Science.gov

Sample records for induction motor control

  1. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  2. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  3. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  4. Field oriented control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Zinger, Don S.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Induction motors have always been known for their simple rugged construction, but until lately were not suitable for variable speed or servo drives due to the inherent complexity of the controls. With the advent of field oriented control (FOC), however, the induction motor has become an attractive option for these types of drive systems. An FOC system which utilizes the pulse population modulation method to synthesize the motor drive frequencies is examined. This system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio and enables the user to have independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor. A second generation of the control boards were developed and tested with the next point of focus being the minimization of the size and complexity of these controls. Many options were considered with the best approach being the use of a digital signal processor (DSP) due to its inherent ability to quickly evaluate control algorithms. The present test results of the system and the status of the optimization process using a DSP are discussed.

  5. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the fuzzy logic control (FLC) of electric motors, being investigated under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA to reduce energy consumption when motors are operated at less than rated speeds and loads. lectric motors use 60% of the electrical energy generated in t...

  6. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  7. Implementation of a new fuzzy vector control of induction motor.

    PubMed

    Rafa, Souad; Larabi, Abdelkader; Barazane, Linda; Manceur, Malik; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new approach to control an induction motor using type-1 fuzzy logic. The induction motor has a nonlinear model, uncertain and strongly coupled. The vector control technique, which is based on the inverse model of the induction motors, solves the coupling problem. Unfortunately, in practice this is not checked because of model uncertainties. Indeed, the presence of the uncertainties led us to use human expertise such as the fuzzy logic techniques. In order to maintain the decoupling and to overcome the problem of the sensitivity to the parametric variations, the field-oriented control is replaced by a new block control. The simulation results show that the both control schemes provide in their basic configuration, comparable performances regarding the decoupling. However, the fuzzy vector control provides the insensitivity to the parametric variations compared to the classical one. The fuzzy vector control scheme is successfully implemented in real-time using a digital signal processor board dSPACE 1104. The efficiency of this technique is verified as well as experimentally at different dynamic operating conditions such as sudden loads change, parameter variations, speed changes, etc. The fuzzy vector control is found to be a best control for application in an induction motor. PMID:24629620

  8. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  9. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  10. Speed sensorless hybrid vector controlled induction motor drive

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, B.K.; Simoes, M.G.; Crecelius, D.R.; Rajashekara, K.; Martin, R.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a speed and flux sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive primarily aimed for electric vehicle type applications. The stator flux oriented drive starts at zero speed in indirect vector control mode, transitions to direct vector control mode as the speed develops, and then transitions back to indirect vector control at zero speed. The vector control uses stator flux orientation in both indirect and direct vector control modes with the stator resistance variation compensated by measurement of stator temperature. The problem of integration at low stator frequency is solved by cascaded low pass filters with programmable time constants. The control strategy of the four-quadrant drive has been analyzed, validated by simulation study, and finally evaluated by experimental study on a laboratory 5 hp drive system.

  11. Development and Control of a Three DOF Spherical Induction Motor Masaaki Kumagai and Ralph L. Hollis

    E-print Network

    . A spherical stepper motor [5] can perform absolute rotation control although it requires complex spatialDevelopment and Control of a Three DOF Spherical Induction Motor Masaaki Kumagai and Ralph L. Hollis Abstract-- This paper reports, to our knowledge, the first spherical induction motor (SIM

  12. Development and Control of a Three DOF Planar Induction Motor Masaaki Kumagai and Ralph L. Hollis

    E-print Network

    , Lauwers et al. reported a robot with planar actuator based on stepper motor[1], which archived veryDevelopment and Control of a Three DOF Planar Induction Motor Masaaki Kumagai and Ralph L. Hollis Abstract-- This paper reports a planar induction motor that can output 70N translational thrust and 9Nm

  13. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-06-12

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller.

  14. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  15. FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED CONTROLLERS FOR EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of induction motor/drives operating at various load (torque) and speed conditions. Improvement of induction motor efficiency is important not only from the considerations of energy sav...

  16. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. his energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft rev...

  17. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATIN CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. This energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft re...

  18. Variable frequency inverter for ac induction motors with torque, speed and braking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A variable frequency inverter was designed for driving an ac induction motor which varies the frequency and voltage to the motor windings in response to varying torque requirements for the motor so that the applied voltage amplitude and frequency are of optimal value for any motor load and speed requirement. The slip frequency of the motor is caused to vary proportionally to the torque and feedback is provided so that the most efficient operating voltage is applied to the motor. Winding current surge is limited and a controlled negative slip causes motor braking and return of load energy to a dc power source.

  19. Torque Ripple Reduction in Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor using Intelligent Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Ambarapu; Vijaya Kumar, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents intelligent control scheme together with conventional control scheme to overcome the problems with uncertainties in the structure encountered with classical model based design of induction motor drive based on direct torque control (DTC). It allows high dynamic performance to be obtained with very simple hysteresis control scheme. Direct control of the torque and flux is achieved by proper selection of inverter voltage space vector through a lookup table. This paper also presents the application of intelligent controllers like neural network and fuzzy logic controllers to control induction machines with DTC. Intelligent controllers are used to emulate the state selector of the DTC. With implementation of intelligent controllers the system is also verified and proved to be operated stably with reduced torque ripple. The proposed method validity and effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a classical DTC using proportional integral speed controller.

  20. Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controllers for Rotor Flux Oriented Control of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah; Farhangi, Reza; Yarahmadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of a novel approach based on emotional learning to improve the speed control system of rotor flux oriented control of induction motor. The controller includes a neuro-fuzzy system with speed error and its derivative as inputs. A fuzzy critic evaluates the present situation, and provides the emotional signal (stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critics stress is reduced. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed controller is more robust and hence found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high performance industrial drive applications.

  1. Variable-Speed Induction Motor Drives for Aircraft Environmental Control Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Hansen, I. G.; Schreiner, K. E.; Roth, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    New, more-efficient designs for aircraft jet engines are not capable of supplying the large quantities of bleed air necessary to provide pressurization and air conditioning for the environmental control systems (ECS) of the next generation of large passenger aircraft. System analysis and engineering have determined that electrically-driven ECS can help to maintain the improved fuel efficiencies; and electronic controllers and induction motors are now being developed in a NASA/NPD SBIR Program to drive both types of ECS compressors. Previous variable-speed induction motor/controller system developments and publications have primarily focused on field-oriented control, with large transient reserve power, for maximum acceleration and optimum response in actuator and robotics systems. The application area addressed herein is characterized by slowly-changing inputs and outputs, small reserve power capability for acceleration, and optimization for maximum efficiency. This paper therefore focuses on the differences between this case and the optimum response case, and shows the development of this new motor/controller approach. It starts with the creation of a new set of controller requirements. In response to those requirements, new control algorithms are being developed and implemented in an embedded computer, which is integrated into the motor controller closed loop. Buffered logic outputs are used to drive the power switches in a resonant-technology, power processor/motor-controller, at switching/resonant frequencies high enough to support efficient high-frequency induction motor operation at speeds up to 50,000-RPA

  2. Sensor and Sensorless Fault Tolerant Control for Induction Motors Using a Wavelet Index

    PubMed Central

    Gaeid, Khalaf Salloum; Ping, Hew Wooi; Khalid, Mustafa; Masaoud, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) systems are crucial in industry to ensure safe and reliable operation, especially of motor drives. This paper proposes the use of multiple controllers for a FTC system of an induction motor drive, selected based on a switching mechanism. The system switches between sensor vector control, sensorless vector control, closed-loop voltage by frequency (V/f) control and open loop V/f control. Vector control offers high performance, while V/f is a simple, low cost strategy with high speed and satisfactory performance. The faults dealt with are speed sensor failures, stator winding open circuits, shorts and minimum voltage faults. In the event of compound faults, a protection unit halts motor operation. The faults are detected using a wavelet index. For the sensorless vector control, a novel Boosted Model Reference Adaptive System (BMRAS) to estimate the motor speed is presented, which reduces tuning time. Both simulation results and experimental results with an induction motor drive show the scheme to be a fast and effective one for fault detection, while the control methods transition smoothly and ensure the effectiveness of the FTC system. The system is also shown to be flexible, reverting rapidly back to the dominant controller if the motor returns to a healthy state. PMID:22666016

  3. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  4. High Performance Controllers for Speed and Position Induction Motor Drive using New Reaching Law

    E-print Network

    Rezgui, Salah Eddine

    2011-01-01

    This paper present new approach in robust indirect rotor field oriented (IRFOC) induction motor (IM) control. The introduction of new exponential reaching law (ERL) based sliding mode control (SMC) improve significantly the performances compared to the conventional SMC which are well known susceptible to the annoying chattering phenomenon, so, the elimination of the chattering is achieved while simplicity and high performance speed and position tracking are maintained. Simulation results are given to discuss the performances of the proposed control method.

  5. Universal Parameter Measurement and Sensorless Vector Control of Induction and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shu; Ara, Takahiro

    Recently, induction motors (IMs) and permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have been used in various industrial drive systems. The features of the hardware device used for controlling the adjustable-speed drive in these motors are almost identical. Despite this, different techniques are generally used for parameter measurement and speed-sensorless control of these motors. If the same technique can be used for parameter measurement and sensorless control, a highly versatile adjustable-speed-drive system can be realized. In this paper, the authors describe a new universal sensorless control technique for both IMs and PMSMs (including salient pole and nonsalient pole machines). A mathematical model applicable for IMs and PMSMs is discussed. Using this model, the authors derive the proposed universal sensorless vector control algorithm on the basis of estimation of the stator flux linkage vector. All the electrical motor parameters are determined by a unified test procedure. The proposed method is implemented on three test machines. The actual driving test results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  6. A new direct torque control scheme for induction motors using linear state feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Kandianis, A.; Manias, S.N.; Griva, G.; Profumo, F.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper a new Direct Torque Control (DTC) scheme for induction motor drives is described, based on the linear state feedback method with dynamic output feedback. The DTC has been shown to be a good solution in torque controlled drives applications when the speed control is not required (e.g. traction drives for electric vehicles). In such cases, the torque command comes directly from the user input. By considering the torque and flux as the outputs of the linearized motor model, it is possible to design an optimum controller with constant gain state feedback and dynamic output feedback through an integral term. The design procedure of the proposed control scheme is described and the simulation results are presented to show the overall performance of the system.

  7. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Geppert, Steven (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  8. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, Steven (Inventor); Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  9. Nonlinear control of induction motors: Torque tracking with unknown load disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Romeo; Canudas, Carlos; Seleme, Seleme I.

    1993-11-01

    In a recent note Ortega and Espinosa presented a globally stable controller for torque regulation of a complete induction motor model with partial state feedback, i.e., no assumption of flux measurements. In the present contributions we extend these results in several directions. First, by 'adding mechanical damping' to the closed-loop systems relax the upper bound condition on the desired torque. Second, we use a new controller structure that allows us to treat the case of time-varying desired torque. Finally, a new estimator is proposed to handle time-varying (linearly parametrized) unknown loads.

  10. Inductance and Active Phase Vector Based Torque Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpathi, Ramani Raman

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drive technology has developed significantly over the last few years. The simplicity in both motor design and power converter requirement along with the availability of high frequency, high power semiconductor switches have made SRMs compete with conventional adjustable speed drive technologies. The subject of winding current control in switched reluctance machines has always been associated with the shaft position information. The use of inductance for direct commutation control is the central subject of this dissertation. In contrast to the conventional methods based on position commutation, new methods of control based on inductance commutation are presented. The object of a commutation algorithm is to switch the currents in the phase coils, in order to provide continuous energy conversion with maximum torque output for a given unit of input current. Since torque production in a SRM is based on the concept of variable reluctance, it makes more sense to observe the instantaneous phase inductance or reluctance instead of estimating the rotor position. The inductance sensors observe the machine parameters and provide sufficient information on the electrical characteristics of the coils. This control strategy avoids the inductance to position transformation blocks conventionally used in SRM control systems. In a typical SRM, the phase coils have a nonlinear behavior of inductance due to effects of current saturation. Also the parameters of one phase coil differ from those of the other due to manufacturing tolerances or due to bearing wear. In such cases, the algorithms written during the stage of manufacturing may not be valid after parameter changes. Optimizing torque production in the event of phase asymmetry and saturation is developed in this research. Indirect sensors connected to the active phase coil of the SRM are based on sensing the flux level in the active coil. New commutation algorithms based on flux sensing concepts are derived and commutation based on observable phase coil parameters are developed. The commutation methods are based on a composite vector of the observable parameters of the active phase coil. These methods work on a tabular approach which is ideal for implementation using digital computers.

  11. On the energy optimized control of standard and high-efficiency induction motors in CT and HVAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K.; Grabowski, P.Z.; Thoegersen, P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper contains an analysis of how the choice of energy optimal control of induction motors is influenced by motor construction, constant torque (CT) and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) (interpreted as vector and scalar motor drives). The analysis is made with a 2.2-kW voltage-source-inverter-fed squirrel-cage motor drive as an example throughout the paper, but through statistics on the use of motors and their efficiencies, the conclusions are widened to a broader range (0--50 kW). Energy optimal control strategies are reviewed and cos({phi}) control, a model-based control, and a search control are implemented in the laboratory in a vector and a scalar motor drive. The convergence speed for the strategies and their ability to reject disturbances are investigated by experiments. It is also shown experimentally that, for both standard and high-efficiency motors, motor energy-efficiency improvement is achievable by energy optimal control below 60% load torque. The energy savings using energy optimal control strategies are measured on a pump system with a certain load cycle. Model-based control is recommended for CT applications and cos({phi}) control for HVAC applications.

  12. An improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based EVs.

    PubMed

    Tabbache, Bekheïra; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Bourgeot, Jean-Matthieu; Mamoune, Abdeslam

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based electric vehicles. The proposed strategy deals with power switch (IGBTs) failures mitigation within a reconfigurable induction motor control. To increase the vehicle powertrain reliability regarding IGBT open-circuit failures, 4-wire and 4-leg PWM inverter topologies are investigated and their performances discussed in a vehicle context. The proposed fault-tolerant topologies require only minimum hardware modifications to the conventional off-the-shelf six-switch three-phase drive, mitigating the IGBTs failures by specific inverter control. Indeed, the two topologies exploit the induction motor neutral accessibility for fault-tolerant purposes. The 4-wire topology uses then classical hysteresis controllers to account for the IGBT failures. The 4-leg topology, meanwhile, uses a specific 3D space vector PWM to handle vehicle requirements in terms of size (DC bus capacitors) and cost (IGBTs number). Experiments on an induction motor drive and simulations on an electric vehicle are carried-out using a European urban driving cycle to show that the proposed fault-tolerant control approach is effective and provides a simple configuration with high performance in terms of speed and torque responses. PMID:23916869

  13. Fuzzy virtual reference model sensorless tracking control for linear induction motors.

    PubMed

    Hung, Cheng-Yao; Liu, Peter; Lian, Kuang-Yow

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a fuzzy virtual reference model (FVRM) synthesis method for linear induction motor (LIM) speed sensorless tracking control. First, we represent the LIM as a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. Second, we estimate the immeasurable mover speed and secondary flux by a fuzzy observer. Third, to convert the speed tracking control into a stabilization problem, we define the internal desired states for state tracking via an FVRM. Finally, by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), we obtain the observer gains and the control gains where exponential convergence is guaranteed. The contributions of the approach in this paper are threefold: 1) simplified approach--speed tracking problem converted into stabilization problem; 2) omit need of actual reference model--FVRM generates internal desired states; and 3) unification of controller and observer design--control objectives are formulated into an LMI problem where powerful numerical toolboxes solve controller and observer gains. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and show satisfactory performance both in transient response and robustness. PMID:23076069

  14. Sensored Field Oriented Control of a Robust Induction Motor Drive Using a Novel Boundary Layer Fuzzy Controller

    PubMed Central

    Saghafinia, Ali; Ping, Hew Wooi; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM) drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC) based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of an induction motor (IM) drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP) board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.

  15. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  16. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  17. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard (1107 Stagecoach Rd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Marder, Barry M. (1412 Pinnacle View Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  18. Sliding-mode control of a six-phase series/parallel connected two induction motors drive.

    PubMed

    Abjadi, Navid R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a parallel configuration is proposed for two quasi six-phase induction motors (QIMs) to feed them from a single six-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). A direct torque control (DTC) based on input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) combined with sliding mode (SM) control is used for each QIM in stationary reference frame. In addition, an adaptive scheme is employed to solve the motor resistances mismatching problem. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed method are shown by practical results obtained for two QIMs in series/parallel connections supplied from a single VSI. The decoupling control of QIMs and the feasibility of their torque and flux control are investigated. Moreover, a complete comparison between series and parallel connections of two QIMs is given. PMID:25264286

  19. Sensorless performance evaluation of induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Shehab

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, various aspects of induction motor performance are discussed. The importance of the speed-torque curve for an induction motor system and its various applications are emphasized. Difficulties in the presently ...

  20. Induction motor speed drive improvement using fuzzy IP-self-tuning controller. A real time implementation.

    PubMed

    Lokriti, Abdesslam; Salhi, Issam; Doubabi, Said; Zidani, Youssef

    2013-05-01

    An IP-self-tuning controller tuned by a fuzzy adjustor, is proposed to improve induction machine speed control. The interest of such controller is the possibility to adjust only one gain, instead of two gains for the case of the PI-self-tuning controllers commonly used in the literature. This paper presents simulation and experimental results. These latter were obtained by practical implementation on a DSPace 1104 board of three different speed controllers (the classical IP, the fuzzy-like-PI and the IP-self-tuning), for a 1.5KW induction machine. The paper presents different tests used to compare the performances of the proposed controller to the two others in terms of computation time, tracking performances and disturbances rejection. PMID:23317661

  1. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  2. Performance Evaluation and Slip Regulation Control of an Asymmetrical Parameter Type Two-Phase Induction Motor Drive Using a Three-Leg Voltage Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piyarat, Wekin; Kinnares, Vijit

    This paper presents a performance evaluation and a simple speed control method of an asymmetrical parameter type two-phase induction motor drive using a three-leg VSI (Voltage Source Inverter). The two-phase induction motor is adapted from an existing single-phase induction motor resulting in impedance unbalance between main and auxiliary windings. The unbalanced two-phase inverter outputs with orthogonal displacement based on a SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation) method are controlled with appropriate amplitudes for improving the motor performance. Dynamic simulation of the proposed drive system is given. A simple speed controller based on a slip regulation method is designed. The overall system is implemented on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) board. The validity of the proposed system is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  3. A test platform for measuring the energy efficiency of AC induction motors under various loading conditions and control schemes/

    E-print Network

    Granata, John A. (John Anthony)

    2012-01-01

    A test platform was developed to measure and compare the energy efficiency of an AC induction motor under steady-state and cyclical loading conditions while operating in both a constant speed mode and while performing speed ...

  4. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  5. Fast Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms applied to sensorless vector control induction motor for rotor bar faults diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Hicham; Menacer, Arezki; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Kechida, Ridha

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents new techniques to evaluate faults in case of broken rotor bars of induction motors. Procedures are applied with closed-loop control. Electrical and mechanical variables are treated using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at start-up and steady state. The wavelet transform has proven to be an excellent mathematical tool for the detection of the faults particularly broken rotor bars type. As a performance, DWT can provide a local representation of the non-stationary current signals for the healthy machine and with fault. For sensorless control, a Luenberger observer is applied; the estimation rotor speed is analyzed; the effect of the faults in the speed pulsation is compensated; a quadratic current appears and used for fault detection. PMID:25004798

  6. Nonlinear Control of the Doubly Fed Induction Motor with Copper Losses Minimization for Electrical Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drid, S.; Nait-Said, M.-S.; Tadjine, M.; Makouf, A.

    2008-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Recent efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric vehicles applications with minimal power losses. This paper deals with the high efficient vector control for the reduction of copper losses of the doubly fed motor. Firstly, the feedback linearization control based on Lyapunov approach is employed to design the underlying controller achieving the double fluxes orientation. The fluxes controllers are designed independently of the speed. The speed controller is designed using the Lyapunov method especially employed to the unknown load torques. The global asymptotic stability of the overall system is theoretically proven. Secondly, a new Torque Copper Losses Factor is proposed to deal with the problem of the machine copper losses. Its main function is to optimize the torque in keeping the machine saturation at an acceptable level. This leads to a reduction in machine currents and therefore their accompanied copper losses guaranteeing improved machine efficiency. The simulation results in comparative presentation confirm largely the effectiveness of the proposed DFIM control with a very interesting energy saving contribution.

  7. Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic and Sliding-Mode Based Speed Control of Direct Torque and Flux Control Induction Motor Drives - A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Panda, A. K.; Kumar, S. Shiva

    2013-08-01

    In this research study, the performance of direct torque and flux control induction motor drive (IMD) is presented using five different speed control techniques. The performance of IMD mainly depends on the design of speed controller. The PI speed controller requires precise mathematical model, continuous and appropriate gain values. Therefore, adaptive control based speed controller is desirable to achieve high-performance drive. The sliding-mode speed controller (SMSC) is developed to achieve continuous control of motor speed and torque. Furthermore, the type-1 fuzzy logic speed controller (T1FLSC), type-1 fuzzy SMSC and a new type-2 fuzzy logic speed controller are designed to obtain high performance, dynamic tracking behaviour, speed accuracy and also robustness to parameter variations. The performance of each control technique has been tested for its robustness to parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. The detailed comparison of different control schemes are carried out in a MATALB/Simulink environment at different speed operating conditions, such as, forward and reversal motoring under no-load, load and sudden change in speed.

  8. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  9. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  10. Gross motor control

    MedlinePLUS

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  11. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  12. A Robust Torque Controller for Induction Motors Without Rotor Position Sensor: Analysis and Experimental Results

    E-print Network

    Strangas, Elias G.

    is robust with respect to variations of the rotor resistance. Analysis of the controller shows of the internal magnetic fields. High performance also re­ quires fast control of torque, which is achieved­ eters. While many drives switch between `indirect' and `di­ rect' field orientation, at an appropriate

  13. Enhancement in Steady State and Dynamic Performance of Direct Torque Control Induction Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Jain, Shailendra; Dwivedi, Sanjeet

    2013-09-01

    An enhancement in dynamic performance of a traditional DTC drive can be achieved by a robust speed control algorithm while the steady state performance depends upon the switching strategy selected for minimization of torque ripples and an efficient flux control loop. In this paper a new torque ripple reduction technique with a modified look up table incorporating a larger number of synthesized non zero active voltage vectors is utilized to overcome the limitations of the conventionally controlled DTC drive. A fuzzy logic based speed controller and a low pass filter with tunable cutoff frequency for flux estimation is proposed in this paper. The proposed study is investigated through simulation and experimentally validated on a test drive.

  14. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  15. Type-2 fuzzy logic control based MRAS speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control of an induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Kumar Panda, Anup; Shiva Kumar, S

    2015-07-01

    In this research study, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of an induction motor drive (IMD) using two adaptation mechanism schemes are proposed to replace the conventional proportional integral controller (PIC). The first adaptation mechanism scheme is based on Type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1FLC), which is used to achieve high performance sensorless drive in both transient as well as steady state conditions. However, the Type-1 fuzzy sets are certain and unable to work effectively when higher degree of uncertainties presents in the system which can be caused by sudden change in speed or different load disturbances, process noise etc. Therefore, a new Type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) based adaptation mechanism scheme is proposed to better handle the higher degree of uncertainties and improves the performance and also robust to various load torque and sudden change in speed conditions, respectively. The detailed performances of various adaptation mechanism schemes are carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with a speed sensor and speed sensorless modes of operation when an IMD is operating under different operating conditions, such as, no-load, load and sudden change in speed, respectively. To validate the different control approaches, the system also implemented on real-time system and adequate results are reported for its validation. PMID:25887841

  16. Computational analysis of temperature rise phenomena in electric induction motors

    E-print Network

    Melnik, Roderick

    Computational analysis of temperature rise phenomena in electric induction motors Ying Huai machines in general, and induction motors in particular, temperature limits is a key factor affecting the efficiency of the overall design. Since conventional loading of induction motors is often expensive

  17. Stepping Motor Control System

    E-print Network

    Larson, Noble G.

    This paper describes a hardware system designed to facilitate position and velocity control of a group of eight stepping motors using a PDP-11. The system includes motor driver cards and other interface cards in addition ...

  18. Motor Control STEVEN P. WISE

    E-print Network

    Shadmehr, Reza

    Motor Control STEVEN P. WISE National Institute of Mental Health REZA SHADMEHR Johns Hopkins University I. What Controls Movement II. What the Motor System Controls III. Mechanisms of Motor Control IV. Motor Memory V. Flexibility in Motor Control VI. Evolution of the Motor System GLOSSARY agonist A muscle

  19. Method and apparatus for monitoring the rotating frequency of de-energized induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, H.E.; Lucy, E.

    1998-02-03

    The rotational speed of a coasting induction motor is measured by sensing e residual electrical voltages at the power terminals of the motor, thus eliminating the need for conventional tachometer equipment, additional mechanical components or modifications to the induction motor itself. The power terminal voltage signal is detected and transformed into a DC voltage proportional to the frequency of the signal. This DC voltage can be input to the control system of a variable frequency motor controller to regulate the output characteristics thereof relative to the speed of the coasting motor. 6 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring the rotating frequency of de-energized induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Lucy, Eric (Murrysville, PA)

    1998-01-01

    The rotational speed of a coasting induction motor is measured by sensing e residual electrical voltages at the power terminals of the motor, thus eliminating the need for conventional tachometer equipment, additional mechanical components or modifications to the induction motor itself. The power terminal voltage signal is detected and transformed into a DC voltage proportional to the frequency of the signal. This DC voltage can be input to the control system of a variable frequency motor controller to regulate the output characteristics thereof relative to the speed of the coasting motor.

  1. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  2. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  3. Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Y?d?r?m; ?eker, Serhat

    2012-09-01

    Nonlinear systems like electrical circuits and systems, mechanics, optics and even incidents in nature may pass through various bifurcations and steady states like equilibrium point, periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic states. Although chaotic phenomena are widely observed in physical systems, it can not be predicted because of the nature of the system. On the other hand, it is known that, chaos is strictly dependent on initial conditions of the system [1-3]. There are several methods in order to define the chaos. Phase portraits, Poincaré maps, Lyapunov Exponents are the most common techniques. Lyapunov Exponents are the theoretical indicator of the chaos, named after the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov (1857-1918). Lyapunov Exponents stand for the average exponential divergence or convergence of nearby system states, meaning estimating the quantitive measure of the chaotic attractor. Negative numbers of the exponents stand for a stable system whereas zero stands for quasi-periodic systems. On the other hand, at least if one of the exponents is positive, this situation is an indicator of the chaos. For estimating the exponents, the system should be modeled by differential equation but even in that case mathematical calculation of Lyapunov Exponents are not very practical and evaluation of these values requires a long signal duration [4-7]. For experimental data sets, it is not always possible to acquire the differential equations. There are several different methods in literature for determining the Lyapunov Exponents of the system [4, 5]. Induction motors are the most important tools for many industrial processes because they are cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. In order to have healthy processes in industrial applications, the conditions of the machines should be monitored and the different working conditions should be addressed correctly. To the best of our knowledge, researches related to Lyapunov exponents and electrical motors are mostly focused on the controlling the mechanical parameters of the electrical machines. Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) and the other general purpose permanent magnet (PM) motors are the most widely examined motors [1, 8, 9]. But the researches, about Lyapunov Exponent, subjected to the induction motors are mostly focused on the control theory of the motors. Flux estimation of rotor, external load disturbances and speed tracking and vector control position system are the main research areas for induction motors [10, 11, 12-14]. For all the data sets which can be collected from an induction motor, vibration data have the key role for understanding the mechanical behaviours like aging, bearing damage and stator insulation damage [15-18]. In this paper aging of an induction motor is investigated by using the vibration signals. The signals consist of new and aged motor data. These data are examined by their 2 dimensional phase portraits and the geometric interpretation is applied for detecting the Lyapunov Exponents. These values are compared in order to define the character and state estimation of the aging processes.

  4. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  5. An Induction Motor Based Wind Turbine Emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovs, A.; Grigans, L.; Kamolins, E.; Voitkans, J.

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a small-scale wind turbine emulator based on the AC drive system and discuss the methods for power coefficient calculation. In the work, the experimental set-up consisting of an AC induction motor, a frequency converter, a synchronous permanent magnet generator, a DC-DC boost converter and DC load was simulated and tested using real-life equipment. The experimentally obtained wind turbine power and torque diagrams using the emulator are in a good agreement with the theoretical ones. Šaj? rakst? par?d?ta mazas jaudas v?ja turb?nas emulatora izveide ar mai?str?vas piedzi?as sist?mu, k? ar? analiz?tas vair?kas turb?nas jaudas koeficienta anal?tisk?s apr??ina metodes. V?ja turb?nas emulatora eksperiment?lais stends, kas sast?v no asinhron? elektromotora, frekven?u p?rveidot?ja, sinhron? past?v?go magn?tu ?eneratora, l?dzstr?vas paaugstinoš? p?rveidot?ja un slodzes, tika p?rbaud?ts gan simul?šanas vid?, gan uz re?l?m iek?rt?m. Eksperiment?li ieg?t?s v?ja turb?nas emulatora jaudas un momenta diagrammas ir sal?dzin?tas ar teor?tiskaj?m.

  6. An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

    1994-01-01

    There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

  7. Variable speed induction motor operation from a 20-kHz power bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors are recognized for their simple rugged construction. To date, however, their application to variable speed or servo drives was hampered by limitations on their control. Induction motor drives tend to be complex and to display troublesome low speed characteristics due in part to nonsinusoidal driving voltages. A technique was developed which involves direct synthesis of sinusoidal driving voltages from a high frequency power bus and independent control of frequency and voltages. Separation of frequency and voltage allows independent control of rotor and stator flux, full four quadrant operation, and instantaneous torque control. Recent test results, current status of the technology, and proposed aerospace applications will be discussed.

  8. Performance Analysis of Saturated Induction Motors by Virtual Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojaghi, M.; Faiz, J.; Kazemi, M.; Rezaei, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many undergraduate-level electrical machines textbooks give detailed treatments of the performance of induction motors. Students can deepen this understanding of motor performance by performing the appropriate practical work in laboratories or in simulation using proper software packages. This paper considers various common and less-common tests…

  9. Augmenting Plasticity Induction in Human Motor Cortex by Disinhibition Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cash, Robin F H; Murakami, Takenobu; Chen, Robert; Thickbroom, Gary W; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular studies showed that disinhibition, evoked pharmacologically or by a suitably timed priming stimulus, can augment long-term plasticity (LTP) induction. We demonstrated previously that transcranial magnetic stimulation evokes a period of presumably GABABergic late cortical disinhibition (LCD) in human primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we hypothesized that, in keeping with cellular studies, LCD can augment LTP-like plasticity in humans. In Experiment 1, patterned repetitive TMS was applied to left M1, consisting of 6 trains (intertrain interval, 8 s) of 4 doublets (interpulse interval equal to individual peak I-wave facilitation, 1.3-1.5 ms) spaced by the individual peak LCD (interdoublet interval (IDI), 200-250 ms). This intervention (total of 48 pulses applied over ?45 s) increased motor-evoked potential amplitude, a marker of corticospinal excitability, in a right hand muscle by 147% ± 4%. Control experiments showed that IDIs shorter or longer than LCD did not result in LTP-like plasticity. Experiment 2 indicated topographic specificity to the M1 hand region stimulated by TMS and duration of the LTP-like plasticity of 60 min. In conclusion, GABABergic LCD offers a powerful new approach for augmenting LTP-like plasticity induction in human cortex. We refer to this protocol as disinhibition stimulation (DIS). PMID:25100853

  10. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  11. Analytical and experimental study of high phase order induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingshirn, Eugene A.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors having more than three phases were investigated to determine their suitability for electric vehicle applications. The objective was to have a motor with a current rating lower than that of a three-phase motor. The name chosen for these is high phase order (HPO) motors. Motors having six phases and nine phases were given the most attention. It was found that HPO motors are quite suitable for electric vehicles, and for many other applications as well. They have characteristics which are as good as or better than three-phase motors for practically all applications where polyphase induction motors are appropriate. Some of the analysis methods are presented, and several of the equivalent circuits which facilitate the determination of harmonic currents and losses, or currents with unbalanced sources, are included. The sometimes large stator currents due to harmonics in the source voltages are pointed out. Filters which can limit these currents were developed. An analysis and description of these filters is included. Experimental results which confirm and illustrate much of the theory are also included. These include locked rotor test results and full-load performance with an open phase. Also shown are oscillograms which display the reduction in harmonic currents when a filter is used with the experimental motor supplied by a non-sinusoidal source.

  12. High speed linear induction motor efficiency optimization

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Andrew P. (Andrew Peter)

    2005-01-01

    One of the reasons linear motors, a technology nearly a century old, have not been adopted for a large number of linear motion applications is that they have historically had poor efficiencies. This has restricted the ...

  13. Multisensor fusion for induction motor aging analysis and fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbay, Ali Seyfettin

    Induction motors are the most commonly used electrical drives, ranging in power from fractional horsepower to several thousand horsepowers. Several studies have been conducted to identify the cause of failure of induction motors in industrial applications. Recent activities indicate a focus towards building intelligence into the motors, so that a continuous on-line fault diagnosis and prognosis may be performed. The purpose of this research and development was to perform aging studies of three-phase, squirrel-cage induction motors; establish a database of mechanical, electrical and thermal measurements from load testing of the motors; develop a sensor-fusion method for on-line motor diagnosis; and use the accelerated aging models to extrapolate to the normal aging regimes. A new laboratory was established at The University of Tennessee to meet the goals of the project. The accelerated aging and motor performance tests constitute a unique database, containing information about the trend characteristics of measured signatures as a function of motor faults. The various measurements facilitate enhanced fault diagnosis of motors and may be effectively utilized to increase the reliability of decision making and for the development of life prediction techniques. One of these signatures is the use of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) using wavelets. Using MRA in trending different frequency bands has revealed that higher frequencies show a characteristic increase when the condition of a bearing is in question. This study effectively showed that the use of MRA in vibration signatures can identify a thermal degradation or degradation via electrical charge of the bearing, whereas other failure mechanisms, such as winding insulation failure, do not exhibit such characteristics. A motor diagnostic system, called the Intelligent Motor Monitoring System (IMMS) was developed in this research. The IMMS integrated the various mechanical, electrical and thermal signatures, and artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic algorithms. The IMMS was then used for motor fault detection and isolation and for estimating its remaining operable lifetime. The performance of the IMMS was evaluated using the motor aging data, and showed that several motor degradation modes could be effectively diagnosed and the prognosis of motor operation could be established.

  14. Coupling an induction motor type generator to ac power lines. [making windmill generators compatible with public power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for coupling an induction motor type generator to an A.C. power line includes an electronic switch means that is controlled by a control system and is regulated to turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation. The energizing power supplied by the line to the induction motor type generator is decreased and the net power delivered to the line is increased.

  15. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  16. Demonstration of Lenz's Law with an Induction Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of a conductor with a time-dependent magnetic field is an important topic of electromagnetic theory. A computerized classroom demonstration shows how the eddy currents induced in the rotor of an induction motor cause its rotation or braking. Both phenomena are directly related to Lenz's law.

  17. Thermal modelling for an induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glises, R.; Miraoui, A.; Kauffmann, J. M.

    1993-09-01

    The authors of this paper intend to achieve the study of the thermal behaviour in permanent rate of an asynchronous motor with a wounded rotor of a rated power of 4kW. 66 thermocouples have been settled in the stator at different places like the centers and the bottoms of the windings or the middle of the yoke. A design has been realized thanks to the magnetostatic modulus of the computation software with the finite elements method Flux2d converted in a resolution tool of the heat equation. Another originality of this study is to introduce areas including a contact thermal resistance phenomenon in some places of the motor to characterize the motor thermophysical parameters and to obtain the experimentation-calculation convergence. Les auteurs de cet article se proposent de réaliser l'étude du comportement thermique en régime permanent d'un moteur asynchrone de 4kW à rotor bobiné. 66 thermocouples ont été positionnés en différents lieux du stator tels que les milieux des bobinages, les fonds d'encoches ou encore le milieu des tôles. Un modèle a été réalisé à l'aide du logiciel de calculs magnétostatiques par éléments finis Flux2d converti en un outil de résolution de l'équation de la chaleur. Une autre originalité de cette étude a été d'introduire en certains endroits du moteur des zones où la notion de résistance thermique de contact est particulièrement importante. L'introduction de paramètres thermophysiques les caractérisant s'est avérée nécessaire pour obtenir la convergence expérimentation-simulation.

  18. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  19. Electric Machine with Boosted Inductance to Stabilize Current Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High-powered motors typically have very low resistance and inductance (R and L) in their windings. This makes the pulse-width modulated (PWM) control of the current very difficult, especially when the bus voltage (V) is high. These R and L values are dictated by the motor size, torque (Kt), and back-emf (Kb) constants. These constants are in turn set by the voltage and the actuation torque-speed requirements. This problem is often addressed by placing inductive chokes within the controller. This approach is undesirable in that space is taken and heat is added to the controller. By keeping the same motor frame, reducing the wire size, and placing a correspondingly larger number of turns in each slot, the resistance, inductance, torque constant, and back-emf constant are all increased. The increased inductance aids the current control but ruins the Kt and Kb selections. If, however, a fraction of the turns is moved from their "correct slot" to an "incorrect slot," the increased R and L values are retained, but the Kt and Kb values are restored to the desired values. This approach assumes that increased resistance is acceptable to a degree. In effect, the heat allocated to the added inductance has been moved from the controller to the motor body, which in some cases is preferred.

  20. Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drives for Electrical Actuators: Schemes, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1997-01-01

    For a decade, induction motor drive-based electrical actuators have been under investigation as potential replacement for the conventional hydraulic and pneumatic actuators in aircraft. Advantages of electric actuator include lower weight and size, reduced maintenance and operating costs, improved safety due to the elimination of hazardous fluids and high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and increased efficiency. Recently, the emphasis of research on induction motor drives has been on sensorless vector control which eliminates flux and speed sensors mounted on the motor. Also, the development of effective speed and flux estimators has allowed good rotor flux-oriented (RFO) performance at all speeds except those close to zero. Sensorless control has improved the motor performance, compared to the Volts/Hertz (or constant flux) controls. This report evaluates documented schemes for speed sensorless drives, and discusses the trends and tradeoffs involved in selecting a particular scheme. These schemes combine the attributes of the direct and indirect field-oriented control (FOC) or use model adaptive reference systems (MRAS) with a speed-dependent current model for flux estimation which tracks the voltage model-based flux estimator. Many factors are important in comparing the effectiveness of a speed sensorless scheme. Among them are the wide speed range capability, motor parameter insensitivity and noise reduction. Although a number of schemes have been proposed for solving the speed estimation, zero-speed FOC with robustness against parameter variations still remains an area of research for speed sensorless control.

  1. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOEpatents

    Royak, Semyon (Beachwood, OH); Harbaugh, Mark M. (Richfield, OH); Breitzmann, Robert J. (South Russel, OH); Nondahl, Thomas A. (Wauwatosa, WI); Schmidt, Peter B. (Franklin, WI); Liu, Jingbo (Milwaukee, WI)

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  2. Evaluation of quasi-square wave inverter as a power source for induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Haggard, R. L.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of quasi-square wave inverter-motor technology versus a sine wave inverter-motor system were investigated. The empirical results of several tests on various sizes of wye-wound induction motors are presented with mathematical analysis to support the conclusions of the study. It was concluded that, within the limitations presented, the quasi-square wave inverter-motor system is superior to the more complex sine wave system for most induction motor applications in space.

  3. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Development of a cryogenic induction motor for use with a superconducting magnetic bearing

    E-print Network

    Oxley, Paul

    Development of a cryogenic induction motor for use with a superconducting magnetic bearing Tomotake of a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). Both the motor and the SMB are operated at liquid He temperatures. We give Keywords: Astrophysical polarimeter; Induction motor; Superconducting magnetic bearings 1. Introduction

  5. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3 Section 111.70-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers....

  6. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  7. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael (Elizabeth, PA); Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Burkett, John P. (South Huntington Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3 Section 111...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection §...

  9. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3 Section 111...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection §...

  10. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3 Section 111...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection §...

  11. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3 Section 111...ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection §...

  12. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  13. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  14. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  15. Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

  16. Motor Transport Co. 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    In this dissertation, the influence of using induction motor in machinery train on rotordynamics is discussed. Two areas are considered – the use of variable frequency drives (VFDs), which control and drive the induction motor; and the unstable...

  17. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Amir; Zee, David S.

    2011-01-01

    An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural–functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: (1) the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief) vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements, and gaze holding, (2) the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained) vestibular responses, and (3) the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region) for saccades and pursuit initiation. PMID:21909334

  18. Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

    Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

  19. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1989-03-14

    A motorized control for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide for improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications.

  20. Field assessment of induction motor efficiency through air-gap torque

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Sorenson, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    Induction motors are the most popular motors used in industry. This paper further suggests the use of air-gap torque method to evaluate their efficiency and load changes. The fundamental difference between Method E and the air-gap torque method is discussed. Efficiency assessments conducted on induction motors under various conditions show the accuracy and potential of the air-gap torque method.

  1. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Crowell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor controller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram package that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position sensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44-pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus, RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPIO), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier. This controller replaces air cooling with conduction cooling via a high-thermal-conductivity epoxy casting. A secondary advantage of the relatively good heat conductivity that comes with ultra-small size is that temperature differences within the controller become smaller, so that it is easier to measure the hottest temperature in the controller with fewer temperature sensors, or even one temperature sensor. Another size-sensitive design feature is in the approach to electrical noise immunity. At a very small size, where conduction paths are much shorter than in conventional designs, the ground becomes essentially isopotential, and so certain (space-consuming) electrical noise control components become unnecessary, which helps make small size possible. One winding-current sensor, applied to all of the windings in fast sequence, is smaller and wastes less power than the two or more sensors conventionally used to sense and control winding currents. An unexpected benefit of using only one current sensor is that it actually improves the precision of current control by using the "same" sensors to read each of the three phases. Folding the encoder directly into the controller electronics eliminates a great deal of redundant electronics, packaging, connectors, and hook-up wiring. The reduction of wires and connectors subtracts substantial bulk and eliminates their role in behaving as EMI (electro-magnetic interference) antennas. A shared knowledge by each motor controller of the state of all the motors in the system at 500 Hz also allows parallel processing of higher-level kinematic matrix calculations.

  2. Mesodermal and neuronal retinoids regulate the induction and maintenance of limb innervating spinal motor neurons

    E-print Network

    Mesodermal and neuronal retinoids regulate the induction and maintenance of limb innervating spinal During embryonic development, the generation, diversification and maintenance of spinal motor neurons the fates of forelimb-innervating motor neurons of the Lateral Motor Column (LMC), and the specification

  3. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  4. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1989-03-14

    This patent describes a motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  5. Parameter estimation of vector controlled induction machine 

    E-print Network

    Rahman, Tahmid Ur

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the modeling and control of induction machine under indirect vector control with parameter estimation in order to get better field oriented performance. Because of its excellent decoupled control, wide flux weakening region...

  6. Self-bearing motor design & control

    E-print Network

    Imani Nejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, implementation and control of a new class of self-bearing motors. The primary thesis contributions include the design and experimental demonstration of hysteresis self-bearing motors, novel ...

  7. Aerospace induction motor actuators driven from a 20-kHz power link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace electromechanical actuators utilizing induction motors are under development in sizes up to 40 kW. While these actuators have immediate application to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, several potential applications are currently under study including the Advanced Aircraft Program. Several recent advances developed for the Space Station Freedom have allowed induction motors to be selected as a first choice for such applications. Among these technologies are bi-directional electronics and high frequency power distribution techniques. Each of these technologies are discussed with emphasis on their impact upon induction motor operation.

  8. The pulsed linear induction motor concept for high-speed trains

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Marder, B.M.; Rohwein, G.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Kelley, J.B.; Cowan, M.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The SERAPBIM (SEgmented RAil PHased Induction Motor) concept is a linear induction motor concept which uses rapidly-pulsed magnetic fields and a segmented reaction rail, as opposed to low-frequency fields and continuous reaction rails found in conventional linear induction motors. These improvements give a high-traction, compact, and efficient linear motor that has potential for advanced high speed rail propulsion. In the SERAPBIM concept, coils on the vehicle push against a segmented aluminum rail, which is mounted on the road bed. Current is pulsed as the coils cross an edge of the segmented rail, inducing surface currents which repel the coil. The coils must be pulsed in synchronization with the movement by reaction rail segments. This is provided by a sense-and-fire circuit that controls the pulsing of the power modulators. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the pulsed induction motor and to collect data that could be used for scaling calculations. A 14.4 kg aluminum plate was accelerated down a 4 m track to speeds of over 15 m/sec with peak thrust up to 18 kN per coilset. For a trainset capable of 200 mph speed, the SERAPHIM concept design is based on coils which are each capable of producing up to 3.5 kN thrust, and 30 coil pairs are mounted on each power car. Two power cars, one at each end of the train, provide 6 MW from two gas turbine prime power units. The thrust is about 210.000 N and is essentially constant up to 200 km/hr since wheel slippage does not limit thrust as with conventional wheeled propulsion. A key component of the SERAPHIM concept is the use of passive wheel-on-rah support for the high speed vehicle. Standard steel wheels are capable of handling over 200 mph. The SERAPHIM cost is comparable to that for steel-wheel high-speed rail, and about 10% to 25% of the projected costs for a comparable Maglev system.

  9. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOEpatents

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  10. Multi motor controller MMC32: User manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1993-02-01

    The MMC32 is a versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently in different pulse modes. Each individual motor`s position can be monitored in an open loop, a closed loop, or an encoded loop, even when the motor is moving. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. The details for manual operation are in Chapter 4, and for remote computer control are in Chapter 5. The manual operation is controlled by the front panel keypad with interactive menu display. There is an ``emergency stop`` key on the front panel keypad to abort the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors` position.

  11. Programmable controller for multiphase stepper motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lozovoi, L.N.

    1987-04-01

    A programmable controller for a multiphase stepper motor is described that is designed for use in scanning devices of x-ray spectrometers and other physics apparatus. The system provides considerable memory economy with respect to total size and the number of bits, permits automatic development of stepper-motor control programs, and allows stepper motors with any number of phases to be controlled merely by changing the program stored in the memory unit.

  12. Comparative analysis of electrical and mechanical fault signatures in induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Venugopal, Arvind Madabushi

    2005-02-17

    -1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL FAULT SIGNATURES IN INDUCTION MOTORS A Thesis by ARVIND M. VENUGOPAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL FAULT SIGNATURES IN INDUCTION MOTORS A Thesis by ARVIND M. VENUGOPAL Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  13. Microcomputer-based stepping-motor controller

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.

    1983-04-01

    A microcomputer-controlled stepping motor is described. A Motorola MC68701 microcomputer unit is interfaced to a Cybernetic CY500 stored-program controller that outputs through Motorola input/output isolation modules to the stepping motor. A complex multifunction controller with enhanced capabilities is thus available with a minimum number of parts.

  14. Multi motor controller MMC32: User manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1993-02-01

    The MMC32 is a versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently in different pulse modes. Each individual motor's position can be monitored in an open loop, a closed loop, or an encoded loop, even when the motor is moving. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. The details for manual operation are in Chapter 4, and for remote computer control are in Chapter 5. The manual operation is controlled by the front panel keypad with interactive menu display. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keypad to abort the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position.

  15. An induction/synchronous motor with high temperature superconductor/normal conductor hybrid double-cage rotor windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Nagao, K.; Nishimura, T.; Matsumura, K.

    2009-04-01

    We propose hybrid double-cage rotor windings that consist of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) and a normal conductor, which are introduced into an HTS induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM). The motor rotates as a conventional induction motor when the operating temperature of the hybrid rotor is above the critical temperature of the HTS bars, i.e., in the normal conducting state. On the other hand, the HTS-ISM rotates as a synchronous motor when the temperature is below the critical temperature, i.e., in the superconducting (zero resistance) state. In other words, we do not always need to take care of the cooling conditions, if the HTS-ISM is automatically, as well as appropriately, controlled, depending upon the rotation mode. Namely, the above-mentioned hybrid double-cage HTS-ISM is possibly a breakthrough in solving the cooling problems of HTS rotating machines, especially for industrial applications. The experimental results of the aforementioned motor are reported. An example of an operation flowchart of the motor is also presented and discussed.

  16. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieda, L. S. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  17. Condition Monitoring of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors Fed by PWM -based Drives Using a Parameter Estimation Approach

    E-print Network

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    Condition Monitoring of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors Fed by PWM -based Drives Using a Parameter estimation approach. In this technique, the stator currents, voltages and motor speed are used as the input. This approach is verified by simulation of two different induction motor cases. These simulations are buttressed

  18. On the Comparison of Multiple Signature LDA and Neural Network Based Broken Rotor Bar Detection Schemes in Induction Motors

    E-print Network

    Chow, Mo-Yuen

    Schemes in Induction Motors Bulent Ayhan, Mo-Yuen Chow, Myung-Hyun Song bayhan@unity.ncsu.edu, chow@eos.ncsu.edu, mhsong@sunchon.ac.kr Abstract ­ Broken rotor bars in induction motors can be detected by monitoring any abnormality of the spectrum amplitudes at certain frequencies in the motor current spectrum. Broken rotor bar

  19. Motor torque compensation of an induction electric motor by adjusting a slip command during periods of supposed change in motor temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kelledes, William L. (Brighton, MI); St. John, Don K. (Livonia, MI)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention maintains constant torque in an inverter driven AC induction motor during variations in rotor temperature. It is known that the torque output of a given AC induction motor is dependent upon rotor temperature. At rotor temperatures higher than the nominal operating condition the rotor impedance increases, reducing the rotor current and motor torque. In a similar fashion, the rotor impedance is reduced resulting in increased rotor current and motor torque when the rotor temperature is lower than the nominal operating condition. The present invention monitors the bus current from the DC supply to the inverter and adjusts the slip frequency of the inverter drive to maintain a constant motor torque. This adjustment is based upon whether predetermined conditions implying increased rotor temperature or decreased rotor temperature exist for longer that a predetermined interval of time.

  20. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.G.; Kortegaard, B.L.; Jones, D.F.

    1986-07-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  2. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Rollin G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kortegaard, Bert L. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  3. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles. PMID:26246835

  4. Thermal and vibration dynamic analysis of an induction motor using optical fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Kleiton d. M.; Dreyer, Uilian J.; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2015-09-01

    In this paper it is presented the results of temperature and vibration measurements in a Three-phase Induction Motor (TIM) running at no-load condition. Vibration and temperature analysis are the most successful techniques used for condition monitoring of induction motors. The vibration is measured using two FBGs installed inside of the motor between two subsequent stator teeth. The motor spectrum of vibration when power is at 60 Hz presents the frequencies 60 Hz, 120 Hz, 180 Hz, and 240 Hz as theoretically expected. For the temperature measurement two FBGs are encapsulated in an alumina tube fixed along the stator. The results show 0.9°C difference between the two FBG caused by the motor ventilation nearer of one FBG. These measurements can be used to determine TIM parameters and still be predictive maintenance tool.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.G.; Kortegaard, B.L.; Jones, D.F.

    1987-08-25

    A motor control system is described for sequentially controlling stepper motors, including: addressing means for generating address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence; memory means responsive to the address data for each motor for accessing a memory location corresponding to the address data, the memory location containing a first data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, a number of steps remaining to move the motor, a speed for moving the number of steps, and a rate of change for the speed; first logic circuits for inputting the first data set and for outputting a second data set for commanding the motor to make a single step in a determined direction after a number of the periodic addresses; second logic circuits for inputting the second data set and for outputting a third data set functionally related to a status of the motor is response to the second data set; and means for replacing the first data set with the third data set in the memory at the location corresponding to the address of the motor, the third data set becoming the first data set at a next periodic addressing of the motor.

  6. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  7. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  8. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  9. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  10. Scaling Reinforcement Learning Paradigms for Motor Control 

    E-print Network

    Vijayakumar, Sethu; Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    Reinforcement learning offers a general framework to explain reward related learning in artificial and biological motor control. However, current reinforcement learning methods rarely scale to high dimensional movement systems ...

  11. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  12. Action Videogame Play Improves Visual Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    Can action videogame play improve visual motor control? If yes, can it be used in training complex visual motor skills such as driving? Here we took a control-theoretic approach and tested non-video-game players with a typical compensatory manual control task. After playing a driving (Experiment 1) or a first-person shooter (FPS) action videogame (Experiment 2) for only five hours, participants improved significantly in both the control precision (measured as the RMS error) and response amplitude (gain) for their performance on the manual control task. No enhancement on participants' contrast sensitivity function was observed. We fit the performance data to an extensively validated Crossover Model to further understand how action gaming affects the perceptual system that processes visual information and the neuromuscular system that executes the control command. Our model-driven analysis revealed that playing either a driving or an FPS game improved the perceptual sensitivity to input visual information for online motor control; that playing the FPS game also facilitated anticipating input errors to generate control ahead of time but hurt the stability of the neuromuscular system. In contrast, no effect on the control performance was observed for participants who played a non-action videogame. We then examined whether the improvement in the performance on the manual control task can transfer to daily visual motor control tasks such as driving. We found that lane-keeping performance significantly improved for participants who completed a 40-min training session of the manual control task while no such improvement was observed for participants without training. In summary, the present study provides the first empirical evidence for a causal link between action gaming (for as short as five hours playing) and enhancement in visual motor control. The findings have practical implications for developing training tools to improve performance on daily visual motor control tasks such as driving. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325730

  13. Prediction of induction motor line current spectra from design data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guldemir, Hanifi

    The thesis concentrates on the estimation of the magnitude and frequency of the spectral components of line current that may be used for sensorless speed detection. The prediction method uses a mixture of permeance-mmf, finite element and reluctance mesh techniques to establish the air gap magnetic field. This traditional type of approach is chosen to maintain a visible link between cause and effect so enhancing understanding. The approach is enhanced by the use of slot permanence effects calculated by finite element techniques where saturation due to the current carrying conductors in the slots is incorporated. This is essential for closed slots. Further enhancements include examining slot permeance effects over one or more poles so that the influence of the spatial distribution of slot currents, and slot top saturation can be incorporated. The harmonic chain equivalent circuit is extensively modified to provide a vehicle for predicting the correct saturation conditions in a skewed machine and the correct winding currents for the field solutions. Rotor pole aliasing is introduced to explain the large number of independent speed harmonic terms found experimentally. Special equivalent circuits are introduced to enable these current harmonic to be predicted. A thorough experimental validation is then conducted of the model using a 30 kW experimental machine with adjustable eccentricity with rotors of different slotting form, slot number and skew to determine their effect on the speed dependent harmonic components. Very good agreement is demonstrated. Finally, the improved prediction model is used to provide information on the significance of saturation, skew, slot number and rotor eccentricity on the level of speed dependent harmonic signals. All of this information helps formulate important rules to assist in the choice of motors for satisfactory operation with sensorless speed control of drives using RSH. This in itself is an important extension to the knowledge base in this area. Some of the material has been published at The International Conference on Electrical Machine 1998 in Istanbul and a submission of more material has been made to IAS 99 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  14. The neural optimal control hierarchy for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, T.; Eliasmith, C.

    2011-10-01

    Our empirical, neuroscientific understanding of biological motor systems has been rapidly growing in recent years. However, this understanding has not been systematically mapped to a quantitative characterization of motor control based in control theory. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by describing the neural optimal control hierarchy (NOCH), which can serve as a foundation for biologically plausible models of neural motor control. The NOCH has been constructed by taking recent control theoretic models of motor control, analyzing the required processes, generating neurally plausible equivalent calculations and mapping them on to the neural structures that have been empirically identified to form the anatomical basis of motor control. We demonstrate the utility of the NOCH by constructing a simple model based on the identified principles and testing it in two ways. First, we perturb specific anatomical elements of the model and compare the resulting motor behavior with clinical data in which the corresponding area of the brain has been damaged. We show that damaging the assigned functions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum can cause the movement deficiencies seen in patients with Huntington's disease and cerebellar lesions. Second, we demonstrate that single spiking neuron data from our model's motor cortical areas explain major features of single-cell responses recorded from the same primate areas. We suggest that together these results show how NOCH-based models can be used to unify a broad range of data relevant to biological motor control in a quantitative, control theoretic framework.

  15. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  16. Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ramirez, Armando G.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.; Granados-Lieberman, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2012-01-01

    Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  17. Parameter estimation in induction motors: a comparison between the PE and the TS paradigm

    E-print Network

    Garatti, Simone

    speed , the rotor fluxes (a,b), and the stator currents (ia,ib). The currents ia and ib are also-state. This way of proceeding, however, does not take into account the high sensitivity of some parameters, induction motors have a fixed stator and a mobile rotor, but, differently from the others, they are charac

  18. Reduction of Shaft Voltages and Bearing Currents in Five-Phase Induction Motor 

    E-print Network

    Hussain, Hussain

    2012-07-16

    are studied and a new solution is proposed. First, theory of shaft voltage and bearing current are presented. The causes are identified and current solutions are discussed. Then, new switching patterns are proposed for the five-phase induction motor. The new...

  19. Method and apparatus for large motor control

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Chris R. (Santa Fe, NM); Nelson, Ronald O. (White Rock, NM)

    2003-08-12

    Apparatus and method for providing digital signal processing method for controlling the speed and phase of a motor involves inputting a reference signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of a time based signal; modifying the reference signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the reference signal; inputting a feedback signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of the operation of said motor; modifying the feedback signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the feedback signal; analyzing the modified reference signal and the modified feedback signal to determine the frequency of the modified reference signal and of the modified feedback signal and said relative phase between said modified reference signal and said modified feedback signal; and outputting control signals to the motor for adjusting said speed and phase of the motor based on the frequency determination and determination of the relative phase.

  20. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  1. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  2. Dual-circuit segmented rail phased induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowan, Jr., Maynard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved linear motor utilizes two circuits, rather that one circuit and an opposed plate, to gain efficiency. The powered circuit is a flat conductive coil. The opposed segmented rail circuit is either a plurality of similar conductive coils that are shorted, or a plurality of ladders formed of opposed conductive bars connected by a plurality of spaced conductors. In each embodiment, the conductors are preferably cables formed from a plurality of intertwined insulated wires to carry current evenly.

  3. Induction machine Direct Torque Control system based on fuzzy adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-ping; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Zhen-gang; Gu, Shu-sheng

    2009-07-01

    Direct Torque Control technology is a high-performance communication control method, it uses the space voltage vector method, and then to the inverter switch state control, to obtain high torque dynamic performance. But none of the switching states is able to generate the exact voltage vector to produce the desired changes in torque and flux in most of the switching instances. This causes a high ripple in torque. To solve this problem, a fuzzy implementation of Direct Torque Control of Induction machine is presented here. Error of stator flux, error of motor electromagnetic torque and position of angle of flux are taken as fuzzy variables. In order to further solve nonlinear problem of variation parameters in direct torque control system, the paper proposes a fuzzy parameter PID adaptive control method which is suitable for the direct torque control of an asynchronous motor. The generation of its fuzzy control is obtained by analyzing and optimizing PID control step response and combining expert's experience. For this reason, it carries out fuzzy work to PID regulator of motor speed to achieve to regulate PID parameters. Therefore the control system gets swifter response velocity, stronger robustness and higher precision of velocity control. The computer simulated results verify the validity of this novel method.

  4. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

  5. Deep networks for motor control functions

    PubMed Central

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a non-linear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control. PMID:25852530

  6. Molecular motors: design, mechanism and control

    E-print Network

    Debashish Chowdhury

    2008-01-10

    Biological functions in each animal cell depend on coordinated operations of a wide variety of molecular motors. Some of the these motors transport cargo to their respective destinations whereas some others are mobile workshops which synthesize macromolecules while moving on their tracks. Some other motors are designed to function as packers and movers. All these motors require input energy for performing their mechanical works and operate under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The typical size of these motors and the forces they generate are of the order of nano-meters and pico-Newtons, respectively. They are subjected to random bombardments by the molecules of the surrounding aqueous medium and, therefore, follow noisy trajectories. Because of their small inertia, their movements in the viscous intracellular space exhibits features that are characteristics of hydrodynamics at low Reynold's number. In this article we discuss how theoretical modeling and computer simulations of these machines by physicists are providing insight into their mechanisms which engineers can exploit to design and control artificial nano-motors.

  7. Control System for Bearingless Motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  8. Control system for bearingless motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  9. Microcomputer controlled soft start of motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Shian

    2005-12-01

    Improving the starting characteristics of a motor is an important part of the motor control. An intelligent soft starting technique was adopted in the starter and used in the present study because of its many advantages compared with conventional starting processes. The core of the soft starter was a single chip (Atmel 8098), its soul was the software and its control object was a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The starter achieved not only current-limit starting, but also closed-loop control with a stator current detection circuit. In conclusion, as a result of digital control, starting characteristic can be conveniently chosen according to the load. In addition the starter is of small size, and starting is smooth and reliable due to current feedback.

  10. Motor control: the importance of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Scott L

    2006-04-18

    An octopus brings food grasped by a tentacle to its mouth by bending the tentacle around a joint formed by stiffened distal and proximal tentacle muscles, and thus may use motor control strategies analogous to those in animals with articulated limbs. PMID:16631572

  11. Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control

    E-print Network

    Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

  12. A universal computer control system for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system for a multi-motor system such as a space telerobot, having a remote computational node and a local computational node interconnected with one another by a high speed data link is described. A Universal Computer Control System (UCCS) for the telerobot is located at each node. Each node is provided with a multibus computer system which is characterized by a plurality of processors with all processors being connected to a common bus, and including at least one command processor. The command processor communicates over the bus with a plurality of joint controller cards. A plurality of direct current torque motors, of the type used in telerobot joints and telerobot hand-held controllers, are connected to the controller cards and responds to digital control signals from the command processor. Essential motor operating parameters are sensed by analog sensing circuits and the sensed analog signals are converted to digital signals for storage at the controller cards where such signals can be read during an address read/write cycle of the command processing processor.

  13. A combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashiya, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1999-09-01

    To realize a non-contacting conveyance of a steel plate, a combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors (LIMs) is proposed. By introducing the DC biased AC feeding to the LIM< a steel plate is supported stably and efficiently. In this paper, after showing the advantages of the system, the magnetic levitation experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of the system.

  14. Motor Modeling and Position Control Lab Week 3: Closed Loop Control

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Motor Modeling and Position Control Lab Week 3: Closed Loop Control 1. Review In the first week of motor modeling lab, a mathematical model of a DC motor from first principles was derived to obtain specifically for this motor model. In the second week, a physical DC motor (Quanser SRV-02) was used for open

  15. Trade Electricity. Motors & Controls--Level 3. Standardized Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of seven modules on motors and controls, one of the three divisions of the standardized trade electricity curriculum in high schools in New York City. The seven modules cover the following subjects: energy conservation wiring, direct current (DC) motor repair and rewinding, DC motor controls, alternating current (AC)…

  16. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Motors with Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W; Patil, Niranjan; Lawler, Jack

    2007-07-01

    A 30 pole, 6 kW, and 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) has been designed, built, and tested at the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UWM). This machine has significantly more inductance than that of regular PMSMs. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a controller that will achieve maximum efficiency. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study how steady state performance of high inductance PMSM machines relates to control issues. This report documents the results of this research. The amount of inductance that enables the motor to achieve infinite constant power speed ratio (CPSR) is given by L{sub {infinity}} = E{sub b}/{Omega}{sub b}I{sub R}, where E{sub b} is the root-mean square (rms) magnitude of the line-to-neutral back-electromotive force (emf) at base speed, {Omega}{sub b} is the base speed in electrical radians per second, and I{sub R} is the rms current rating of the motor windings. The prototype machine that was delivered to ORNL has about 1.5 times as much inductance as a typical PMSM with distributed integral slot windings. The inventors of the FSCW method, who designed the prototype machine, remarked that they were 'too successful' in incorporating inductance into their machine and that steps would be taken to modify the design methodology to reduce the inductance to the optimum value. This study shows a significant advantage of having the higher inductance rather than the optimal value because it enables the motor to develop the required power at lower current thereby reducing motor and inverter losses and improving efficiency. The main problem found with high inductance machines driven by a conventional phase advance (CPA) method is that the motor current at high speed depends solely on machine parameters and is virtually independent of the load level and the direct current (dc) supply voltage. Thus, the motor current is virtually the same at no load as at full load resulting in poor efficiency at less than full load conditions. While an inductance higher than the value cited above is warranted, it still does not ensure that the motor current is proportional to load; consequently, the problem of low efficiency at high speed and partial load is not resolved but is only mitigated. A common definition of 'base speed' is the speed at which the voltage applied to the motor armature is equal to the magnitude of the back-emf. The results in this study indicate that the dc supply voltage should be adequate to drive rated current into the motor winding at the specified base speed. At a minimum this requires sufficient voltage to overcome not only the back-emf but also the voltage drop across the internal impedance of the machine. For a high inductance PMSM, the internal impedance at base speed can be considerable and substantial additional voltage is required to overcome the internal voltage drop. It is further shown that even more voltage than the minimum required for injecting rated current at base speed can be beneficial by allowing the required power to be developed at lower current, which reduces losses in the motor and inverter components. Further, it is shown that the current is minimized at a unique speed; consequently, there may be room for optimization if the drive spends a substantial amount of its operating life at a certain speed (for example 60 mph). In this study, fundamental frequency phasor models are developed for a synchronous PMSM and the control systems that drive them is CPA. The models were compared with detailed simulations to show their validity. The result was used to design a traction drive control system with optimized efficiency to drive the fractional-slot motor with concentrated windings. The goal is to meet or exceed the FreedomCAR inverter cost and performance targets.

  17. Control of DC Motor Using Different Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alasooly, Hedaya; Redha, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    A simple model of a DC motor driving an inertial load has the angular rate of the load, ?, as the output and applied voltage, ?app, as the input. The ultimate goal of this paper is to control the angular rate by varying the applied voltage using different control strategies for comparison purpose. The comparision is made between the proptional controller, integral controller, propotional and integral controller, phase lag compensator, derivitive controller, lead integral compensator, lead lag compensator, PID controller and the the linear quadratic tracker design based on the optimal control theory.

  18. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements. PMID:15703737

  19. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  20. Losses in chopper-controlled DC series motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Motors for electric vehicle (EV) applications must have different features than dc motors designed for industrial applications. The EV motor application is characterized by the following requirements: (1) the need for highest possible efficiency from light load to overload, for maximum EV range, (2) large short time overload capability (The ratio of peak to average power varies from 5/1 in heavy city traffic to 3/1 in suburban driving situations) and (3) operation from power supply voltage levels of 84 to 144 volts (probably 120 volts maximum). A test facility utilizing a dc generator as a substitute for a battery pack was designed and utilized. Criteria for the design of such a facility are presented. Two motors, differing in design detail, commercially available for EV use were tested. Losses measured are discussed, as are waves forms and their harmonic content, the measurements of resistance and inductance, EV motor/chopper application criteria, and motor design considerations.

  1. Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.

    1987-01-01

    Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.

  2. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  3. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye–head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  4. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  5. Dual Stepper Motor Controler Card Joe Coffland and Mike Durller

    E-print Network

    Jain, Amit

    stepper motor 1 1 0 Vdd Vdd Vdd Vdd 7.5 20 Watt 7.5 20 Watt 7.5 20 Watt 7.5 20 Watt stepper motor 0 Opto Opto Opto Opto Opto Opto Opto Opto Vdd = 24v Dual Stepper Motor Controler Card Joe Coffland and Mike

  6. Drive control and position measurement of RailCab vehicles driven by linear motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottharst, Andreas; Henke, Christian; Schneider, Tobias; Böcker, Joachim; Grotstollen, Horst

    2006-11-01

    The novel railway system RailCab makes use of autonomous vehicles which are driven by an AC linear motor. Depending on the track-side motor part, long-stator or short-stator operations are possible. The paper deals with the operation of the doubly-fed induction motor which is used for motion control and for transferring the energy required onboard the vehicle. This type of linear motor synchronization of the traveling fields generated by the stationary primary and moving secondary windings is an important and demanding task because the instantaneous positions of the vehicle or the primary traveling wave must be determined with high accuracy. The paper shows how this task is solved at the moment and what improvements are under development.

  7. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  8. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  9. Neuromuscular modularity and behavioral correlates of motor control

    E-print Network

    Overduin, Simon Alexander

    2006-01-01

    I studied organizational principles that may subserve the control and learning of forelimb movements. Among these principles, I focused on muscular coordination patterns, motor cortical excitability, and sensorimotor ...

  10. The Experimental Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability using a Linear Induction Motor Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The experiments to be presented utilize an incompressible system of two stratified miscible liquids of different densities that are accelerated in order to produce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Three liquid combinations are used: isopropyl alcohol with water, a calcium nitrate solution or a lithium polytungstate solution, giving Atwood numbers of 0.11, 0.22 and 0.57, respectively. The acceleration required to drive the instability is produced by two high-speed linear induction motors mounted to an 8 m tall drop tower. The motors are mounted in parallel and have an effective acceleration length of 1.7 m and are each capable of producing 15 kN of thrust. The liquid system is contained within a square acrylic tank with inside dimensions 76 x76x184 mm. The tank is mounted to an aluminum plate, which is driven by the motors to create constant accelerations in the range of 1-20 g's, though the potential exists for higher accelerations. Also attached to the plate are a high-speed camera and an LED backlight to provide continuous video of the instability. In addition, an accelerometer is used to provide acceleration measurements during each experiment. Experimental image sequences will be presented which show the development of a random three-dimensional instability from an unforced initial perturbation. Measurements of the mixing zone width will be compared with traditional growth models.

  11. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  12. Linearity, motor primitives and low-dimensionality in the spinal organization of motor control

    E-print Network

    Berniker, Max (Max Sam), 1971-

    2005-01-01

    The typical biological system is nonlinear, high-dimensional and highly redundant, all of which are burdens on controller design. Yet despite these complications, the central nervous system is able to control motor systems ...

  13. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of trying to oppose it. It is robust and could be particularly useful for PM generators and electric vehicle drives. Recent efforts have introduced a brushless machine that transfers a magneto-motive force (MMF) generated by a stationary excitation coil to the rotor [4]. Although a conventional PM machine may be field weakened using vector control, the air-gap flux density cannot be effectively enhanced. In Hsu's new machine, the magnetic field generated by the rotor's PM may be augmented by the field from the stationery excitation coil and channeled with flux guides to its desired destination to enhance the air-gap flux that produces torque. The magnetic field can also be weakened by reversing the current in the stationary excitation winding. A patent for advanced technology in this area is pending. Several additional RTFC methods have been discussed in open literature. These include methods of changing the number of poles by magnetizing and demagnetizing the magnets poles with pulses of current corresponding to direct-axis (d-axis) current of vector control [5,6], changing the number of stator coils [7], and controlling the air gap [8]. Test experience has shown that the magnet strengths may vary and weaken naturally as rotor temperature increases suggesting that careful control of the rotor temperature, which is no easy task, could yield another method of RTFC. The purpose of this report is to (1) examine the interaction of rotor and stator flux with regard to RTFC, (2) review and summarize the status of RTFC technology, and (3) compare and evaluate methods for RTFC with respect to maturity, advantages and limitations, deployment difficulty and relative complexity.

  14. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Using Predictive Motor Control Processes

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    neural processes that are necessary to convert the plans and goals of an intended action into motor.1007/978-0-387-77064-2_17, Ó Springer ScienceþBusiness Media, LLC 2008 337 #12;UNCORRECTEDPROOF issued motor commands

  15. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Frost, C.A.; Kahle, P.M.; Kelley, J.B.; Stanton, S.L.

    1997-05-20

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part. 6 figs.

  16. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R. (1620 Adelita Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Frost, Charles A. (1039 Red Oaks Loop NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Kahle, Philip M. (528 Longwood Loop NE., Rio Rancho, NM 87124); Kelley, J. Bruce (13200 Blue Corn Maiden Trail NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Stanton, Suzanne L. (2805 Palo Alto NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part.

  17. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop line-start and line-run constant-speed electric motors and simple-to-control electric motors with the goal of obtaining at least a 30% reduction in motor losses as compared to conventional energy-efficient induction motors and a 15% reduction in motor losses as compared to NEMA Premium® efficient induction motors.

  18. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''),...

  19. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  20. Controlling An Inverter-Driven Three-Phase Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C.

    1984-01-01

    Control system for three-phase permanent-magnet motor driven by linecommutated inverter uses signals generated by integrating back emf of each phase of motor. High-pass filter network eliminates low-frequency components from control loop while maintaining desired power factor.

  1. 26. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE MOTOR CONTROL SWITCHING PANEL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE MOTOR CONTROL SWITCHING PANEL FOR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 IN THE BOP SHOP'S MOTOR CONTROL CENTER No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control

    PubMed Central

    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Learning to control our movements accompanies neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e. the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: 1) firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, 2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and 3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  3. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2005-12-21

    It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be developed in future work. This report documents the results of this preliminary investigation.

  4. Empirical mode decomposition and neural networks on FPGA for fault diagnosis in induction motors.

    PubMed

    Camarena-Martinez, David; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, many industrial applications require online systems that combine several processing techniques in order to offer solutions to complex problems as the case of detection and classification of multiple faults in induction motors. In this work, a novel digital structure to implement the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for processing nonstationary and nonlinear signals using the full spline-cubic function is presented; besides, it is combined with an adaptive linear network (ADALINE)-based frequency estimator and a feed forward neural network (FFNN)-based classifier to provide an intelligent methodology for the automatic diagnosis during the startup transient of motor faults such as: one and two broken rotor bars, bearing defects, and unbalance. Moreover, the overall methodology implementation into a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) allows an online and real-time operation, thanks to its parallelism and high-performance capabilities as a system-on-a-chip (SoC) solution. The detection and classification results show the effectiveness of the proposed fused techniques; besides, the high precision and minimum resource usage of the developed digital structures make them a suitable and low-cost solution for this and many other industrial applications. PMID:24678281

  5. Empirical Mode Decomposition and Neural Networks on FPGA for Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, many industrial applications require online systems that combine several processing techniques in order to offer solutions to complex problems as the case of detection and classification of multiple faults in induction motors. In this work, a novel digital structure to implement the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for processing nonstationary and nonlinear signals using the full spline-cubic function is presented; besides, it is combined with an adaptive linear network (ADALINE)-based frequency estimator and a feed forward neural network (FFNN)-based classifier to provide an intelligent methodology for the automatic diagnosis during the startup transient of motor faults such as: one and two broken rotor bars, bearing defects, and unbalance. Moreover, the overall methodology implementation into a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) allows an online and real-time operation, thanks to its parallelism and high-performance capabilities as a system-on-a-chip (SoC) solution. The detection and classification results show the effectiveness of the proposed fused techniques; besides, the high precision and minimum resource usage of the developed digital structures make them a suitable and low-cost solution for this and many other industrial applications. PMID:24678281

  6. New Technique of High-Performance Torque Control Developed for Induction Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2003-01-01

    Two forms of high-performance torque control for motor drives have been described in the literature: field orientation control and direct torque control. Field orientation control has been the method of choice for previous NASA electromechanical actuator research efforts with induction motors. Direct torque control has the potential to offer some advantages over field orientation, including ease of implementation and faster response. However, the most common form of direct torque control is not suitable for the highspeed, low-stator-flux linkage induction machines designed for electromechanical actuators with the presently available sample rates of digital control systems (higher sample rates are required). In addition, this form of direct torque control is not suitable for the addition of a high-frequency carrier signal necessary for the "self-sensing" (sensorless) position estimation technique. This technique enables low- and zero-speed position sensorless operation of the machine. Sensorless operation is desirable to reduce the number of necessary feedback signals and transducers, thus improving the reliability and reducing the mass and volume of the system. This research was directed at developing an alternative form of direct torque control known as a "deadbeat," or inverse model, solution. This form uses pulse-width modulation of the voltage applied to the machine, thus reducing the necessary sample and switching frequency for the high-speed NASA motor. In addition, the structure of the deadbeat form allows the addition of the high-frequency carrier signal so that low- and zero-speed sensorless operation is possible. The new deadbeat solution is based on using the stator and rotor flux as state variables. This choice of state variables leads to a simple graphical representation of the solution as the intersection of a constant torque line with a constant stator flux circle. Previous solutions have been expressed only in complex mathematical terms without a method to clearly visualize the solution. The graphical technique allows a more insightful understanding of the operation of the machine under various conditions.

  7. Brushless Motor Controller Report Spring 2010

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    ...................................................................................... 6 i. Building the board weight. A typical electric motor is capable of 200 watts per kilogram, while a typical human muscle

  8. Speech motor control variables in the production of voicing contrasts and emphatic accent 

    E-print Network

    Mills, Timothy Ian Pandachuck

    2009-11-26

    This dissertation looks at motor control in speech production. Two specific questions emerging from the speech motor control literature are studied: the question of articulatory versus acoustic motor control targets, and ...

  9. ARDOLORES: an Arduino based motors control system for DOLORES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel; Ventura, H.; San Juan, J.; Di Fabrizio, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present ARDOLORES a custom made motor control system for the DOLORES instrument in use at the TNG telescope. ARDOLORES replaced the original PMAC based motor control system at a fraction of the cost. The whole system is composed by one master Arduino ONE with its Ethernet shield, to handle the communications with the external world through an Ethernet socket, and by one Arduino ONE with its custom motor shield for each axis to be controlled. The communication between the master and slaves Arduinos is made possible through the I2C bus. Also a Java web-service has been written to control the motors from an higher level and provides an external API for the scientific GUI. The system has been working since January 2012 handling the DOLORES motors and has demonstrated to be stable, reliable, and with easy maintenance in both the hardware and the software parts.

  10. Visual motor control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ho, Shu-Leong; Lee, Mei-Chun; Chang, Shek-Kwan; Pang, Yin-Yu; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    Although previous studies have suggested deteriorated visual motor control in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is likely due to deficits in both the motor and perceptual systems, no study has directly measured such deficits and how antiparkinsonian medication improves visual motor control in PD patients. Here we took a control-theoretic approach to address these issues. We tested 20 PD patients ON and OFF mediation and 20 healthy controls with a typical manual control task. Specifically, in each 90-s trial, participants were instructed to use a joystick to control the movement of a red target to keep it centered on a CRT display (37°Hx21°V) as its horizontal position was perturbed by the sum of seven harmonically-unrelated sinusoids (0.1-2.19Hz). The time series of target position and joystick displacement were Fourier analyzed and averaged across six trials. The performance data were fit by an extensively validated Crossover Model (McRuer et al., 1965) to evaluate the deficits in PD patients' perceptual processing and motor control. We found that although antiparkinsonian medication improved visual motor control in PD patients, they still showed significantly decreased control precision (measured by RMS error) and response amplitude (gain) as well as increased response delay (phase) compared with the controls. Our model based analysis showed PD patients' deteriorated visual motor control was due to (1) impaired perceptual sensitivity to input visual information for online motor control, (2) impaired perceptual ability to anticipate the input error to generate control ahead of the error signal, and (3) decreases stability of the neuromuscular system. Surprisingly, antiparkinsonian medication improved the former two but did not help the latter, suggesting that the effect of the medication on visual motor control is primarily through improving perceptual processing. The findings have practical implications for developing assessment tools to evaluate the efficacy of different therapies for PD. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326281

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electric Motor Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    This Electric Motor Repair Course is designed to provide the student with practical information for winding, repairing, and troubleshooting alternating current and direct current motors, and controllers. The course is comprised of eight units: (1) Electric Motor Fundamentals, (2) Rewinding, (3) Split-phase Induction Motors, (4) Capacitor Motors,…

  12. A novel robust speed controller scheme for PMBLDC motor.

    PubMed

    Thirusakthimurugan, P; Dananjayan, P

    2007-10-01

    The design of speed and position controllers for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDC) drive remains as an open problem in the field of motor drives. A precise speed control of PMBLDC motor is complex due to nonlinear coupling between winding currents and rotor speed. In addition, the nonlinearity present in the developed torque due to magnetic saturation of the rotor further complicates this issue. This paper presents a novel control scheme to the conventional PMBLDC motor drive, which aims at improving the robustness by complete decoupling of the design besides minimizing the mutual influence among the speed and current control loops. The interesting feature of this robust control scheme is its suitability for both static and dynamic aspects. The effectiveness of the proposed robust speed control scheme is verified through simulations. PMID:17544426

  13. Model Reference Adaptive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárník, Marián; Murgaš, Ján

    2011-05-01

    In this paper the classical theory of the direct Model Reference Adaptive Control is used to develop a control algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). A PMSM model widely used in electric drives community is considered as base for control system development. Conventionally used controllers are replaced by adaptive ones. The resulting control system adapts to changes in any of PMSM parameters.

  14. Control Systems Lab Using a LEGO Mindstorms NXT Motor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a low-cost LEGO Mindstorms NXT motor system for teaching classical and modern control theories in standard third-year undergraduate courses. The LEGO motor system can be used in conjunction with MATLAB, Simulink, and several necessary toolboxes to demonstrate: 1) a modeling technique; 2) proportional-integral-differential…

  15. Comments on Controllable Three-Dimensional Brownian Motors

    E-print Network

    Elias P. Gyftopoulos

    2007-06-13

    Upon reviewing the physical review letter which describes the processes involved in "demonstration of a controllable three-dimensional Brownian motor in symmetric potentials" we conclude that such processes are not compatible with what Einstein and many other physicists and engineers define as Brownian motors or Brownian movements.

  16. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  17. CONTROL OF MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS - THE U.S. EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical overview of the U.S. experience with controlling emissions from highway motor vehicles is presented. he evolution of new motor vehicle emissions certification practice, end-of-assembly-line inspection, in-use surveillance and recall, inspection and maintenance, and ...

  18. A brushless dc spin motor for momentum exchange altitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D.; Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brushless dc spin motor is designed to use Hall effect probes as means of revolving rotor position and controlling motor winding currents. This results in 3 to 1 reduction in watt-hours required for wheel acceleration, a 2 to 1 reduction in power to run wheel, and a 10 to 1 reduction in the electronics size and weight.

  19. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control. PMID:25136312

  20. Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control -- Part I: Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-10-29

    An inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance, surface-mounted permanent magnet motors over the wide constant power speed range required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) [1]. The DMIC can drive either the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) with sinusoidal back emf, or the brushless dc machine (BDCM) with trapezoidal emf in the motoring and regenerative braking modes. In this paper we concentrate on the BDCM under high-speed motoring conditions. Simulation results show that if all motor and inverter loss mechanisms are neglected, the constant power speed range of the DMIC is infinite. The simulation results are supported by closed form expressions for peak and rms motor current and average power derived from analytical solution to the differential equations governing the DMIC/BDCM drive for the lossless case. The analytical solution shows that the range of motor inductance that can be accommodated by the DMIC is more than an order of magnitude such that the DMIC is compatible with both low- and high-inductance BDCMs. Finally, method is given for integrating the classical hysteresis band current control, used for motor control below base speed, with the phase advance of DMIC that is applied above base speed. The power versus speed performance of the DMIC is then simulated across the entire speed range.

  1. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  2. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  3. Performances improvements and torque ripple minimization for VSI fed induction machine with direct control torque.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, R; Rekioua, D; Rekioua, T

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a torque ripple reduction technique with constant switching frequency for direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). This method enables a minimum torque ripple control. In order to obtain a constant switching frequency and hence a torque ripple reduction, we propose a control technique for IM. It consists of controlling directly the electromagnetic torque by using a modulated hysteresis controller. The design methodology is based on space vector modulation (SVM) of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study are used. The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show an adequate dynamic to IM; however, the research can be extended to include synchronous motors as well. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is described. It doesn't require any PI controller in the torque control loop. The hardware inverter is controlled digitally using a Texas Instruments TMS320F240 digital signal processor (DSP) with composed C codes for generating the required references. The results obtained from simulation and experiments confirmed the feasibility of the proposed strategy compared to the conventional one. PMID:21193193

  4. 76. VIEW OF THE MOTOR CONTROL PANEL IN THE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF THE MOTOR CONTROL PANEL IN THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST SERVICE BUILDING FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Looking East at Motor Control System, Clarity Columns and Blend ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking East at Motor Control System, Clarity Columns and Blend Tank Along East Side of Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS AND LEVERS AND HOIST FOR TRASH RAKE - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  7. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  8. Motor Learning and Control Foundations of Kinesiology: Defining the Academic Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the kinesiological foundations of the motor behavior subdisciplines of motor learning and motor control. After defining the components of motor behavior, the paper addresses the undergraduate major and core knowledge by examining several classic textbooks in motor learning and control, as well as a number of contemporary…

  9. Measurement of position deviation and eccentricity for ?-disc-type inductive micro-motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Che; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan

    2015-12-01

    An innovative capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit to replace traditional gap sensor is designed to measure the motion of the levitated micro-disc embedded in an inductive micro-motor. Twelve equivalent capacitor pairs are constructed to detect the position deviation of the disc. As the position deviation of disc occurs, the capacitances of the corresponding capacitor pairs are altered. In addition, by applying the effects of inertial force and centrifugal force, an innovative non-contact measurement method to quantify the unbalance degree of the micro-disc, i.e., eccentricity, is also proposed. By commercial computer simulations and realistic experiments undertaken, the performance of the proposed capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit has been successfully verified. The mean of output voltage of gap-sensing readout circuit is about 327 mV under the position deviation of the disc being 8 ?m. Moreover, the unbalance degree of the disc is approximately proportional to the square of the position deviation of the disc.

  10. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  11. Stepper-motor controller with dynamic winding-current regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Burtelov, V.A.

    1988-06-01

    A controller for an ShD-5 stepper motor is described that is distinguished by a pulse method of regulation of the phase-winding currents at an arbitrary level. Power consumption is reduced by a factor of 5 to 10 as compared with the traditional circuit. The main unit, the winding-current control channel, is suitable for operation with other types of stepper motors. A schematic diagram of the controller is given and the static efficiency of the control channel as a function of supply voltage for various winding currents is graphed.

  12. Remote control of molecular motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Zev

    2013-03-01

    Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in vivo and provide sophisticated components for directed nanoscale transport in vitro. We previously constructed myosin motors that respond to a change in [Ca++] by reversing their direction of motion along the polarized actin filament. To expand the potential applications of controllable molecular motors, we have now developed myosins that shift gears in response to blue light illumination. Light is a versatile control signal that can be readily modulated in time and space, and is generally orthogonal to cellular signaling. Using structure-guided protein engineering, we have incorporated LOV photoreceptor domains into the lever arms of chimeric myosins, resulting in motors that robustly speed up, slow down, or switch directions upon illumination. These genetically encoded motors should be directly deployable inside living cells. Our successful designs include constructs based on two different myosin classes, and we show that optical velocity control can be implemented in motors that move at microns/sec speeds, enabling practical biological and bioengineering applications.

  13. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  14. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  15. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  16. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  17. Motor strategies of postural control after hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Tasseel-Ponche, S; Yelnik, A P; Bonan, I V

    2015-11-01

    After stroke, the causes of balance disorders include motor disorders, sensory loss, perceptual deficits and altered spatial cognition. This review focuses on motor strategies for postural control after stroke. Weight-bearing asymmetry, smaller surface of stability, increased sway, body tilting and sometimes pushing syndrome are observed. Weakness and sensory impairments account only for some of these disturbances; altered postural reactions and anticipated postural adjustments as well as abnormal synergistic muscular activation play an important part. These disorders are often linked to cognitive impairments (visuospatial analysis, perception of verticality, use of sensory information, attention, etc.), which explain the preeminent disorders of postural control seen with right rather than left-hemisphere lesions. Most of the motor changes are due to an impaired central nervous system but some could be considered adaptive behaviors. These changes have consequences for rehabilitation and need further studies for building customized programs based on the motor comportment of a given patient. PMID:26520051

  18. Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system.

    PubMed

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Three levels of sensorimotor control within the central nervous system (CNS) can be distinguished. During the neonatal stage, general movements and primitive reflexes are controlled at the spinal and brain stem levels. Analysis of the newborn's spontaneous general movements and the assessment of primitive reflexes is crucial in the screening and early recognition of a risk for abnormal development. Following the newborn period, the subcortical level of the CNS motor control emerges and matures mainly during the first year of life. This allows for basic trunk stabilization, a prerequisite for any phasic movement and for the locomotor function of the extremities. At the subcortical level, orofacial muscles and afferent information are automatically integrated within postural-locomotor patterns. Finally, the cortical (the highest) level of motor control increasingly becomes activated. Cortical control is important for the individual qualities and characteristics of movement. It also allows for isolated segmental movement and relaxation. A child with impaired cortical motor control may be diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Human ontogenetic models, i.e., developmental motor patterns, can be used in both the diagnosis and treatment of locomotor system dysfunction. PMID:24411146

  19. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The performance of these evolved controllers is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller.

  20. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  1. Infrared Sensor-Based Temperature Control for Domestic Induction Cooktops

    PubMed Central

    Lasobras, Javier; Alonso, Rafael; Carretero, Claudio; Carretero, Enrique; Imaz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a precise real-time temperature control system based on infrared (IR) thermometry for domestic induction cooking is presented. The temperature in the vessel constitutes the control variable of the closed-loop power control system implemented in a commercial induction cooker. A proportional-integral controller is applied to establish the output power level in order to reach the target temperature. An optical system and a signal conditioning circuit have been implemented. For the signal processing a microprocessor with 12-bit ADC and a sampling rate of 1 Ksps has been used. The analysis of the contributions to the infrared radiation permits the definition of a procedure to estimate the temperature of the vessel with a maximum temperature error of 5 °C in the range between 60 and 250 °C for a known cookware emissivity. A simple and necessary calibration procedure with a black-body sample is presented. PMID:24638125

  2. Infrared sensor-based temperature control for domestic induction cooktops.

    PubMed

    Lasobras, Javier; Alonso, Rafael; Carretero, Claudio; Carretero, Enrique; Imaz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a precise real-time temperature control system based on infrared (IR) thermometry for domestic induction cooking is presented. The temperature in the vessel constitutes the control variable of the closed-loop power control system implemented in a commercial induction cooker. A proportional-integral controller is applied to establish the output power level in order to reach the target temperature. An optical system and a signal conditioning circuit have been implemented. For the signal processing a microprocessor with 12-bit ADC and a sampling rate of 1 Ksps has been used. The analysis of the contributions to the infrared radiation permits the definition of a procedure to estimate the temperature of the vessel with a maximum temperature error of 5 °C in the range between 60 and 250 °C for a known cookware emissivity. A simple and necessary calibration procedure with a black-body sample is presented. PMID:24638125

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Kim, Y. T.; Akbaradeh-T., M. -R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  4. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

  5. Direct Torque Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Respect to Optimal Efficiency

    E-print Network

    Noé, Reinhold

    motors (PMSM) increased significantly. Thus, this motor type becomes more and more attractive for drive-axis current of the motor must not be controlled to zero, as it is common with non-salient PMSM. Thus

  6. Two-motor direct drive control for elevation axis of telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, T.; Tan, Y.; Ren, G.

    2014-07-01

    Two-motor application has become a very attractive filed in important field which high performance is permitted to achieve of position, speed, and acceleration. In the elevation axis of telescope control system, two-motor direct drive is proposed to enhance the high performance of tracking control system. Although there are several dominant strengths such as low size of motors and high torsional structural dynamics, the synchronization control of two motors is a very difficult and important. In this paper, a multi-loop control technique base master-slave current control is used to synchronize two motors, including current control loop, speed control loop and position control loop. First, the direct drive function of two motors is modeled. Compared of single motor direct control system, the resonance frequency of two motor control systems is same; while the anti-resonance frequency of two motors control system is 1.414 times than those of sing motor system. Because of rigid coupling for direct drive, the speed of two motor of the system is same, and the synchronization of torque for motors is critical. The current master-slave control technique is effective to synchronize the torque, which the current loop of the master motors is tracked the other slave motor. The speed feedback into the input of current loop of the master motors. The experiments test the performance of the two motors drive system. The random tracking error is 0.0119" for the line trajectory of 0.01°/s.

  7. A linearly controlled direct-current power source for high-current inductive loads in a magnetic suspension wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley 6 inch magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) requires an independently controlled bidirectional DC power source for each of six positioning electromagnets. These electromagnets provide five-degree-of-freedom control over a suspended aerodynamic test model. Existing power equipment, which employs resistance coupled thyratron controlled rectifiers as well as AC to DC motor generator converters, is obsolete, inefficient, and unreliable. A replacement six phase bidirectional controlled bridge rectifier is proposed, which employs power MOSFET switches sequenced by hybrid analog/digital circuits. Full load efficiency is 80 percent compared to 25 percent for the resistance coupled thyratron system. Current feedback provides high control linearity, adjustable current limiting, and current overload protection. A quenching circuit suppresses inductive voltage impulses. It is shown that 20 kHz interference from positioning magnet power into MSBS electromagnetic model position sensors results predominantly from capacitively coupled electric fields. Hence, proper shielding and grounding techniques are necessary. Inductively coupled magnetic interference is negligible.

  8. AC motor controller with 180 degree conductive switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oximberg, Carol A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An ac motor controller is operated by a modified time-switching scheme where the switches of the inverter are on for electrical-phase-and-rotation intervals of 180.degree. as opposed to the conventional 120.degree.. The motor is provided with three-phase drive windings, a power inverter for power supplied from a dc power source consisting of six switches, and a motor controller which controls the current controlled switches in voltage-fed mode. During full power, each switch is gated continuously for three successive intervals of 60.degree. and modulated for only one of said intervals. Thus, during each 60.degree. interval, the two switches with like signs are on continuously and the switch with the opposite sign is modulated.

  9. Induction of human umbilical Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward motor neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Zohreh; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Azami, Mahmoud; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Ai, Jafar; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-10-01

    The most important property of stem cells from different sources is the capacity to differentiate into various cells and tissue types. However, problems including contamination, normal karyotype, and ethical issues cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells from different sources. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord represent a pool source of primitive cells with properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study was to determine the potential of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) for differentiation to motor neuron cells. WJMSCs were induced to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells by using different signaling molecules and neurotrophic factors in vitro. Differentiated neurons were then characterized for expression of motor neuron markers including nestin, PAX6, NF-H, Islet 1, HB9, and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that differentiated WJMSCs could significantly express motor neuron biomarkers in RNA and protein levels 15 d post induction. These results suggested that WJMSCs can differentiate to motor neuron-like cells and might provide a potential source in cell therapy for neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26148883

  10. Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    to understand how muscles, sense organs, motor pattern generators, and brain interact to produce coordinated, muscles, sense organs and the environment in the control of movement, and (5) describe advances in both is to understand how movement is controlled. This area of research seeks to understand how muscles, sense organs

  11. Assembly and Function of Spinal Circuits for Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Catela, Catarina; Shin, Maggie M; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2015-11-13

    Control of movement is a fundamental and complex task of the vertebrate nervous system, which relies on communication between circuits distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord. Many of the networks essential for the execution of basic locomotor behaviors are composed of discrete neuronal populations residing within the spinal cord. The organization and connectivity of these circuits is established through programs that generate functionally diverse neuronal subtypes, each contributing to a specific facet of motor output. Significant progress has been made in deciphering how neuronal subtypes are specified and in delineating the guidance and synaptic specificity determinants at the core of motor circuit assembly. Recent studies have shed light on the basic principles linking locomotor circuit connectivity with function, and they are beginning to reveal how more sophisticated motor behaviors are encoded. In this review, we discuss the impact of developmental programs in specifying motor behaviors governed by spinal circuits. PMID:26393773

  12. Speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors using ring coupling control and adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Le-Bao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new control approach for speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors is developed, by incorporating an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique into a ring coupling synchronization control structure. This control approach can stabilize speed tracking of each motor and synchronize its motion with other motors? motion so that speed tracking errors and synchronization errors converge to zero. Moreover, an adaptive law is exploited to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort and attenuate chattering. Performance comparisons with parallel control, relative coupling control and conventional PI control are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:26255267

  13. Mindset induction effects on cognitive control: a neurobehavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Hans S; Moran, Tim P; Donnellan, M Brent; Moser, Jason S

    2014-12-01

    Messages about how much our abilities can change - or "mindset" messages - affect learning, achievement, and performance interpretations. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unexplored. To address this gap, we assessed how a mindset induction influenced cognitive control brain activity. Participants were randomly assigned to read that intelligence was either malleable (growth-mindset condition) or immutable (fixed-mindset condition) before completing a reaction-time task while electroencephalogram was recorded. Findings revealed that inducing a growth mindset resulted in enhanced attention to task-relevant stimuli, whereas inducing a fixed mindset enhanced attention to responses. Despite enhanced attention to responses in the fixed mindset group, this attention allocation was unrelated to adaptive performance adjustments. In contrast, the growth mindset induction produced a relatively strong coupling between error-related attention allocation and adaptive post-error performance. These results suggest that growth- and fixed-mindset messages have differential effects on the neural dynamics underlying cognitive control. PMID:25149141

  14. Noninvasive Reactivation of Motor Descending Control after Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, Yury P; Lu, Daniel C; Modaber, Morteza; Zdunowski, Sharon; Gad, Parag; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Morikawa, Erika; Haakana, Piia; Ferguson, Adam R; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-12-15

    The present prognosis for the recovery of voluntary control of movement in patients diagnosed as motor complete is generally poor. Herein we introduce a novel and noninvasive stimulation strategy of painless transcutaneous electrical enabling motor control and a pharmacological enabling motor control strategy to neuromodulate the physiological state of the spinal cord. This neuromodulation enabled the spinal locomotor networks of individuals with motor complete paralysis for 2-6 years American Spinal Cord Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) to be re-engaged and trained. We showed that locomotor-like stepping could be induced without voluntary effort within a single test session using electrical stimulation and training. We also observed significant facilitation of voluntary influence on the stepping movements in the presence of stimulation over a 4-week period in each subject. Using these strategies we transformed brain-spinal neuronal networks from a dormant to a functional state sufficiently to enable recovery of voluntary movement in five out of five subjects. Pharmacological intervention combined with stimulation and training resulted in further improvement in voluntary motor control of stepping-like movements in all subjects. We also observed on-command selective activation of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles when attempting to plantarflex. At the end of 18 weeks of weekly interventions the mean changes in the amplitude of voluntarily controlled movement without stimulation was as high as occurred when combined with electrical stimulation. Additionally, spinally evoked motor potentials were readily modulated in the presence of voluntary effort, providing electrophysiological evidence of the re-establishment of functional connectivity among neural networks between the brain and the spinal cord. PMID:26077679

  15. DUAL FULL-BRIDGE MOTOR DRIVER

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    2998 DUAL FULL-BRIDGE MOTOR DRIVER As an interface between low-level logic and solenoids, dc (brush) motors, or stepper motors, the UDN2998W dual full-bridge driver will operate inductive loads up to 50 V, the two drivers in each package are completely independent. For external PWM control, an Output Enable

  16. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  17. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  18. Arm Coordination in Octopus Crawling Involves Unique Motor Control Strategies

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    Report Arm Coordination in Octopus Crawling Involves Unique Motor Control Strategies Highlights d Octopuses use unique strategies to coordinate their arms in crawling d They can crawl in any direction and then elongating movements d Arm coordination in octopus crawling lacks any obvious rhythmical pattern Authors Guy

  19. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  20. 31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF OTIS PASSENGER ELEVATOR ADDED IN 1921, BASEMENT. The original equipment, shown here, operated on direct current from the Massachusetts Avenue trolley line, abandoned in 1961. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL THROUGH ELECTROCORTICOGRAPHIC BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACES

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    HUMAN MOTOR CONTROL THROUGH ELECTROCORTICOGRAPHIC BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACES By AYSEGUL GUNDUZ brain and close the lid once you are done using it, rather knowledge is dynamic. I hope the day will come when I will be "thinking like the electrical engineer" he aspires me to be. I would like to thank

  2. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier...proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier...evaporative emissions from passenger cars, light-duty trucks, medium...important source of exposure to air pollution both regionally and near...

  3. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1065, and 1066 RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From... (``EPA'') is announcing an extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  4. Control and Diagnostic Model of Brushless Dc Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Ivan V.; Nikitin, Yury R.; Abramov, Andrei I.; Sosnovich, Ella V.; Božek, Pavol

    2014-09-01

    A simulation model of brushless DC motor (BLDC) control and diagnostics is considered. The model has been developed using a freeware complex "Modeling in technical devices". Faults and diagnostic parameters of BLDC are analyzed. A logicallinguistic diagnostic model of BLDC has been developed on basis of fuzzy logic. The calculated rules determine dependence of technical condition on diagnostic parameters, their trends and utilized lifetime of BLDC. Experimental results of BLDC technical condition diagnostics are discussed. It is shown that in the course of BLDC degradation the motor condition change depends on diagnostic parameter values

  5. Optimal motor control may mask sensory dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kiemel, Tim; Cowan, Noah J.; Jeka, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Properties of neural controllers for closed-loop sensorimotor behavior can be inferred with system identification. Under the standard paradigm, the closed-loop system is perturbed (input), measurements are taken (output), and the relationship between input and output reveals features of the system under study. Here we show that under common assumptions made about such systems (e.g. the system implements optimal control with a penalty on mechanical, but not sensory, states) important aspects of the neural controller (its zeros mask the modes of the sensors) remain hidden from standard system identification techniques. Only by perturbing or measuring the closed-loop system “between” the sensor and the control can these features be exposed with closed-loop system identification methods; while uncommon, there exist noninvasive techniques such as galvanic vestibular stimulation that perturb between sensor and controller in this way. PMID:19408009

  6. Microgravity induced changes in the control of motor units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, C.; Roy, S.

    The goal of this project is to understand the effects of microgravity on the control of muscles. It is motivated by the notion that in order to adequately address microgravity-induced deterioration in the force generating capacity of muscles, one needs to understand the changes in the control aspects in addition to histochemical and morphological changes. The investigations into muscle control need to include the regulation of the firing activity of motor units that make up a muscle and the coordination of different muscles responsible for the control of a joint. In order to understand the effects of microgravity on these two aspects of muscle control, we will test astronauts before and after spaceflight. The investigations of the control of motor units will involve intramuscular EMG techniques developed in our laboratory. We will use a quadrifilar electrode to detect simultaneously three differential channels of EMG activity. These data will be decomposed accurately using a sophisticated set of algorithms constructed with artificial intelligence knowledge- based techniques. Particular attention will be paid to the firing rate and recruitment behavior of motor units and we will study the degree of cross-correlation of the firing rates. This approach will enable us to study the firing behavior of several (approx. 10) concurrently active motor units. This analysis will enable us to detect modifications in the control of motor units. We will perform these investigations in a hand muscle, which continues being used in prehensile tasks in space, and a leg muscle whose antigravity role is not needed in space. The comparison of the effects of weightlessness on these muscles will determine if continued use of muscles in space deters the possible deleterious effects of microgravity on the control of motor units, in addition to slowing down atrophy. We are particularly interested in comparing the results of this study to similar data already obtained from elderly subjects, because the deleterious effects of migrogravity on muscles is in many ways similar to that of aging. Additionally, we will employ surface EMG techniques to evaluate the effects of microgravity on the coordination of muscles controlling a joint. We will study if the relative contributions from the muscles around the knee joint are redistributed after exposure to microgravity. The insight to be gained from this study will be important in developing countermeasures for maintaining the force generating capacity of muscles in microgravity and rehabilitation programs for aiding in recovery upon return to earth.

  7. Perinatal Development of the Motor Systems Involved in Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, Laurent; Ben-Mabrouk, Faïza; Brocard, Frédéric; Clarac, François; Jean-Xavier, Céline; Pearlstein, Edouard; Pflieger, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood—e.g, deficits in motor coordination—might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy. PMID:16097481

  8. Control system for a wound-rotor motor

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, James N. (Chatsworth, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A load switching circuit for switching two or more transformer taps under load carrying conditions includes first and second parallel connected bridge rectifier circuits which control the selective connection of a direct current load to taps of a transformer. The first bridge circuit is normally conducting so that the load is connected to a first tap through the first bridge circuit. To transfer the load to the second tap, a switch is operable to connect the second bridge circuit to a second tap, and when the second bridge circuit begins to conduct, the first bridge circuit ceases conduction because the potential at the second tap is higher than the potential at the first tap, and the load is thus connected to the second tap through the second bridge circuit. The load switching circuit is applicable in a motor speed controller for a wound-rotor motor for effecting tap switching as a function of motor speed while providing a stepless motor speed control characteristic.

  9. Controlled clockwise and anticlockwise rotational switching of a molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, U. G. E.; Ample, F.; Kersell, H.; Zhang, Y.; Vives, G.; Echeverria, J.; Grisolia, M.; Rapenne, G.; Joachim, C.; Hla, S.-W.

    2013-01-01

    The design of artificial molecular machines often takes inspiration from macroscopic machines. However, the parallels between the two systems are often only superficial, because most molecular machines are governed by quantum processes. Previously, rotary molecular motors powered by light and chemical energy have been developed. In electrically driven motors, tunnelling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope have been used to drive the rotation of a simple rotor in a single direction and to move a four-wheeled molecule across a surface. Here, we show that a stand-alone molecular motor adsorbed on a gold surface can be made to rotate in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction by selective inelastic electron tunnelling through different subunits of the motor. Our motor is composed of a tripodal stator for vertical positioning, a five-arm rotor for controlled rotations, and a ruthenium atomic ball bearing connecting the static and rotational parts. The directional rotation arises from sawtooth-like rotational potentials, which are solely determined by the internal molecular structure and are independent of the surface adsorption site.

  10. Voltage Controller for Flux Weakening Operation of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    E-print Network

    Noé, Reinhold

    Terms--Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM), traction motors, electric vehicles, voltageVoltage Controller for Flux Weakening Operation of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor-bench measurements based on an electric traction motor typically employed in sub-compact electric vehicles. Index

  11. DSP-Based Field-Oriented Step Motor Control Cleveland State University

    E-print Network

    Simon, Dan

    with two-phase step motors, which are perma- nent magnet motors with many (typically 100) poles1 DSP-Based Field-Oriented Step Motor Control Dan Simon Cleveland State University 1960 East 24th Maplewood Road Townville, PA 16360 814-789-2100 dennis@innovatia.com ABSTRACT The SMC3 motor drive has been

  12. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    SciTech Connect

    Seiz, J.B.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Robust Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Variable Speed Induction Motor Drives 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Seungdeog

    2012-02-14

    has been another concern. In this work, the reliability of an electric motor diagnosis signal processing algorithm itself is studied in detail under harsh industrial conditions. Reliability and robustness of the diagnosis has especially been...

  14. Motor Control and Regulation for a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    This talk will focus on the motor control algorithms used to regulate the flywheel system at the NASA Glenn Research Center. First a discussion of the inner loop torque control technique will be given. It is based on the principle of field orientation and is implemented without a position or speed sensor (sensorless control). Then the outer loop charge and discharge algorithm will be presented. This algorithm controls the acceleration of the flywheel during charging and the deceleration while discharging. The algorithm also allows the flywheel system to regulate the DC bus voltage during the discharge cycle.

  15. Torsional Vibration Analysis of Reciprocating Compressor Trains driven by Induction Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelli, M.; Fusi, A.; Grasso, F.; Pasteur, F.; Ussi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic study of electric motor driven compressors, for Oil&Gas (O&G) applications, are traditionally performed in two steps separating the mechanical and the electrical systems. The packager conducts a Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA) modeling the mechanical system with a lumped parameter scheme, without taking into account the electrical part. The electric motor supplier later performs a source current pulsation analysis on the electric motor system, based on the TVA results. The mechanical and the electrical systems are actually linked by the electromagnetic effect. The effect of the motor air-gap on TVA has only recently been taken into account by adding a spring and a damper between motor and ground in the model. This model is more accurate than the traditional one, but is applicable only to the steady-state condition and still fails to consider the reciprocal effects between the two parts of the system. In this paper the torsional natural frequencies calculated using both the traditional and the new model have been compared. Furthermore, simulation of the complete system has been achieved through the use of LMS AMESim, multi-physics, one-dimensional simulation software that simultaneously solves the shafts rotation and electric motor voltage equation. Finally, the transient phenomena that occur during start-up have been studied.

  16. Motor Control CTIO 60 inches CHIRON

    E-print Network

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    chain. The EZSV23 boars uses for commands/control ascii commands over an RS485 line. Due to the lack of serial ports, we decided to use a EthernetRS485 Terminal Server. The model chosen was the Lantronix EDS4100, that provides 4 serial outputs, 2 of which also support RS485. So we configured the Terminal

  17. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  18. Induction plasma calcining of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Induction plasma heating techniques were studied for calcining zinc orthotitanate particles for use in thermal control coatings. Previous studies indicated that the optimum calcining temperature is between 1400 and 1750 C. An intermediate temperature (1670 C) was chosen as a reference point for running a temperature series at the reference point and 220 C on both sides. The effect of varying chamber temperature on the reflectance spectra, before and after vacuum UV irradiation, is presented. The correlation between Zn2Ti04 paramagnetic resonance activity and its susceptibility to vacuum UV damage is discussed.

  19. An Application of Electromagnetic Induction in Vibration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darula, Radoslav; Stein, George Juraj; Sorokin, Sergey

    Excessive vibration of machines and/or structures can be controlled passively (e.g. introducing resilient elements) and/or actively (e.g. using elements capable to adjust their properties for actual state of the vibration). An electromagnet, as a vibration control element, can be implemented in active (or semi-active) control strategy. This approach is analyzed in the present paper. The electromagnetic induction occurs in a magnetic circuit exposed to variable magnetic flux, which can be obtained e.g. by changing reluctance (magnetic resistance) of the system due to a variable air gap, as the result of armature vibration. The lumped parameter mathematical model of the coupled electro-magneto-mechanical system is formulated. The performance of the model is analyzed, assuming harmonic forced vibration. By the induction, mechanical energy of vibration is converted into electrical one and dissipated in the shunt resistance. Two concepts are investigated further - electromagnet behaves as (a) a spring element (reduction of equivalent system stiffness); (b) a damping element.

  20. DETERMINING MOTOR INERTIA OF A STRESS-CONTROLLED RHEOMETER

    PubMed Central

    Klemuk, Sarah A.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Viscoelastic measurements made with a stress-controlled rheometer are affected by system inertia. Of all contributors to system inertia, motor inertia is the largest. Its value is usually determined empirically and precision is rarely if ever specified. Inertia uncertainty has negligible effects on rheologic measurements below the coupled motor/plate/sample resonant frequency. But above the resonant frequency, G? values of soft viscoelastic materials such as dispersions, gels, biomaterials, and non-Newtonian polymers, err quadratically due to inertia uncertainty. In the present investigation, valid rheologic measurements were achieved near and above the coupled resonant frequency for a non-Newtonian reference material. At these elevated frequencies, accuracy in motor inertia is critical. Here we compare two methods for determining motor-inertia accurately. For the first (commercially-used) phase method, frequency responses of standard fluids were measured. Phase between G’ and G” was analyzed at 5–70 Hz for motor inertia values of 50–150% of the manufacturer’s nominal value. For a newly-devised two-plate method (10 mm and 60 mm parallel plates), dynamic measurements of a non-Newtonian standard were collected. Using a linear equation of motion with inertia, viscosity, and elasticity coefficients, G? expressions for both plates were equated and motor inertia was determined to be accurate (by comparison to the phase method) with a precision of ± 3%. The newly developed two-plate method had advantages of expressly eliminating dependence on gap, was explicitly derived from basic principles, quantified the error, and required fewer experiments than the commercially used phase method. PMID:20890378

  1. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  2. Closed-loop step motor control using absolute encoders

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.S.; Wright, M.C.

    1997-08-01

    A multi-axis, step motor control system was developed to accurately position and control the operation of a triple axis spectrometer at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Triple axis spectrometers are used in neutron scattering and diffraction experiments and require highly accurate positioning. This motion control system can handle up to 16 axes of motion. Four of these axes are outfitted with 17-bit absolute encoders. These four axes are controlled with a software feedback loop that terminates the move based on real-time position information from the absolute encoders. Because the final position of the actuator is used to stop the motion of the step motors, the moves can be made accurately in spite of the large amount of mechanical backlash from a chain drive between the motors and the spectrometer arms. A modified trapezoidal profile, custom C software, and an industrial PC, were used to achieve a positioning accuracy of 0.00275 degrees of rotation. A form of active position maintenance ensures that the angles are maintained with zero error or drift.

  3. Control Code for Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    A computer program has been devised for controlling a machine that is an integral combination of magnetic bearings and a switched-reluctance motor. The motor contains an eight-pole stator and a hybrid rotor, which has both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a six-pole lamination stack for rotation. The program computes drive and levitation currents for the stator windings with real-time feedback control. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. This version is executable in a control-loop time of 40 s on a Pentium (or equivalent) processor that operates at a clock speed of 400 MHz. The program can be expanded, by addition of logic blocks, to enable control of position along additional axes. The code enables adjustment of operational parameters (e.g., motor speed and stiffness, and damping parameters of magnetic bearings) through computer keyboard key presses.

  4. Method for controlling a motor vehicle powertrain

    DOEpatents

    Burba, J.C.; Landman, R.G.; Patil, P.B.; Reitz, G.A.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the position of the gear selector lever operated manually by the vehicle operator, the speed of the power source, the state of the ignition key, and the rate of release of an accelerator pedal. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift and a torque command and various constant torque signals. A microprocessor processes the input and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake to produce the forward drive, reverse and regenerative operation of the transmission. 7 figs.

  5. Redundancy, Self-Motion, and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Martin, V.; Scholz, J. P.; Schöner, G.

    2011-01-01

    Outside the laboratory, human movement typically involves redundant effector systems. How the nervous system selects among the task-equivalent solutions may provide insights into how movement is controlled. We propose a process model of movement generation that accounts for the kinematics of goal-directed pointing movements performed with a redundant arm. The key element is a neuronal dynamics that generates a virtual joint trajectory. This dynamics receives input from a neuronal timer that paces end-effector motion along its path. Within this dynamics, virtual joint velocity vectors that move the end effector are dynamically decoupled from velocity vectors that do not. Moreover, the sensed real joint configuration is coupled back into this neuronal dynamics, updating the virtual trajectory so that it yields to task-equivalent deviations from the dynamic movement plan. Experimental data from participants who perform in the same task setting as the model are compared in detail to the model predictions. We discover that joint velocities contain a substantial amount of self-motion that does not move the end effector. This is caused by the low impedance of muscle joint systems and by coupling among muscle joint systems due to multiarticulatory muscles. Back-coupling amplifies the induced control errors. We establish a link between the amount of self-motion and how curved the end-effector path is. We show that models in which an inverse dynamics cancels interaction torques predict too little self-motion and too straight end-effector paths. PMID:19718817

  6. Method for controlling a motor vehicle powertrain

    DOEpatents

    Burba, Joseph C. (Ypsilanti, MI); Landman, Ronald G. (Ypsilanti, MI); Patil, Prabhakar B. (Detroit, MI); Reitz, Graydon A. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    1990-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the position of the gear selector lever operated manually by the vehicle operator, the speed of the power source, the state of the ignition key, and the rate of release of an accelerator pedal. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift and a torque command and various constant torque signals. A microprocessor processes the input and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake to produce the forward drive, reverse and regenerative operation of the transmission.

  7. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (inventors)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  8. Controlled release levodopa treatment of motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Juncos, J L; Fabbrini, G; Mouradian, M M; Serrati, C; Kask, A M; Chase, T N

    1987-01-01

    A controlled release preparation of levodopa-carbidopa, CR III, given every 4 hours to 17 Parkinsonian patients for up to 10 months reduced plasma drug variations and improved motor response fluctuations compared with standard levodopa-carbidopa given every 2 hours. The results support the value of pharmaceutical approaches to the stabilisation of circulating levodopa levels in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:3572434

  9. Genetically identified spinal interneurons integrating tactile afferents for motor control.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tuan V; Stifani, Nicolas; Panek, Izabela; Farah, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Our movements are shaped by our perception of the world as communicated by our senses. Perception of sensory information has been largely attributed to cortical activity. However, a prior level of sensory processing occurs in the spinal cord. Indeed, sensory inputs directly project to many spinal circuits, some of which communicate with motor circuits within the spinal cord. Therefore, the processing of sensory information for the purpose of ensuring proper movements is distributed between spinal and supraspinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying the integration of sensory information for motor control at the level of the spinal cord have yet to be fully described. Recent research has led to the characterization of spinal neuron populations that share common molecular identities. Identification of molecular markers that define specific populations of spinal neurons is a prerequisite to the application of genetic techniques devised to both delineate the function of these spinal neurons and their connectivity. This strategy has been used in the study of spinal neurons that receive tactile inputs from sensory neurons innervating the skin. As a result, the circuits that include these spinal neurons have been revealed to play important roles in specific aspects of motor function. We describe these genetically identified spinal neurons that integrate tactile information and the contribution of these studies to our understanding of how tactile information shapes motor output. Furthermore, we describe future opportunities that these circuits present for shedding light on the neural mechanisms of tactile processing. PMID:26445867

  10. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

  11. Effects of muscle atrophy on motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    As a biological tissue, muscle adapts to the demands of usage. One traditional way of assessing the extent of this adaptation has been to examine the effects of an altered-activity protocol on the physiological properties of muscles. However, in order to accurately interpret the changes associated with an activity pattern, it is necessary to employ an appropriate control model. A substantial literature exists which reports altered-use effects by comparing experimental observations with those from animals raised in small laboratory cages. Some evidence suggests that small-cage-reared animals actually represent a model of reduced use. For example, laboratory animals subjected to limited physical activity have shown resistance to insulin-induced glucose uptake which can be altered by exercise training. This project concerned itself with the basic mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy. Specifically, the project addressed the issue of the appropriateness of rats raised in conventional-sized cages as experimental models to examine this phenomenon. The project hypothesis was that rats raised in small cages are inappropriate models for the study of muscle atrophy. The experimental protocol involved: 1) raising two populations of rats, one group in conventional (small)-sized cages and the other group in a much larger (133x) cage, from weanling age (21 days) through to young adulthood (125 days); 2) comparison of size- and force-related characteristics of selected test muscles in an acute terminal paradigm.

  12. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  13. Powerline Coupler for Windmill Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F.

    1985-01-01

    Efficiency at low windspeed increased by firing-angle control. Power coupled from wind-driven induction motor/generator to ac powerline with help from circuit. Circuit reduces power consumed by field windings thereby improving efficiency at low windspeeds. Circuit includes zerocrossing detector, ramp generator and comparator similar to those used to set firing angles for thyristors in power factor motor controllers.

  14. Field Weakening of Induction Motors in a Very Wide Region with Regard to Parameter Uncertainties

    E-print Network

    Noé, Reinhold

    speed of motor. P . 0 , . Angular speed of rotor flux (excitation fre- quency at steady state in a middle speed region. At high speed the current has to be reduced for matching the maxi- mum torque the production of maximum torque over the permitted speed range. In the first part of the paper the steady state

  15. To appear in: M. Gazzaniga, (Ed.). The Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Computational motor control

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michael I.

    . Computational motor control Michael I. Jordan Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences Massachusetts Institute London Running Title: Computational motor control #12; Jordan & Wolpert 2 Abstract We discuss some computational #12; Jordan & Wolpert 3 schema in Figure 1. The first issue is that of motor planning, which we

  16. # Project Title Pre-requisites Advisor(s) Control of a DC Motor Drive: Design and

    E-print Network

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    and EE 303 Dr. Alakhdhar 10 Design of Cassy Lab DC motor speed control system EE380 Dr. Chokri Belhaj# Project Title Pre-requisites Advisor(s) 1 Control of a DC Motor Drive: Design and Implementation Ahmed 11 Brushless DC Motor Dr. Essam E. Hassan 12 Design of a Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring

  17. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.

  18. FUZZY LOGIC MOTOR CONTROL FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. nitial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational ef...

  19. Published online 17 February 2003 A unifying computational framework for motor control

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    Published online 17 February 2003 A unifying computational framework for motor control and social-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan Recent empirical studies have implicated the use of the motor system

  20. 76 FR 34693 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within-the-Scope Determination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9318-7] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control...Within-the-Scope Determination for Amendments to California's Motor Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations...confirms that amendments promulgated by the California Air Resources Board...

  1. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  2. Excitation and control of a high-speed induction generator

    E-print Network

    Englebretson, Steven Carl

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates the use of a high speed, squirrel cage induction generator and power converter for producing DC electrical power onboard ships and submarines. Potential advantages of high speed induction generators ...

  3. Emergence of Virtual Reality as a Tool for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: Incorporation of Motor Control and Motor Learning Principles

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Patrice L.; Keshner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality–based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback–based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

  4. Reusable solid rocket motor case - Optimum probabilistic fracture control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for the reliability analysis of a reusable solid rocket motor case is discussed in this paper. The analysis is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and probability distribution for initial flaw sizes. The developed reliability analysis can be used to select the structural design variables of the solid rocket motor case on the basis of minimum expected cost and specified reliability bounds during the projected design life of the case. Effects on failure prevention plans such as nondestructive inspection and the material erosion between missions can also be considered in the developed procedure for selection of design variables. The reliability-based procedure that has been discussed in this paper can easily be modified to consider other similar structures of reusable space vehicle systems with different fracture control plans.

  5. Application of Model Predictive Control for Current Control System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Mitsuhiro; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

    This paper describes the application of model predictive control (MPC) to current control system of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Proposed current control system considers switching states of inverter as controller output, while conventional one regards the inverter as ideal amplifier. The problem with deciding the switching state to output is formulated based on MPC, which uses the mathematical model of PMSM for prediction of future motor current and the objective function deciding the optimal switching state. This function is based on not only minimization of the error between the predicted motor current and the current reference, but actual requirements for current control system such as reduction of inverter switching times. Simulation results show that current transient response improves by proposed system, especially at the region where voltage saturation occurs.

  6. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  7. Power-Factor Controller With Regenerative Braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Modified power-factor motor-control circuit operates motor as a phase-controlled generator when load attempts to turn at higher than synchronous speed. An induction motor is required to act at times as a brake. Circuit modification allows power-factor controller to save energy in motoring mode and convert automatically to an induction-generator controller in generating, or braking, mode.

  8. Scalar control on speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of ABB ACS800 variable speed drive operating under Scalar Control mode, and eventually develop a set of experimental procedures for undergraduate laboratory purposes. Scalar Control is the most widespread form of ac drive, for its low cost and simplicity especially implemented in the open loop mode. Scalar control is achieved by controlling the stator voltage and frequency, thus maintaining the motor's air-gap flux at a constant value. To illustrate the control method, the ac drive is configured according to the wiring diagram in the firmware manual that the drive control location can be both local and external. The drive is selected to operate under Factory application macro, whereby either ordinary speed control applications or constant speeds applications may be used. Under ordinary speed control, frequency reference signals are provided to the drive through the analogue input AI1. The drive will operate at the given frequency reference value throughout the operation regardless of any changes in the load. The torque speed curve moves along the speed axis with no changes to the shape as the supply frequencies changes. On the other hand, the drive allows three preset constant speed through digital inputs DI5 and DI6. The drive operate at a constant speed value over a time period, and only switch from one constant speed to another constant speed by triggering the two input switches. Scalar control is most suitable for applications not required high precision, such as blowers, fans and pumps.

  9. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J.; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control. PMID:22666004

  10. Proactive Motor Control Reduces Monetary Risk Taking in Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Less supervision by the executive system after disruption of the right prefrontal cortex leads to increased risk taking in gambling because superficially attractive—but risky—choices are not suppressed. Similarly, people might gamble more in multitask situations than in single-task situations because concurrent executive processes usually interfere with each other. In the study reported here, we used a novel monetary decision-making paradigm to investigate whether multitasking could reduce rather than increase risk taking in gambling. We found that performing a task that induced cautious motor responding reduced gambling in a multitask situation (Experiment 1). We then found that a short period of inhibitory training lessened risk taking in gambling at least 2 hr later (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings indicate that proactive motor control strongly affects monetary risk taking in gambling. The link between control systems at different cognitive levels might be exploited to develop new methods for rehabilitation of addiction and impulse-control disorders. PMID:22692336

  11. EE443L: Intermediate Control Lab Lab2: Modeling a DC motor

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    will develop and validate a basic model of a permanent magnet DC motor (Yaskawa Electric, Mini-series, Minertia of a permanent magnet DC motor, the field current is constant (i.e. a constant magnetic field). It can be shownEE443L: Intermediate Control Lab Lab2: Modeling a DC motor Introduction: In this lab we

  12. Hybrid Cascaded H-bridges Multilevel Motor Drive Control for Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Hybrid Cascaded H-bridges Multilevel Motor Drive Control for Electric Vehicles Zhong Du1 , Leon M for electric/hybrid electric vehicles where each phase of a three-phase cascaded multilevel converter can vehicle motor drive applications and hybrid electric vehicle motor drive applications. Keywords: hybrid

  13. Deficient Grip Force Control in Schizophrenia: Behavioral and Modeling Evidence for Altered Motor Inhibition and Motor Noise

    PubMed Central

    Teremetz, Maxime; Amado, Isabelle; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lindberg, Pavel G.; Maier, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Whether upper limb sensorimotor control is affected in schizophrenia and how underlying pathological mechanisms may potentially intervene in these deficits is still being debated. We tested voluntary force control in schizophrenia patients and used a computational model in order to elucidate potential cerebral mechanisms underlying sensorimotor deficits in schizophrenia. A visuomotor grip force-tracking task was performed by 17 medicated and 6 non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and by 15 healthy controls. Target forces in the ramp-hold-and-release paradigm were set to 5N and to 10% maximal voluntary grip force. Force trajectory was analyzed by performance measures and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A computational model incorporating neural control signals was used to replicate the empirically observed motor behavior and to explore underlying neural mechanisms. Grip task performance was significantly lower in medicated and non-medicated schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Three behavioral variables were significantly higher in both patient groups: tracking error (by 50%), coefficient of variation of force (by 57%) and duration of force release (up by 37%). Behavioral performance did not differ between patient groups. Computational simulation successfully replicated these findings and predicted that decreased motor inhibition, together with an increased signal-dependent motor noise, are sufficient to explain the observed motor deficits in patients. PCA also suggested altered motor inhibition as a key factor differentiating patients from control subjects: the principal component representing inhibition correlated with clinical severity. These findings show that schizophrenia affects voluntary sensorimotor control of the hand independent of medication, and suggest that reduced motor inhibition and increased signal-dependent motor noise likely reflect key pathological mechanisms of the sensorimotor deficit. PMID:25369465

  14. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  15. CONTROLLING ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY OF FEEDBACK IN A SELF-CONTROLLED SITUATION ENHANCES MOTOR LEARNING.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Jen; Jwo, Hank

    2015-12-01

    -The guidance hypothesis suggested that excessive extrinsic feedback facilitates motor performance but blocks the processing of intrinsic information. The present study tested the tenet of guidance hypothesis in self-controlled feedback by controlling the feedback frequency. The motor learning effect of limiting absolute feedback frequency was examined. Thirty-six participants (25 men, 11 women; M age = 25.1 yr., SD = 2.2) practiced a hand-grip force control task on a dynamometer by the non-dominant hand with varying amounts of feedback. They were randomly assigned to: (a) Self-controlled, (b) Yoked with self-controlled, and (c) Limited self-controlled conditions. In acquisition, two-way analysis of variance indicated significantly lower absolute error in both the yoked and limited self-controlled groups than the self-controlled group. The effect size of absolute error between trials with feedback and without feedback in the limited self-controlled condition was larger than that of the self-controlled condition. In the retention and transfer tests, the Limited self-controlled feedback group had significantly lower absolute error than the other two groups. The results indicated an increased motor learning effect of limiting absolute frequency of feedback in the self-controlled condition. PMID:26682606

  16. Robust control of integrated motor-transmission powertrain system over controller area network for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Dongpu; Fang, Zongde

    2015-06-01

    Integrated motor-transmission (IMT) powertrain system with directly coupled motor and gearbox is a good choice for electric commercial vehicles (e.g., pure electric buses) due to its potential in motor size reduction and energy efficiency improvement. However, the controller design for powertrain oscillation damping becomes challenging due to the elimination of damping components. On the other hand, as controller area network (CAN) is commonly adopted in modern vehicle system, the network-induced time-varying delays that caused by bandwidth limitation will further lead to powertrain vibration or even destabilize the powertrain control system. Therefore, in this paper, a robust energy-to-peak controller is proposed for the IMT powertrain system to address the oscillation damping problem and also attenuate the external disturbance. The control law adopted here is based on a multivariable PI control, which ensures the applicability and performance of the proposed controller in engineering practice. With the linearized delay uncertainties characterized by polytopic inclusions, a delay-free closed-loop augmented system is established for the IMT powertrain system under discrete-time framework. The proposed controller design problem is then converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem where the feedback control gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by comparing its performance against that of a conventional PI controller.

  17. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo G.; Trevisan, Marcos A.; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  18. Comparisons between designs for single-sided linear electric motors: Homopolar synchronous and induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nondahl, T. A.; Richter, E.

    1980-09-01

    A design study of two types of single sided (with a passive rail) linear electric machine designs, namely homopolar linear synchronous machines (LSM's) and linear induction machines (LIM's), is described. It is assumed the machines provide tractive effort for several types of light rail vehicles and locomotives. These vehicles are wheel supported and require tractive powers ranging from 200 kW to 3735 kW and top speeds ranging from 112 km/hr to 400 km/hr. All designs are made according to specified magnetic and thermal criteria. The LSM advantages are a higher power factor, much greater restoring forces for track misalignments, and less track heating. The LIM advantages are no need to synchronize the excitation frequency precisely to vehicle speed, simpler machine construction, and a more easily anchored track structure. The relative weights of the two machine types vary with excitation frequency and speed; low frequencies and low speeds favor the LSM.

  19. Induction of Long-term Depression-like Plasticity by Pairings of Motor Imagination and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jochumsen, Mads; Signal, Nada; Nedergaard, Rasmus W.; Taylor, Denise; Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran K.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity are models of synaptic plasticity which have been associated with memory and learning. The induction of LTD and LTP-like plasticity, using different stimulation protocols, has been proposed as a means of addressing abnormalities in cortical excitability associated with conditions such as focal hand dystonia and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the excitability of the cortical projections to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle could be decreased when dorsiflexion of the ankle joint was imagined and paired with peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) of the nerve supplying the antagonist soleus muscle. The effect of stimulus timing was evaluated by comparing paired stimulation timed to reach the cortex before, at and after the onset of imagined movement. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in six experimental sessions held on non-consecutive days. The timing of stimulation delivery was determined o?ine based on the contingent negative variation (CNV) of electroencephalography brain data obtained during imagined dorsiflexion. Afferent stimulation was provided via a single pulse ES to the peripheral nerve paired, based on the CNV, with motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion. A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in the excitability of the cortical projection of TA was observed when the afferent volley from the ES of the tibial nerve (TN) reached the cortex at the onset of motor imagination based on the CNV. When TN stimulation was delivered before (P = 0.62), or after (P = 0.23) imagined movement onset there was no significant effect. Nor was a significant effect found when ES of the TN was applied independent of imagined movement (P = 0.45). Therefore, the excitability of the cortical projection to a muscle can be inhibited when ES of the nerve supplying the antagonist muscle is precisely paired with the onset of imagined movement. PMID:26648859

  20. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the “dance habit”; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  1. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  2. Global models: Robot sensing, control, and sensory-motor skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics research has begun to address the modeling and implementation of a wide variety of unstructured tasks. Examples include automated navigation, platform servicing, custom fabrication and repair, deployment and recovery, and science exploration. Such tasks are poorly described at onset; the workspace layout is partially unfamiliar, and the task control sequence is only qualitatively characterized. The robot must model the workspace, plan detailed physical actions from qualitative goals, and adapt its instantaneous control regimes to unpredicted events. Developing robust representations and computational approaches for these sensing, planning, and control functions is a major challenge. The underlying domain constraints are very general, and seem to offer little guidance for well-bounded approximation of object shape and motion, manipulation postures and trajectories, and the like. This generalized modeling problem is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of sensing. It is also discussed that unstructured tasks often have, in fact, a high degree of underlying physical symmetry, and such implicit knowledge should be drawn on to model task performance strategies in a methodological fashion. A group-theoretic decomposition of the workspace organization, task goals, and their admissible interactions are proposed. This group-mechanical approach to task representation helps to clarify the functional interplay of perception and control, in essence, describing what perception is specifically for, versus how it is generically modeled. One also gains insight how perception might logically evolve in response to needs of more complex motor skills. It is discussed why, of the many solutions that are often mathematically admissible to a given sensory motor-coordination problem, one may be preferred over others.

  3. Low speed control of a DC motor driving a mechanical system with fuzzy adaptive compensation 

    E-print Network

    Hyun, Dongyoon

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy adaptive feedforward control scheme in conjunction with classical feedback control is proposed for the low speed control of DC motors driving mechanical systems in the presence of friction. In the fuzzy adaptive scheme, a fuzzy logic based...

  4. Control signal transmission through power supply cables of a 3-phase PWM motor

    E-print Network

    Mendez, Jose A. (Jose Antonio Mendez Alcazar)

    2006-01-01

    Modem process control systems often employ accurate position or speed controlled PWM motors, which require feedback data for the drive control loop. Current methods require an independently shielded cable for feedback data ...

  5. Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

  6. Adaptive Control for Buck Power Converter Using Fixed Point Inducting Control and Zero Average Dynamics Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos Velasco, Fredy Edimer; García, Nicolás Toro; Garcés Gómez, Yeison Alberto

    In this paper, the output voltage of a buck power converter is controlled by means of a quasi-sliding scheme. The Fixed Point Inducting Control (FPIC) technique is used for the control design, based on the Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD) strategy, including load estimation by means of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) method. The control scheme is tested in a Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) system based on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) for dSPACE platform. The closed loop system shows adequate performance. The experimental and simulation results match. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce the load estimator by means of LMS, to make ZAD and FPIC control feasible in load variation conditions. In addition, comparison results for controlled buck converter with SMC, PID and ZAD-FPIC control techniques are shown.

  7. Design of an integral computer-based wheelchair controller/linear synchronous motor system.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G W; Ross, D A; Bass, R M; Davey, K R

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of designing computer-based motor controllers together with innovative motors, such that maximum controller/motor system benefits are obtained. Specifically, this paper describes how a computer-based controller/drive system for powered wheelchairs has been designed and is being built and tested. This type of integral controller/drive system has been possible to build into a wheelchair only with the advent of the microprocessor-based feedback motor controller. The type of motor chosen for this project was a linear synchronous motor (LSM), which is highly efficient (90%+) and could easily be made an integral part of a wheelchair wheel, providing a "no-moving-parts" drive system. However, an LSM cannot be variable-speed-controlled without knowledge of, and controlled adjustment to, the absolute rotor versus stator position at each point in time. Microprocessor-based feedback motor controllers make precise, efficient control of LSMs possible at a reasonable cost. In addition, this combination of controller and motor provides a very flexible wheelchair control/drive system that may be easily programmed to suit the needs and necessities of the wide variety of over 200,000 persons now using powered wheelchairs. PMID:3537184

  8. Practice improves motor control in older adults by increasing the motor unit modulation from 13 to 30 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Onushko, Tanya; Baweja, Harsimran S.

    2013-01-01

    Practice of a motor task decreases motor output variability in older adults and is associated with adaptations of discharge activity of single motor units. In this study we were interested in the practice-induced modulation of multiple motor units within 13–30 Hz because theoretically it enhances the timing of active motoneurons. Our purpose, therefore, was to determine the neural adaptation of multiple motor units and related improvements in movement control following practice. Nine healthy older adults (65–85 yr) performed 40 practice trials of a sinusoidal task (0.12 Hz) with their index finger (10° range of motion). Multi-motor unit activity was recorded intramuscularly from the first dorsal interosseus muscle. The mean spike rate (MSR), spike rate variability (CVISI), and frequency modulation (5–60 Hz) of the spike rate were calculated from the multi-motor unit activity and were correlated with movement accuracy and variability of index finger position. A decrease in movement trajectory variability was associated with an increase in MSR (R2 = 0.58), a decrease in CVISI (R2 = 0.58), and an increase in total power within a 13- to 30-Hz band (R2 = 0.48). The increase in total power within a 13- to 30-Hz band was associated significantly (P < 0.005) with an increase in MSR (R2 = 0.75) and the decrease in CVISI (R2 = 0.70). We demonstrate that practice-induced improvements in movement control are associated with changes in activity of multiple motor units. These findings suggest that practice-induced improvements in movement steadiness of older adults are associated with changes in the modulation of the motoneuron pool from 13 to 30 Hz. PMID:23986564

  9. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma impacts on core regulatory sensory motor and cognitive mechanisms. Static postural analysis provides specific central neurophysiological markers that can reliably identify PDS occurrence among classic peripheral musculoskeletal and spinal data [C. Landrock, P.A. Souvestre, Static postural analysis: a methodology to assess gravity related sensory motor controls' status for astronauts, 2006-01-2298, 36th SAE-ICES]. Many astronauts experience PFOI and recent research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation caused by microgravity. HRV measurements have been used to determine if some pre-flight autonomic indicators relating to PFOI may exist by differentiating parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. ResultsThis review suggests a new approach to SMS mitigation based on specific neurophysiological assessment criteria. While SMS may not be a "unique diagnosis", it should be treated as result, or symptom of, the condition space adaptation syndrome (SAS), which can be shown to be a unique diagnosis. This methodology can identify and measure brain functional status in specific areas during pre-flight and post-flight examinations. This could provide further understanding on why, how and when SMS and PFOI might occur in Astronauts, and lead to criteria that predict susceptibility to SMS. An additional test component is presented that relates to using static central sensory-motor data towards understanding SMS and OI occurrence. Recent investigations indicate relationship between HRV autonomic indicators with Motion Sickness [B. Cheung, K. Hoffer, R. Heskin, A. Smith, Physiological and behavioral responses to an exposure to pitch illusion in the simulator, Aviation Space, 2004; Y. Yokota, M. Aoki, K. Mizuta, Y. Ito, N. Isu, Motion sickness susceptibility associated with visually induced postural instability and cardiac autonomic responses in healthy subjects, Acta Oto-laryngological, 2005]. It is found that astronauts with lower sympatho-vagal balance and higher supine parasympathetic activity pre-flight may present with PFOI indicators. Not on

  10. The brain matters: effects of descending signals on motor control

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, W. Otto

    2012-01-01

    The ability of nerve cords and spinal cords to exhibit fictive rhythmic locomotion in the absence of the brain is well-documented in numerous species. Although the brain is important for modulating the fictive motor output, it is broadly assumed that the functional properties of neuronal circuits identified in simplified preparations are conserved with the brain attached. We tested this assumption by examining the properties of a novel interneuron recently identified in the leech (Hirudo verbana) nerve cord. This neuron, cell E21, initiates and drives stereotyped fictive swimming activity in preparations of the isolated leech nerve cord deprived of the head brain. We report that, contrary to expectation, the motor output generated when cell E21 is stimulated in preparations with the brain attached is highly variable. Swim frequency and episode duration are increased in some of these preparations and decreased in others. Cell E21 controls swimming, in part, via excitatory synaptic interactions with cells 204, previously identified gating neurons that reliably initiate and strongly enhance leech swimming activity when the brain is absent. We found that in preparations with the brain present, the magnitude of the synaptic interaction from cell E21 to cell 204 is reduced by 50% and that cell 204-evoked responses also were highly variable. Intriguingly, most of this variability disappeared in semi-intact preparations. We conclude that neuronal circuit properties identified in reduced preparations might be fundamentally altered from those that occur in more physiological conditions. PMID:22378172

  11. The brain matters: effects of descending signals on motor control.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Olivia J; Friesen, W Otto

    2012-05-01

    The ability of nerve cords and spinal cords to exhibit fictive rhythmic locomotion in the absence of the brain is well-documented in numerous species. Although the brain is important for modulating the fictive motor output, it is broadly assumed that the functional properties of neuronal circuits identified in simplified preparations are conserved with the brain attached. We tested this assumption by examining the properties of a novel interneuron recently identified in the leech (Hirudo verbana) nerve cord. This neuron, cell E21, initiates and drives stereotyped fictive swimming activity in preparations of the isolated leech nerve cord deprived of the head brain. We report that, contrary to expectation, the motor output generated when cell E21 is stimulated in preparations with the brain attached is highly variable. Swim frequency and episode duration are increased in some of these preparations and decreased in others. Cell E21 controls swimming, in part, via excitatory synaptic interactions with cells 204, previously identified gating neurons that reliably initiate and strongly enhance leech swimming activity when the brain is absent. We found that in preparations with the brain present, the magnitude of the synaptic interaction from cell E21 to cell 204 is reduced by 50% and that cell 204-evoked responses also were highly variable. Intriguingly, most of this variability disappeared in semi-intact preparations. We conclude that neuronal circuit properties identified in reduced preparations might be fundamentally altered from those that occur in more physiological conditions. PMID:22378172

  12. A Lead Angle Control for HB-Type Stepping Motor in the Constant Voltage Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumatsu, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Atsuo

    Stepping motors are generally used as a positioning servo in the OA (Office Automation) and FA (Factory Automation) system because the construction cost is very low and the construction of system is very easy. Since they are generally driven by an open loop controller, the response of stepping motors is oscillatory and it is possible to be out of drive. Therefore they are driven by a closed loop controller in the special system, which requires the high reliability and stability. The lead angle control is used as a closed loop controller of stepping motors because an applied voltage amplitude is not able to be controlled. However a closed loop control of stepping motors is hardly used at present. This paper presents the lead angle control based on the vector control in the constant voltage drive range for 2 phases HB type stepping motors. In the constant voltage range, since the HB type stepping motor is modeled as a surface permanent magnet motor, the motor torque is controlled by the q-axis current. The d-axis current is calculated by the voltage limit condition because of the constant voltage amplitude operation. The control performances are examined by the simulations and experimental results.

  13. Motor planning and control: Humans interact faster with a human than a robot avatar.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Lubkull, Maiken; Stephan, Streuber; Saulton, Aurelie; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2015-09-01

    How do we control our bodily movements when socially interacting with others? Research on online motor control provides evidence that task relevant visual information is used for guiding corrective movements of ongoing motor actions. In social interactions observers have been shown to use their own motor system for predicting the outcome of another person's action (direct matching hypothesis) and it has been suggested that this information is used for the online control of their social interactions such as when giving someone a high five. Because only human but not non-human (e.g. robot) movements can be simulated within the observer's motor system, the human-likeness of the interaction partner should affect both the planning and online control of movement execution. We examined this hypothesis by investigating the effect of human-likeness of the interaction partner on motor planning and online motor control during natural social interactions. To this end, we employed a novel virtual reality paradigm in which participants naturally interacted with a life-sized virtual avatar. While 14 participants interacted with a human avatar, another 14 participants interacted with a robot avatar. All participants were instructed to give a high-five to the avatar. To test for online motor control we randomly perturbed the avatar's hand trajectories during participants' motor execution. Importantly, human and robot looking avatars were executing identical movements. We used optical tracking to track participants' hand positions. The analysis of hand trajectories showed that participants were faster in carrying out the high-five movements with humans than with robots suggesting that the human-likeness of the interaction partner indeed affected motor planning. However, there was little evidence for a substantial effect of the human-likeness on online motor control. Taken together the results indicate that the human-likeness of the interaction partner influences motor planning but not online motor control. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325740

  14. Synchronization controller design of two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Shang, Jing; Nian, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints is studied. First of all, the mathematical model of the system is established according to the engineering practices, in which the dynamic model of motor and the nonlinear coupling effect between two motors are considered. In order to keep the two motors synchronization, a synchronization controller based on load observer is designed via cross-coupling idea and interval matrix. Moreover, speed, position and current signals of two motor all are taken as self-feedback signal as well as cross-feedback signal in the proposed controller, which is conducive to improving the dynamical performance and the synchronization performance of the system. The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation results show that the proposed control method has a better control performance, especially synchronization performance, than that of the conventional PI controller. PMID:26345707

  15. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  16. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  17. Fine Motor Control Is Related to Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…

  18. Osseoperception: An Implant Mediated Sensory Motor Control- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Karani, Jyoti T.; Khanna, Anshul; Badwaik, Praveen; Pai, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Osseointegration of dental implants has been researched extensively, covering various aspects such as bone apposition, biomechanics and microbiology etc however, physiologic integration of implants and the associated prosthesis in the body has received very little attention. This integration is due to the development of a special sensory ability, which is able to restore peripheral sensory feedback mechanism. The underlying mechanism of this so-called ‘osseoperception’ phenomenon remains a matter of debate. The following article reveals the histological, neurophysiologic and psychophysical aspects of osseoperception. A comprehensive research to provide scientific evidence of osseoperception was carried out using various online resources such as Pubmed, Google scholar etc to retrieve studies published between 1985 to 2014 using the following keywords: “osseoperception”, “mechanoreceptors”, “tactile sensibility”. Published data suggests that a peripheral feedback pathway can be restored with osseointegrated implants. This implant-mediated sensory-motor control may have important clinical implications in the normal functioning of the implant supported prosthesis. PMID:26501033

  19. Stepping motor control processor reference manual. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Suski, G.J.; Gant, R.G.; Rash, M.

    1980-06-06

    This manual is intended to serve several purposes. The first goal is to describe the capabilities and operation of the SMC processor package from an operator or user point of view. Secondly, the manual will describe in some detail the basic hardware elements and how they can be used effectively to implement a step motor control system. Practical information on the use, installation and checkout of the hardware set is presented in the following sections along with programming suggestions. Available related system software is described in this manual for reference and as an aid in understanding the system architecture. Section two presents an overview and operations manual of the SMC processor describing its composition and functional capabilities. Section three contains hardware descriptions in some detail for the LLL-designed hardware used in the SMC processor. Basic theory of operation and important features are explained.

  20. Controlling a Four-Quadrant Brushless Three-Phase dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit commutates windings of brushless, three-phase, permanent-magnet motor operating from power supply. With single analog command voltage, controller makes motor accelerate, drive steadily, or brake regeneratively, in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Controller well suited for use with energy-storage flywheels, actuators for aircraft-control surfaces, cranes, industrial robots, and other electromechanical systems requiring bidirectional control or sudden stopping and reversal.

  1. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  2. Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant

    E-print Network

    Noé, Reinhold

    to their reluctance torque, which is typical with interior magnet design. In this contribution, a control strategyOptimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant Torque and Electrical Drives, Paderborn, Germany Abstract--Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) gain

  3. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  4. Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with non-sinusoidal back-EMF 

    E-print Network

    Ozturk, Salih Baris

    2009-05-15

    torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with sinusoidal back-EMF is discussed in detail. Secondly, the proposed two-phase conduction mode for DTC of BLDC motors is introduced in the constant torque region. In this control scheme, only...

  5. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  6. 79 FR 23413 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-04-28

    This action establishes more stringent vehicle emissions standards and will reduce the sulfur content of gasoline beginning in 2017, as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air quality and public health. The gasoline sulfur standard will make emission control systems more effective for both existing and new vehicles, and will enable more stringent......

  7. Deeper into schizotypy and motor performance: Investigating the nature of motor control in a non-psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Roché, Matthew W; Fowler, Mark L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-07-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that motor control deficits are characteristic of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and those at-risk for the development of the disorder. Recent advances in the quantification of motor dysfunction have confirmed this, but these methods fail to consider an important aspect of subject performance: the qualitative nature of their psychomotor dyscontrol. We report on a novel technique used to quantify the qualitative nature of psychomotor performance and its relation to schizotypy. Control (n = 35) and schizotypic subjects (n = 47) completed a line-drawing task that yields metrics for psychomotor control and predominant frequency. Schizotypes evidenced greater psychomotor dyscontrol and lower predominant frequencies than controls. These results are interpreted as evidence of reduced visual-motor integration, self-monitoring capacity, or adherence to basic motor principles in schizotypes. The potential use of these metrics as putative endophenotypes for the liability for schizophrenia and the implications of these findings for the relationship between schizophrenia and schizotypy are discussed. PMID:25887054

  8. Insight into motor control and motor impairment from stroke and beta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ramina; Isabella, Silvia; Chan, Jason L

    2015-12-01

    Beta oscillations are associated with motor function and are thought to play a role in movement impairment. In a recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, Rossiter et al. (J Neurophysiol 112: 2053-2058, 2014) found a disruption in the modulation of movement-related beta oscillations in stroke patients that correlated with motor impairment. We discuss how beta oscillatory measures characterize motor impairment, the implications of stroke variability, and the potential role of GABA in modulating oscillations following stroke and during stroke recovery. PMID:26180114

  9. Experimental time-domain controlled source electromagnetic induction for highly conductive targets detection and discrimination 

    E-print Network

    Benavides Iglesias, Alfonso

    2007-09-17

    The response of geological materials at the scale of meters and the response of buried targets of different shapes and sizes using controlled-source electromagnetic induction (CSEM) is investigated. This dissertation focuses on three topics; i) frac...

  10. Excited state dynamics & optical control of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Ted; Sension, Roseanne

    2014-03-01

    Chiral overcrowded alkenes are likely candidates for light driven rotary molecular motors. At their core, these molecular motors are based on the chromophore stilbene, undergoing ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization about their central double bond. Unlike stilbene, the photochemistry of molecular motors proceeds in one direction only. This unidirectional rotation is a result of helicity in the molecule induced by steric hindrance. However, the steric hindrance which ensures unidirectional excited state rotation, has the unfortunate consequence of producing large ground state barriers which dramatically decrease the overall rate of rotation. These molecular scale ultrafast motors have only recently been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. Our lab has studied the photochemistry and photophysics of a ``first generation'' molecular motor with UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy. We hope to use optical pulse shaping to enhance the efficiency and turnover rate of these molecular motors.

  11. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  12. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section...dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? The implementation...vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur content standard in §...

  13. Are Articulatory Settings Mechanically Advantageous for Speech Motor Control?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-01-01

    We address the hypothesis that postures adopted during grammatical pauses in speech production are more “mechanically advantageous” than absolute rest positions for facilitating efficient postural motor control of vocal tract articulators. We quantify vocal tract posture corresponding to inter-speech pauses, absolute rest intervals as well as vowel and consonant intervals using automated analysis of video captured with real-time magnetic resonance imaging during production of read and spontaneous speech by 5 healthy speakers of American English. We then use locally-weighted linear regression to estimate the articulatory forward map from low-level articulator variables to high-level task/goal variables for these postures. We quantify the overall magnitude of the first derivative of the forward map as a measure of mechanical advantage. We find that postures assumed during grammatical pauses in speech as well as speech-ready postures are significantly more mechanically advantageous than postures assumed during absolute rest. Further, these postures represent empirical extremes of mechanical advantage, between which lie the postures assumed during various vowels and consonants. Relative mechanical advantage of different postures might be an important physical constraint influencing planning and control of speech production. PMID:25133544

  14. MAGNETIC COUPLING BETWEEN DC TACHOMETER AND MOTOR AND ITS EFFECT ON MOTION CONTROL IN THE PRESENCE OF

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    MAGNETIC COUPLING BETWEEN DC TACHOMETER AND MOTOR AND ITS EFFECT ON MOTION CONTROL IN THE PRESENCE........................10 Fig. 4.1 Electrical circuit diagram for a D.C. Motor.........................................14 orientations of the motor and tachometer permanent magnets......21 Fig. 4.5(b) Motor and Tachometer fields

  15. A new method for speed control of a DC motor using magnetorheological clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    In this research, a new method to control speed of DC motor using magnetorheological (MR) clutch is proposed and realized. Firstly, the strategy of a DC motor speed control using MR clutch is proposed. The MR clutch configuration is then proposed and analyzed based on Bingham-plastic rheological model of MR fluid. An optimal designed of the MR clutch is then studied to find out the optimal geometric dimensions of the clutch that can transform a required torque with minimum mass. A prototype of the optimized MR clutch is then manufactured and its performance characteristics are experimentally investigated. A DC motor speed control system featuring the optimized MR clutch is designed and manufactured. A PID controller is then designed to control the output speed of the system. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed DC motor speed control system, experimental results of the system such as speed tracking performance are obtained and presented with discussions.

  16. Control Method for Deceleration without Over-Voltage of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notohara, Yasuo; Endo, Tsunehiro

    In case of decelerating a permanent magnet motor, an over-voltage occurs on the inverter DC voltage due to the regenerative energy of the motor. In order to reduce the over-voltage, a brake circuit is usually applied to the DC circuit. In this paper a reduction technique of the over-voltage without the brake circuit is described. We proposed the method for controlling the motor d-axis current optimally according to the motor q-axis current to reduce the over-voltage. This method is applied to the salient-pole machine. As a result over-voltage reduction is achieved on a certain condition.

  17. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  18. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within-the...) has notified EPA that it has adopted amendments to its passenger vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG... section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act for California's passenger motor vehicle greenhouse gas...

  19. Self-Controlled Practice Enhances Motor Learning in Introverts and Extroverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Angélica; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Meira, Cassio de Miranda, Jr.; Tani, Go

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of a sequential-timing motor task in introverts and extroverts. Method: Fifty-six university students were selected by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They practiced a motor task consisting of pressing computer keyboard keys…

  20. Modelling and Control of a Multi-Mass Ultrasonic Motor for Airborne Applications

    E-print Network

    Noé, Reinhold

    Modelling and Control of a Multi-Mass Ultrasonic Motor for Airborne Applications H. Wetzel, N years to replace hydraulic actuators in aircrafts by electromechanical actuators. Unluckily, a solution and low inertia for airborne applications is the multi-mass ultrasonic motor (MM-USM) derived from

  1. Position Estimation and Control of Compact BLDC Motors Based on Analog Linear Hall Effect Sensors

    E-print Network

    Simpkins, Alex

    effect sensors arranged to provide precision rotor position information by measuring the rotor magneticPosition Estimation and Control of Compact BLDC Motors Based on Analog Linear Hall Effect Sensors systems, require motors which possess high torque, little or no torque ripple, compact size, and precise

  2. Effects of Dispositional Mindfulness on the Self-Controlled Learning of a Novel Motor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Ying Hwa; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2011-01-01

    Current literature suggests that mindful learning is beneficial to learning but its links with motor learning is seldom examined. In the present study, we examine the effects of learners' mindfulness disposition on the self-controlled learning of a novel motor task. Thirty-two participants undertook five practice sessions, in addition to a pre-,…

  3. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... the federal requirements with the same test vehicle in the course of the same test. See, e.g., 43 FR... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas... vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state shall require...

  4. High accuracy motor controller for positioning optical filters in the CLAES Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, John B.

    The Etalon Drive Motor (EDM), a precision etalon control system designed for accurate positioning of etalon filters in the IR spectrometer of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment is described. The EDM includes a brushless dc torque motor, which has an infinite resolution for setting an etalon filter to any desired angle, a four-filter etalon wheel, and an electromechanical resolver for angle information. An 18-bit control loop provides high accuracy, resolution, and stability. Dynamic computer interaction allows the user to optimize the step response. A block diagram of the motor controller is presented along with a schematic of the digital/analog converter circuit.

  5. Effect of Gross Motor Group Exercise on Functional Status in Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the effects of task-oriented gross motor group exercise based on motor development on chronic stroke patients’ joint, bone, muscle, and motor functions and activities of daily living. [Subjects] Twenty-eight stroke patients hospitalized at P municipal nursing facility for the severely handicapped were randomly assigned to the gross motor group exercise group (experimental group, n=14) or the control group (n=14). [Methods] The two groups performed morning exercise led by a trainer for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week for 6 weeks in total. The experimental group performed a gross motor group exercise in addition to this exercise for 50 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks in total. Before the experiment, all subjects were measured with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and for their neuromuscular skeletal and motor-related functions according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. [Results] Significant improvements were found in the experimental group’s neuromusculoskeletal and motor-related functions and MBI test, except for the stability of joint functions. The control group showed no significant difference from the initial evaluation. [Conclusion] The gross motor group exercise based on motor development is recommended for chronic stroke patients with severe handicaps. PMID:25140077

  6. Balance control impairment in obese individuals is caused by larger balance motor commands variability.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that various factors impaired balance control. Among them, heavy body weight is associated with poor balance control because the location of the center of mass is further away from the ankle joint. Thus, a larger active ankle torque is required to counter the greater gravitational torque. Because balance motor commands have signal-dependent noise whose standard deviation increases with the absolute value of the neural control signal, it was hypothesized that faster center of pressure speed observed in obese individuals would be related to larger balance motor commands variability. A feedback-control model and parametric system identification technique was used to estimate the variability in the balance motor commands and neural controller parameters based on previously published experimental data. Results of the neuromechanical model confirmed that the balance motor commands of obese individuals are more variable than that of lean individuals. PMID:25455209

  7. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Jeferson J. de E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Tusset, Angelo M. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Janzen, Frederic C. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Piccirillo, Vinicius E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Nascimento, Claudinor B. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  8. A New Player at the Flagellar Motor: FliL Controls both Motor Output and Bias

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Jonathan D.; Nieto, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial flagellum is driven by a bidirectional rotary motor, which propels bacteria to swim through liquids or swarm over surfaces. While the functions of the major structural and regulatory components of the flagellum are known, the function of the well-conserved FliL protein is not. In Salmonella and Escherichia coli, the absence of FliL leads to a small defect in swimming but complete elimination of swarming. Here, we tracked single motors of these bacteria and found that absence of FliL decreases their speed as well as switching frequency. We demonstrate that FliL interacts strongly with itself, with the MS ring protein FliF, and with the stator proteins MotA and MotB and weakly with the rotor switch protein FliG. These and other experiments show that FliL increases motor output either by recruiting or stabilizing the stators or by increasing their efficiency and contributes additionally to torque generation at higher motor loads. The increased torque enabled by FliL explains why this protein is essential for swarming on an agar surface expected to offer increased resistance to bacterial movement. PMID:25714720

  9. Fault tolerance control of phase current in permanent magnet synchronous motor control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kele; Chen, Ke; Chen, Xinglong; Li, Jinying

    2014-08-01

    As the Photoelectric tracking system develops from earth based platform to all kinds of moving platform such as plane based, ship based, car based, satellite based and missile based, the fault tolerance control system of phase current sensor is studied in order to detect and control of failure of phase current sensor on a moving platform. By using a DC-link current sensor and the switching state of the corresponding SVPWM inverter, the failure detection and fault control of three phase current sensor is achieved. Under such conditions as one failure, two failures and three failures, fault tolerance is able to be controlled. The reason why under the method, there exists error between fault tolerance control and actual phase current, is analyzed, and solution to weaken the error is provided. The experiment based on permanent magnet synchronous motor system is conducted, and the method is proven to be capable of detecting the failure of phase current sensor effectively and precisely, and controlling the fault tolerance simultaneously. With this method, even though all the three phase current sensors malfunction, the moving platform can still work by reconstructing the phase current of the motor.

  10. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport.

  11. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells1,2. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems3,4. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  12. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  13. A 2D magnetic and 3D mechanical coupled finite element model for the study of the dynamic vibrations in the stator of induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, J.; Belahcen, A.; Detoni, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled Finite Element Model in order to study the vibrations in induction motors under steady-state. The model utilizes a weak coupling strategy between both magnetic and elastodynamic fields on the structure. Firstly, the problem solves the magnetic vector potential in an axial cut and secondly the former solution is coupled to a three dimensional model of the stator. The coupling is performed using projection based algorithms between the computed magnetic solution and the three-dimensional mesh. The three-dimensional model of the stator includes both end-windings and end-shields in order to give a realistic picture of the motor. The present model is validated using two steps. Firstly, a modal analysis hammer test is used to validate the material characteristic of this complex structure and secondly an array of accelerometer sensors is used in order to study the rotating waves using multi-dimensional spectral techniques. The analysis of the radial vibrations presented in this paper firstly concludes that slot harmonic components are visible when the motor is loaded. Secondly, the multidimensional spectrum presents the most relevant mechanical waves on the stator such as the ones produced by the space harmonics or the saturation of the iron core. The direct retrieval of the wave-number in a multi-dimensional spectrum is able to show the internal current distribution in a non-intrusive way. Experimental results for healthy induction motors are showing mechanical imbalances in a multi-dimensional spectrum in a more straightforward form.

  14. Dynamic stability of spindles controlled by molecular motor kinetics

    E-print Network

    Otger Campas; Jaume Casademunt; Ignacio Pagonabarraga

    2006-03-30

    We analyze the role of the force-dependent kinetics of motor proteins in the stability of antiparallel arrays of polar filaments, such as those in the mitotic spindle. We determine the possible stable structures and show that there exists an instability associated to the collective behavior of motors that leads to the collapse of the spindle. Our analysis provides a general framework to understand several experimental observations in eukaryotic cell division.

  15. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  16. Motor Control Optimization of Compliant One-Legged Locomotion in Rough Terrain

    E-print Network

    Tedrake, Russ

    control policy for underactuated legged robotic systems. Based on a reinforcement learning algorithm, we strict and complex control architectures. More careful foot placement of legged robots was also control in underactu- ated legged robots. This approach considers how to optimize motor control parameters

  17. Persisting motor control problems in 11- to 12-year-old boys previously diagnosed with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP).

    PubMed

    Christiansen, A S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether boys who had been previously diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 8 years with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) still have problems with motor control, which influence their spare-time and everyday activities, at 11 to 12 years. The study comprised a well defined cohort of 10 boys with DAMP and a control group of 20 boys without DAMP matched for age, height, and weight. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used to assess motor control in ability to perform everyday activities, and the spare-time activities in which the boys participated were recorded. Individually, the boys previously diagnosed with DAMP had a markedly higher total score (poor performance) than the boys without DAMP (P<0.001). The everyday activities of boys with DAMP were significantly affected, and they chose to participate in different sports from the control boys, i.e. none participated in team sports. The present study does not support the concept of improvements in motor control with age in children with DAMP. PMID:10665968

  18. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Frank J. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  19. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9836-7] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control...SUMMARY: EPA is granting the California Air Resources Board (CARB) its request...general information on its review of California waiver requests. Included on that...

  20. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control...Preemption Decision for Amendments to California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV...has determined that provisions of the California Air Resources Board's...

  1. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9260-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control...SUMMARY: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified...and is accepting written comment on California's request. DATES: EPA has...

  2. Design Method of ILQ Robust Current Control System for Synchronous Reluctance Electrical Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Yoko; Takami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takao

    In this paper, a robust current control system for a synchronous reluctance electrical motor by an ILQ (Inverse Linear Quadratic) design method is proposed newly. First, for performing simultaneously decouple and large region linearization of an d-q axes system in the synchronous reluctance electrical motor using nonlinear state feedback, it is derived that a linear current-voltage state equation linearized model by the d-q axes decouple of the synchronous reluctance electrical motor. Next, according to the ILQ design method, an optimum solution and an optimal condition that achieve the robust current control system for the synchronous reluctance electrical motor are analytically derived, then the robust current control system can be designed. Finally, in practical experiments, we compare the proposed method with the PI (Proportional Integral) control method, the creativity and the usefulness of the proposed method are confirmed by experimental results.

  3. Global Control of Motor Neuron Topography Mediated by the Repressive Actions of a Single Hox Gene

    E-print Network

    Jung, Heekyung

    In the developing spinal cord, regional and combinatorial activities of Hox transcription factors are critical in controlling motor neuron fates along the rostrocaudal axis, exemplified by the precise pattern of limb ...

  4. Construction of AC Motor Controllers for NOvA Experiment Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Patrick; ,

    2011-08-04

    I have been constructing Alternating Current (AC) motor controllers for manipulation of particle beam detectors. The capability and reliability of these motor controllers are essential to the Laboratory's mission of accurate analysis of the particle beam's position. The device is moved in and out of the beam's path by the motor controller followed by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance (NOvA) Experiment further down the beam pipe. In total, I built and tested ten ac motor controllers for new beam operations in the NOvA experiment. These units will prove to be durable and provide extremely accurate beam placement for NOvA Experiment far into the future.

  5. A direct torque control system without speed-sensor for asynchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lian; Yu, Chengbo; Hu, Xiaoqian

    2007-12-01

    To enhance the performance of asynchronous motor, and conquer the limitation of the traditional speed-identifier, this paper proposes a speed-identifier direct torque control system. According to transformed form of a mathematical model of asynchronous motor, the system uses the easily-measured motor stator voltage and current and the neural network technique to design a speed-identifier. It can realize speed-sensorless closed loop control. The simulating experiment results of the system show that the speed regulating system has good steady-state performance and dynamic performance, the design is reasonable and effective.

  6. Modeling and adaptive pinning synchronization control for a chaotic-motion motor in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Darui; Liu, Chongxin; Yan, Bingnan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a chaos model for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor and construct a coupled chaotic motor in a complex dynamic network using the Newman-Watts small-world network algorithm. We apply adaptive pinning control theory for complex networks to obtain suitable adaptive feedback gain and the number of nodes to be pinned. Nodes of low degree are pinned to realize global asymptotic synchronization in the complex network. The proposed adaptive pinning controller is added to the complex motor network for simulation and verification.

  7. Test Platform for Advanced Digital Control of Brushless DC Motors (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.

  8. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  9. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  10. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  11. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad,...

  12. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  13. Closed-loop motor control using high-speed fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Reginald (inventor); Rodriquiz, Dagobert (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop control system for controlling the operation of one or more servo motors or other controllable devices is described. The system employs a fiber optics link immune to electromagnetic interference, for transmission of control signals from a controller or controllers at a remote station to the power electronics located in proximity to the motors or other devices at the local station. At the remote station the electrical control signals are time-multiplexed, converted to a formatted serial bit stream, and converted to light signals for transmission over a single fiber of the fiber optics link. At the local station, the received optical signals are reconstructed as electrical control signals for the controlled motors or other devices. At the local station, an encoder sensor linked to the driven device generates encoded feedback signals which provide information as to a condition of the controlled device. The encoded signals are placed in a formatted serial bit stream, multiplexed, and transmitted as optical signals over a second fiber of the fiber optic link which closes the control loop of the closed-loop motor controller. The encoded optical signals received at the remote station are demultiplexed, reconstructed and coupled to the controller(s) as electrical feedback signals.

  14. Position versus force control: Using the 2-DOF robotic ankle trainer to assess ankle's motor control.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Amir B; Nabian, Mohsen; Hartman, Amber; Corsino, Johnathan; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Holden, Maureen K

    2014-08-01

    An estimated of 2,000,000 acute ankle sprains occur annually in the United States. Furthermore, ankle disabilities are caused by neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy and stroke. The virtually interfaced robotic ankle and balance trainer (vi-RABT) was introduced as a cost-effective platform-based rehabilitation robot to improve overall ankle/balance strength, mobility and control. The system is equipped with 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF) controlled actuation along with complete means of angle and torque measurement mechanisms. Vi-RABT was used to assess ankle strength, flexibility and motor control in healthy human subjects, while playing interactive virtual reality games on the screen. The results suggest that in the task with 2-DOF, subjects have better control over ankle's position vs. force. PMID:25570176

  15. Modeling, design and control of a 30 hp permanent magnet synchronous motor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis, aspects of modeling, design and control of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are studied. An improved analytical model with stator winding space harmonics included is derived, based on generalized electrical machine theory. Neglecting the space harmonics leads to a simplified d-q equivalent circuit model. These analytical models allow the terminal quantities of a PMSM to be determined. A finite element model is established to obtain the field quantities, with detailed geometry and material characteristics taken into account. Improve post-processing algorithms are developed. Novel torque calculation methods based on Maxwell's stress tenor and coenergy concepts, and a new inductance evaluation algorithm have increased the accuracy and reduced the computing time and effort. The combination of the analytical method which is used for preliminary design, and the finite element method which is used for fine-tuning the final design, provides an effective methodology for PMSM design. The effects of a wide range of metric variables on the performance of PMSMs are investigated. A set of design criteria are proposed in addition to the design specifications. Using the proposed design methodology, a 30 hp prototype PMSM with NdFeB permanent magnets has been designed, assembled and tested. Various steady state tests of the prototype PMSM are conducted. The close agreement between the test results and those predicted from the analytical model and the finite element model has validated these models, and has confirmed the design. A microcontroller-30 hp transistor inverter system is implemented for the PMSM drive. A complete model for the drive system is established for computer simulation. A modified independent current hysteresis control has been developed and tested, resulting in an improved stator current waveform.

  16. Feedback control of one's own action: Self-other sensory attribution in motor control.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2015-12-15

    The sense of agency, the subjective experience of controlling one's own action, has an important function in motor control. When we move our own body or even external tools, we attribute that movement to ourselves and utilize that sensory information in order to correct "our own" movement in theory. The dynamic relationship between conscious self-other attribution and feedback control, however, is still unclear. Participants were required to make a sinusoidal reaching movement and received its visual feedback (i.e., cursor). When participants received a fake movement that was spatio-temporally close to their actual movement, illusory self-attribution of the fake movement was observed. In this situation, since participants tried to control the cursor but it was impossible to do so, the movement error was increased (Experiment 1). However, when the visual feedback was reduced to make self-other attribution difficult, there was no further increase in the movement error (Experiment 2). These results indicate that conscious self-other sensory attribution might coordinate sensory input and motor output. PMID:26587957

  17. A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

  18. Induction motors airgap-eccentricity detection through the discrete wavelet transform of the apparent power signal under non-stationary operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Yahia, K; Cardoso, A J M; Ghoggal, A; Zouzou, S E

    2014-03-01

    Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been successfully used for fault diagnosis in induction machines. However, this method does not always provide good results for the cases of load torque, speed and voltages variation, leading to a variation of the motor-slip and the consequent FFT problems that appear due to the non-stationary nature of the involved signals. In this paper, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the apparent-power signal for the airgap-eccentricity fault detection in three-phase induction motors is presented in order to overcome the above FFT problems. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the apparent-power signal from which wavelet approximation and detail coefficients are extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). Simulation as well as experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method presented even for the case of load torque variations. PMID:24461376

  19. Direct torque control of induction machine under square wave conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chapuis, Y.A.; Pelissou, C.; Roye, D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors of this paper present the direct torque control (DTC) under square wave conditions. After describing the principles of the control system at high speed, they propose a control structure under square wave operation to optimize power and losses in the inverter and the machine. A transition method allowing transient problems between the two control modes to be minimized, is presented. Finally, they estimate the structure of the proposal by simulating good results on torque control obtained during square wave passage and up to very high machine speeds. They validate the control system at high speed by DSP implementation and experimental results.

  20. Extracting motor synergies from random movements for low-dimensional task-space control of musculoskeletal robots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kin Chung Denny; Dalla Libera, Fabio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In the field of human motor control, the motor synergy hypothesis explains how humans simplify body control dimensionality by coordinating groups of muscles, called motor synergies, instead of controlling muscles independently. In most applications of motor synergies to low-dimensional control in robotics, motor synergies are extracted from given optimal control signals. In this paper, we address the problems of how to extract motor synergies without optimal data given, and how to apply motor synergies to achieve low-dimensional task-space tracking control of a human-like robotic arm actuated by redundant muscles, without prior knowledge of the robot. We propose to extract motor synergies from a subset of randomly generated reaching-like movement data. The essence is to first approximate the corresponding optimal control signals, using estimations of the robot's forward dynamics, and to extract the motor synergies subsequently. In order to avoid modeling difficulties, a learning-based control approach is adopted such that control is accomplished via estimations of the robot's inverse dynamics. We present a kernel-based regression formulation to estimate the forward and the inverse dynamics, and a sliding controller in order to cope with estimation error. Numerical evaluations show that the proposed method enables extraction of motor synergies for low-dimensional task-space control. PMID:26448530

  1. A digital vibrating magnetic gyrometer using a control motor DSP TMS320F243

    E-print Network

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    A digital vibrating magnetic gyrometer using a control motor DSP TMS320F243 G. Baudoin(1) , O processing system to control a vibrating magnetic gyrometer (VMG). This low cost angular speed sensor has to the limitations of analog systems (temperature drift, noise, bias). A digital control and signal processing system

  2. A System for Speed and Torque Control of DC Motors with Application to Small Snake Robots

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    A System for Speed and Torque Control of DC Motors with Application to Small Snake Robots Ankur equipped with small snake-like mechanisms, which challenge the controller design due to their requirement snake-like mechanism because it placed the most demands on the design of the low level controller, which

  3. Neural network based control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator in wind power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbade, Swati A.; Kasliwal, Prabha

    2012-07-01

    To complement the other types of pollution-free generation wind energy is a viable option. Previously wind turbines were operated at constant speed. The evolution of technology related to wind systems industry leaded to the development of a generation of variable speed wind turbines that present many advantages compared to the fixed speed wind turbines. In this paper the phasor model of DFIG is used. This paper presents a study of a doubly fed induction generator driven by a wind turbine connected to the grid, and controlled by artificial neural network ANN controller. The behaviour of the system is shown with PI control, and then as controlled by ANN. The effectiveness of the artificial neural network controller is compared to that of a PI controller. The SIMULINK/MATLAB simulation for Doubly Fed Induction Generator and corresponding results and waveforms are displayed.

  4. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  5. Approximate Optimal Control as a Model for Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Rosenstein, Michael T.; Barto, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Current models of psychological development rely heavily on connectionist models that use supervised learning. These models adapt network weights when the network output does not match the target outputs computed by some agent. The authors present a model of motor learning in which the child uses exploration to discover appropriate ways of…

  6. An Efficient Power Regeneration and Drive Method of an Induction Motor by Means of an Optimal Torque Derived by Variational Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Ogata, Kenji; Kato, Toshiji

    When the motor speed is reduced by using a regenerative brake, the mechanical energy of rotation is converted to the electrical energy. When the regenerative torque is large, the corresponding current increases so that the copper loss also becomes large. On the other hand, the damping effect of rotation increases according to the time elapse when the regenerative torque is small. In order to use the limited energy effectively, an optimal regenerative torque should be discussed in order to regenerate electrical energy as much as possible. This paper proposes a design methodology of a regenerative torque for an induction motor to maximize the regenerative electric energy by means of the variational method. Similarly, an optimal torque for acceleration is derived in order to minimize the energy to drive. Finally, an efficient motor drive system with the proposed optimal torque and the power storage system stabilizing the DC link voltage will be proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed methods are illustrated by both simulations and experiments.

  7. Linear Feedback Anti-control of Chaos in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyue; Wang, Haotian; Guo, Lixin

    In order to take advantage of chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor system, the permanent magnet synchronous motor systems with smooth and non-smooth air-gap models are studied. The chaos anti-control methods by the addition of linear feedback are dissertated and analyzed by numerical solution. The chaos in systems is anti-controlled. The allowable range controlling variables and the chaos orbits of the systems under anti-control are obtained. The systems obtain the new chaotic attractors with the completely different topology.

  8. Rolling Stability Control Utilizing Rollover Index for In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Hori, Yoichi

    In this paper, a novel integrated stability program (ISP) based on robust rolling stability control (RSC) for in-wheel electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate, (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely, (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel, and (4) a motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable a high-performance three-dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. Rolling stability is important for all classes of light-vehicles, especially, for EVs that have narrow tread and high center of gravity. In this study, RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. However, as the drivability of the vehicle will be changed significantly if only RSC is applied, vehicle rolling motion should be controlled depending on the rolling state. Therefore, variable weight-ISP and variable reference-ISP are proposed using rolling state information. For detecting rolling state, rollover index (RI) is introduced. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by the simulation and the experimental results.

  9. Measurement Structure of the Wolf Motor Function Test: Implications for Motor Control Theory

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, Michelle; Velozo, Craig A.; Thompson, Paul A.; Light, Kathye; Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Winstein, Carolee J.; Morris, David; Blanton, Sarah; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools chosen to measure poststroke upper-extremity rehabilitation outcomes must match contemporary theoretical expectations of motor deficit and recovery because an assessment’s theoretical underpinning forms the conceptual basis for interpreting its score. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the theoretical framework of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) by (1) determining whether all items measured a single underlying trait and (2) examining the congruency between the hypothesized and the empirically determined item difficulty orders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were applied to existing WMFT Functional Ability Rating Scale data from 189 participants in the EXCITE (Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation) trial. Fit of a 1-factor CFA model (all items) was compared with the fit of a 2-factor CFA model (factors defined according to item object-grasp requirements) with fit indices, model comparison test, and interfactor correlations. Results One item was missing sufficient data and therefore removed from analysis. CFA fit indices and the model-comparison test suggested that both models fit equally well. The 2-factor model yielded a strong interfactor correlation, and 13 of 14 items fit the Rasch model. The Rasch item difficulty order was consistent with the hypothesized item difficulty order. Conclusion The results suggest that WMFT items measure a single construct. Furthermore, the results depict an item difficulty hierarchy that may advance the theoretical discussion of the person ability versus task difficulty interaction during stroke recovery. PMID:20616302

  10. DC-SIGN(+) Macrophages Control the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Conde, Patricia; Rodriguez, Mercedes; van der Touw, William; Jimenez, Ana; Burns, Matthew; Miller, Jennifer; Brahmachary, Manisha; Chen, Hui-ming; Boros, Peter; Rausell-Palamos, Francisco; Yun, Tae Jin; Riquelme, Paloma; Rastrojo, Alberto; Aguado, Begoña; Stein-Streilein, Joan; Tanaka, Masato; Zhou, Lan; Zhang, Junfeng; Lowary, Todd L; Ginhoux, Florent; Park, Chae Gyu; Cheong, Cheolho; Brody, Joshua; Turley, Shannon J; Lira, Sergio A; Bronte, Vincenzo; Gordon, Siamon; Heeger, Peter S; Merad, Miriam; Hutchinson, James; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Ochando, Jordi

    2015-06-16

    Tissue effector cells of the monocyte lineage can differentiate into different cell types with specific cell function depending on their environment. The phenotype, developmental requirements, and functional mechanisms of immune protective macrophages that mediate the induction of transplantation tolerance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that costimulatory blockade favored accumulation of DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages that inhibited CD8(+) T cell immunity and promoted CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion in numbers. Mechanistically, that simultaneous DC-SIGN engagement by fucosylated ligands and TLR4 signaling was required for production of immunoregulatory IL-10 associated with prolonged allograft survival. Deletion of DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages in vivo, interfering with their CSF1-dependent development, or preventing the DC-SIGN signaling pathway abrogated tolerance. Together, the results provide new insights into the tolerogenic effects of costimulatory blockade and identify DC-SIGN(+) suppressive macrophages as crucial mediators of immunological tolerance with the concomitant therapeutic implications in the clinic. PMID:26070485

  11. New Directions for Understanding Neural Control in Swallowing: The Potential and Promise of Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal swallowing is a complex sensorimotor phenomenon that has had decades of research dedicated to understanding it more thoroughly. However, the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for normal and disordered swallowing remain very vague. We consider this gap in knowledge the result of swallowing research that has been broad (identifying phenomena) but not deep (identifying what controls the phenomena). The goals of this review are to address the complexity of motor control of oropharyngeal swallowing and to review the principles of motor learning based on limb movements as a model system. We compare this literature on limb motor learning to what is known about oropharyngeal function as a first step toward suggesting the use of motor learning principles in swallowing research. PMID:23192633

  12. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines [[Page 9917...emissions for new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines conducted under...year heavy-duty motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines.\\8\\...

  13. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  14. Neurological and robot-controlled induction of an apparition.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Olaf; Pozeg, Polona; Hara, Masayuki; Heydrich, Lukas; Serino, Andrea; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Salomon, Roy; Seeck, Margitta; Landis, Theodor; Arzy, Shahar; Herbelin, Bruno; Bleuler, Hannes; Rognini, Giulio

    2014-11-17

    Tales of ghosts, wraiths, and other apparitions have been reported in virtually all cultures. The strange sensation that somebody is nearby when no one is actually present and cannot be seen (feeling of a presence, FoP) is a fascinating feat of the human mind, and this apparition is often covered in the literature of divinity, occultism, and fiction. Although it is described by neurological and psychiatric patients and healthy individuals in different situations, it is not yet understood how the phenomenon is triggered by the brain. Here, we performed lesion analysis in neurological FoP patients, supported by an analysis of associated neurological deficits. Our data show that the FoP is an illusory own-body perception with well-defined characteristics that is associated with sensorimotor loss and caused by lesions in three distinct brain regions: temporoparietal, insular, and especially frontoparietal cortex. Based on these data and recent experimental advances of multisensory own-body illusions, we designed a master-slave robotic system that generated specific sensorimotor conflicts and enabled us to induce the FoP and related illusory own-body perceptions experimentally in normal participants. These data show that the illusion of feeling another person nearby is caused by misperceiving the source and identity of sensorimotor (tactile, proprioceptive, and motor) signals of one's own body. Our findings reveal the neural mechanisms of the FoP, highlight the subtle balance of brain mechanisms that generate the experience of "self" and "other," and advance the understanding of the brain mechanisms responsible for hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25447995

  15. Judgments and Reasoning about Parental Discipline Involving Induction and Psychological Control in China and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.; To, Sharon; Wang, Qian; Liu, Chunqiong; Yang, Shaogang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined judgments and reasoning about four parental discipline practices (induction or reasoning and three practices involving "psychological control"; Barber, 1996; two forms of shaming and love withdrawal) among children (7-14 years of age) from urban and rural China and Canada (N = 288) in response to a moral…

  16. Control of epidermal stem cell clusters by Notch-mediated lateral induction

    E-print Network

    Sherratt, Jonathan A.

    Control of epidermal stem cell clusters by Notch-mediated lateral induction Nicholas J. Savill1, accepted 30 January 2003 Abstract Stem cells in the basal layer of human interfollicular epidermis form via differentiation of stem cells on the periphery of the clusters. Moreover, there is growing

  17. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Luebke, Charles John (Sussex, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA); Zhang, Pinjia (Atlanta, GA); Becker, Scott K. (Oak Creek, WI)

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  18. Real-time control of stepper motors for mechano-sensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Carlos; Levi, Rafael; Benkrid, Meriem; Rodríguez, Francisco B; Varona, Pablo

    2008-07-15

    Mechanical stimulation is widely used to study sensory encoding in the nervous system of living organisms. The stimulation of mechano-receptor neurons is achieved through a large variety of devices that generate movement or vibration. In many situations, a hard real-time (RT) control of the device (in the millisecond time scale) is needed to produce realistic mechanical stimuli. The real-time control can be required to achieve the desired precision in the device or to implement activity-dependent stimulation protocols that imply the detection of physiological events to drive the stimulus in real time. In this paper we show that real-time software technology can be used to control stepper motors for mechano-receptor stimulation, and to implement artificial closed-loops to address the sensory-motor transformation. We illustrate this using as an example the control of a stepper motor to precisely move gravimetric organs in in vitro preparations. PMID:18511126

  19. Sensorless Load Torque Estimation and Passivity Based Control of Buck Converter Fed DC Motor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Ganesh; Thilagar, S. Hosimin

    2015-01-01

    Passivity based control of DC motor in sensorless configuration is proposed in this paper. Exact tracking error dynamics passive output feedback control is used for stabilizing the speed of Buck converter fed DC motor under various load torques such as constant type, fan type, propeller type, and unknown load torques. Under load conditions, sensorless online algebraic approach is proposed, and it is compared with sensorless reduced order observer approach. The former produces better response in estimating the load torque. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to select the appropriate control variables. Simulation and experimental results fully confirm the superiority of the proposed approach suggested in this paper. PMID:25893208

  20. Evaluating the influence of motor control on selective attention through a stochastic model: the paradigm of motor control dysfunction in cerebellar patient.

    PubMed

    Veneri, Giacomo; Federico, Antonio; Rufa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted, prioritizing some aspects of information and ignoring others by focusing on a certain location or aspect of the visual scene. Selective attention is guided by two cognitive mechanisms: saliency of the image (bottom up) and endogenous mechanisms (top down). These two mechanisms interact to direct attention and plan eye movements; then, the movement profile is sent to the motor system, which must constantly update the command needed to produce the desired eye movement. A new approach is described here to study how the eye motor control could influence this selection mechanism in clinical behavior: two groups of patients (SCA2 and late onset cerebellar ataxia LOCA) with well-known problems of motor control were studied; patients performed a cognitively demanding task; the results were compared to a stochastic model based on Monte Carlo simulations and a group of healthy subjects. The analytical procedure evaluated some energy functions for understanding the process. The implemented model suggested that patients performed an optimal visual search, reducing intrinsic noise sources. Our findings theorize a strict correlation between the "optimal motor system" and the "optimal stimulus encoders." PMID:24672782

  1. Evaluating the Influence of Motor Control on Selective Attention through a Stochastic Model: The Paradigm of Motor Control Dysfunction in Cerebellar Patient

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted, prioritizing some aspects of information and ignoring others by focusing on a certain location or aspect of the visual scene. Selective attention is guided by two cognitive mechanisms: saliency of the image (bottom up) and endogenous mechanisms (top down). These two mechanisms interact to direct attention and plan eye movements; then, the movement profile is sent to the motor system, which must constantly update the command needed to produce the desired eye movement. A new approach is described here to study how the eye motor control could influence this selection mechanism in clinical behavior: two groups of patients (SCA2 and late onset cerebellar ataxia LOCA) with well-known problems of motor control were studied; patients performed a cognitively demanding task; the results were compared to a stochastic model based on Monte Carlo simulations and a group of healthy subjects. The analytical procedure evaluated some energy functions for understanding the process. The implemented model suggested that patients performed an optimal visual search, reducing intrinsic noise sources. Our findings theorize a strict correlation between the “optimal motor system” and the “optimal stimulus encoders.” PMID:24672782

  2. Research on PID controller with input shaping algorithm for linear motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Yue; Fan, Wenchao; Fu, Zhenxian

    2015-02-01

    The reticle stage of lithography is a high precision servo motion platform, which requires using macro movement of linear motor and micro movement of voice coil motor to realize an nm-level positioning precision and tracking. In order to increase the control effect and response speed of macro movement linear motor of reticle stage of lithography, the paper presents an efficient control for linear motor. The method use input shaping technique with Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller to realize the high position precision in small stetting time. In the paper we firstly build the linear motor mathematical modeling which is end to velocity loop or position loop. so that we mainly focus on the tracking of speed signal. Then a PID controller is introduced in the system, which is high frequency used in industrial control. Finally, as the need of high positioning precision and small stetting time, we apply input shaping algorithm to solve the problem. The simulation of the system is performed by using MATLAB/Simulation. The evaluation of the method is the performance of input tracking capability.

  3. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  4. Evolving Multiple Sensory-Motor Controllers based on Cellular Neural Network

    E-print Network

    Cho, Sung-Bae

    Evolving Multiple Sensory-Motor Controllers based on Cellular Neural Network Sung-Bae Cho@csai.yonsei.ac.kr Abstract| There has been extensive work to construct an optimal neural network for controlling a mobile of the multi-modules integration method as a sophisticated technique to make the evolved neural network to do

  5. Simplified and effective motor control based on muscle synergies to exploit musculoskeletal dynamics

    E-print Network

    Bizzi, Emilio

    -dimensional model and the muscle synergies we were able to build a relatively simple controller whose overallSimplified and effective motor control based on muscle synergies to exploit musculoskeletalGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 46-3160, Cambridge, MA 02139

  6. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  7. Noise control for motor vehicles. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used to control noise generated by motor vehicles. Although emphasis is placed on noise control studies of trucks; automobiles, buses, and motorcycles are considered as well. Tire noise and specific vehicle demonstration projects are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Noise control for motor vehicles. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used to control noise generated by motor vehicles. Although emphasis is placed on noise control studies of trucks; automobiles, buses, and motorcycles are considered as well. Tire noise and specific vehicle demonstration projects are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor Federico Zenith

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Fuel-Cell Powered DC Electric Vehicle Motor Federico Zenith Sigurd Skogestad Introduction Research in fuel cells receives currently a lot of interest. Fuel cells can be used, in different. However, the dynamics of fuel cells has received comparatively less attention. Control of fuel cells

  10. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term. PMID:16893797

  11. Increased reward in ankle robotics training enhances motor control and cortical efficiency in stroke.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ronald N; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Roy, Anindo; Jung, Brian C; Diaz, Jason; Macko, Richard F; Forrester, Larry W

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is rapidly emerging as a viable approach to enhance motor recovery after disabling stroke. Current principles of cognitive motor learning recognize a positive relationship between reward and motor learning. Yet no prior studies have established explicitly whether reward improves the rate or efficacy of robotics-assisted rehabilitation or produces neurophysiologic adaptations associated with motor learning. We conducted a 3 wk, 9-session clinical pilot with 10 people with chronic hemiparetic stroke, randomly assigned to train with an impedance-controlled ankle robot (anklebot) under either high reward (HR) or low reward conditions. The 1 h training sessions entailed playing a seated video game by moving the paretic ankle to hit moving onscreen targets with the anklebot only providing assistance as needed. Assessments included paretic ankle motor control, learning curves, electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and spectral power during unassisted trials, and gait function. While both groups exhibited changes in EEG, the HR group had faster learning curves (p = 0.05), smoother movements (p motor learning for restoring mobility. PMID:24933720

  12. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  13. Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Phil; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Donoghue, John P.; Black, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Computer-mediated connections between human motor cortical neurons and assistive devices promise to improve or restore lost function in people with paralysis. Recently, a pilot clinical study of an intracortical neural interface system demonstrated that a tetraplegic human was able to obtain continuous two-dimensional control of a computer cursor using neural activity recorded from his motor cortex. This control, however, was not sufficiently accurate for reliable use in many common computer control tasks. Here, we studied several central design choices for such a system including the kinematic representation for cursor movement, the decoding method that translates neuronal ensemble spiking activity into a control signal and the cursor control task used during training for optimizing the parameters of the decoding method. In two tetraplegic participants, we found that controlling a cursor's velocity resulted in more accurate closed-loop control than controlling its position directly and that cursor velocity control was achieved more rapidly than position control. Control quality was further improved over conventional linear filters by using a probabilistic method, the Kalman filter, to decode human motor cortical activity. Performance assessment based on standard metrics used for the evaluation of a wide range of pointing devices demonstrated significantly improved cursor control with velocity rather than position decoding. Disclosure. JPD is the Chief Scientific Officer and a director of Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems (CYKN); he holds stock and receives compensation. JDS has been a consultant for CYKN. LRH receives clinical trial support from CYKN.

  14. Simulative and experimental investigation on stator winding turn and unbalanced supply voltage fault diagnosis in induction motors using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Negin; Poshtan, Javad; Azgomi, Hamid Fekri

    2015-11-01

    The three-phase shift between line current and phase voltage of induction motors can be used as an efficient fault indicator to detect and locate inter-turn stator short-circuit (ITSC) fault. However, unbalanced supply voltage is one of the contributing factors that inevitably affect stator currents and therefore the three-phase shift. Thus, it is necessary to propose a method that is able to identify whether the unbalance of three currents is caused by ITSC or supply voltage fault. This paper presents a feedforward multilayer-perceptron Neural Network (NN) trained by back propagation, based on monitoring negative sequence voltage and the three-phase shift. The data which are required for training and test NN are generated using simulated model of stator. The experimental results are presented to verify the superior accuracy of the proposed method. PMID:26412499

  15. Continuous Path Tracking Control by Considering Voltage Saturation and Current Saturation for AC Servo Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazawa, Masaki; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Continuous path tracking control is an important technology for the position control system such as factory automation field. Particulaly, large torque is required for continuous path tracking control at its start position and its goal position. Each AC servo motor of continuous path tracking control have limitation of current and voltage. Therefore, in controlling a multi-degree-of-freedom continuous path tracking control system, even if only the motor torque of one axis has the current limitation, the actual position response is not often equal to the desired trajectory reference. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a new continuous path tracking control algorithm by considering both the saturation of voltage and current. The proposed method assures the coordinated motion by considering the saturation of voltage and current. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the experimental results in this paper.

  16. Energy Efficient Motors 

    E-print Network

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01

    OF INDUCTION MOTOR DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE Let's start with some review of the basics of induction motor desian and oerformance. (See Figure 1.) ." - Con""lIorW FHP SP"d-Torque Cu," ConftntJonaI In'-Ol'lIl HP 8pMd Torque CUrie L Sl8r1Ing Torque b. Dip...

  17. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyanarayanan, J. S.; Senthil Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  18. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  19. Fuzzy Auto-adjust PID Controller Design of Brushless DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanxi, Wang; Yali, Yu; Guosheng, Zhang; Xiaoliang, Sheng

    Using conventional PID control method, to guarantee the rapidity and small overshoot dynamic and static performance of the BLDCM (brushless DC motor) system is out of the question. The control method to combine fuzzy control with PID control was fit the multivariable strong coupling nonlinear characteristic of BLDCM system. Matlab/Simulink simulation model had been built. The result of computer simulation shows that, compared with the conventional PID controller, the dynamic and static performance of fuzzy auto-adjust PID controller are put forward to optimize. The research work of this paper has profound significance for high precision controller design.

  20. Modeling the role of the basal ganglia in motor control and motor programming

    E-print Network

    Mao, Zhi-Hong, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of highly interconnected nuclei buried deep in the brain. They are involved in an important range of brain functions, including both lower-level movement control and higher-level cognitive ...

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOEpatents

    Riveros, Carlos A. (3832 Harrison Ave., Brookfield, IL 60513)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  2. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-01

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1 and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. Solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  3. Developing micro DC-brushless motor driver and position control for fiber positioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenni, Laurent; Hörler, Philipp; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Prada, Francisco; De Rivera, Guillermo; Sanchez, Justo

    2014-07-01

    In the large-scale, Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), thousands of fiber positioners will be used. Those are robotic positioners, with two axis, and having the size of a pen. They are tightly packed on the focal plane of the telescope. Dedicated micro-robots have been developed and they use 4mm brushless DC motors. To simplify the implementation and reduce the space occupancy, each actuator will integrate its own electronic control board. This board will be used to communicate with the central trajectory generator, manage low level control tasks and motor current feeding. In this context, we present a solution for a highly compact electronic. This electronic is composed of two layers. The first is the power stage that can drive simultaneously two brushless motors. The second one consists of a fast microcontroller and deals with different control tasks: communication, acquisition of the hall sensor signals, commutation of the motors phases, and performing position and current regulation. A set of diagnostic functions are also implemented to detect failure in the motors or the sensors, and to sense abnormal load change that may be the result of two robots colliding.

  4. Induction of controlled hypoxic pregnancy in large mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Brain, Kirsty L; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Cross, Christine M; Itani, Nozomi; Kane, Andrew D; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-12-01

    Progress in the study of pregnancy complicated by chronic hypoxia in large mammals has been held back by the inability to measure long-term significant reductions in fetal oxygenation at values similar to those measured in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. Here, we introduce a technique for physiological research able to maintain chronically instrumented maternal and fetal sheep for prolonged periods of gestation under significant and controlled isolated chronic hypoxia beyond levels that can be achieved by habitable high altitude. This model of chronic hypoxia permits measurement of materno-fetal blood gases as the challenge is actually occurring. Chronic hypoxia of this magnitude and duration using this model recapitulates the significant asymmetric growth restriction, the pronounced cardiomyopathy, and the loss of endothelial function measured in offspring of high-risk pregnancy in humans, opening a new window of therapeutic research. PMID:26660546

  5. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Boys with ADHD Across Tests of Motor and Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intrasubject variability (ISV), or short-term, within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance is consistently found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with impairments in motor control, particularly in boys. The results of the few studies that have examined variability in self-generated motor output in children with ADHD have been inconsistent. The current study examined variability in motor control during a finger sequencing task among boys with and without ADHD as well as the relationship between intrasubject variability during motor and cognitive control tasks. Changes in performance over the course of the task and associations with ADHD symptom domains were also examined to elucidate the nature of impaired motor control in children with ADHD. Fifty-one boys (ages 8 to 12 years) participated in the study, including 28 boys with ADHD and 23 typically developing (TD) boys. Participants completed a finger sequencing task and a Go/No-Go task providing multiple measures of response speed and variability. Boys with ADHD were slower and more variable in both intertap interval on the finger sequencing task and reaction time on the Go/No-Go task, with measures of speed and variability correlated across the two tasks. For the entire cohort, the only unique predictor of parent ratings of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms was variability in intertap interval during finger sequencing, whereas inattentive symptoms were only predicted by reaction time variability on the Go/No-Go task. These findings suggest that inefficient motor control is implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, particularly in regards to developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity. PMID:23135288

  6. FPGA-based Elman neural network control system for linear ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Faa-Jeng; Hung, Ying-Chih

    2009-01-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Elman neural network (ENN) control system is proposed to control the mover position of a linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) in this study. First, the structure and operating principle of the LUSM are introduced. Because the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the LUSM are nonlinear and time-varying, an ENN control system is designed to achieve precision position control. The network structure and online learning algorithm using delta adaptation law of the ENN are described in detail. Then, a piecewise continuous function is adopted to replace the sigmoid function in the hidden layer of the ENN to facilitate hardware implementation. In addition, an FPGA chip is adopted to implement the developed control algorithm for possible low-cost and high-performance industrial applications. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by some experimental results. PMID:19213636

  7. The amygdalo-motor pathways and the control of facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, Katalin M.

    2013-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect decisions about the perceived meaning of social stimuli and the expected socio-emotional outcome of responding (or not) with a reciprocating expression. The decision to produce a facial expression emerges from the joint activity of a network of structures that include the amygdala and multiple, interconnected cortical and subcortical motor areas. Reciprocal transformations between these sensory and motor signals give rise to distinct brain states that promote, or impede the production of facial expressions. The muscles of the upper and lower face are controlled by anatomically distinct motor areas. Facial expressions engage to a different extent the lower and upper face and thus require distinct patterns of neural activity distributed across multiple facial motor areas in ventrolateral frontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, and two areas in the midcingulate cortex. The distributed nature of the decision manifests in the joint activation of multiple motor areas that initiate the production of facial expression. Concomitantly multiple areas, including the amygdala, monitor ongoing overt behaviors (the expression itself) and the covert, autonomic responses that accompany emotional expressions. As the production of facial expressions is brought into the framework of formal decision making, an important challenge will be to incorporate autonomic and visceral states into decisions that govern the receiving-emitting cycle of social signals. PMID:24678289

  8. Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons revived interest in motor theories of perception, fostering a number of new studies as well as controversies. In particular, the degree of motor specificity with which others' actions are simulated is highly debated. Human corticospinal excitability studies support the conjecture that a mirror mechanism encodes object-directed goals or low-level kinematic features of others' reaching and grasping actions. These interpretations lead to different experimental predictions and implications for the functional role of the simulation of others' actions. We propose that the representational granularity of the mirror mechanism cannot be any different from that of the motor system during action execution. Hence, drawing from motor control models, we propose that the building blocks of the mirror mechanism are the relatively few motor synergies explaining the variety of hand functions. The recognition of these synergies, from action observation, can be potentially very robust to visual noise and thus demonstrate a clear advantage of using motor knowledge for classifying others' action.

  9. Automatic online control of motor adjustments in reaching and grasping.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, Valérie; Pisella, Laure; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Fukui, Takao; Rossetti, Yves; Pélisson, Denis; Prablanc, Claude

    2014-03-01

    Following the princeps investigations of Marc Jeannerod on action-perception, specifically, goal-directed movement, this review article addresses visual and non-visual processes involved in guiding the hand in reaching or grasping tasks. The contributions of different sources of correction of ongoing movements are considered; these include visual feedback of the hand, as well as the often-neglected but important spatial updating and sharpening of goal localization following gaze-saccade orientation. The existence of an automatic online process guiding limb trajectory toward its goal is highlighted by a series of princeps experiments of goal-directed pointing movements. We then review psychophysical, electrophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical studies that have explored the properties of these automatic corrective mechanisms and their neural bases, and established their generality. Finally, the functional significance of automatic corrective mechanisms-referred to as motor flexibility-and their potential use in rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:24334110

  10. Prefrontal control over motor cortex cycles at beta frequency during movement inhibition.

    PubMed

    Picazio, Silvia; Veniero, Domenica; Ponzo, Viviana; Caltagirone, Carlo; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-12-15

    A fully adapted behavior requires maximum efficiency to inhibit processes in the motor domain. Although a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions have been implicated, converging evidence suggests that activation of right inferior frontal gyrus (r-IFG) and right presupplementary motor area (r-preSMA) is crucial for successful response inhibition. However, it is still unknown how these prefrontal areas convey the necessary signal to the primary motor cortex (M1), the cortical site where the final motor plan eventually has to be inhibited or executed. On the basis of the widely accepted view that brain oscillations are fundamental for communication between neuronal network elements, one would predict that the transmission of these inhibitory signals within the prefrontal-central networks (i.e., r-IFG/M1 and/or r-preSMA/M1) is realized in rapid, periodic bursts coinciding with oscillatory brain activity at a distinct frequency. However, the dynamics of corticocortical effective connectivity has never been directly tested on such timescales. By using double-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG), we assessed instantaneous prefrontal-to-motor cortex connectivity in a Go/NoGo paradigm as a function of delay from (Go/NoGo) cue onset. In NoGo trials only, the effects of a conditioning prefrontal TMS pulse on motor cortex excitability cycled at beta frequency, coinciding with a frontocentral beta signature in EEG. This establishes, for the first time, a tight link between effective cortical connectivity and related cortical oscillatory activity, leading to the conclusion that endogenous (top-down) inhibitory motor signals are transmitted in beta bursts in large-scale cortical networks for inhibitory motor control. PMID:25484293

  11. Glycemic control and motor development in a patient with intermediate DEND.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hideharu; Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Amamiya, Satoshi; Oshima, Miho; Oka, Toshiaki; Mukai, Tokuo; Okayama, Akie; Araki, Akiko; Azuma, Hiroshi; Tanahashi, Yusuke

    2014-06-01

    The most common cause of neonatal diabetes, KCNJ11 gene mutation, can manifest as a neurological disorder. The most severe form consists of a constellation of developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes (DEND). Intermediate DEND (iDEND) refers to a milder presentation without epilepsy. We present a child with iDEND, for whom insulin injections were replaced with glibenclamide therapy at 17?months of age because of poor glycemic control and delayed motor development. Three?months after initiation of glibenclamide, HbA1c decreased from 10.2% to 5.6%. Continuous glucose monitoring indicated that blood glucose fluctuations were suppressed while on glibenclamide. Furthermore, after initiating glibenclamide therapy, the developmental quotient (DQ) for motor ability markedly improved from 60 to 91, whereas the DQ for language and adoptive ability remained as they had been before the sulfonylurea treatment. Sulfonylurea treatment improved glycemic control and motor development in the present patient. PMID:24894933

  12. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Elizabeth A.; Patterson, Jae T.; Bray, Steven R.; Lee, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes. PMID:23430980

  13. Adaptive vibration control using synchronous demodulation with machine tool controller motor commutation

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, David James (Livermore, CA)

    2008-05-13

    A control system and method for actively reducing vibration in a spindle housing caused by unbalance forces on a rotating spindle, by measuring the force-induced spindle-housing motion, determining control signals based on synchronous demodulation, and provide compensation for the measured displacement to cancel or otherwise reduce or attenuate the vibration. In particular, the synchronous demodulation technique is performed to recover a measured spindle housing displacement signal related only to the rotation of a machine tool spindle, and consequently rejects measured displacement not related to spindle motion or synchronous to a cycle of revolution. Furthermore, the controller actuates at least one voice-coil (VC) motor, to cancel the original force-induced motion, and adapts the magnitude of voice coil signal until this measured displacement signal is brought to a null. In order to adjust the signal to a null, it must have the correct phase relative to the spindle angle. The feedback phase signal is used to adjust a common (to both outputs) commutation offset register (offset relative to spindle encoder angle) to force the feedback phase signal output to a null. Once both of these feedback signals are null, the system is compensating properly for the spindle-induced motion.

  14. Synergetic motor control paradigm for optimizing energy efficiency of multijoint reaching via tacit learning.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    A human motor system can improve its behavior toward optimal movement. The skeletal system has more degrees of freedom than the task dimensions, which incurs an ill-posed problem. The multijoint system involves complex interaction torques between joints. To produce optimal motion in terms of energy consumption, the so-called cost function based optimization has been commonly used in previous works.Even if it is a fact that an optimal motor pattern is employed phenomenologically, there is no evidence that shows the existence of a physiological process that is similar to such a mathematical optimization in our central nervous system.In this study, we aim to find a more primitive computational mechanism with a modular configuration to realize adaptability and optimality without prior knowledge of system dynamics.We propose a novel motor control paradigm based on tacit learning with task space feedback. The motor command accumulation during repetitive environmental interactions, play a major role in the learning process. It is applied to a vertical cyclic reaching which involves complex interaction torques.We evaluated whether the proposed paradigm can learn how to optimize solutions with a 3-joint, planar biomechanical model. The results demonstrate that the proposed method was valid for acquiring motor synergy and resulted in energy efficient solutions for different load conditions. The case in feedback control is largely affected by the interaction torques. In contrast, the trajectory is corrected over time with tacit learning toward optimal solutions.Energy efficient solutions were obtained by the emergence of motor synergy. During learning, the contribution from feedforward controller is augmented and the one from the feedback controller is significantly minimized down to 12% for no load at hand, 16% for a 0.5 kg load condition.The proposed paradigm could provide an optimization process in redundant system with dynamic-model-free and cost-function-free approach. PMID:24616695

  15. Differences in Visuo-Motor Control in Skilled vs. Novice Martial Arts Athletes during Sustained and Transient Attention Tasks: A Motor-Related Cortical Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A.; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and “automatic” or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise enhances neural flexibility and allows better adaptation of cognitive control to the requested task. PMID:24621480

  16. Differences in visuo-motor control in skilled vs. novice martial arts athletes during sustained and transient attention tasks: a motor-related cortical potential study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and "automatic" or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise enhances neural flexibility and allows better adaptation of cognitive control to the requested task. PMID:24621480

  17. Counteracting Rotor Imbalance in a Bearingless Motor System with Feedforward Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter Eugene; Jansen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    In standard motor applications, traditional mechanical bearings represent the most economical approach to rotor suspension. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without bearing contact is either required or highly beneficial. Such applications include very high speed, extreme environment, or limited maintenance access applications. This paper extends upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor is achieved using two motors with opposing conical air-gaps. By leaving the motors' pole-pairs unconnected, different d-axis flux in each pole-pair is created, generating a flux imbalance which creates lateral force. Note this is approach is different than that used in previous bearingless motors, which use separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper will examine the use of feedforward control to counteract synchronous whirl caused by rotor imbalance. Experimental results will be presented showing the performance of a prototype bearingless system, which was sized for a high speed flywheel energy storage application, with and without feedforward control.

  18. Parallel pathways from motor and somatosensory cortex for controlling whisker movements in mice.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Karmakar, Kajari; Rijli, Filippo M; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-02-01

    Mice can gather tactile sensory information by actively moving their whiskers to palpate objects in their immediate surroundings. Whisker sensory perception therefore requires integration of sensory and motor information, which occurs prominently in the neocortex. The signalling pathways from the neocortex for controlling whisker movements are currently poorly understood in mice. Here, we delineate two pathways, one originating from primary whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1) and the other from whisker motor cortex (wM1), that control qualitatively distinct movements of contralateral whiskers. Optogenetic stimulation of wS1 drove retraction of contralateral whiskers while stimulation of wM1 drove rhythmic whisker protraction. To map brainstem pathways connecting these cortical areas to whisker motor neurons, we used a combination of anterograde tracing using adenoassociated virus injected into neocortex and retrograde tracing using monosynaptic rabies virus injected into whisker muscles. Our data are consistent with wS1 driving whisker retraction by exciting glutamatergic premotor neurons in the rostral spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which in turn activate the motor neurons innervating the extrinsic retractor muscle nasolabialis. The rhythmic whisker protraction evoked by wM1 stimulation might be driven by excitation of excitatory and inhibitory premotor neurons in the brainstem reticular formation innervating both intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Our data therefore begin to unravel the neuronal circuits linking the neocortex to whisker motor neurons. PMID:25476605

  19. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  20. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  1. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  2. Development of a precise controller for an electrohydraulic total artificial heart. Improvement of the motor's dynamic response.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J M; Masuzawa, T; Taenaka, Y; Tatsumi, E; Ohno, T; Choi, W W; Toda, K; Miyazaki, K; Baba, Y; Nakatani, T; Takano, H; Min, B G

    1996-01-01

    In an electrohydraulic total artificial heart developed at the National Cardiovascular Center (Osaka, Japan), two blood pumps are pushed alternatively by means of the bidirectional motion of a brushless DC motor for pump systole and diastole. Improvement in the dynamic response of the motor is very important to obtain better pump performance; this was accomplished by using power electronic simulation. For the motor to have the desired dynamic response, it must be commutated properly and the damping ratio (zeta), which represents transient characteristics of the motor, must lie between 0.4 and 0.8. Consequently, all satisfactory specifications with respect to power consumption must be obtained. Based on the simulated results, the design criteria were determined and the precise controller designed to reduce torque ripple and motor vibration, and determine motor stop time at every direction change. In in vitro tests, evaluation of the controller and dynamic response of the motor was justified in terms of zeta, power consumption, and motor stop time. The results indicated that the power consumption of the controller and the input power of the motor were decreased by 1.2 and 2.5 W at zeta = 0.6, respectively, compared to the previous system. An acceptable dynamic response of the motor, necessary for the reduction of torque ripple and motor vibration, was obtained between zeta = 0.5 and zeta = 0.7, with an increase in system efficiency from 10% to 12%. The motor stop time required for stable motor reoperation was determined to be over 10 msec, for a savings in power consumption of approximately 1.5 W. Therefore, the improved dynamic response of the motor can contribute to the stability and reliability of the pump. PMID:8944948

  3. Inhibitory motor control in apneic and insomniac patients: a stop task study.

    PubMed

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Philip, Pierre; Schwartz, Sophie

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess with a stop task the inhibitory motor control efficiency--a major component of executive control functions--in patients suffering from sleep disorders. Twenty-two patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) (mean age 46 +/- 9 years; mean apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 30 +/- 20) and 13 patients with psychophysiological insomnia (mean age 47 +/- 12 years) were compared with individually matched healthy controls. Sleep disturbances in the patient populations were clinically and polysomnographically diagnosed. The stop task has a frequent visual 'Go' stimulus to set up a response tendency and a less frequent auditory 'Stop' signal to withhold the planned or prepotent response. The stop signal reaction time (SSRT) reflects the time to internally suppress the ongoing response. SSRT was slower for the apneic patients than for their respective controls (248 +/- 107 versus 171 +/- 115 ms, anova, P < 0.05) but not for the insomniac patients compared with their controls (235 +/- 112 versus 194 +/- 109 ms, NS). Moreover, in apneic patients, slower SSRT was associated with lower nocturnal oxygen saturation (r = -0.477, P < 0.05). By contrast, neither apneics nor insomniacs differed from their matched controls for reaction times on Go trials. To conclude, unlike insomniacs, OSAS patients present an impaired inhibitory motor control, an executive function which is required in many common everyday life situations. Inhibitory motor control relies on the integrity of the inferior prefrontal cortex, which could be affected by nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in apneic patients. PMID:18036083

  4. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 2: The time dependent finite element modeling of the electromagnetic field in electrical machines: Methods and applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The time dependent solution of the magnetic field is introduced as a method for accounting for the variation, in time, of the machine parameters in predicting and analyzing the performance of the electrical machines. The method of time dependent finite element was used in combination with an also time dependent construction of a grid for the air gap region. The Maxwell stress tensor was used to calculate the airgap torque from the magnetic vector potential distribution. Incremental inductances were defined and calculated as functions of time, depending on eddy currents and saturation. The currents in all the machine circuits were calculated in the time domain based on these inductances, which were continuously updated. The method was applied to a chopper controlled DC series motor used for electric vehicle drive, and to a salient pole sychronous motor with damper bars. Simulation results were compared to experimentally obtained ones.

  5. Sensory trick phenomenon improves motor control in pianists with dystonia: prognostic value of glove-effect

    PubMed Central

    Paulig, Jakobine; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Großbach, Michael; Boullet, Laurent; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Musician’s dystonia (MD) is a task-specific movement disorder that causes loss of voluntary motor control while playing the instrument. A subgroup of patients displays the so-called sensory trick: alteration of somatosensory input, e.g., by wearing a latex glove, may result in short-term improvement of motor control. In this study, the glove-effect in pianists with MD was quantified and its potential association with MD-severity and outcome after treatment was investigated. Thirty affected pianists were included in the study. Music instrument digital interface-based scale analysis was used for assessment of fine motor control. Therapeutic options included botulinum toxin, pedagogical retraining and anticholinergic medication (trihexyphenidyl). 19% of patients showed significant improvement of fine motor control through wearing a glove. After treatment, outcome was significantly better in patients with a significant pre-treatment sensory trick. We conclude that the sensory trick may have a prognostic value for the outcome after treatment in pianists with MD. PMID:25295014

  6. EVALUATION OF THE GENERAL MOTORS' DOUBLE ALKALI SO2 CONTROL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an evaluation of the double alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, installed to control SOx emissions from the coal-fired industrial boiler complex at General Motors' Chevrolet plant in Parma, Ohio. It describes the boiler and FGD systems. It addresses perfor...

  7. Motor Control of the Lower Extremity Musculature in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpin, David J.; Stuberg, Wayne; Stergiou, Nicholas; Kurz, Max J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify the differences in torque steadiness and variability of the muscular control in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children. Fifteen children with CP (age = 14.2 [plus or minus] 0.7 years) that had a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score of I-III and 15…

  8. Motor Control and Nonword Repetition in Specific Working Memory Impairment and SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Munson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Debate around the underlying cognitive factors leading to poor performance in the repetition of nonwords by children with developmental impairments in language has centered around phonological short-term memory, lexical knowledge, and other factors. This study examines the impact of motor control demands on nonword repetition in groups of…

  9. Mandibular Motor Control during the Early Development of Speech and Nonspeech Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mandible is often portrayed as a primary structure of early babble production, but empiricists still need to specify (a) how mandibular motor control and kinematics vary among different types of multisyllabic babble, (b) whether chewing or jaw oscillation relies on a coordinative infrastructure that can be exploited for early types of…

  10. Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Research on Speech Motor Control Recovery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.; Hoit, Jeannette; Kent, Raymond; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Strand, Edythe; Yorkston, Kathryn; Sapienza, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To review the principles of neural plasticity and make recommendations for research on the neural bases for rehabilitation of neurogenic speech disorders. Method A working group in speech motor control and disorders developed this report, which examines the potential relevance of basic research on the brain mechanisms involved in neural plasticity and discusses possible similarities and differences for application to speech motor control disorders. The possible involvement of neural plasticity in changes in speech production in normalcy, development, aging, and neurological diseases and disorders was considered. This report focuses on the appropriate use of functional and structural neuroimaging and the design of feasibility studies aimed at understanding how brain mechanisms are altered by environmental manipulations such as training and stimulation and how these changes might enhance the future development of rehabilitative methods for persons with speech motor control disorders. Conclusions Increased collaboration with neuroscientists working in clinical research centers addressing human communication disorders might foster research in this area. It is hoped that this paper will encourage future research on speech motor control disorders to address the principles of neural plasticity and their application for rehabilitation. PMID:18230849

  11. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Boys with ADHD across Tests of Motor and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosch, Keri Shiels; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased intrasubject variability (ISV), or short-term, within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance is consistently found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with impairments in motor control, particularly in boys. The results of the few studies that have examined variability in self-generated…

  12. A Bayesian view on motor control and planning Marc Toussaint and Christian Goerick

    E-print Network

    Toussaint, Marc

    A Bayesian view on motor control and planning Marc Toussaint and Christian Goerick Abstract/29, 10587 Berlin, e-mail: mtoussai@cs.tu-berlin.de Christian Goerick Honda Research Institute Europe, Carl-Legien-Strasse 30, 63073 Offenbach/Main, Germany, e- mail: christian.goerick@honda-ri.de 1 #12;2 Marc Toussaint

  13. 76 FR 70128 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Heavy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... EPA decision was signed on August 13, 2008 and published at 73 FR 52042 (September 8, 2008). CARB... previous waiver is at 73 FR 52042 (September 8, 2008). (B) Background and Discussion Section 209(a) of the... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California...

  14. 75 FR 11878 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... light-duty truck having a loaded weight of 0-3750 pounds. \\2\\ 58 FR 4166, January 13, 1993. \\3\\ 66 FR 7751, January 25, 2001. \\4\\ 71 FR 78190, December 28, 2006. In the alternative, EPA found that the... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California...

  15. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  16. Electric motor/controller design tradeoffs for noise, weight, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, N.L.; Brown, G.W.

    1994-12-31

    It is common for an AUV [Autonomous Underwater Vehicle] designer to be put in the position of a subsystem hardware integrator. In the case of electric motors and controllers this may be more by necessity than choice because a suitable subsystems supplier cannot be found. As a result, motors and controllers are purchased from various manufacturers who may optimize the design of each part but hold system performance secondary in importance. Unlike hydraulics, an electric motor/controller system presents significant opportunities to improve noise, weight, and efficiency. But, these opportunities can best be recognized by a single source who not only understands the technology but has the ability to implement them in the development and manufacture of the product. An analysis is presented which explains the various design considerations of noise, weight and efficiency of electric motors and controllers for submersible AUV`s. In concert with the design considerations, their interrelationships are discussed as to how they affect each other in the overall optimization of the system. In conclusion, a matrix is created which shows how the resultant system parameters of noise, weight, and efficiency may be ``traded off`` to tailor the best overall system for the application. 1 ref.

  17. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.

    2015-11-01

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Swanekamp et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)]. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib = I1 + I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. Independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate current-divider geometry. The root-mean-square (RMS) beam emittance (?RMS) varies as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. For applications where control of the beam trajectory is desired and the current density at the target is similar to the current density at the entrance foil, there is a modest 20% increase in ?RMS at the target. For other applications where the beam is pinched to a current density ˜5 times larger at the target, ?RMS is 2-3 times larger at the target.

  18. Adaptive PIF Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on GPC

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaowu; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the control performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), a generalized predictive control (GPC)-based proportional integral feedforward (PIF) controller is proposed for the speed control system. In this new approach, firstly, based on the online identification of controlled model parameters, a simplified GPC law supplies the PIF controller with suitable control parameters according to the uncertainties in the operating conditions. Secondly, the speed reference curve for PMSMs is usually required to be continuous and continuously differentiable according to the general servo system design requirements, so the adaptation of the speed reference is discussed in details in this paper. Hence, the performance of the speed control system using a GPC-based PIF controller is improved for tracking some specified signals. The main motivation of this paper is the extension of GPC law to replace the traditional PI or PIF controllers in industrial applications. The efficacy and usefulness of the proposed controller are verified through experimental results. PMID:23262481

  19. Adaptive PIF control for permanent magnet synchronous motors based on GPC.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaowu; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the control performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), a generalized predictive control (GPC)-based proportional integral feedforward (PIF) controller is proposed for the speed control system. In this new approach, firstly, based on the online identification of controlled model parameters, a simplified GPC law supplies the PIF controller with suitable control parameters according to the uncertainties in the operating conditions. Secondly, the speed reference curve for PMSMs is usually required to be continuous and continuously differentiable according to the general servo system design requirements, so the adaptation of the speed reference is discussed in details in this paper. Hence, the performance of the speed control system using a GPC-based PIF controller is improved for tracking some specified signals. The main motivation of this paper is the extension of GPC law to replace the traditional PI or PIF controllers in industrial applications. The efficacy and usefulness of the proposed controller are verified through experimental results. PMID:23262481

  20. Motor technology for mining applications advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

  1. Rotor flux magnitude and angle control strategy for doubly fed induction generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya-Lara, Olimpo; Hughes, F. Michael; Jenkins, Nicholas; Strbac, Goran

    2006-09-01

    A new control strategy is investigated for Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs). It exercises control over the generator terminal voltage and output power by adjusting the magnitude and angle of the rotor flux vector. It is shown that this control strategy leads to low interaction between the power and voltage control loop, better system damping and voltage recovery following faults, and it also provides enhanced frequency regulation capability compared with that achieved with existing DFIG controllers described in the open literature. The dynamic performance of the proposed DFIG control is tested for small and large disturbances using a generic network that combines wind and conventional synchronous generation. Simulation results are presented and discussed that demonstrate the capabilities of the new strategy to enhance DFIG performance and its contribution to network operation.Received: 24 August 2005; Revised: 1 December 2005; Accepted: 22 March 2006

  2. Particle swarm optimization for discrete-time inverse optimal control of a doubly fed induction generator.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cruz, Riemann; Sanchez, Edgar N; Ornelas-Tellez, Fernando; Loukianov, Alexander G; Harley, Ronald G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for a discrete-time inverse optimal control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). For the inverse optimal scheme, a control Lyapunov function (CLF) is proposed to obtain an inverse optimal control law in order to achieve trajectory tracking. A posteriori, it is established that this control law minimizes a meaningful cost function. The CLFs depend on matrix selection in order to achieve the control objectives; this matrix is determined by two mechanisms: initially, fixed parameters are proposed for this matrix by a trial-and-error method and then by using the PSO algorithm. The inverse optimal control scheme is illustrated via simulations for the DFIG, including the comparison between both mechanisms. PMID:24273145

  3. Double Motor Coordinated Control Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and CMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shaozhong; Tu, Ji

    A novel hybrid cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) and online adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) controller is introduced to control two Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) which applied in a biped robot. Genetic Algorithm simulates the random learning among the individuals of a group, and CMAC simulates the self-learning of an individual. To validate the ability and superiority of the novel algorithm, experiments have been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Analysis among GA, hybrid GA-CMAC and CMAC feed-forward control is also given. The results prove that the torque ripple of the coordinated control system is eliminated by using the hybrid GA-CMAC algorithm.

  4. Design and test of a four channel motor for electromechanical flight control actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    To provide a suitable electromagnetic torque summing approach to flight control system redundancy, a four channel motor capable of sustaining full performance after any two credible failures was designed, fabricated, and tested. The design consists of a single samarium cobalt permanent magnet rotor with four separate three phase windings arrayed in individual stator quadrants around the periphery. Trade studies established the sensitivities of weight and performance to such parameters as design speed, winding pattern, number of poles, magnet configuration, and strength. The motor electromagnetically sums the torque of the individual channels on a single rotor and eliminate complex mechanical gearing arrangements.

  5. Neuromodelling based on evolutionary robotics: on the importance of motor control for spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-09-01

    Mainstream approaches to modelling cognitive processes have typically focused on (1) reproducing their neural underpinning, without regard to sensory-motor systems and (2) producing a single, ideal computational model. Evolutionary robotics is an alternative possibility to bridge the gap between neural substrate and behavior by means of a sensory-motor apparatus, and a powerful tool to build a population of individuals rather than a single model. We trained 4 populations of neurorobots, equipped with a pan/tilt/zoom camera, and provided with different types of motor control in order to perform a cancellation task, often used to tap spatial cognition. Neurorobots' eye movements were controlled by (a) position, (b) velocity, (c) simulated muscles and (d) simulated muscles with fixed level of zoom. Neurorobots provided with muscle and velocity control showed better performances than those controlled in position. This is an interesting result since muscle control can be considered a particular type of position control. Finally, neurorobots provided with muscle control and zoom outperformed those without zooming ability. PMID:26224270

  6. Design of active suspension control based upon use of tubular linear motor and quarter-car model 

    E-print Network

    Allen, Justin Aaron

    2008-10-10

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a quarter-car facility coupled with various control algorithms are presented in this thesis. An experimental linear tubular motor, capable of producing a 52-N force, provides control ...

  7. A direct torque control scheme for permanent magnet synchronous motors based on space vector modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiao-hui; Xu, Shu-Ping

    2013-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of direct torque control (DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) related to the flux and the torque ripple and the uncertainty of switching frequency, A novel direct torque control system based on space vector modulation(SVM-DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor was proposed. In this method flux and torque are controlled through stator voltage components in stator flux linkage coordinate axes and space vector modulation is used to control inverters. Therefore, the errors of torque and flux linkage could be compensated accurately. The whole system has only one easily adjustable PI adjuster and needs no high for hardware and easy for realize. The simulation results verify the feasibility of this method, reduction of the flux and the torque ripple, and the good performance of DTC.

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  10. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  11. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  12. Metal ion interactions in the control of haem oxygenase induction in liver and kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, G S; Kappas, A

    1980-01-01

    Mn2+ and Zn2+ exhibit a striking ability to block the induction by Sn2+ and Ni2+ of haem oxygenase (EC 1.14.99.3) in kidney. The blocking effects of Mn2+ and Zn2+ were found to be greatest on simultaneous administration, time-dependent when administered up to 8 h before the inducing metal ions, and ineffective when administered as little as 10 min after the inducing metal ions. The decreases in cytochrome P-450 and haem contents and the sequential changes in delta-aminolaevulinate synthase (EC 2.3.1.37) activity that occur concomitant with haem oxygenase induction were largely eliminated with simultaneous or prior treatment with Mn2+ or Zn2+, but not when Mn2+ or Zn2+ was administered after Sn2+ or Ni2+. Mn2+ and Zn2+ did not increase the catabolism of the enzyme in vivo. Zn2+ on simultaneous administration was also able substantially to block the induction of haem oxygenase by Co2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ in liver. The Zn2+ blockade of Cd2+ induction was examined in detail, and prior or simultaneous administration of Zn2+ was found to be effective in blocking the induction of haem oxygenase and the concomitant decreases in cytochrome P-450 and haem contents, ethylmorphine demethylase activity and the sequential changes in delta-aminolaevulinate synthase activity. Zn2+ administration 10 min or more after Cd2+ was ineffective in preventing the occurrence of these perturbations in haem metabolism. These findings describe a new and striking biological property of Mn2+ and Zn2+, and indicate the existence of significant metal ion interactions in the control of haem metabolism. PMID:6894538

  13. Speed synchronization control for integrated automotive motor-transmission powertrain system with random delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Fang, Zongde

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a robust speed synchronization controller design for an integrated motor-transmission powertrain system in which the driving motor and multi-gearbox are directly coupled. As the controller area network (CAN) is commonly used in the vehicle powertrain system, the possible network-induced random delays in both feedback and forward channel are considered and modeled by using two Markov chains in the controller design process. For the application perspective, the control law adopted here is a generalized proportional-integral (PI) control. By employing the system-augmentation technique, a delay-free stochastic closed-loop system is obtained and the generalized PI controller design problem is converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem. Since there are external disturbances involved in the closed-loop system, the energy-to-peak performance is considered to guarantee the robustness of the controller. And the controlled output is chosen as the speed synchronization error. To further improve the transient response of the closed-loop system, the pole placement is also employed in the energy-to-peak performance based speed synchronization control. The mode-dependent control gains are obtained by using an iterative linear matrix inequality (LMI) algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  14. Corticalization of motor control in humans is a consequence of brain scaling in primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon H; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2016-02-15

    Control over spinal and brainstem somatomotor neurons is exerted by two sets of descending fibers, corticospinal/pyramidal and extrapyramidal. Although in nonhuman primates the effect of bilateral pyramidal lesions is mostly limited to an impairment of the independent use of digits in skilled manual actions, similar injuries in humans result in the locked-in syndrome, a state of mutism and quadriplegia in which communication can be established only by residual vertical eye movements. This behavioral contrast makes humans appear to be outliers compared with other primates because of our almost total dependence on the corticospinal/pyramidal system for the effectuation of movement. Here we propose, instead, that an increasing preponderance of the corticospinal/pyramidal system over motor control is an expected consequence of increasing brain size in primates because of the faster scaling of the number of neurons in the primary motor cortex over the brainstem and spinal cord motor neuron pools, explaining the apparent uniqueness of the corticalization of motor control in humans. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:448-455, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25891512

  15. Dorsal rhizotomy for children with cerebral palsy: support for concepts of motor control.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, C A

    1991-03-01

    The results from selective dorsal rhizotomy research suggest that therapists need to question some common clinical assumptions about movement dysfunction. The rationale for performing a selective dorsal rhizotomy is based on the clinical assumptions that spasticity is the underlying cause of disordered movement and that reducing or eliminating the spasticity will improve movement. This article reviews the literature related to movement dysfunction, the effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy, and the evidence for disordered motor control in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Selective dorsal rhizotomy appears to reduce spasticity and increase joint range of motion. Abnormal movement patterns, however, persist after the spasticity is reduced. Well-coordinated movement patterns are acquired slowly and appear to be related to an intense period of physical therapy. I argue that these results provide evidence that the presence of spasticity alone is an insufficient explanation for abnormal movement patterns. I propose that physical therapists redirect their efforts from developing methods for reducing spasticity to developing adequate assessment, treatment, and measurement techniques for assessing motor control in children with cerebral palsy. I believe we can maximize the functional potential of children with cerebral palsy by identifying problems related to motor control and applying sound principles of motor learning to treatment. PMID:2000441

  16. A Vector Control for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation due to high efficiently for wind energy capture. An inverter system is required to control wind turbine speed and power factor in those generators. The inverter rating of the synchronous generator equals to generator rating. However, DFIG has the advantage that the inverter rating is about 25% to the generator rating. The paper describes a vector control of DFIG inter-connected to power line. The performance of proposed vector control is examined using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kv distribution line. The results show good dynamic responses and high accuracy to the stator active power control and the stator reactive power control.

  17. Modeling the Spin Motor Current of the International Space Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) attitude control is provided by two means: The Russian Segment uses thrusters and the U.S. Segment uses double-gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (CMG). CMGs are used as momentum exchange devices, providing non propulsive attitude control for the vehicle. The CMGs are very important for the ISS program because, first, they save propellant - which needs to be transferred to the Station in special cargo vehicles - and, second, they provide the microgravity environment on the Station - which is necessary for scientific experiments planned for the ISS mission. Since 2002, when one of the CMG on the ISS failed, all CMGs are closely monitored. High gimbal rates, vibration spikes, unusual variations of spin motor current and bearing temperatures are of great concern, since these parameters are the CMG health indicators. The telemetry analysis of these and some other CMG parameters is used to determine constrains and make changes to the CMGs operation on board. These CMG limitations, in turn, may limit the ISS attitude control capabilities and may be critical to ISS operation. Therefore, it is important to know whether the CMG parameter is nominal or out of family, and why. The goal of this project is to analyze an important CMG parameter - spin motor current. Some operational decisions are made now based on the spin motor current signatures. The spin motor current depends on gimbal rates, ISS rates, and spin bearing friction. The spin bearing friction in turn depends on the bearing temperatures, wheel rates, normal load - which is a function of gimbal and wheel rates - lubrication, etc. The first task of this project is to create a spin motor current mathematical model based on CMG dynamics model and the current knowledge on bearing friction in microgravity.

  18. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  19. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-04-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations. PMID:22393268

  20. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-01-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device’s characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations. PMID:22393268

  1. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-04-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations.

  2. Characteristics Verification of an Independently Controllable Electromagnetic Spherical Motor

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Shuhei; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing electromagnetic spherical actuators capable of three-degree-of-freedom rotation. However, these actuators require complex control to realize simultaneous triaxial drive, because rotation around one axis interferes with rotation around another. In this paper, we propose a new three-degree-of-freedom actuator where 3-axes rotation can be controlled easily. The basic structure and the operating principle of the actuator are described. Then the torque characteristics and the dynamic characteristics are computed by employing 3D-FEM and the effectiveness of this actuator is clarified. Finally, the experimental results using the prototype of the actuator are shown to verify the dynamic performance. PMID:24919011

  3. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  4. The Ninth Computational Motor Control Workshop May 9, 2013

    E-print Network

    Karniel, Amir

    and cerebellum" 12:20-12:50 Simona Bar-Haim, BGU "Training teenagers with cerebral palsy on a split Hopkins University, USA "Movement vigor, impulsivity, and the cost of waiting in the human brain" 15 are they useful for?" 17:50-18:20 Andrew Jackson, Newcastle University, UK "Optimizing control of Brain

  5. Forward dynamic models in human motor control: Psychophysical evidence

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    @psyche.mit.edu Zouhin Ghahramani zoubin@psyche.mit.edu Michael I. Jordan jordan@psyche.mit.edu Department of Brain, Michaell. Jordan movements. By using a forward model for internal feedback the outcome of an action can, control and learning (Sut- ton and Barto, 1981; Ito, 1984; Kawato et aI., 1987; Jordan and Rumelhart, 1992

  6. Simulation of an Electromechanical Spin Motor System of a Control Moment Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inampudi, Ravi; Gordeuk, John

    2016-01-01

    A two-phase brushless DC motor (BDCM) with pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage drive is simulated to control the flywheel speed of a control moment gyroscope (CMG). An overview of a double-gimballed control moment gyroscope (DGCMG) assembly is presented along with the CMG torque effects on the spacecraft. The operating principles of a two-phase brushless DC motor are presented and the system's electro-mechanical equations of motion are developed for the root-mean-square (RMS) currents and wheel speed. It is shown that the system is an extremely "stiff" set of first-order equations for which an implicit Euler integrator is required for a stable solution. An adaptive proportional voltage controller is presented which adjusts the PWM voltages depending on several control modes for speed, current, and torque. The simulation results illustrate the interaction between the electrical system and the load dynamics and how these influence the overall performance of the system. As will be shown, the CMG spin motor model can directly provide electrical power use and thermal power output to spacecraft subsystems for effective (average) calculations of CMG power consumption.

  7. Development of a super high speed motor-generator and controller

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Do-Kwan Ahn, Min-Hyuk; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun

    2014-05-07

    To develop a super high speed motor-generator, it is essential to deal with magnetic analysis, dynamic analysis, and experimental evaluation of the heart of the MTG (Microturbine Generator) system, the motor-generator. An amorphous core is applied to a stator core for reduction of iron loss at high speed, and the motor-generator is analyzed with considerations focused on magnetic losses and the statistical optimum design. The performance of the amorphous core is validated by the analysis and experiment by back-to-back tests considering the AC load. Rotor dynamics is performed for dynamic stability at high speed using transient analysis orbit diagrams and compared with the experimental results. The simulation results of the generator are compared with the experiment. Also a super high speed controller of the MTG system is developed using a sensorless algorithm, power stack, gate driver, digital signal processing, analog circuit, and radiation heat design. Based on these results, a high speed motor-generator and controller are successfully developed.

  8. Development of a super high speed motor-generator and controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Ahn, Min-Hyuk; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    To develop a super high speed motor-generator, it is essential to deal with magnetic analysis, dynamic analysis, and experimental evaluation of the heart of the MTG (Microturbine Generator) system, the motor-generator. An amorphous core is applied to a stator core for reduction of iron loss at high speed, and the motor-generator is analyzed with considerations focused on magnetic losses and the statistical optimum design. The performance of the amorphous core is validated by the analysis and experiment by back-to-back tests considering the AC load. Rotor dynamics is performed for dynamic stability at high speed using transient analysis orbit diagrams and compared with the experimental results. The simulation results of the generator are compared with the experiment. Also a super high speed controller of the MTG system is developed using a sensorless algorithm, power stack, gate driver, digital signal processing, analog circuit, and radiation heat design. Based on these results, a high speed motor-generator and controller are successfully developed.

  9. Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saethre, R.; Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C.

    1997-06-01

    A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Improvement in precision grip force control with self-modulation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Blefari, Maria L.; Sulzer, James; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kollias, Spyros; Gassert, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has shown effectiveness in enhancing motor performance. This may be due to the common neural mechanisms underlying MI and motor execution (ME). The main region of the ME network, the primary motor cortex (M1), has been consistently linked to motor performance. However, the activation of M1 during motor imagery is controversial, which may account for inconsistent rehabilitation therapy outcomes using MI. Here, we examined the relationship between contralateral M1 (cM1) activation during MI and changes in sensorimotor performance. To aid cM1 activity modulation during MI, we used real-time fMRI neurofeedback-guided MI based on cM1 hand area blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in healthy subjects, performing kinesthetic MI of pinching. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the correlation between cM1 BOLD signal and changes in motor performance during an isometric pinching task of those subjects who were able to activate cM1 during motor imagery. Activities in premotor and parietal regions were used as covariates. We found that cM1 activity was positively correlated to improvements in accuracy as well as overall performance improvements, whereas other regions in the sensorimotor network were not. The association between cM1 activation during MI with performance changes indicates that subjects with stronger cM1 activation during MI may benefit more from MI training, with implications toward targeted neurotherapy. PMID:25762907

  11. 75 FR 11878 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state shall...new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition precedent to the initial...of such motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or equipment. Section...

  12. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No state shall...new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition precedent to the initial...of such motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or equipment. Section 209(b)...

  13. Moderate variability in stimulus presentation improves motor response control

    PubMed Central

    Wodka, Ericka L.; Simmonds, Daniel J.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the impact of interstimulus “jitter” (i.e., randomization of the interval between successive stimulus events) on response control during continuous task performance, 41 healthy adults completed four go/no-go tasks that were identical except for interstimulus interval (ISI) jitter: a 0% jitter task with a fixed (1,000-ms) ISI, a 10% jitter task with an ISI range of 900–1,100 ms, a 30% jitter task with an ISI range of 700–1,300 ms, and a 50% jitter task with an ISI range of 500–1,500 ms. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a quadratic effect of jitter on commissions across the group and on intrasubject reaction time variability in men; in both cases, performance was best for the 10% jitter condition. A linear effect of jitter was observed for reaction time (RT) with high levels of jitter (50%) resulting in longer RT. Findings suggest that response selection, including inhibition, is optimized by moderate increases in ISI jitter. More deliberate and controlled responding observed with increasing jitter may have important treatment implications for disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD), associated with impaired response control. PMID:18686112

  14. Induction of Intestinal Immunity by Mucosal Vaccines As a Means of Controlling HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Poles, Jordan; Alvarez, Yelina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract CD4+ T cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are preferentially targeted and depleted by HIV. As such, the induction of an effective anti-HIV immune response in the mucosa of the GI tract—through vaccination—could protect this vulnerable population of cells. Mucosal vaccination provides a promising means of inducing robust humoral and cellular responses in the GI tract. Here we review data from the literature about the effectiveness of various mucosal vaccination routes—oral (intraintestinal/tonsilar/sublingual), intranasal, and intrarectal—with regard to the induction of immune responses mediated by cytotoxic T cells and antibodies in the GI mucosa, as well as protective efficacy in challenge models. We present data from the literature indicating that mucosal routes have the potential to effectively elicit GI mucosal immunity and protect against challenge. Given their capacity for the induction of anti-HIV immune responses in the GI mucosa, we propose that mucosal routes, including the nonconventional sublingual, tonsilar, and intrarectal routes, be considered for the delivery of the next generation HIV vaccines. However, further studies are necessary to determine the ideal vectors and vaccination regimens for these routes of immunization and to validate their efficacy in controlling HIV infection. PMID:25354023

  15. Control of rapid hypothermia induction by total liquid ventilation: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Walti, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) consists in cooling the body temperature of a patient to between 32 and 34 °C. This technique helps to preserve tissues and neurological functions in multi-organ failure by preventing ischemic injury. Total liquid ventilation (TLV) ensures gas exchange in the lungs with a liquid, typically perfluorocarbon (PFC). A liquid ventilator is responsible for ensuring cyclic renewal of tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Hence, TLV using the lung as a heat exchanger and PFC as a heat carrier allows ultra fast cooling of the whole body which can help improve outcome after ischemic injuries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the control performance and safety of automated ultrarapid MTH induction by TLV. Experimentation was conducted using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator equipped with a PFC treatment unit that allows PFC cooling and heating from the flow of energy carrier water inside a double wall installed on an oxygenator. A water circulating bath is used to manage water temperature. A feedback controller was developed to modulate inspired PFC temperature and control body temperature. Such a controller is important since, with MTH induction, heart temperature should not reach 28 °C because of a high risk of fibrillation. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on a male newborn lamb of 4.7 kg which, after anesthetization, was submitted to conventional gas ventilation and instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, oesophagus, right ear drum and rectum. After stabilization, TLV was initiated with fast automated MTH induction to 33.5 °C until stabilization of all temperatures. MTH could be reached safely in 3 minutes at the femoral artery, in 3.6 minutes at the esophagus, in 7.7 minutes at the eardrum and in 15 minutes at the rectum. All temperatures were stable at 33.5 ± 0.5 °C within 15 minutes. The present results reveal that ultra-fast MTH induction by TLV with Inolivent-5.0 is safe for the heart while maintaining esophageal and arterial temperature over 32.6 °C. PMID:24110548

  16. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...Single-Speed, Three-Phase, Cage-Induction Motors (IE-code)'' in the CFR...test procedure to be used for testing induction motors, and (3) a checklist for...specifically: ``general purpose,'' ``induction motor,'' ``two-digit frame...

  17. Elderly Use Proprioception Rather than Visual and Vestibular Cues for Postural Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmeier, Isabella Katharina; Dalin, Daniela; Maurer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors have been proposed to contribute to the deficits of postural control in the elderly. They were summarized as sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptation deficits. Using a model-based approach, we aimed to identify which of these deficits mainly determine age-related changes in postural control. We analyzed postural control of 20 healthy elderly people with a mean age of 74?years. The findings were compared to data from 19 healthy young volunteers (mean age 28?years) and 16 healthy middle-aged volunteers (mean age 48?years). Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway measures and measures of perturbed stance. Perturbations were induced by pseudorandom anterior–posterior tilts of the body support surface. We found that spontaneous sway amplitude and velocity were significantly larger, and sway frequencies were higher in elderly compared to young people. Body excursions as a function of tilt stimuli were clearly different in elderly compared to young people. Based on simple feedback model simulations, we found that elderly favor proprioceptive over visual and vestibular cues, other than younger subjects do. Moreover, we identified an increase in overall time delay challenging the feedback systems stability, and a decline in the amplitude of the motor feedback, probably representing weakness of the motor system. In general, these parameter differences between young and old may result from both deficits and compensation strategies in the elderly. Our model-based findings correlate well with deficits measured with clinical balance scores, which are widely used in clinical practice. PMID:26157386

  18. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities. PMID:25060548

  19. Steady-state analysis of a faulted three-phase four-wire system supplying induction motors with neutrals connected and other single-phase line-to-neutral loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Four wire Wye connected ac power systems exhibit peculiar steady state fault characteristics when the fourth wire of three phase induction motors is connected. The loss of one phase of power source due to a series or shunt fault results in currents higher than anticipated on the remaining two phases. A theoretical approach to compute the fault currents and voltages is developed. A FORTRAN program is included in the appendix.

  20. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.