies were carried out which examined how experts use foveal and peripheral vision to acquire information about upcoming environmental circumstances in order to plan future action(s) accordingly.

  18. Interactive autonomy and robotic skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Maediger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Current concepts of robot-supported operations for space laboratories (payload servicing, inspection, repair, and ORU exchange) are mainly based on the concept of 'interactive autonomy' which implies autonomous behavior of the robot according to predefined timelines, predefined sequences of elementary robot operations and within predefined world models supplying geometrical and other information for parameter instantiation on the one hand, and the ability to override and change the predefined course of activities by human intervention on the other hand. Although in principle a very powerful and useful concept, in practice the confinement of the robot to the abstract world models and predefined activities appears to reduce the robot's stability within real world uncertainties and its applicability to non-predefined parts of the world, calling for frequent corrective interaction by the operator, which in itself may be tedious and time-consuming. Methods are presented to improve this situation by incorporating 'robotic skills' into the concept of interactive autonomy.

  19. Psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers.

    PubMed

    Hellström, John

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers (professionals and amateurs with handicaps of skilled golfers' traits, as measured by 16 personality factors, has provided ambiguous results and there may be more complex associations not yet investigated in golf. The effect of mood and emotions on golf scores seems to be individual. Differences in personality may explain why mood states, measured by mood state profiles, have not shown a strong correlation to golf scores. Task focus, confidence, imagery, patience, ability to focus on one shot at a time and performing automatically have been found to be important during competition. These variables need to be further researched before, during and after the swing. The psychological processes needed before, during and after the swing differ and should be further specified. A decrease in heart rate and a lower cortical activity moment before the swing may be signs of an optimal performance state. The effect of coping strategies may vary over time, and players should be able to switch and combine different strategies. Pre-shot routine is associated with performance. However, it is not clear if consistency of total duration and behavioural content in pre-shot routine cause improved performance. Pre-shot routine may also be an effect of psychological processes, such as a different task focus. It may facilitate an automatic execution of technique, which can lead to better performance. The psychological variables needed for competitive golf should be related to the physical, technical and game-statistical variables in coaching and future research. PMID:19757862

  20. Occupational Home Economics. Access Skills. Vocational Readiness Skills. Missouri LINC. Accessing Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Practical Arts and Vocational-Technical Education.

    This document contains home economics occupations-related materials to help teachers and parents teach access skills to Missouri junior high and high school special needs students who want to pursue a vocational program in child care, custom sewing, or food service. Access skills are defined as those skills needed to access vocational education…

  1. Low-Skilled Workers and Adult Vocational Skills-Upgrading Strategies in Denmark and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the paper was to address the relevance of adult vocational skills-upgrading strategies for low-skilled workers. The research was based on an identification of core elements such as time, cost and access which define and impact on formulation and implementation of adult vocational skills-upgrading strategies. The literature…

  2. Skills for Life? Basic Skills and Marginal Transitions from School to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslik, Mark; Simpson, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative research project that explored the influence of basic skills on the school-to-work transitions of young adults. Large numbers of young people have poor skills yet it is a neglected area of study. We document how skill competencies act as barriers to learning and labour market opportunities, illustrating that…

  3. Principles for the Development of Core Skills across the Curriculum. Core Skills Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This packet contains a set of principles for core skills development together with corresponding activities for teachers and learners that have been developed in Great Britain. Core skills are defined as transferable skills central to academic, vocational, and personal development. An introduction explains the FEU's principles and guidelines for…

  4. The Skilled Counselor Training Model: Skills Acquisition, Self-Assessment, and Cognitive Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cassandra; Packman, Jill; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the Skilled Counselor Training Model (SCTM; M. H. Smaby, C. D. Maddux, E. Torres-Rivera, & R. Zimmick, 1999) in teaching counseling skills and in fostering counselor cognitive complexity. Counselor trainees who completed the SCTM had better counseling skills and higher levels of cognitive complexity than…

  5. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  6. Assessing Nonverbal Communication Skills through Video Recording and Debriefing of Clinical Skill Simulation Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…

  7. Assessments of "Learning-Related Skills" and "Interpersonal Skills" Constructs within Early Childhood Environments in Singapore"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sok Mui; Rodger, Sylvia; Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…

  8. Marketing and Cooperative Education. Access Skills. Vocational Readiness Skills. Missouri LINC. Accessing Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Practical Arts and Vocational-Technical Education.

    This document contains marketing occupations-related materials to help teachers and parents teach access skills to Missouri junior high and high school special needs students who want to pursue a vocational program in marketing. Access skills are defined as those skills needed to access vocational education programs and be successful in the world…

  9. Changes in the Nature and Structure of Work: Implications for Skill Requirements and Skill Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas

    Changes in the economy and the workplace are changing job skill requirements and the process of skill acquisition. A study analyzed occupational trends and projections, performed case studies of four industry sectors (apparel and textile, accounting, management consulting, and software development), and reviewed research on changing skill demands…

  10. A Condom Skill Scale: Assessing Condom Skills among Female Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Coreen A.; Fenaughty, Andrea M.; Lindemann, Dana F.

    2003-01-01

    Describe the development and properties of a scale measuring demonstrated condom use skill using a sample of 261 drug-using women. Analysis of scale scores revealed high levels of condom skill among the population. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Condom Skill Scale is a potentially valid and reliable instrument, and may have application as…

  11. What Does Age Have to Do with Skills Proficiency? Adult Skills in Focus #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Adults tend to lose their information-processing skills as they age, especially if they do not use them. While older adults may compensate for this loss by developing other valuable skills, the importance of being proficient in information-processing skills in determining wages and employment does not diminish as workers age. Probably the most…

  12. A Procedural Skills OSCE: Assessing Technical and Non-Technical Skills of Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal…

  13. Teaching the "Soft Skills": A Professional Development Curriculum to Enhance the Employability Skills of Business Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Ann S.; Adams, Barbara L.; Sillah, Marion Rogers

    2009-01-01

    Today's business climate requires that management recruits not only know the technical aspects of their jobs, but also possess communication, teambuilding and leadership skills. Most business school curricula, however, focus only on technical skills, and do not address the "soft skills" in a formal setting or on a consistent basis. As…

  14. Academic Skills Rovers: A Just in Time Peer Support Initiative for Academic Skills and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeman, Peter; Keightley, Polly

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the University of Canberra (UC) initiated a program of peer-assisted academic skills help, the Academic Skills Rovers program, with the goal of providing drop-in peer learning support to students at campus locations where they congregate to study. The Academic Skills Rovers were initially recruited from the teacher education discipline,…

  15. Preschool Children's Interest, Social-Emotional Skills, and Emergent Mathematics Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctoroff, Greta L.; Fisher, Paige H.; Burrows, Bethany M.; Edman, Maria Tsepilovan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between interest, social-emotional skills, and early math skills in preschool children. Math-specific interest and global interest in learning were measured using teacher report and a play-based observation task. Math skills were assessed with a test of math achievement, and social-emotional…

  16. Video games as a tool to train visual skills

    PubMed Central

    Achtman, R.L.; Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Adult brain plasticity, although possible, is often difficult to elicit. Training regimens in adults can produce specific improvements on the trained task without leading to general enhancements that would improve quality of life. This paper considers the case of playing action video games as a way to induce widespread enhancement in vision. Conclusions We review the range of visual skills altered by action video game playing as well as the game components important in promoting visual plasticity. Further, we discuss what these results might mean in terms of rehabilitation for different patient populations. PMID:18997318

  17. Kindergarten Readiness Skills: Predictors of Academic Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlings, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between school readiness skills as measured by the Missouri KIDS and academic potential in reading and math as measured by the scores on the CTP4 in grades 2-4 in a private, independent school. This study identified which school readiness skills most accurately predict the need for…

  18. Learning Clinical Skills: An Interprofessional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Della; Nicol, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    In a clinical skills center, nurses, doctors, and specialists helped nursing and medical students develop clinical and communication skills in the context of holistic patient care. Two aspects of the format received high ratings: realistic patient scenarios and interdisciplinary team teaching. (SK)

  19. Basic Skills Applications in Occupational Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary

    This guide contains 50 lesson plans for learning activities that incorporate basic skills into content areas of career education, mathematics, science, social studies, communications, and productive work habits. Each lesson consists of a purpose, basic skills applications, approximate time required, materials needed, things for the teacher to do…

  20. Basic Emergency Medical Technician Skills Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This manual was developed to help students preparing to become emergency medical technicians (EMTs) learn standardized basic skills in the field. The manual itemizes the steps and performance criteria of each required skill and uses an accompanying videotape series (not included) to enhance the educational experience. The five units of the manual,…